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A Textbook of Clinical Pharmacology and Therapeutics

A Textbook of Clinical Pharmacology and Therapeutics

Partial response to

Partial response to first-line treatment Advance dose as tolerated Symptoms persist after 6–8 weeks Partial responders: mild symptoms, low risk Trial of an alternative medication Imipramine and amitriptyline (tertiary amines) have more powerful anticholinergic and cardiac toxic effects than secondary amines (e.g. nortriptyline). Mechanism of action The tricyclics block uptake-1 of monoamines into cerebral (and other) neurones. Thus, the concentration of amines in the synaptic cleft rises. As discussed above, they may also induce a slow adaptive decrease in pre- and/or postsynaptic amine receptor sensitivity. Adverse effects Assess risk factors for treatment resistance Assess symptom severity All patients: moderate-to-severe symptoms, or high risk Ensure safe maximum tolerated dose Autonomic (anticholinergic)/cardiovascular Dry mouth, constipation (rarely paralytic ileus, gastroparesis), tachycardia, paralysis of accommodation, aggravation of narrow-angle glaucoma, retention of urine, dry skin due to loss of sweating, and (due to α-blockade) postural hypotension. Rarely, sudden death due to a cardiac dysrhythmia. In overdose, a range of tachydysrhythmias and intracardiac blocks may be produced. Central nervous system Fine tremor and sedation, but also (paradoxically) sometimes insomnia, decreased rapid eye movement (REM) sleep, twitching, convulsions, dysarthria, paraesthesia, ataxia. Increased appetite and weight gain, particularly with the sedative tricyclics, are common. On withdrawal of the drug, there may be gastro-intestinal symptoms such as nausea and vomiting, headache, DEPRESSIVE ILLNESSES AND ANTIDEPRESSANTS 119 No response to first-line treatment Nonresponders: mild-to-moderate symptoms, low risk Trial of an alternative medication Persistent symptoms AUGMENTATION * Persistent symptoms giddiness, shivering and insomnia. Sometimes anxiety, agitation and restlessness follow sudden withdrawal. Allergic and idiosyncratic reactions These include bone marrow suppression and jaundice (both rare). Hyponatraemia Hyponatraemia is an adverse effect due to inappropriate ADH secretion, and is more common in the elderly. Contraindications These include the following: Figure 20.2: General algorithm for the second phase of treatment of depression. Augmentation* involves the use of a combination of medications to enhance the efficacy of an antidepressant. (Redrawn with permission from Aronson SC and Ayres VE, ‘Depression: A Treatment Algorithm for the Family Physician’, Hospital Physician Vol 36 No 7, 2000. Copyright 2000 Turner White Communications, Inc.) • epilepsy; • recent myocardial infarction, heart block; • mania; • porphyria. RELATED NON-TRICYCLIC ANTIDEPRESSANT DRUGS This is a mixed group which includes 1-, 2- and 4-ring structured drugs with broadly similar properties. Characteristics of specific drugs are summarized below. Maprotiline – sedative, with less antimuscarinic effects, but rashes are more common and fits are a significant risk. Mianserin – blocks central α 2-adrenoceptors. It is sedative, with much fewer anticholinergic effects, but can cause postural hypotension and blood dyscrasias, particularly in the elderly. Full blood count must be monitored.

