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Anthony P. Carnevale Stephen J. Rose Andrew. R. Hanson

Anthony P. Carnevale Stephen J. Rose Andrew. R. Hanson

Table 8. Four out of the

Table 8. Four out of the top five certificateawarding states are in the southern U.S. Top 10 States by Certificate Awards Per 10,000 Population State Certificate Awards per 10,000 Population Louisiana 67 Kentucky 50 Georgia 50 Arizona 50 Florida 45 Arkansas 41 Washington 40 Kansas 40 California 37 Illinois 37 Source: Integrated Postsecondary Education Data System (IPEDS) 2010; U.S. Census, 2010. The strength of for-profits and public two-year institutions varies from state to state. As noted above, the institutions primarily responsible for awarding certificates are public two-year institutions (typically community colleges) and private for-profit institutions. There are enormous differences in the relative strength of these institutions from state to state. In Wisconsin, public two-year colleges award 84 percent of certificates; in Rhode Island, they award only 9 percent. For-profits award 88 percent of certificates in New Jersey, but only 13 percent in Arkansas. Table 10 shows the states where for-profit institutions award the largest shares of certificates. Seven of the top 10 states are located in the Northeast region of the United States. Since the public institutions in the Northeast tend to be four-year universities, for-profit institutions fill in the supply gap for lower level postsecondary credentials. Table 11 shows the top 10 states where public two-year institutions award the highest shares of certificates. Six of these 10 states are located in the Southern region of the United States. Wisconsin and Minnesota are notable in that they have both strong public four-year institutions and strong public two-year colleges. Certificates: Gateway To Gainful Employment and College Degrees Table 9. Hawaii, Vermont, and Montana award very few certificates. Bottom 10 States by Certificate Awards Per 10,000 Population States Certificate Awards Per 10,000 Population Hawaii 6 Vermont 8 Montana 8 Maine 11 New Hampshire 14 District of Columbia 15 Idaho 15 Alabama 15 South Dakota 15 Mississippi 15 Source: Integrated Postsecondary Education Data System (IPEDS) 2010; U.S. Census, 2010. 33

34 Table 10. For-profit institutions award a larger share of certificates in the Northeastern United States. Top 10 States by Share of Certificates Awarded by For- Profit Institutions State For-Profits’ Share of Certificate Awards New Jersey 87.0% Nevada 86.8% Rhode Island 82.4% Connecticut 75.3% Massachusetts 67.9% Maryland 67.7% Missouri 66.4% New York 65.9% Pennsylvania 65.5% Texas 65.2% Source: Integrated Postsecondary Education Data System (IPEDS) Table 11. Public two-year colleges award a large share of certificates in the Southern United States. Top 10 States by Share of Certificates Awarded by Public Two-Year Colleges State Public Two-Year Colleges' Share of Certificate Awards Wisconsin 84.2% Arkansas 82.5% Kentucky 82.3% North Carolina 81.9% Georgia 78.7% South Dakota 78.5% South Carolina 77.4% Minnesota 76.3% Louisiana 73.9% Washington 72.3% Source: Integrated Postsecondary Education Data System (IPEDS) Some states do better than others at producing certificates that have value in the labor market. 27 In North Dakota, Rhode Island, and Montana, 65 percent of certificates have significant earnings returns in the labor market, while in South Carolina, only 41 percent of certificates do. Other states with high shares of certificates with high returns include South Dakota, Idaho, and Nebraska, and states with low shares are Colorado, New Hampshire, Louisiana, and Illinois. How much value a certificate has depends on many factors, such as local labor market demand for middle-skill jobs. In some states, certificates offer a large wage premium, while in other states workers with certificates don’t do much better than high school graduates. Table 12 shows the 10 states that produce the largest share of certificates with significant economic value. Many of these states are in the Midwest and West. These states include: North Dakota, Montana, South Dakota, Idaho, Nebraska, Iowa, and Wyoming. Wyoming produces a large quantity of certificates (ranked eighth), has a large share of workers with certificates (ranked second) and produces a large share of certificates with economic value (ranked eighth). Table 13 shows the 10 states that produce the smallest share of certificates with economic value. These states are spread throughout the country. While Louisiana, Kentucky, and Georgia produce specialized certificates, ranking high among states in terms of production, this has not translated into high wages for their workers with certificates. However, this could be a sign of low wages within the region. 27. The next metric to compare states is based on the distribution of certificates produced. As illustrated in Part 2, the wage returns to certificates vary widely depending on field of study. The methodology developed is designed to identify certificate fields of study and program length that would have high labor market value. Certificates: Gateway To Gainful Employment and College Degrees

Anthony P. Carnevale Stephen J. Rose Andrew ... - Inside Higher Ed
In J. E. Moody, S. J. Hanson, & R. P. Lippmann (eds.)