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A Textbook of Clinical Pharmacology and Therapeutics

A Textbook of Clinical Pharmacology and Therapeutics

● General anaesthetics

● General anaesthetics 145 ● Inhalational anaesthetics 145 ● Intravenous anaesthetics 148 ● Supplementary drugs 149 ● Sedation in the intensive care unit 150 CHAPTER 24 ANAESTHETICS AND MUSCLE RELAXANTS GENERAL ANAESTHETICS The modern practice of anaesthesia most commonly involves the administration of an intravenous anaesthetic agent to induce rapid loss of consciousness, amnesia and inhibition of autonomic and sensory reflexes. Anaesthesia is maintained conventionally by the continuous administration of an inhalational anaesthetic agent and cessation of administration results in rapid recovery. An opioid is often administered for analgesia, and in many cases a muscle relaxant is given in order to produce paralysis. A combination of drugs is normally used and the concept of a ‘triad of anaesthesia’ (Figure 24.1) describes general anaesthesia as a combination of relaxation, hypnosis and analgesia. INHALATIONAL ANAESTHETICS UPTAKE AND DISTRIBUTION A few inhalational general anaesthetics are gases (e.g. nitrous oxide), but most are volatile liquids (e.g. sevoflurane) which are administered as vapours from calibrated vaporizers. None of the drugs in current use is flammable (unlike ether!). The anaesthetic vapours are carried to the patient in a mixture of Hypnosis Relaxation Analgesia Figure 24.1: Triad of anaesthesia. ● Premedication for anaesthesia 150 ● Muscle relaxants 150 ● Malignant hyperthermia 152 ● Local anaesthetics 152 nitrous oxide and oxygen or oxygen-enriched air. The concentration of an individual gas in a mixture of gases is proportional to its partial pressure. It is the partial pressure of an anaesthetic agent in the brain that determines the onset of anaesthesia, and this equates with the alveolar partial pressure of that agent. The rate of induction and recovery from anaesthesia depends on factors that determine the rate of transfer of the anaesthetic agent from alveoli to arterial blood and from arterial blood to brain (Figure 24.2): • Anaesthetic concentration in the inspired air – increases in the inspired anaesthetic concentration increase the rate of induction of anaesthesia by increasing the rate of transfer into the blood. • Relative solubility in blood – the blood:gas solubility coefficient defines the relative affinity of an anaesthetic for blood compared to air. Anaesthetic agents that are not very soluble in blood have a low blood:gas solubility coefficient, and the alveolar concentration during inhalation will rise rapidly, as little drug is taken up into the circulation. Agents with low blood solubility rapidly produce high arterial tensions and therefore large concentration gradients between the blood and brain. This leads to rapid induction and, on discontinuing administration, rapid recovery. Agents with higher solubility in blood are associated with slower induction and slower recovery. Anaesthetic concentration in inspired air Anaesthetic solubility in blood Rate of anaesthesia Pulmonary � blood flow � Pulmonary ventilation Figure 24.2: Factors determining the onset of action of inhalational anaesthetics. � � (soluble agents)