120 MOOD DISORDERS Lofepramine – less sedative, and with less cardiac toxicity, but occasionally hepatotoxic. Mirtazapine – increases noradrenergic and serotonergic neurotransmission via central α 2 adrenoceptors. The increased release of 5HT stimulates 5HT 1 receptors, whilst 5HT 2 and 5HT 3 receptors are blocked. H 1 receptors are also blocked. This combination of actions appears to be associated with antidepressant activity, anxiolytic and sedative effects. Reported adverse effects include increased appetite, weight gain, drowsiness, dry mouth and (rarely) blood dyscrasias. Drug interactions These include the following: • antagonism of anti-epileptics; • potentiation of sedation with alcohol and other central depressants; • antihypertensives and diuretics increase orthostatic hypotension; • hypertension and cardiac dysrhythmias with adrenaline, noradrenaline and ephedrine. MONOAMINE OXIDASE INHIBITORS (MAOIs) These drugs were little used for many years because of their toxicity, and particularly potentially lethal food and drug interactions causing hypertensive crises. Non-selective MAOIs should only be prescribed by specialists who are experienced in their use. They can be effective in some forms of refractory depression and anxiety states, for which they are generally reserved. The introduction of moclobemide, a reversible selective MAO-A inhibitor, may lead to more widespread use of this therapeutic class. Tranylcypromine is the most hazardous MAOI because of its stimulant activity. The non-selective MAOIs of choice are phenelzine and isocarboxazid. Uses These include the following: 1. MAOIs can be used alone or (with close psychiatric supervision) with a TCA, in depression which has not responded to TCAs alone; 2. in phobic anxiety and depression with anxiety; 3. in patients with anxiety who have agoraphobia, panic attacks or multiple somatic symptoms; 4. hypochondria and hysterical symptoms may respond well; 5. for atypical depression with biological features such as hypersomnia, lethargy and hyperphagia. Adverse effects 1. Common effects include orthostatic hypotension, weight gain, sexual dysfunction, headache and aggravation of migraine, insomnia, anticholinergic actions and oedema. 2. Rare and potentially fatal effects include hypertensive crisis and 5HT syndrome, psychotic reactions, hepatocellular necrosis, peripheral neuropathy and convulsions. 3. Stopping a MAOI is more likely to produce a withdrawal syndrome than is the case with tricyclics. The syndrome includes agitation, restlessness, panic attacks and insomnia. Contraindications These include the following: • liver failure; • cerebrovascular disease; • phaeochromocytoma; • porphyria; • epilepsy. Drug interactions Many important interactions occur with MAOI. A treatment card for patients should be carried at all times, which describes precautions and lists some of the foods to be avoided. The interactions are as follows: • hypertensive and hyperthermic reactions sufficient to cause fatal subarachnoid haemorrhage, particularly with tranylcypromine. Such serious reactions are precipitated by amines, including indirectly acting sympathomimetic agents such as tyramine (in cheese), dopamine (in broad bean pods and formed from levodopa), amines formed from any fermentation process (e.g. in yoghurt, beer, wine), phenylephrine (including that administered as nosedrops and in cold remedies), ephedrine, amfetamine (all can give hypertensive reactions), other amines, pethidine (excitement, hyperthermia), levodopa (hypertension) and tricyclic, tetracyclic and bicyclic antidepressants (excitement, hyperpyrexia). Buspirone should not be used with MAOIs. Hypertensive crisis may be treated with α-adrenoceptor blockade analogous to medical treatment of patients with phaeochromocytoma (see Chapter 40). Interactions of this type are much less likely to occur with moclobemide, as its MAO inhibition is reversible, competitive and selective for MAO-A, so that MAO-B is free to deaminate biogenic amines; • failure to metabolize drugs that are normally oxidized, including opioids, benzodiazepines, alcohol (reactions with alcoholic drinks occur mainly because of their tyramine content). These drugs will have an exaggerated and prolonged effect; • enhanced effects of oral hypoglycaemic agents, anaesthetics, suxamethonium, caffeine and anticholinergics (including benzhexol and similar anti-Parkinsonian drugs); • antagonism of anti-epileptics; • enhanced hypotension with antihypertensives; • central nervous system (CNS) excitation and hypertension with oxypertine (an antipsychotic) and tetrabenazine (used for chorea); • increased CNS toxicity with triptans (5HT 1 agonists) and with sibutramine.

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    A Textbook of Clinical Pharmacology

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    A Textbook of Clinical Pharmacology

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    This fifth edition is dedicated to

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    FOREWORD viii PREFACE ix ACKNOWLEDG

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    PREFACE Clinical pharmacology is th

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    PART I GENERAL PRINCIPLES

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    ● Use of drugs 3 ● Adverse effe

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    and acquired factors, notably disea

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    100 Effect (%) 0 0 5 10 1 10 100 (a

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    Dose ratio -1 100 50 The relationsh

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    ● Introduction 11 ● Constant-ra

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    In reality, processes of eliminatio

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    lood (from which samples are taken

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    ● Introduction 17 ● Bioavailabi

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    ROUTES OF ADMINISTRATION ORAL ROUTE

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    Transdermal absorption is sufficien

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    FURTHER READING Fix JA. Strategies

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    and thromboxanes are CYP450 enzymes

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    and lorazepam. Some patients inheri

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    Orally administered drug Parenteral

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    ● Introduction 31 ● Glomerular

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    ACTIVE TUBULAR REABSORPTION This is

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    DISTRIBUTION Drug distribution is a

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    Detailed recommendations on dosage

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    DIGOXIN Myxoedematous patients are

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    ● Introduction 41 ● Role of dru

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    25 20 10 Life-threatening toxicity

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    ● Introduction 45 ● Harmful eff

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    vagina in girls in their late teens

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    an anti-analgesic effect when combi

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    Case history A 20-year-old female m

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    METABOLISM At birth, the hepatic mi

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    lifelong effects as a result of tox

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    DISTRIBUTION Ageing is associated w

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    DIGOXIN Digoxin toxicity is common

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    FURTHER READING Dhesi JK, Allain TJ

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    Factors involved in the aetiology o

