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Anthony P. Carnevale Stephen J. Rose Andrew. R. Hanson

Anthony P. Carnevale Stephen J. Rose Andrew. R. Hanson

State Share of

State Share of Certificates with Economic Value Virginia 49.6% Delaware 49.4% Utah 49.3% Arkansas 49.2% Nevada 49.0% Minnesota 49.0% Texas 47.9% District of Columbia 47.3% Kansas 47.3% Alabama 46.2% Wisconsin 45.0% Florida 45.0% Certificates: Gateway To Gainful Employment and College Degrees State Share of Certificates with Economic Value North Carolina 43.9% California 43.7% Michigan 43.3% Georgia 43.1% Washington 43.0% Kentucky 42.1% Illinois 41.5% Louisiana 40.9% New Hampshire 40.9% Colorado 39.3% South Carolina 37.5% 61

62 REFERENCES Bailey, Thomas, Gregory Kienzl, and Dave E. Marcott. 2004. The Return to a Sub- Baccalaureate Education: The Effects of Schooling, Credentials and Program of Study on Economic Outcomes. Washington, D.C.: U.S. Department of Education. Bloom, Harold S, Larry Orr, Stephen Bell, et al. 1997. “The Benefits and Costs of JTPA Title II-A Programs: Key findings from the National Job Training Partnership Act Study,” Journal of Human Resources 32(3): 549-576. Bosworth, Brian. 2010. Certificates Count: An Analysis of Sub-baccalaureate Certificates, Complete College America. http://knowledgecenter.completionbydesign.org/sites/default/ files/352 CCA 2010.pdf. The Center for Governmental Studies, Northern Illinois University. 2007. The Economic Impact of Illinois Community Colleges. http://www.iccb.org/pdf/reports/EconomicImpact2007.pdf. Colorado Community College System. 2010. Wage Outcomes for CCCS Students. http://www.cccs.edu/Docs/Research/WageOutcomes2010.pdf. Complete College America. 2011. A Working Model for Student Success: The Tennessee Technology Centers: Preliminary Case Study. Washington, D.C. Deming, David J., Claudia Goldin, and Lawrence F. Katz. 2012. “The For-Profit Postsecondary School Sector: Nimble Critters or Agile Predators?,” Journal of Economic Perspectives, American Economic Association, 26(1): 139-64. Florida, Department of Education. 2011. The Florida College System: Annual Report. http://www.fldoe.org/cc/pdf/annualreport2011.pdf. Grubb, W. Norton. 1995. “The Returns to Education and Training in the Sub-Baccalaureate Labor Market: Evidence from the Survey of Income and Program Participation 1984- 1990,” (Berkeley, CA: National Center for Research in Vocational Education Publication). Grubb, W. Norton. 1993. “The Varied Economic Returns to Postsecondary Education: New Evidence from the Class of 1972,” Journal of Human Resources, 28: 365-282. Grubb, W. Norton. 2002. “Learning and earning in the middle, part I: national studies of prebaccalaureate education,” Economics of Education Review 21(4): 299-321, http://ideas. repec.org/a/eee/ecoedu/v21y2002i4p299-321.html. Holzer, Harry and Robert Lerman. 2007. America’s Forgotten Middle-Skill Jobs: Education and Training Requirements in the Next Decade and Beyond. Washington, D.C.: Skill2Compete & The Workforce Alliance. Certificates: Gateway To Gainful Employment and College Degrees

Anthony P. Carnevale Stephen J. Rose Andrew ... - Inside Higher Ed
In J. E. Moody, S. J. Hanson, & R. P. Lippmann (eds.)