Anthony P. Carnevale Stephen J. Rose Andrew. R. Hanson
State Share of Certificates Awarded by Public Institutions Certificates: Gateway To Gainful Employment and College Degrees Share of Certificates Awarded by For-Profit Institutions Hawaii 52.2% 45.5% Tennessee 52.1% 47.3% Alaska 50.6% 48.3% Wyoming 48.0% 52.0% Florida 47.2% 51.7% Virginia 46.6% 48.2% Indiana 42.5% 55.6% Michigan 39.3% 55.9% California 38.4% 54.5% Oregon 37.6% 60.9% Idaho 37.4% 62.2% Delaware 35.5% 62.8% Maine 33.4% 58.6% Texas 32.8% 65.2% New Hampshire 31.7% 64.3% Maryland 31.0% 67.7% Missouri 26.9% 66.4% Massachusetts 26.9% 67.9% Pennsylvania 22.1% 65.5% New York 19.5% 65.9% Connecticut 17.7% 75.3% Nevada 12.4% 86.8% New Jersey 9.4% 87.0% Rhode Island 9.3% 82.4% District of Columbia 0% 55.1% 59
60 Appendix J: CERTIFICATES WITH ECONOMIC VALUE BY STATES (IPEDS AND SIPP) The table below shows a list of states ranked by the share of certificates that have significant economic value, i.e., provide workers with a significant earnings premium. The calculations are based on the Integrated Postsecondary Education Data System (IPEDS) and the Survey of Income and Program Participation (SIPP). Because neither dataset contains information on both certificate awards by state and earnings, we combined the datasets to calculate the estimates listed in the table below. The SIPP dataset contains information on earnings classified into 14 fields, and whether certificate holders work in field. The IPEDS dataset provides information on 170 certificate fields and length of program (short-term, medium-term, or long-term) and has certificate awards by state. We combined the 170 fields in IPEDS to reflect the fields in SIPP. Because the fields did not align perfectly, we added three additional fields: STEM, Other Liberal Arts, and Other Vocational. To calculate the share of certificates with economic value, we first assumed that the very small share of long-term certificates (less than 5 percent nationally) had economic value. For short- and medium-term certificates, we used SIPP data to develop estimates of the earnings returns for each of the 17 fields adjusted for sex composition. Certificate fields that provided earnings returns greater than 20 percent counted as having economic value. State Share of Certificates with Economic Value North Dakota 65.2% Montana 65.1% Rhode Island 65.1% South Dakota 63.9% Idaho 63.5% Nebraska 60.9% Iowa 59.7% Wyoming 59.5% Connecticut 57.4% West Virginia 57.1% New Jersey 56.7% Maryland 56.3% Oklahoma 56.3% Alaska 55.7% State Share of Certificates with Economic Value Hawaii 55.7% Oregon 55.3% Indiana 54.7% Pennsylvania 54.7% Vermont 54.6% Maine 54.5% New York 54.4% Tennessee 53.8% Massachusetts 53.6% Mississippi 52.2% Missouri 51.3% New Mexico 50.3% Arizona 49.9% Ohio 49.9% Certificates: Gateway To Gainful Employment and College Degrees
Anthony P. Carnevale Stephen J. Ros
CONTENTS Acknowledgements C Introdu
INTRODUCTION What are certificates?
Certificate by Program Length. Cert
Part One: WHO EARNS CERTIFICATES? N