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    analgesic. Following its release, t

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    antibiotics, such as penicillin or

  • Page 80 and 81: predisposes to non-immune haemolysi
  • Page 82 and 83: ● Introduction 71 ● Useful inte
  • Page 84 and 85: Response Therapeutic range Toxic ra
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  • Page 90 and 91: ● Introduction: ‘personalized m
  • Page 92 and 93: Table 14.2: Variations in drug resp
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  • Page 96 and 97: Key points • Genetic differences
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  • Page 102 and 103: ETHICS COMMITTEES Protocols for all
  • Page 104 and 105: Table 16.1: Recombinant proteins/en
  • Page 106 and 107: duration and benefit. Adenoviral ve
  • Page 108 and 109: ● Introduction 97 ● Garlic 97
  • Page 110 and 111: A case report has suggested a possi
  • Page 112 and 113: including hypericin and pseudohyper
  • Page 114 and 115: PART II THE NERVOUS SYSTEM
  • Page 116 and 117: ● Introduction 105 ● Sleep diff
  • Page 118 and 119: and daytime sleeping should be disc
  • Page 120 and 121: Key points • Insomnia and anxiety
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  • Page 132 and 133: Key points Drug treatment of depres
  • Page 134 and 135: Case history A 45-year-old man with
  • Page 136 and 137: Levodopa PRINCIPLES OF TREATMENT IN
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  • Page 140 and 141: CHOREA The γ-aminobutyric acid con
  • Page 142 and 143: Cholinergic crisis Treatment of mya
  • Page 144 and 145: ● Introduction 133 ● Mechanisms
  • Page 146 and 147: absolute arbiter. The availability
  • Page 148 and 149: Table 22.2: Metabolic interactions
  • Page 150 and 151: FURTHER ANTI-EPILEPTICS Other drugs
  • Page 152 and 153: Case history A 24-year-old woman wh
  • Page 154 and 155: Assessment of migraine severity and
  • Page 156 and 157: ● General anaesthetics 145 ● In
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  • Page 160 and 161: • Respiratory system - apnoea fol
  • Page 162 and 163: Competitive antagonists (vecuronium
  • Page 164 and 165: have also proved useful in combinat
  • Page 166 and 167: ● Introduction 155 ● Pathophysi
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  • Page 170 and 171: Key points Drugs for mild pain •
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    Chapter 33). All NSAIDs cause wheez

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    • Stomatitis suggests the possibi

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    Pharmacokinetics Allopurinol is wel

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    PART IV THE CARDIOVASCULAR SYSTEM

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    ● Introduction 177 ● Pathophysi

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    esponsible for the strong predilect

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    Ezetimibe Fat Muscle Dietary fat In

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    educed). The risk of muscle damage

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    ● Introduction 185 ● Pathophysi

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    Each of these classes of drug reduc

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    AT 1 receptor) produce good 24-hour

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    Table 28.2: Examples of calcium-cha

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    Key points Drugs used in essential

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    Case history A 72-year-old woman se

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    Assess risk factors Investigations:

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    Persistent ST segment elevation Thr

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    Mechanism of action GTN works by re

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    Because of the risks of haemorrhage

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    Intrinsic pathway XIIa XIa the acti

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    that the pharmacodynamic response i

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    used with apparent benefit in acute

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    ● Introduction 211 ● Pathophysi

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    The drugs that are most effective i

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    therapeutic plasma concentration ca

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    ● Common dysrhythmias 217 ● Gen

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    BASIC LIFE SUPPORT CARDIOPULMONARY

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    arrest. The electrocardiogram is li

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    should be given to insertion of an

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    Drug interactions Amiodarone potent

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    effect when treating sinus bradycar

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    Case history A 24-year-old medical

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    PART V THE RESPIRATORY SYSTEM

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    CHAPTER 33 THERAPY OF ASTHMA, CHRON

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    STEP 5: CONTINUOUS OR FREQUENT USE

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    Adenylyl cyclase Table 33.1: Compar

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    Drug interactions Although synergis

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    use in asthma has declined consider

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    α 1-antitrypsin deficiency, neutro

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    PART VI THE ALIMENTARY SYSTEM

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    ● Peptic ulceration 247 ● Oesop

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    PEPTIC ULCERATION 249 • With rega

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    Ranitidine has a similar profile of

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    Vestibular stimulation ? via cerebe

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    cortical centres affecting vomiting

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    • in hepatocellular failure to re

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    Ciprofloxacin is occasionally used

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    withdrawal), small doses of benzodi

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    Table 34.7: Dose-independent hepato

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    ● Introduction 265 ● General ph

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    dinucleotide (NAD) and nicotinamide

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    Table 35.1: Common trace element de

