5 years ago

Anthony P. Carnevale Stephen J. Rose Andrew. R. Hanson

Anthony P. Carnevale Stephen J. Rose Andrew. R. Hanson

State Share of

State Share of Certificates with Economic Value Virginia 49.6% Delaware 49.4% Utah 49.3% Arkansas 49.2% Nevada 49.0% Minnesota 49.0% Texas 47.9% District of Columbia 47.3% Kansas 47.3% Alabama 46.2% Wisconsin 45.0% Florida 45.0% Certificates: Gateway To Gainful Employment and College Degrees State Share of Certificates with Economic Value North Carolina 43.9% California 43.7% Michigan 43.3% Georgia 43.1% Washington 43.0% Kentucky 42.1% Illinois 41.5% Louisiana 40.9% New Hampshire 40.9% Colorado 39.3% South Carolina 37.5% 61

62 REFERENCES Bailey, Thomas, Gregory Kienzl, and Dave E. Marcott. 2004. The Return to a Sub- Baccalaureate Education: The Effects of Schooling, Credentials and Program of Study on Economic Outcomes. Washington, D.C.: U.S. Department of Education. Bloom, Harold S, Larry Orr, Stephen Bell, et al. 1997. “The Benefits and Costs of JTPA Title II-A Programs: Key findings from the National Job Training Partnership Act Study,” Journal of Human Resources 32(3): 549-576. Bosworth, Brian. 2010. Certificates Count: An Analysis of Sub-baccalaureate Certificates, Complete College America. files/352 CCA 2010.pdf. The Center for Governmental Studies, Northern Illinois University. 2007. The Economic Impact of Illinois Community Colleges. Colorado Community College System. 2010. Wage Outcomes for CCCS Students. Complete College America. 2011. A Working Model for Student Success: The Tennessee Technology Centers: Preliminary Case Study. Washington, D.C. Deming, David J., Claudia Goldin, and Lawrence F. Katz. 2012. “The For-Profit Postsecondary School Sector: Nimble Critters or Agile Predators?,” Journal of Economic Perspectives, American Economic Association, 26(1): 139-64. Florida, Department of Education. 2011. The Florida College System: Annual Report. Grubb, W. Norton. 1995. “The Returns to Education and Training in the Sub-Baccalaureate Labor Market: Evidence from the Survey of Income and Program Participation 1984- 1990,” (Berkeley, CA: National Center for Research in Vocational Education Publication). Grubb, W. Norton. 1993. “The Varied Economic Returns to Postsecondary Education: New Evidence from the Class of 1972,” Journal of Human Resources, 28: 365-282. Grubb, W. Norton. 2002. “Learning and earning in the middle, part I: national studies of prebaccalaureate education,” Economics of Education Review 21(4): 299-321, http://ideas. Holzer, Harry and Robert Lerman. 2007. America’s Forgotten Middle-Skill Jobs: Education and Training Requirements in the Next Decade and Beyond. Washington, D.C.: Skill2Compete & The Workforce Alliance. Certificates: Gateway To Gainful Employment and College Degrees

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