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5 years ago

Anthony P. Carnevale Stephen J. Rose Andrew. R. Hanson

Anthony P. Carnevale Stephen J. Rose Andrew. R. Hanson

CONTENTS

CONTENTS Acknowledgements C Introduction 3 What are certificates? 3 Certificates are growing. 4 Summary of Findings 4 Organization of the Report 6 Part One: Who Earns Certificates? 7 Among certificate holders, 34 percent also have college degrees. 8 Certificates are least concentrated among students from families with high parental education and income. 9 Workers with the top academic prepration/skill have the smallest share of certificates. 11 Students from low-income families have the academic potential to earn certificates, but are not currently fulfilling their potential. 13 Certificates are more concentrated among African-Americans and Latinos. 14 Certificate holders’ field of study is highly correlated with sex. 15 Part Two: Earnings Returns to Certificates 18 High school graduates receive a 20 percent wage premium from a certificate. 18 Certificates benefit workers with less academic preparation/skill. 19 The earnings among certificate holders vary significantly. 20 Short-term certificates do not guarantee low pay, while medium-term certificates do not guarantee high pay. 20 Working in an occupation that is closely related to one’s training is the key to leveraging a certificate into substantial earnings returns. 22 Female certificate holders are concentrated in a few fields and earn much less than male certificate holders. 24 The earnings premium from a certificate differs for men and women. 26 African-American certificate holders receive the lowest wages and the smallest wage premium. 26 Part 3: Where Do Students Earn Certificates? 28 Net costs at for-profits are significantly higher than at public two-year institutions. 30 States differ in the prevalence of workers with certificates, production of certificate awards, institutional makeup, and how often certificates pay off. 31 States vary in their production of certificates. 32 The strength of for-profits and public two-year institutions varies from state to state 33 Some states do better than others at producing certificates. that have value in the labor market. 34 Certificates: Gateway To Gainful Employment and College Degrees 1

2 Appendix A: Data Sources 38 NLSY 38 SIPP 39 Previous Research on Sub-Baccalaureate Education 40 Appendix B: Regression Analyses of Earnings (SIPP and NLSY) 41 Appendix C: Individual State and Community College Certificate Reports 45 Appendix D: Occupations by Certificate Requirement (O*NET) 47 Appendix E: Occupations with High Concentrations of Workers with Certificates (SIPP) 50 Appendix F: States Ranked by Share of Workers with Certificates (SIPP) 55 Appendix G: Certificate Awards per 10,000 Population (IPEDS, U.S. Census) 56 Appendix H: Certificates as a Share of Sub-Baccalaureate Awards by State, IPEDS 57 Appendix I: Certificate Awards by Institutional Control by State, IPEDS 58 Appendix J: Certificates with Economic Value by States (IPEDS and SIPP) 60 References 62 Certificates: Gateway To Gainful Employment and College Degrees

In J. E. Moody, S. J. Hanson, & R. P. Lippmann (eds.)
Edited by Peter R. Rose and Stephen A. Sonnenberg Edited by ...