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Adult Literacy and New Technologies - Federation of American ...

Adult Literacy and New Technologies - Federation of American ...

244 I

244 I Adult Literacy and New Technologies: Tools for a Lifetime Chapter 5 Page 5-A—Highlights of the Federal Role in Adult Literacy: 1777 to 1986 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 130 5-B—Key Legislation and Executive Actions: 1986 to 1991 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 133 5-C—Major Provisions of the National Literacy Act of 1991 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 134 5-D-Key Technology Provisions in Federal Literacy Laws and Regulations . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 151 Chapter 6 6-A—Extending Educational Opportunities Through Telecommunications: Kirkwood Community College . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 6-B-Coordinating Literacy Funding: NewYork State’s Approach . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 184 6-C-Cambridge’s Community Learning Center: Piecing Together Funding . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 186 Chapter 7 7-A—Technologies for Literacy . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 191 7-B—Broadcast Programming:The GED on TV Example . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 197 7-C—Advantages of Technology for Adult Learners . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 202 7-D-Advantages of Technology for Literacy Programs . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 7-E-Project SALSA: Sending Computers Home with Learners . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 207 7-F-Closed Captioning . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 211 7-G-Basic Skills Instruction Embedded in Job Training Materials . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 212 7-H—Multimedia, Hypermedia and Adult Learning . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 214 7-I—Franklin Electronic Learninng Resources . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 218 7-J—Developing Innovative Software: The Example of Interactive Knowledge, Inc. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 220 Chapter 8 8-A-Computers That Speak, Computers That Listen: Speech Production and Speech Recognition Technologies . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 232 8-B—Understanding How Standards Are Set . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 235 8-C-Copyright Issues: How They Affect the Development and Use of Literacy Courseware . . . . . . . . . . 240 Figures Chapter 1 1-l—A Literacy Time Line: Rising Societal Standards for “Functional Literacy” . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 4 l-2—Adult Literacy Programs, Providers, and people . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 9 l-3-Funding for Adult Education Compared With Other Federal Education Initiatives, Fiscal Year 1992 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 13 l-4-Funding for Select Federal Domestic Priorities, Fiscal Year 1992 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 13 Chapter 2 2-1—Highest Level of Education Attained by U.S. Adults Ages 25 and Over, 1990 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 41 2-2—Dropout Rates for Persons Ages 16 to 24, 1972-91 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 42 2-3-Percentage of High School Dropouts Ages 16 to 19, by State, 1990 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 44 2-4-Assessing Literacy Skills Used in Everyday Life: The Young Adult Literacy Assessment . . . . . . . . 48 2-5--Legal Immigration to the United States, 1820s to 1980s . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 51 2-6-Ability to Speak English in Non-English Speaking Homes: 1990 Census . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 52 2-7—Number of People, Ages 5 and Above, Speaking a Non-English Language at Home, by State, 1990 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 53 167 203

Appendix A-List of Boxes, Figures, and Tables | 245 Chapter 3 Page 3-l—Percentage of Adults (17 and Over) Participating in Educational Activities During 1990-91, by Current Education Level . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 78 Chapter 4 4-l—A Comparison of Federal and State/Local Expenditures for Adult Education, Fiscal Years 1980-93. 99 4-2-Percent of Adult Literacy Programs Using Various Locations, 1980 and 1990 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 107 4-3-Learning Environments Used in Adult Education Programs . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 111 Chapter 5 5-l—Programs, Agencies, and Funding Streams: The Massachusetts Example . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 138 5-2—Identifiable Federal Funding for Adult Literacy and Basic Skills Education, Fiscal Years 1988-92.. 140 5-3-Funding for Select Department of Education Programs, Fiscal Year 1992 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 141 5-4-Funding for Select Federal Domestic Priorities, Fiscal Year 1992 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 141 Chapter 6 6-l—The Pattern of Attrition in Literacy Programs . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 165 6-2-Outreach and Technical Assistance Network (C)TAN) . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 172 6-3-State Certification Requirements for Adult Basic Education Teachers . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 174 Chapter 7 7-l—Technologies in the Home, 1990 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 199 7-2—Households With Videocassette Recorders and Cable Subscriptions, by Income, 1991 . . . . . . . . . . . 216 7-3-Adults With Home Computers, by Level of Schooling . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 216 7-4-The Personal Computer Software Market, 1990 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 217 Tables Chapter 2 2-l—Workplace Skills and Competencies: Some Examples From Selected Reports . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 38 2-2—High School Dropouts Ages 16 to 24, by Sex, Race-Ethnicity, Income, Region, and Metropolitan Status, 1991 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 43 2-3-States With 5 Percent or More of the Population (Ages 5 and Above) Speaking a Non-English Language at Home, 1990 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 54 Chapter 3 3-l—Factors Affecting an Individual’s Decision to Participate in Adult Education . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 83 Chapter 4 4-l—Fiscal Year 1990 Expenditures and Enrollments Under the Adult Education Act, State-by-State Comparison . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 100 A-Z—Examples of private Sector Support for Literacy . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 101 Chapter 5 5-l—Appropriations for Major Federal Adult Literacy and Basic Skills programs . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 139 Chapter 6 6-l—Model Indicators of program Quality for Adult Education Programs . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 178 Chapter 7 7-l—Distribution of Available Literacy Software Products by Subject . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 195 331-048 0 - 93 - 9 QL. 3

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    those who remain ‘ ‘uncounted.

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