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A Textbook of Clinical Pharmacology and Therapeutics

A Textbook of Clinical Pharmacology and Therapeutics

● Use

● Use of drugs 3 ● Adverse effects and risk/benefit 3 ● Drug history and therapeutic plan 4 CHAPTER 1 INTRODUCTION TO THERAPEUTICS USE OF DRUGS People consult a doctor to find out what (if anything) is wrong (the diagnosis), and what should be done about it (the treatment). If they are well, they may nevertheless want to know how future problems can be prevented. Depending on the diagnosis, treatment may consist of reassurance, surgery or other interventions. Drugs are very often either the primary therapy or an adjunct to another modality (e.g. the use of anaesthetics in patients undergoing surgery). Sometimes contact with the doctor is initiated because of a public health measure (e.g. through a screening programme). Again, drug treatment is sometimes needed. Consequently, doctors of nearly all specialties use drugs extensively, and need to understand the scientific basis on which therapeutic use is founded. A century ago, physicians had only a handful of effective drugs (e.g. morphia, quinine, ether, aspirin and digitalis leaf) at their disposal. Thousands of potent drugs have since been introduced, and pharmaceutical chemists continue to discover new and better drugs. With advances in genetics, cellular and molecular science, it is likely that progress will accelerate and huge changes in therapeutics are inevitable. Medical students and doctors in training therefore need to learn something of the principles of therapeutics, in order to prepare themselves to adapt to such change. General principles are discussed in the first part of this book, while current approaches to treatment are dealt with in subsequent parts. ADVERSE EFFECTS AND RISK/BENEFIT Medicinal chemistry has contributed immeasurably to human health, but this has been achieved at a price, necessitating a new philosophy. A physician in Sir William Osler’s day in the nineteenth century could safely adhere to the Hippocratic principle ‘first do no harm’, because the opportunities for doing good were so limited. The discovery of effective drugs has transformed this situation, at the expense of very real risks ● Formularies and restricted lists 4 ● Scientific basis of use of drugs in humans 4 of doing harm. For example, cures of leukaemias, Hodgkin’s disease and testicular carcinomas have been achieved through a preparedness to accept a degree of containable harm. Similar considerations apply in other disease areas. All effective drugs have adverse effects, and therapeutic judgements based on risk/benefit ratio permeate all fields of medicine. Drugs are the physician’s prime therapeutic tools, and just as a misplaced scalpel can spell disaster, so can a thoughtless prescription. Some of the more dramatic instances make for gruesome reading in the annual reports of the medical defence societies, but perhaps as important is the morbidity and expense caused by less dramatic but more common errors. How are prescribing errors to be minimized? By combining a general knowledge of the pathogenesis of the disease to be treated and of the drugs that may be effective for that disease with specific knowledge about the particular patient. Dukes and Swartz, in their valuable work Responsibility for druginduced injury, list eight basic duties of prescribers: 1. restrictive use – is drug therapy warranted? 2. careful choice of an appropriate drug and dose regimen with due regard to the likely risk/benefit ratio, available alternatives, and the patient’s needs, susceptibilities and preferences; 3. consultation and consent; 4. prescription and recording; 5. explanation; 6. supervision (including monitoring); 7. termination, as appropriate; 8. conformity with the law relating to prescribing. As a minimum, the following should be considered when deciding on a therapeutic plan: 1. age; 2. coexisting disease, especially renal and or hepatic impairment; 3. the possibility of pregnancy; 4. drug history;

