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Chapter Five 1999 Post-Elections Period - Leicester Research ...

Chapter Five 1999 Post-Elections Period - Leicester Research ...

79 Thus, out of the 82

79 Thus, out of the 82 newspaper editorials in the 1994 case study, 28 editorials were randomly selected for inclusion into the pilot data while out of the 80 parliamentary speeches, 27 were selected. From the 51 newspaper articles in the 1999 case study, a total of 17 editorials were randomly selected and entered into the pilot study while five parliamentary speeches were selected from the 15 parliamentary speeches from the same case study. Twenty-two editorials were selected from the 66 newspaper articles in the 2004 case study while 22 parliamentary speeches were selected from the 65 parliamentary speeches in the corpus. These were open coded by the researcher and two other coders. As noted in the discussion on the software, QDA Miner and WordStat permit the same data to be coded by different coders on the same computer. In this case, the three coders took turns open coding the pilot study data and passing the computer around until every coder had finished the open coding stage. The Holsti intercoder reliability test was applied for this study. The formula is C.R. = 2M/N1 + N2, where “M is the number of coding decisions on which the two judges are in agreement, and N1 and N2 refer to the number of coding decisions made by judges 1 and 2, respectively” (p. 140). In this pilot study there were three coders. Thus, the formula was adjusted accordingly to CR=3M/N1+N2+N3. For the 1994 editorials corpus, the first coder (the researcher) made 72 coding decisions. The second coder made 65 decisions, and the third coder made 59 decisions. The three coders agreed on 56 coded paragraphs. The result from Holsti‟s intercoder reliability test is 85.7% agreement. For the 1994 parliamentary speeches corpus, the researcher made 68 coding decisions while the other two coders made 59 and 54 coding decisions respectively. The three coders agreed on 44 coded paragraphs. The Holsti intercoder reliability test indicated 72.9% agreement.

80 For the 1994 editorial corpus, the aggregate of coded paragraphs was 169. The coders agreed on 46 paragraphs. The Holsti intercoder reliability test was 78.9%. With respect for the parliamentary pilot, the coders amassed 57 coded paragraphs. They agreed on 45 coded paragraphs. Thus, the pilot for this corpus registered at 78.9% . The coders agreed on 52 coded paragraphs for the editorials corpus in the 2004 pilot study. They had an aggregate of 188 coded paragraphs. The intercoder reliability test was 82.9%. The parliamentary pilot for 2004 had an aggregate of 94 coded paragraphs among the three coders. They agreed on 28 coded paragraphs. Thus, the intercoder reliability test was 89.3% (See Appendix V). 3.5 Validity Hammersley (1990, p.57) defines validity as „. . . the extent to which an account accurately represents the social phenomena to which it refers‟. According to Silverman (2008, p.289), the issue of validity originated in quantitative research. In this respect, it is difficult to apply the same measures of validity to a qualitative research study such as this one. However, three methods of validation proposed by qualitative researchers proved useful in this study. 3.5.1 Tabulation and Reporting Style The first was use of simple tabulations in this study. Regarding such a method of validating qualitative research, Silverman (2008, p.301) argued: Simple counting techniques, theoretically derived and ideally based on participants‟ own categories, can offer a means to survey the whole corpus of data ordinarily lost in intensive, qualitative research. Instead of taking the researcher‟s word for it, the reader has a chance to gain a

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