opportunities for customization (see box 7-J). Virtually all of the technology firms included in OTA industry case studies raised the necessary funding internally or through partnerships with other groups. Information Barriers OTA finds that there is inadequate information available to both consumers and producers of adult literacy technologies. From the consumer end, most literacy educators, even those with some technology expertise, are not aware of the range of technology options available. The problem exists at all levels but is most obvious among novice technology users, who do not fully understand the capabilities of technol- ogy and who rarely or never consult software reviews. 74 Literacy program administrators often have little training in or experience with technology, hence do not know what to look for or how it could benefit programs. From the vendor end, there is a shortage of specific market information on potential or existing literacy customers and their needs. Particularly lacking is more comprehensive data on the current uses of educational technology by literacy programs and home consumers; their current and anticipated expenditures for hardware, courseware, and other instructional materials; and effective product design features for hard-to-reach literacy populations. 75 Technology vendors in OTA’s case studies adopted various strategies to cope with this lack of information, including hiring consultants and market research firms to conduct limited studies or develop ‘‘best estimate’ projections; conducting their own design research during prototype testing, rather than relying on existing research; hiring experienced developers and marketers who had their own information sources in the literacy 74 siv~~~ and Bialo, op. cit., footiote 1, p. 68. 75 Education TURNKEY, Inc. and Wujcik Associates, op. cit., footnote I. 76 ~ide Chapter 7–Technology Today: Practice vs. Promise | 219 Digital books on many different topics can be plugged into this small hand-held device, making it possible to read and learn anywhere, anytime. field; and refining existing products based on feedback from their customer base. 76 Both literacy programs and technology developers could benefit from more information on the effectiveness of different types of technologies in improving literacy skills. This is especially true for specific subgroups of learners such as adults with the very lowest reading skills, with limited English proficiency, or with learning disabilities. Similarly, there is little hard data available on the effectiveness of some newer technologies for adult literacy, such as interactive distance learning. Some literacy providers are reluctant to adopt technology-based approaches because they have doubts about their effectiveness, especially when weighed against their cost. More evidence of effectiveness might help persuade adult educators to buy hardware and convince technology vendors to invest in developing better software. Institutional Barriers Some of the common institutional challenges faced by literacy programs constrain their use of technology and work against the development of
220 I AdultLiteracyandNewTechnologies: Tools for a Lifetime 1 Basal al’rim somg=,pfeddmto ~ tcmtivemwiedge, Inc., C3-@& NC,wm@~ ~ ~ 1=. s= * ~ SongeG “why MuMmdia we Pempdve on Literacy courmmKq” Litemcy PrudWner, a Fublicathn ofLiteracy volunteers of Amdca-New York S- Inc. VOL 1, No. 1, Dccembm 1992.