4 INTRODUCTION TO THERAPEUTICS 5. the best that can reasonably be hoped for in this individual patient; 6. the patient’s beliefs and goals. DRUG HISTORY AND THERAPEUTIC PLAN In the twenty-first century, a reliable drug history involves questioning the patient (and sometimes family, neighbours, other physicians, etc.). What prescription tablets, medicines, drops, contraceptives, creams, suppositories or pessaries are being taken? What over-the-counter remedies are being used including herbal or ‘alternative’ therapies? Does the patient use drugs socially or for ‘life-style’ purposes? Have they suffered from drug-induced allergies or other serious reactions? Have they been treated for anything similar in the past, and if so with what, and did it do the job or were there any problems? Has the patient experienced any problems with anaesthesia? Have there been any serious drug reactions among family members? The prescriber must be both meticulous and humble, especially when dealing with an unfamiliar drug. Checking contraindications, special precautions and doses in a formulary such as the British National Formulary (BNF) (British Medical Association and Royal Pharmaceutical Society of Great Britain 2007) is the minimum requirement. The proposed plan is discussed with the patient, including alternatives, goals, possible adverse effects, their likelihood and measures to be taken if these arise. The patient must understand what is intended and be happy with the means proposed to achieve these ends. (This will not, of course, be possible in demented or delirious patients, where discussion will be with any available family members.) The risks of causing harm must be minimized. Much of the ‘art’ of medicine lies in the ability of the prescriber to agree to compromises that are acceptable to an individual patient, and underlies concordance (i.e. agreement between patient and prescriber) with a therapeutic plan. Prescriptions must be written clearly and legibly, conforming to legal requirements. Electronic prescribing is currently being introduced in the UK, so these are changing. Generic names should generally be used (exceptions are mentioned later in the book), together with dose, frequency and duration of treatment, and paper prescriptions signed. It is prudent to print the prescriber’s name, address and telephone number to facilitate communication from the pharmacist should a query arise. Appropriate follow up must be arranged. FORMULARIES AND RESTRICTED LISTS Historically, formularies listed the components of mixtures prescribed until around 1950. The perceived need for hospital formularies disappeared transiently when such mixtures were replaced by proprietary products prepared by the pharmaceutical industry. The BNF summarizes products licensed in the UK. Because of the bewildering array, including many alternatives, many hospital and primary care trusts have reintroduced formularies that are essentially restricted lists of the drugs stocked by the institution’s pharmacy, from which local doctors are encouraged to prescribe. The objectives are to encourage rational prescribing, to simplify purchasing and storage of drugs, and to obtain the ‘best buy’ among alternative preparations. Such formularies have the advantage of encouraging consistency, and once a decision has been made with input from local consultant prescribers they are usually well accepted. SCIENTIFIC BASIS OF USE OF DRUGS IN HUMANS The scientific basis of drug action is provided by the discipline of pharmacology. Clinical pharmacology deals with the effects of drugs in humans. It entails the study of the interaction of drugs with their receptors, the transduction (second messenger) systems to which these are linked and the changes that they bring about in cells, organs and the whole organism. These processes (what the drug does to the body) are called ‘pharmacodynamics’. The use of drugs in society is encompassed by pharmacoepidemiology and pharmacoeconomics – both highly politicized disciplines! Man is a mammal and animal studies are essential, but their predictive value is limited. Modern methods of molecular and cell biology permit expression of human genes, including those that code for receptors and key signal transduction elements, in cells and in transgenic animals, and are revolutionizing these areas and hopefully improving the relevance of preclinical pharmacology and toxicology. Important adverse effects sometimes but not always occur in other species. Consequently, when new drugs are used to treat human diseases, considerable uncertainties remain. Early-phase human studies are usually conducted in healthy volunteers, except when toxicity is inevitable (e.g. cytotoxic drugs used for cancer treatment, see Chapter 48). Basic pharmacologists often use isolated preparations, where the concentration of drug in the organ bath is controlled precisely. Such preparations may be stable for minutes to hours. In therapeutics, drugs are administered to the whole organism by a route that is as convenient and safe as possible (usually by mouth), for days if not years. Consequently, the drug concentration in the vicinity of the receptors is usually unknown, and long-term effects involving alterations in receptor density or function, or the activation or modulation of homeostatic control mechanisms may be of overriding importance. The processes of absorption, distribution, metabolism and elimination (what the body does to the drug) determine the drug concentration–time relationships in plasma and at the receptors. These processes comprise ‘pharmacokinetics’. There is considerable inter-individual variation due to both inherited

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  • Page 8 and 9: FOREWORD viii PREFACE ix ACKNOWLEDG
  • Page 10 and 11: PREFACE Clinical pharmacology is th
  • Page 12 and 13: PART I GENERAL PRINCIPLES
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  • Page 38 and 39: and lorazepam. Some patients inheri
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  • Page 44 and 45: ACTIVE TUBULAR REABSORPTION This is
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    METABOLISM At birth, the hepatic mi

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    lifelong effects as a result of tox

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    DISTRIBUTION Ageing is associated w

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    DIGOXIN Digoxin toxicity is common

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    FURTHER READING Dhesi JK, Allain TJ

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    Factors involved in the aetiology o

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    analgesic. Following its release, t

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    antibiotics, such as penicillin or

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    predisposes to non-immune haemolysi

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    ● Introduction 71 ● Useful inte

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    Response Therapeutic range Toxic ra

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    Table 13.1: Interactions outside th

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    Table 13.5: Competitive interaction

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    ● Introduction: ‘personalized m

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    Table 14.2: Variations in drug resp

