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5 years ago

Anthony P. Carnevale Stephen J. Rose Andrew. R. Hanson

Anthony P. Carnevale Stephen J. Rose Andrew. R. Hanson

degree production tend

degree production tend to be different from those that produce a large share of certificates. Certificates are most prevalent in the Southern and Western regions of the country. Because of the importance of working in field, certificate programs that incorporate job placement initiatives may be able to help their students maximize the return on their investments. Some institutions, like the Tennessee Technology Centers, are leading the way on this front by working with businesses and organizations in their local communities, often times ensuring their students are set up for gainful employment before they graduate. If institutions can themselves address the varied outcomes of certificate graduates, everyone wins: institutions, policymakers, and students preparing for tomorrow’s economy. Today, policymakers do have a role: to ensure that all parties involved know, to the greatest extent possible, that the value of the programs they are funding are transparent for all to see. Certificate programs are successful if they promote either: (1) gainful employment and longterm job and income security or (2) the pursuit of a higher level credential, typically a college degree. If they are successful in these two areas, certificate programs will ensure that students considering them will be able to make informed choices about what to study and where to study it, with reasonable expectations about their prospects after graduation. Certificates: Gateway To Gainful Employment and College Degrees 37

38 Appendix A: DATA SOURCES The National Longitudinal Study of Youth (NLSY), 1997 cohort, and the combined 2004 and 2008 panels of the Survey of Income and Program Participation (SIPP) form the basis of this report. The SIPP covers a representative cross section of the entire population. The NLSY follows individuals from 1997 through 2007 who were between the ages of 12 and 16 as of Dec. 31, 1996. The NLSY has detailed information on the background of young workers, while the combined SIPP panels have data on the entire workforce. Consequently, the SIPP data allow examination of how prevalent certificate attainment is among older workers. 28 In both cases, it is possible to compare earnings of certificate holders with earnings of other groups among young and old workers. NLSY The NLSY is a longitudinal panel study administered by the U.S. Department of Education that consists of a representative sample of 12- to 16-year-olds as of Dec. 31, 1996. The NLSY collected detailed information on education, work, and training on an annual basis from every respondent through 2007 (the last available information). Because not everyone remained in the sample through 2007, the 2007 weight was used in reporting all of the analyses. NLSY is administered by the Department of Education. Earnings data are based on the prior year; thus, the 2007 question reports earnings for 2006 when the respondents were 22- to 26-years-old. By 2007, most of the survey respondents had completed their education and had a few years of labor market experience. Although the administrators of the survey have generated a summary variable on certificate holding, it is defined broadly to include licenses, company training, and non-workplace awards (e.g., Red Cross first aid, camp horsemanship, and charm school certificates). Therefore, this report’s definition of certificate holding is based on a compilation of several questions. The first one is: “Other than the regular schooling … have you ever attended any schooling, courses or training programs designed to help people find a job, improve their job skills, or learn a new job?” After a series of detailed questions about five different training experiences, there are summary questions: (1) Did you get a certificate, license or degree from this training? (2) What type of school or training program was it? 28. The two data sources have slightly different questions that are particularly relevant to this study. While both ask separate questions about certificate-holding and educational attainment, the SIPP has questions about field of study for certificate holders and Associate’s, Bachelor’s, and graduate degree holders. The NLSY, by contrast, has questions about parental education, family income when the respondent was 12- to 16-years-old, and a basic skills measure. Certificates: Gateway To Gainful Employment and College Degrees

In J. E. Moody, S. J. Hanson, & R. P. Lippmann (eds.)
Edited by Peter R. Rose and Stephen A. Sonnenberg Edited by ...