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Chapter Five 1999 Post-Elections Period - Leicester Research ...

Chapter Five 1999 Post-Elections Period - Leicester Research ...

3.2.3 Parliamentary

3.2.3 Parliamentary Speeches 71 Only parliamentary speeches made on the National Assembly floor in contribution to a parliamentary motion and, or in response to the presidential opening speech were included. The president‟s speech delivered when opening the National Assembly tends to lay out the administration‟s agenda. In this respect, parliamentarians‟ speeches in contribution to the motion to accept, or amend, or reject the presidential speech tend to be rich in political opinion on the issues facing the nation especially after an election. MPs‟ speeches tend to broadly focus on issues of governance, national leadership, nationhood, and the general political climate in the country rather than focus on specifics such education or health. All other forms of speeches made in parliament were not included in the data. These include presidential opening addresses, ministerial statements, ministerial responses during question time, budget statements, opposition leaders‟ responses to presidential speeches, and shadow ministers responses to budget statements and ministerial statements. Table 3.2 below provides a profile of the parliamentary speeches data collected for this study. Table 3.2: Profile of parliamentary speeches collected for the study PARTY AFORD MCP UDF RP MGODE PPM INDEP. TOTAL 1994 17 21 42 80 1999 15 15 2004 1 20 25 5 2 4 8 65 TOTAL 18 41 92 5 2 4 8 170 All parliamentary speeches appearing in the data was collected from the first meeting of parliament following the elections. In the 1994 case study, the first session of parliament was the 33 rd Session of the National Assembly which had two sittings between 31 June 1994 and 31 November 1944. For the 1999 case study, the first session

72 of parliament was the 38 th Session of the National Assembly which was held between 4 July 1999 and 31 October 1999. In 2004, the first parliamentary session was the National Budget Session of 2004 which was held between 11 September 2004 and 15 October. 3.3 Data Analysis 3.3.1 Unit of Analysis With regards newspaper editorials, the coding unit for this study was the paragraph. Conventions of newspaper journalism dictate that the paragraph has the smallest unit of meaning (Stein, Paterno, and Burnett, 2006). The sentence typically relies on the context of the paragraph for its meaning. Each paragraph was coded individually for a single dominant idea. The paragraph was also used as the unit of analysis for parliamentary speeches. After discussion with six MPs‟ personal assistants who write speeches for their bosses (all of whom have worked as journalists before), it was determined that parliamentary speech writers in Malawi use the paragraph as a self containing unit of discourse with a particular point or idea to establish. In this respect, it was decided that the paragraph would be used as a unit of analysis. Further, the study followed in the footpath set by some studies on parliamentary speeches which use the paragraph as a unit of analysis (See Sporleder and Lapata, 2006). 3.3.2 Open Coding Since the aim was to detect issue-sensitive or emergent frames rather than generic frames, during this stage the texts were analysed without the use of a predefined coding

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