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Adult Literacy and New Technologies - Federation of American ...

Adult Literacy and New Technologies - Federation of American ...

Appendix D: Glossary

Appendix D: Glossary Analog communication: A communication format in which information is transmitted by modulating a continuous signal, such as a radio wave. Voice and video messages originate in analog form since sound and light are wave-like functions; thus, they must be converted into digital messages in order to communicate along digital communications formats or media, Animation: Animation is apparent movement produced by recording step-by-step a series of still drawings, three-dimensional objects, or computergenerated graphics. Movement over time is shown by replacing each image (frame) by the next one in the series at a uniform speed-frames per second (fps). The human eye perceives fluid movement at 30 fps-the approximate rate of film, television, and VCR-quality video. Application tools: Computer software that enables the user to manipulate information to create documents or reports. Artificial intelligence: The use of computer processing to simulate intelligent behavior. Current research includes natural language recognition and use, problem solving, selection from alternatives, pattern recognition, generalization based on experience, and analysis of novel situations. Asynchronous communication: Two-way communication in which there is a time delay between when a message is sent and when it is received. Examples include electronic-mail and voice-mail systems. In contrast, synchronous communication is simultaneous two-way exchange of informatione.g., a telephone conversation. 252 Audioconferencing: An electronic meeting in which participants in different locations use telephones and audio bridges (devices that connect and control multiple telephone lines) to communicate simultaneously with each other. Audiotext: An automated telephone information service with branching capability accessed through a touch-tone telephone. Audiotext services are often used by businesses or public agencies to provide commonly requested information, such as instructions for obtaining a drivers license. Authoring: The process of building or modifying computer software using a computer program designed for that purpose. Generally, authoring software applications require less technical expertise compared to use of programming languages. Bit (Binary digiT): The smallest unit of information a computer can use. A bit is represented as a “O” or a “1“ (also “on” or “off”). A group of 8 bits is called a byte. Bits are used to measure the speed of digital transmission systems. Speeds are commonly expressed in kilobits (Kbps), i.e., thousand per second; megabits (Mbps), i.e., million per second; and gigabits (Gbps), i.e., billion per second. Bulletin board service (BBS): A computer service that is modeled after a community bulletin board. Using a computer, modem, and phone line, individuals connect to a central “host” computer to post or read messages or to upload and download software. Communication is usually asynchronous. CD-ROM (compact disc-read only memory): An optical storage system for computers that permits data to be randomly accessed from a disc. With read

only discs, new data cannot be stored nor can the disc be erased for reuse. Other optical storage systems allow users to record or write and rewrite information. Coaxial cable: Shielded wire cable that connects communications components. Coaxial cable is commonly used in cable television systems because of its ability to carry multiple video (or other broadband) signals. Codec: An electronic device that converts analog video signals into a digital format for transmission, and vice versa. The name is an abbreviated form of “coder-decoder" or “compressor-decompressor" when compression is also involved. Compression: Squeezing information so that it requires less space to store or transmit. When speech is compressed, for example, pauses are eliminated. Compression is generally expressed as a ratio. For example, an 8-to-1 ratio means that the information requires one-eighth of its original space. In compressed video, digital technology is used to encode and compress the signal. Picture quality is generally not as good as full motion; quick movements often appear blurred. The greater the compression ratio, the higher the chance for loss of quality in image, sound, or motion. Computer graphics: Drawings and figures that can be digitized, altered, created, stored, and produced with a computer. Application tools allow users to draw or “paint” original images with a mouse or graphics tablet. Consumer electronics: A class of electronic products that are typically designed, marketed, and sold to the consumer mass market. Televisions, videocassette recorders, video game systems, walk-about radios, pocket calculators, and portable compact disc players are examples. Courseware: A package used for teaching and learning, which includes computer or video software and related print materials such as a teacher’s guide and student activity books. Digital communications: A communications format used with both electronic and light-based systems that transmits audio, video, and data as bits of information. Digital video: A format used to store, manipulate, and transmit moving images as bits of information. Codecs are used to convert traditional analog Appendix D-Glossary | 253 signals into a digital format and back again. Digital video can be compressed for more efficient storage and transmission. Digitize: To change analog information to a digital format. Once information has been converted to this form, it can be conveniently stored, manipulated, and compressed. It can also be transmitted over a distance with little or no loss in quality. Sound (such as speech or music), stills (such as transparencies), and motion video are commonly converted into digitized form. Downlink: An antenna shaped like a dish that receives signals from a satellite. Often referred to as a satellite dish, terminal, Earth station, or TVRO (television receive only). Electronic mail (e-mail): A computer application for exchanging information over a distance. Communication is asynchronous. E-mail typically consists of text, but multimedia formats are under development. Facsimile machine (fax): A device that converts hard-copy images and text into an electronic form for transmission over telephone lines to similar devices at another location. Fiber optic cable: Hair thin, flexible glass rods that use light signals to transmit information in either analog or digital formats. Fiber optic cable has much higher capacity than copper or coaxial cable, and is not as subject to interference or noise. Fiber optic cable has the bandwidth to accommodate high-speed, multimedia networking. Flat-panel display: A video or computer screen that is relatively thin, lightweight, and typically used in portable computers. Gbps: See bit. Groupware: A computer software program that allows the same information to be shared among several computer users simultaneously. With some applications, users can see each other and from their own computers, add to or edit text and graphics in a single document. Icon: A symbol displayed on the computer screen that represents a command or program (e.g., a trash can symbolizing the command to delete a document). Icons help make computer operating systems and applications easier to use. Interface: A general term used in the computer world to designate the hardware and associated software