146 ANAESTHETICS AND MUSCLE RELAXANTS • Pulmonary blood flow – an increase in cardiac output results in an increase in pulmonary blood flow and more agent is removed from the alveoli, thereby slowing the rate of increase in arterial tension and slowing induction. A fall in pulmonary blood flow, as occurs in shock, hastens induction. • Pulmonary ventilation – changes in minute ventilation have little influence on induction with insoluble agents, as the alveolar concentration is always high. However, soluble agents show significant increases in alveolar tension with increased minute ventilation. • Arteriovenous concentration gradient – the amount of anaesthetic in venous blood returning to the lungs is dependent on the rate and extent of tissue uptake. The greater the difference in tension between venous and arterial blood, the more slowly equilibrium will be achieved. PHARMACODYNAMICS MECHANISM OF ACTION AND MEASURE OF POTENCY The molecular mechanism of action of anaesthetics is still incompletely understood. All general anaesthetics depress spontaneous and evoked activity of neurones, especially synaptic transmission in the central nervous system. They cause hyperpolarization of neurones by activating potassium and chloride channels, and this leads to an increase in action potential threshold and decreased firing. Progressive depression of ascending pathways in the reticular activating system produces complete but reversible loss of consciousness. The probable principal site of action is a hydrophobic site on specific neuronal membrane protein channels, rather than bulk perturbations in the neuronal lipid plasma membrane. This is consistent with classical observations that anaesthetic potency is strongly correlated with lipid solubility which were originally interpreted as evidence that general anaesthetics act on lipid rather than on proteins. The relative potencies of different anaesthetics are expressed in terms of their minimum alveolar concentration (MAC), expressed as a percentage of alveolar gas mixture at atmospheric pressure. The MAC of an anaesthetic is defined as the minimum alveolar concentration that prevents reflex response to a standard noxious stimulus in 50% of the population. MAC represents one point on the dose– response curve, but the curve for anaesthetic agents is steep, and 95% of patients will not respond to a surgical stimulus at 1.2 times MAC. Nitrous oxide has an MAC of 105% (MAC of 52.5% at 2 atmospheres, calculated using volunteers in a hyperbaric chamber) and is a weak anaesthetic agent, whereas halothane is a potent anaesthetic with an MAC of 0.75%. If nitrous oxide is used with halothane, it will have an addi-tive effect on the MAC of halothane, 60% nitrous oxide reducing the MAC of halothane by 60%. Opioids also reduce MAC. MAC is reduced in the elderly and is increased in neonates. HALOTHANE Use Halothane is a potent inhalational anaesthetic. It is a clear, colourless liquid. It is a poor analgesic, but when co-administered with nitrous oxide and oxygen, it is effective and convenient. It is inexpensive and used world-wide, although only infrequently in the UK. Although apparently simple to use, its therapeutic index is relatively low and overdose is easily produced. Warning signs of overdose are bradycardia, hypotension and tachypnoea. Halothane produces moderate muscular relaxation, but this is rarely sufficient for major abdominal surgery. It potentiates most non-depolarizing muscle relaxants, as do other volatile anaesthetics. Adverse effects • Cardiovascular: • ventricular dysrhythmias; • bradycardia mediated by the vagus; • hypotension; • cerebral blood flow is increased, which contraindicates its use where reduction of intracranial pressure is desired (e.g. head injury, intracranial tumours). • Respiratory: respiratory depression commonly occurs, resulting in decreased alveolar ventilation due to a reduction in tidal volume, although the rate of breathing increases. • Hepatic. There are two types of hepatic dysfunction following halothane anaesthesia: mild, transient subclinical hepatitis due to the reaction of halothane with hepatic macromolecules, and (very rare) massive hepatic necrosis due to formation of a hapten–protein complex and with a mortality of 30–70%. Patients most at risk are middle-aged, obese women who have previously (within the last 28 days) had halothane anaesthesia. Halothane anaesthesia is contraindicated in those who have had jaundice or unexplained pyrexia following halothane anaesthesia, and repeat exposure is not advised within three months. • Uterus: halothane can cause uterine atony and postpartum haemorrhage. Pharmacokinetics Because of the relatively low blood:gas solubility, induction of anaesthesia is rapid but slower than that with isoflurane, sevoflurane and desflurane. Excretion is predominantly by exhalation, but approximately 20% is metabolized by the liver. Metabolites can be detected in the urine for up to three weeks following anaesthesia. ISOFLURANE Isoflurane has a pungent smell and the vapour is irritant, making gas induction difficult. Compared with halothane, it has a lower myocardial depressant effect and reduces systemic vascular resistance through vasodilation. It is popular in hypotensive anaesthesia and cardiac patients, although there

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    A Textbook of Clinical Pharmacology

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    A Textbook of Clinical Pharmacology

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    This fifth edition is dedicated to