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    lipoprotein (LDL) is impaired. LDL

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    Key points • Genetic differences

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    • Discovery • • Screening Pre

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    Too many statistical comparisons pe

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    ETHICS COMMITTEES Protocols for all

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    Table 16.1: Recombinant proteins/en

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    duration and benefit. Adenoviral ve

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    ● Introduction 97 ● Garlic 97

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    A case report has suggested a possi

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    including hypericin and pseudohyper

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    PART II THE NERVOUS SYSTEM

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    ● Introduction 105 ● Sleep diff

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    and daytime sleeping should be disc

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    Key points • Insomnia and anxiety

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    Box 19.1: Dopamine theory of schizo

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    The Boston Collaborative Survey ind

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    Oral medication, especially in liqu

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    e.g. interpersonal difficulties or

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    Partial response to first-line trea

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    Key points Drug treatment of depres

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    Case history A 45-year-old man with

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    Levodopa PRINCIPLES OF TREATMENT IN

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    • pulmonary, retroperitoneal and

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    CHOREA The γ-aminobutyric acid con

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    Cholinergic crisis Treatment of mya

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    ● Introduction 133 ● Mechanisms

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    absolute arbiter. The availability

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    Table 22.2: Metabolic interactions

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    FURTHER ANTI-EPILEPTICS Other drugs

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    Case history A 24-year-old woman wh

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    Assessment of migraine severity and

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    ● General anaesthetics 145 ● In

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    is the theoretical concern of a ‘

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    • Respiratory system - apnoea fol

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    Competitive antagonists (vecuronium

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    have also proved useful in combinat

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    ● Introduction 155 ● Pathophysi

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    ASPIRIN (ACETYLSALICYLATE) Use Anti

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    Key points Drugs for mild pain •

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    increases, correlating with the hig

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    • If possible, use oral medicatio

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    PART III THE MUSCULOSKELETAL SYSTEM

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    ● Introduction: inflammation 167

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    Chapter 33). All NSAIDs cause wheez

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    • Stomatitis suggests the possibi

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    Pharmacokinetics Allopurinol is wel

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    PART IV THE CARDIOVASCULAR SYSTEM

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    ● Introduction 177 ● Pathophysi

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    esponsible for the strong predilect

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    Ezetimibe Fat Muscle Dietary fat In

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    educed). The risk of muscle damage

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    ● Introduction 185 ● Pathophysi

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    Each of these classes of drug reduc

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    AT 1 receptor) produce good 24-hour

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    Table 28.2: Examples of calcium-cha

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    Key points Drugs used in essential

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    Case history A 72-year-old woman se

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    Assess risk factors Investigations:

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    Persistent ST segment elevation Thr

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    Mechanism of action GTN works by re

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    Because of the risks of haemorrhage

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    Intrinsic pathway XIIa XIa the acti

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    that the pharmacodynamic response i

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    used with apparent benefit in acute

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    ● Introduction 211 ● Pathophysi

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    The drugs that are most effective i

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    therapeutic plasma concentration ca

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    ● Common dysrhythmias 217 ● Gen

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    BASIC LIFE SUPPORT CARDIOPULMONARY

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    arrest. The electrocardiogram is li

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    should be given to insertion of an

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    Drug interactions Amiodarone potent

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    effect when treating sinus bradycar

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    Case history A 24-year-old medical

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    PART V THE RESPIRATORY SYSTEM

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    CHAPTER 33 THERAPY OF ASTHMA, CHRON

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    STEP 5: CONTINUOUS OR FREQUENT USE

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    Adenylyl cyclase Table 33.1: Compar

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    Drug interactions Although synergis

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    use in asthma has declined consider

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    α 1-antitrypsin deficiency, neutro

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    PART VI THE ALIMENTARY SYSTEM

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    ● Peptic ulceration 247 ● Oesop

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    PEPTIC ULCERATION 249 • With rega

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    Ranitidine has a similar profile of

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    Vestibular stimulation ? via cerebe

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    cortical centres affecting vomiting

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    • in hepatocellular failure to re

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    Ciprofloxacin is occasionally used

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    withdrawal), small doses of benzodi

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    Table 34.7: Dose-independent hepato

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    ● Introduction 265 ● General ph

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    dinucleotide (NAD) and nicotinamide

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    Table 35.1: Common trace element de

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    PART VII FLUIDS AND ELECTROLYTES

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    ● Introduction 273 ● Volume ove

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    Key points Diuretics Diuretics are

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    is sometimes caused by drugs, notab

