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Chapter Five 1999 Post-Elections Period - Leicester Research ...

Chapter Five 1999 Post-Elections Period - Leicester Research ...

75 paragraph was

75 paragraph was assigned to an appropriate child node of the four child nodes. Thus, at the Open Coding stage, the tree had only one parent node and four child nodes (See Appendix II). 3.3.4 Axial Coding While the above step was performed by all the three coders, the Axial Coding stage was done by the researcher. This was mainly because the very nature of Axial Coding makes it extremely difficult for multiple coders to do. Whereas in the Open Coding stage, the focus was on an individual editorial or parliamentary speech, the Axial Coding stage calls for linking the paragraphs coded in Open Coding to overarching ideas in the corpora. Essentially, it was important for the researcher to do this alone because of the increasing level of abstraction required at this level of analysis. Charmaz (2006, p.61) argues that Axial Coding: . . . relates categories to subcategories, specifies the properties and dimensions of a category, and reassembles the data you have fractured during initial coding to give coherence to the emerging analysis. Thus, paragraphs from multiple texts had to be arranged around “. . . „Axes‟ of Meaning” (van Gorp, 2010, p.95). The similarities and differences in the paragraphs coded in Opening Coding were closely examined and analysed. Attempts were made to analyse the relationships among the different frame components for each theme group. During this process, the researcher turned to frame theory and the literature relevant to the categories established for interpretation. This is in line with van Gorp (2010, p.97)‟s advise in frame detection at the Axial Coding stage that “. . . it is advisable to turn to the literature . . .” for interpretation of the emerging codes. In this respect, a wide range of

76 literature on culture, politics, leadership, and news values were consulted as will become evident when presenting the results in chapters four, five and six. Throughout the process of Axial Coding, the appropriateness of paragraphs to each theme group in general and each individual frame component in particular was repeatedly tested by a process of inductive and deductive thinking. By this process, paragraphs that were deemed to have been inappropriately allocated a theme group or frame component were removed and moved to appropriate theme groups or frame component. This is in line with principles of grounded theory in qualitative research as outlined by Glaser and Strauss (1967), Strauss and Corbin (1990) and Charmaz (2006, p.39). This process served to crystallise and solidify both theme groups and frame components. After the crystallisation and solidifying of these theme groups and their frame components, the theme groups were labelled based on the dominating theme running through it. These groups became the frames. This manner of categorising frame components has been used in other research studies including Nickels (2007), van Gorp (2001), and Roggeband and Vliegenthart (2008). In their study of framing of immigration in the Netherlands, Roggeband and Vliegenthart (2007) used the method in a deductive manner by setting predefined and operationalised frames before actually analysing their data qualitatively. The decision to approach the study from the framework of the four elements without restriction from the guiding questions reflects the inductive approach to framing analysis described by Semetko and Valkenburg (2000) who recommend that frames should be drawn directly from the data content, without assuming the existence of any specific frame a priori. 3.3.5 Priming the Software for Axial Coding

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