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    Adult Literacy and New Technologies

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    A merica’s commitment to the impo

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    John Andelin Assistant Director Sci

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    ■ The Decision to Participate in

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    Access to Technologies for Literacy

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    After working all day in a chicken

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    Siman into programs and keep them e

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    Chapter 1-Summary and Policy Option

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    successful in the workplace, and ha

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    Figure 1-2—Adult Literacy Program

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    Some have also encouraged partnersh

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    many leaders in business, labor, an

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    eading development. 14 Interactive

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    for change and as a resource to ben

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    Provide Direct Funding for Technolo

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    and Information Administration’s

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    ments for adult literacy teachers,

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    ecordkeeping and reporting requirem

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    sessed by various segments of the a

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    38 I Adult Literacy and New Technol

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    Literacy is not an on/off character

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    Chapter 2-The Changing Character of

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    outs, academic skill levels also in

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    include writing a brief description

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    257 255 253 249 221 219 211 196 192

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    Millions of Immigrants per decade 1

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    Chapter 2-The Changing Character of

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    ● ● ● ● ● Chapter 2-The C

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    those who remain ‘ ‘uncounted.

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    population has remained relatively

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    Learning and going to school have m

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    Some studies have used ethnographic

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    ii I New immigrants may often find

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    e-reading the material, and their j

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    T he literacy service delivery ‘

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    Chapter 4-The Literacy System: A Pa

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    Chapter 4-The Literacy System: A Pa

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    400 350 300 250 20O ‘ >“1 \ I [

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    Bell Atlantic Black and Decker Stan

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    Chapter 4-The Literacy System: A Pa

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    s ince the mid- 1960s, the Federal

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    Although promising, these efforts c

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    War on Poverty program overseen by

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    Chapter &The Federal Role in Adult

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    somewhat contemporaneously, so it c

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    there is overlap. Both ED and the D

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    Chapter &The Federal Role in Adult

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    to 70 percent) or Head Start childr

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    Chapter 5-The Federal Role in Adult

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    Highly defined subcategories of new

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    set of service delivery issues: how

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    esponding to public concerns about

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    Chapter 5-The Federal Role in Adult

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    experimental funds to promote use o

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    must coordinate or consult; most fr

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    eral agencies to undertake joint ve

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    in Federal law by providing some in

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    Educational gains Support services

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    Advances in technology have “uppe

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    Computer-Based Technologies Chapter

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    Chapter 7-Technology Today: Practic

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    Chapter 7-Technology Today: Practic

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    Chapter 7-Technology Today: Practic

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    ecorders (VCRS), 27 and61 percent h

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