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    or with potassium-sparing diuretics

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    Greger R, Lang F, Sebekova, Heidlan

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    PART VIII THE ENDOCRINE SYSTEM

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    ● Introduction 285 ● Pathophysi

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    in prefilled injection devices (‘

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    Metformin should be withdrawn and i

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    FURTHER READING American Diabetes A

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    deficiency. Potassium iodide (3 mg

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    fertility. It is contraindicated du

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    ● Introduction 297 ● Vitamin D

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    effective in life-threatening hyper

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    Further reading Block GA, Martin KJ

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    Table 40.1: Actions of cortisol and

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    injection may be useful, but if don

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    CHAPTER 41 REPRODUCTIVE ENDOCRINOLO

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    elease by the pituitary via negativ

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    Treatment with depot progestogen in

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    infusion using an infusion pump to

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    significant proportion of men who r

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    with symptoms caused by the release

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    FURTHER READING Birnbaumer M. Vasop

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    PART IX SELECTIVE TOXICITY

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    ● Principles of antibacterial che

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    2. transfer of resistance between o

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    Pharmacokinetics Absorption of thes

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    Mechanism of action Macrolides bind

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    asic quinolone structure dramatical

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    Case history A 70-year-old man with

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    PRINCIPLES OF MANAGEMENT OF MYCOBAC

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    Pharmacokinetics Absorption from th

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    MYCOBACTERIUM LEPRAE INFECTION Lepr

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    POLYENES AMPHOTERICIN B Uses Amphot

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    therapy is adequate though more fre

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    NUCLEOSIDE ANALOGUES ACICLOVIR Uses

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    Table 45.3: Summary of available ac

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    Uses Interferon-α when combined wi

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    ● Introduction 351 ● Immunopath

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    Table 46.1: Examples of combination

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    NON-NUCLEOSIDE ANALOGUE REVERSE TRA

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    FUSION INHIBITORS Uses Currently, e

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    salvage therapy include azithromyci

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    ● Malaria 361 ● Trypanosomal in

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    Pharmacokinetics Chloroquine is rap

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    Table 47.2: Drug therapy of non-mal

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    ● Introduction 367 ● Pathophysi

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    Table 48.1: Classification of commo

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    Polymorph count/mm 3 (a) (b) 10 000

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    doses are used to prepare patients

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    Adverse effects Methotrexate Inhibi

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    Table 48.7: Summary of clinical pha

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    Table 48.9: Summary of the clinical

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    Plasma membrane Signal transduction

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    Table 48.10: Monoclonal antibodies

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    INTERFERON-ALFA 2B Interferon-alfa

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    PART X HAEMATOLOGY

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    ● Haematinics - iron, vitamin B 1

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    one marrow to produce red cells. Th

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    EPO Erythroid precursors Erythrocyt

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    Therapeutic principles The extent o

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    PART XI IMMUNOPHARMACOLOGY

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    ● Introduction 399 ● Immunity a

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    Key points Antigen recognition Expr

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    Table 50.1: Novel anti-proliferativ

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    Key points Treatment of anaphylacti

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    DRUGS THAT ENHANCE IMMUNE SYSTEM FU

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    PART XII THE SKIN

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    ● Introduction 411 ● Acne 411

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    DERMATITIS (ECZEMA) PRINCIPLES OF T

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    SPECIALISTS ONLY SPECIALISTS ONLY E

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    TREATMENT OF OTHER SKIN INFECTIONS

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    effect of too high a dose of UVB in

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    PART XIII THE EYE

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    ● Introduction: ocular anatomy, p

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    to cause pupillary dilatation, name

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    Table 52.3: Antibacterial agents us

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    Table 52.6: Common drug-induced pro

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    PART XIV CLINICAL TOXICOLOGY

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    ● Introduction 433 ● Pathophysi

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    Table 53.2: Central nervous system

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    which provide anonymized data to th

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    Peak plasma levels after smoking ci

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    Key points Acute effects of alcohol

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    FURTHER READING Goldman D, Oroszi G

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    Table 54.2: Common indications for

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    Table 54.5: Antidotes and other spe

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    Commission on Human Medicines (CHM)

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    Note: Page numbers in italics refer

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    atrial fibrillation 217, 221 digoxi

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    Cushing’s syndrome 302 cyclic ade

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    5-fluorouracil 375-6 fluoxetine, mo

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    children 54 diazepam 108 iron prepa

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    non-steroidal anti-inflammatory dru

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    puberty (male), delay 314 puerperiu

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    tolerance 9, 433 benzodiazepines 10

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