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Anthony P. Carnevale Stephen J. Rose Andrew. R. Hanson

Anthony P. Carnevale Stephen J. Rose Andrew. R. Hanson

Part One: WHO EARNS

Part One: WHO EARNS CERTIFICATES? Not only young people earn certificates. In fact, people earn their certificates throughout their working lives. Figure 2. People earn certificates throughout their working lives. Share of workers 25 20 15 10 5 0 23% 19 Source: Survey of Income and Program Participation (SIPP) Age of Certificate Holders at Time of Award 21% 20-22 22% 23-29 Age 30-39 Among certificate holders, 23 percent earned their certificate immediately after high school. Twenty-one percent earned a certificate between ages 20 and 22, the ages when many people attend postsecondary education, and 22 percent earned certificates between ages 23 and 29, usually the early years of careers. A total of nearly two-thirds of certificate holders received certificate training in the years immediately after graduating from high school and during the early years of their careers. The remaining third appear to have obtained certificates to expand skills in their occupation or to retrain for another occupation. Among certificate holders, 18 percent received a certificate in their 30s and 16 percent received a certificate at age 40 or older. Compared with other credentials, this is a relatively high percentage of workers who obtain certificates at an older age. For example, only 11 percent of those with Associate’s degrees and 6 percent of those with Bachelor’s degrees attained their degrees after age 40. The fact that a third of certificates are earned after the age of 30 demonstrates that many experienced workers burnish their credentials to seek new employment opportunities or wage increases or to train for a new career by obtaining a certificate. 18% Certificates: Gateway To Gainful Employment and College Degrees 16% 40-49 7

8 Among certificate holders, 34 percent also have college degrees. Figure 3 shows that certificate holders overlap with other degrees across the education hierarchy but are concentrated at the high school and sub-baccalaureate level. In particular, Figure 3 shows that certificates serve as a mid-level credential—between a high school diploma and a Bachelor’s degree—and, correspondingly, that certificate holders are concentrated in the middle levels of educational attainment. Two-thirds of certificate holders do not have two-year or four-year college degrees. Among all certificate holders: Figure 3. Certificates are a mid-level education credential. 100 80 60 40 20 Certi�cate Holders by Highest Education Completed 3% 12% 19% 26% 37% 0 3% Share of certi�cate holders Graduate degree Bachelor's degree Associate's degree Source: Survey of Income and Program Participation (SIPP) Some college, no degree High school diploma/GED Less than High School • 3 percent of certificate holders don’t have a high school diploma; • 37 percent of certificate holders have a high school diploma but no college attendance 4 ; • 26 percent of certificate holders have some college but no degree. • 19 percent of certificate holders have an Associate’s degree; • 12 percent of certificate holders have a Bachelor’s degree; • And 3 percent even have a graduate degree. 5 Certificates can be both a stepping-stone to more education for some and an added skill credential for those who already have a college degree. Among those with an Associate’s degree and a certificate, 31 percent earned a certificate after an Associate’s degree, while 7 percent 4. Because these data are self-reported, some respondents said they had a certificate but did not attend college. The data reflect the ambiguity of the term “college.” Most people count postsecondary institutions where certificates are typically awarded, such as community colleges, trade, vocational, or technical schools, as “college” but many respondents did not. 5. These are data from SIPP, the educational attainment of certificate holders in the NLSY97 differs because, as noted in the previous footnote, many students have not completed their education. Thus the educational attainment of certificate holders in the NLSY is: 42 percent had only a high school diploma, 39 percent had some college but no degree, 6 percent had an Associate’s degree and 13 percent had a Bachelor’s degree. Certificates: Gateway To Gainful Employment and College Degrees

Anthony P. Carnevale Stephen J. Rose Andrew ... - Inside Higher Ed
In J. E. Moody, S. J. Hanson, & R. P. Lippmann (eds.)