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    PART VII FLUIDS AND ELECTROLYTES

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    ● Introduction 273 ● Volume ove

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    Key points Diuretics Diuretics are

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    is sometimes caused by drugs, notab

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    or with potassium-sparing diuretics

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    Greger R, Lang F, Sebekova, Heidlan

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    PART VIII THE ENDOCRINE SYSTEM

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    ● Introduction 285 ● Pathophysi

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    in prefilled injection devices (‘

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    Metformin should be withdrawn and i

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    FURTHER READING American Diabetes A

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    deficiency. Potassium iodide (3 mg

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    fertility. It is contraindicated du

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    ● Introduction 297 ● Vitamin D

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    effective in life-threatening hyper

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    Further reading Block GA, Martin KJ

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    Table 40.1: Actions of cortisol and

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    injection may be useful, but if don

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    CHAPTER 41 REPRODUCTIVE ENDOCRINOLO

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    elease by the pituitary via negativ

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    Treatment with depot progestogen in

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    infusion using an infusion pump to

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    significant proportion of men who r

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    with symptoms caused by the release

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    FURTHER READING Birnbaumer M. Vasop

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    PART IX SELECTIVE TOXICITY

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    ● Principles of antibacterial che

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    2. transfer of resistance between o

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    Pharmacokinetics Absorption of thes

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    Mechanism of action Macrolides bind

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    asic quinolone structure dramatical

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    Case history A 70-year-old man with

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    PRINCIPLES OF MANAGEMENT OF MYCOBAC

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    Pharmacokinetics Absorption from th

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    MYCOBACTERIUM LEPRAE INFECTION Lepr

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    POLYENES AMPHOTERICIN B Uses Amphot

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    therapy is adequate though more fre

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    NUCLEOSIDE ANALOGUES ACICLOVIR Uses

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    Table 45.3: Summary of available ac

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    Uses Interferon-α when combined wi

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    ● Introduction 351 ● Immunopath

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    Table 46.1: Examples of combination

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    NON-NUCLEOSIDE ANALOGUE REVERSE TRA

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    FUSION INHIBITORS Uses Currently, e

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    salvage therapy include azithromyci

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    ● Malaria 361 ● Trypanosomal in

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    Pharmacokinetics Chloroquine is rap

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    Table 47.2: Drug therapy of non-mal

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    ● Introduction 367 ● Pathophysi

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    Table 48.1: Classification of commo

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    Polymorph count/mm 3 (a) (b) 10 000

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    doses are used to prepare patients

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    Adverse effects Methotrexate Inhibi

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    Table 48.7: Summary of clinical pha

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    Table 48.9: Summary of the clinical

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    Plasma membrane Signal transduction

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    Table 48.10: Monoclonal antibodies

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    INTERFERON-ALFA 2B Interferon-alfa

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    PART X HAEMATOLOGY

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    ● Haematinics - iron, vitamin B 1

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    one marrow to produce red cells. Th

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    EPO Erythroid precursors Erythrocyt

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    Therapeutic principles The extent o

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    PART XI IMMUNOPHARMACOLOGY

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    ● Introduction 399 ● Immunity a

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    Key points Antigen recognition Expr

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    Table 50.1: Novel anti-proliferativ

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    Key points Treatment of anaphylacti

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    DRUGS THAT ENHANCE IMMUNE SYSTEM FU

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    PART XII THE SKIN

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    ● Introduction 411 ● Acne 411

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    DERMATITIS (ECZEMA) PRINCIPLES OF T

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    SPECIALISTS ONLY SPECIALISTS ONLY E

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    TREATMENT OF OTHER SKIN INFECTIONS

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    effect of too high a dose of UVB in

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    PART XIII THE EYE

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    ● Introduction: ocular anatomy, p

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    to cause pupillary dilatation, name

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    Table 52.3: Antibacterial agents us

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    Table 52.6: Common drug-induced pro

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    PART XIV CLINICAL TOXICOLOGY

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    ● Introduction 433 ● Pathophysi

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    Table 53.2: Central nervous system

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    which provide anonymized data to th

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    Peak plasma levels after smoking ci

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    Key points Acute effects of alcohol

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    FURTHER READING Goldman D, Oroszi G

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    Table 54.2: Common indications for

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    Table 54.5: Antidotes and other spe

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    Commission on Human Medicines (CHM)

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    Note: Page numbers in italics refer

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    atrial fibrillation 217, 221 digoxi

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    Cushing’s syndrome 302 cyclic ade

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    5-fluorouracil 375-6 fluoxetine, mo

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    children 54 diazepam 108 iron prepa

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    non-steroidal anti-inflammatory dru

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    puberty (male), delay 314 puerperiu

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    tolerance 9, 433 benzodiazepines 10

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