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Body Fat Percent by Bioelectrical Impedance Analysis and Risk of ...

Body Fat Percent by Bioelectrical Impedance Analysis and Risk of ...

Body Fat Percent by Bioelectrical Impedance Analysis and Risk of

Original Paper Body Fat Percent by Bioelectrical Impedance Analysis and Risk of Coronary Artery Disease Among Urban Men with Low Rates of Obesity: The Indian Paradox Ram B. Singh, MD, Mohammad Arif Niaz, PhD, Raheena Beegom, PhD, Gurpreet S Wander, MD, Amer S Thakur, PhD, Harbansh S Rissam, MD Centre of Nutrition, Medical Hospital and Research Centre, Moradabad, INDIA Key words: body fat, bioelectric impedance, cholesterol, triglycerides, obesity. INTRODUCTION Objective: To determine the association between body fat percent and prevalence of coronary artery disease (CAD) and coronary risk factors in subjects with low rates of obesity. Subjects and Methods: We randomly selected 850 men, aged 25 to 64 years. The survey methods were questionnaire and bioelectrical impedance analysis for body composition. Subjects were divided into high-fat (n�357), over-fat (n�230), normal-fat (n�200) and under-fat (n�63) based on criteria of body-fat percent analysis. Results: The prevalence of CAD and the coronary-risk factors hypercholesterolemia, hypertension, diabetes, mellitus and sedentary lifestyle were significantly associated with high and moderate body fat percent despite low body-mass index (23.6�4.1 kg/m 2 ). Mean total cholesterol, triglycerides and blood pressure were significantly associated with high and moderate body fat percent. The prevalence of smoking was weakly but inversely associated with high body-fat percent. Mean HDL cholesterol was positively associated with high body-fat percent. Body mass index was positively associated with high body-fat percent. Conclusions: High and moderate body-fat-percent subjects were associated with high prevalence of CAD and the coronary-risk factors hypertension, diabetes mellitus, higher body-mass index and sedentary lifestyle. Research indicates that those who suffer from excessive body weight and body fat have an increased prevalence of cardiovascular disease, diabetes and cancer [1–3]. In south Asian immigrants to Britain, central obesity in association with insulin resistance is an important risk factor of diabetes and cardiovascular disease [4–8]. In contrast and paradoxically, Indians have a low average body-mass index (20–30 kg/m 2 ) and low rates of obesity (10–15%) in association with higher prevalence of cardiovascular disease and diabetes [7–9]. Mean waist-hip girth ratios were higher and trunk skinfolds thicker in south-Asian than in European men and women in the absence of corresponding ethnic differences in body-mass index or thigh skin folds [5,6]. In Indians, wherever they are living, glucose intolerance and insulin resistance are associated with obesity and especially with a pattern of obesity in which a high proportion of body fat is deposited on the trunk and in the abdomen [4–9]. However, no study has examined the body composition and body-fat percent among south Asians by measuring bioelectrical impedance using a body fat analyzer [18]. The association of body-fat percent measured by bioelectrical methods with risk of coronary artery disease (CAD) is not known, although body-fat percent had consistent association in Americans with body mass index and dietary fat consumption [11]. In the present study, we examine, by bioelectrical impedance analysis, possibly for the first time, the association of body-fat percent with risk of CAD in an Indian urban population with low rates of obesity (body mass index �27 kg/m 2 , 13%). SUBJECTS AND METHODS The sampling frame for this study [12] consisted of the final population total of Moradabad city, which is 430,000 based on Address reprint requests to: Dr. R. B. Singh, Hon. Prof. Preventive Cardiol, MHRC, Civil Lines, Moradabad-10 (UP) 244001, INDIA. Journal of the American College of Nutrition, Vol. 18, No. 3, 268–273 (1999) Published by the American College of Nutrition 268

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