5 years ago

Anthony P. Carnevale Stephen J. Rose Andrew. R. Hanson

Anthony P. Carnevale Stephen J. Rose Andrew. R. Hanson

These follow-up

These follow-up questions allowed exclusion of licenses, GEDs, company training, apprenticeship programs, and correspondence courses. In addition, from 1997 to 2003 the NLSY included a question about the type of certificate earned. However, since most of these respondents earned their certificates after 2003 and one-third of the answers were “undefined,” it was not possible to present data on type of certificate and whether a person was working in their field of study. In the education series of questions, respondents are asked: “What diploma, degree, or certificate have you received from this school?” Very few respondents answered this question that they had a “vocational or technical certificate.” The NLSY also measures math and English skills. These skills measures are important, as they can be an indicator of likely labor market success. Since a larger proportion of skilled young people pursue college degrees, some of the employment and earnings returns to college may be simply a reflection of the higher skills the student initially possessed rather than the skills gained as a result of the educational process. Therefore, having a skills measure can lead to a more accurate measure of returns to educational attainment independent of skills. SIPP The purpose of the SIPP series of surveys is to collect up-to-date longitudinal information on income, labor force participation, government program participation, and general demographic information to assess the effectiveness of government programs and generally assess trends in income in the country. The U.S. Census Bureau administers the SIPP. Each SIPP panel runs from 32 months to 48 months with questions being asked every four months about each of the preceding months. Each of the first eight waves has a variety of topical modules on training, personal history, child care, wealth, program eligibility, child support, utilization and cost of healthcare, disability, school enrollment, taxes, and annual income. The most detailed questions on certificates and fields of study were part of the training module given in the second wave of the survey. 29 Using workers between the ages of 23 and 64, this report examines how educational attainment is associated with different earnings levels. The most recent SIPP surveys began in September 2004 and May 2008, consisting of over 80,000 participants each. Every month when information is collected, participants are questioned concerning employment, earnings, household status, income, health insurance, educational enrollment, and participation in government programs. In the second survey collection (covering months five to eight), a special supplemental module on training has detailed questions on certificate holding. 29. The relevant questions about certificate holding are: EVOCAT (“Did you attend a vocational, technical, trade or business school?), RCOLLVOC (which is a constructed variable that shows the combination of certificate and educational attainment), and EVOCFLD (the type of certificate). Certificates: Gateway To Gainful Employment and College Degrees 39

40 Previous Research on Sub-Baccalaureate Education Previous research has found that sub-baccalaureate education, including certificates, yields positive economic returns. The first papers were written in the 1990s, and include Grubb (1993, 1995), Kane and Rouse (1995), and Kerckhoff and Bell (1998). Further research has used successive panels of the Survey of Income and Program Participation (SIPP) and various surveys tracking the experiences of youth from high school to young adulthood. The results have been fairly consistent in finding that certificate holders earn 15 percent to 25 percent more than comparable workers with only a high school diploma and no postsecondary education (see for example, Ryan (2005), Grubb (2002), and Bailey, Kienzl and Marcotte (2004)). Finally, Lerman and Holzer (2007) argue that approximately half of all new jobs will be middle-skill jobs, ensuring that the demand for graduates from well-tailored certificate programs will be strong. Certificates: Gateway To Gainful Employment and College Degrees

In J. E. Moody, S. J. Hanson, & R. P. Lippmann (eds.)