Views
5 years ago

Chapter Five 1999 Post-Elections Period - Leicester Research ...

Chapter Five 1999 Post-Elections Period - Leicester Research ...

65 This study falls

65 This study falls within frame theory as an analytical tool. In this respect, Entman‟s (1993, p.52/2003, p.5) basic definition of frames was used as the guide to the analytical tool. The definition outlines framing as follows: To frame is to select some aspects of a perceived reality and make them more salient in a communicating text, in such a way as to promote a particular problem definition, causal interpretation, moral evaluation, and/or treatment recommendation for the item described (Entman 1993, p. 52, his emphasis). Thus, proceeding from the above, it is clear that a radical analysis of text for frames must include applying the four elements: problem definition, causal interpretation, moral evaluation and treatment recommendation. Thus the four features which undergird frame analysis were applied as an analytical tool to the corpora of parliamentary discourse and newspaper editorials. First, the „problem definition‟ element directs the frame analyst to what the media and politicians observe as the problem which could translate into the trouble, the predicament, the difficult or even the challenge that has brought about the crisis. Consequently, this element involves issues like (a) the nature of the phenomenon or crisis – what it is all about, and (b) the person(s) concerned (Semetko & Valkenberg, 2000). Second, „the causal interpretation‟ element guides the frame analyst to what media and political actors refer to as the reasons or causal agents of the phenomenon or crisis. The news media not only report events, but also explain causes and make attributions. Semetko and Valkenburg (2000) found that the responsibility frame was predominant in news stories. They concluded that this was an indication of the importance and potential influence of political culture and context on the framing of issues in the news.

66 Journalists, through editorials, and parliamentarians, on the National Assembly floor, will provide a diagnosis of what they perceive to be the reasons of the phenomenon or crisis. They will not only diagnose the problem, but they also apportion blame or assign praise to those factors and persons identified as the cause. Third, the „moral evaluation‟ element leads the frame analyst to what media and political actors discern or believe to be social and ethical inferences of the phenomenon or crisis. This deals with issues of how negatively or positively people‟s lives are impacted by the phenomenon or the problem. Gitlin (1980) argued that news discourses make moral evaluations through the use of symbols that carry specific attitudes and positions. Among such symbols are metaphors, exemplars, catchphrases, depictions, visual images, and appeals to principle (Lee, Pan, Chan & So, 2001). Fourth, the „treatment recommendation‟ element steers the frame analyst to what media and political actors should do to solve the problem or the crisis. It may also involve the question of how the solution should be implemented (Semetko & Valkenberg, 2000). 3.1.4 The Use of QDA Miner and WordStat 4.0 Due to the large amount of data being analysed in this largely qualitative study, the joint software for computer-assisted content analysis, QDA Miner and WordStat 4.0 was used. This programme enables researchers to code text under various labels. The QDA Miner allows the researcher qualitative open coding of textual data while WordStat enables the researcher to view the frequencies and percentages of the coded aspect of the data. This assists researchers to keep track of codes especially when an article contains codes to more than one aspect of the research project (Provalis Research, 1998). Further, QDA Miner software facilitates movement and quicker examination of

Chapter 4 Sexual Content in Soap Operas - Leicester Research ...
iieiiei1eWrkers - Leicester Research Archive - University of Leicester
NOVEL RESVERATROL ANALOGUES - Leicester Research ...
t he display of archaeology - Leicester Research Archive - University ...