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Chapter Five 1999 Post-Elections Period - Leicester Research ...

Chapter Five 1999 Post-Elections Period - Leicester Research ...

73 instrument. The

73 instrument. The process identified different components of a frame as defined by Robert Entman (1993, p.52) these being problem definition, causal interpretation, and/or moral evaluation/treatment recommendation. Paragraphs within each editorial or parliamentary speech were compared and contrasted closely in order to identify these components that could aid a reader‟s understanding of the texts. The focus, in this particular regard, was on the narrative structure rather than the subject or topic of the parliamentary speech or editorial. As van Gorp (2010, p.94) argues: Essentially, when one creates a story one is making choices. With regard to the news, framing is not about the core facts of a news event, but about what selections the journalist has made. However, it was judged as prudent to construct a series of reflexive questions that could be used as constant point of reference and guide as the process of open coding continued. The following are the questions: 1. Problem Definition a. What are the problems the new government will have to deal with? b. What were the problems with the previous government? c. Are there any problems in connection with the new government‟s rise to power? d. What is the perceived origin of problems facing the new government? e. What is the perceived scope of the problems facing the new government? 2. Causal Interpretation a. What are the perceived reasons for the problems facing the new government? b. What or who are the causal agents of these problems? 3. Moral Evaluation

74 a. What are the perceived moral implications of the new government‟s mandate? b. What kind of moral evaluations are being used with regard both the previous and the new government? 4. Treatment Recommendation a. What should the new government do about the identified problems or causal agents of these problems? b. How should the new government view its duties? As the coding progressed a constant process of comparing and contrasting the paragraphs against previously coded paragraphs facilitated the crystallisation of already identified categories or suggested the identification of new categories altogether (Strauss and Corbin, 1990). In this way paragraphs related to the same phenomenon were placed under appropriate theme groups. The list of theme groups grew, gradually changed and then consolidated towards the end of the process. Appendix II depicts the QDA Miner interface on a computer monitor and after open coding of an editorial. See Appendix III for an example of the open coding matrix of a newspaper article appearing in the Malawi News on 28-3 June 1994 entitled Muluzi in a hurry? The article is reproduced in full in Appendix IV. 3.3.3 Priming the Software for Open Coding The first step in priming QDA Miner was to create a tree of nodes. The parent node comprised of the main themes identified during the Open Coding stage. The child nodes comprised of all the frame components that are central to this analysis (Problem Definition, Causal Interpretation, Moral Evaluation/Treatment Recommendation) as conceptualised by Entman (1993/2004). During the Open Coding stage, each coded

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