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    FOREWORD viii PREFACE ix ACKNOWLEDG

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    PREFACE Clinical pharmacology is th

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    PART I GENERAL PRINCIPLES

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    ● Use of drugs 3 ● Adverse effe

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    and acquired factors, notably disea

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    100 Effect (%) 0 0 5 10 1 10 100 (a

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    Dose ratio -1 100 50 The relationsh

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    ● Introduction 11 ● Constant-ra

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    In reality, processes of eliminatio

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    lood (from which samples are taken

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    ● Introduction 17 ● Bioavailabi

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    ROUTES OF ADMINISTRATION ORAL ROUTE

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    Transdermal absorption is sufficien

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    FURTHER READING Fix JA. Strategies

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    and thromboxanes are CYP450 enzymes

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    and lorazepam. Some patients inheri

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    Orally administered drug Parenteral

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    ● Introduction 31 ● Glomerular

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    ACTIVE TUBULAR REABSORPTION This is

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    DISTRIBUTION Drug distribution is a

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    Detailed recommendations on dosage

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    DIGOXIN Myxoedematous patients are

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    ● Introduction 41 ● Role of dru

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    25 20 10 Life-threatening toxicity

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    ● Introduction 45 ● Harmful eff

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    vagina in girls in their late teens

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    an anti-analgesic effect when combi

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    Case history A 20-year-old female m

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    METABOLISM At birth, the hepatic mi

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    lifelong effects as a result of tox

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    DISTRIBUTION Ageing is associated w

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    DIGOXIN Digoxin toxicity is common

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    FURTHER READING Dhesi JK, Allain TJ

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    Factors involved in the aetiology o

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    analgesic. Following its release, t

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    antibiotics, such as penicillin or

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    predisposes to non-immune haemolysi

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    ● Introduction 71 ● Useful inte

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    Response Therapeutic range Toxic ra

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    Table 13.1: Interactions outside th

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    Table 13.5: Competitive interaction

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    ● Introduction: ‘personalized m

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    Table 14.2: Variations in drug resp

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    lipoprotein (LDL) is impaired. LDL

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    Key points • Genetic differences

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    • Discovery • • Screening Pre

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    Too many statistical comparisons pe

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    ETHICS COMMITTEES Protocols for all

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    Table 16.1: Recombinant proteins/en

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    Case history A 72-year-old woman se

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    Assess risk factors Investigations:

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    Persistent ST segment elevation Thr

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    Mechanism of action GTN works by re

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    Because of the risks of haemorrhage

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    Intrinsic pathway XIIa XIa the acti

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    that the pharmacodynamic response i

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    used with apparent benefit in acute

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    ● Introduction 211 ● Pathophysi

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    The drugs that are most effective i

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    therapeutic plasma concentration ca

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    ● Common dysrhythmias 217 ● Gen

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    BASIC LIFE SUPPORT CARDIOPULMONARY

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    arrest. The electrocardiogram is li

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    should be given to insertion of an

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    Drug interactions Amiodarone potent

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    effect when treating sinus bradycar

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    Case history A 24-year-old medical

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    PART V THE RESPIRATORY SYSTEM

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    CHAPTER 33 THERAPY OF ASTHMA, CHRON

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    STEP 5: CONTINUOUS OR FREQUENT USE

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    Adenylyl cyclase Table 33.1: Compar

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    Drug interactions Although synergis

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    use in asthma has declined consider

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    α 1-antitrypsin deficiency, neutro

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    PART VI THE ALIMENTARY SYSTEM

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    ● Peptic ulceration 247 ● Oesop

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    PEPTIC ULCERATION 249 • With rega

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    Ranitidine has a similar profile of

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    Vestibular stimulation ? via cerebe

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    cortical centres affecting vomiting

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    • in hepatocellular failure to re

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    Ciprofloxacin is occasionally used

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    withdrawal), small doses of benzodi

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    Table 34.7: Dose-independent hepato

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    ● Introduction 265 ● General ph

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    dinucleotide (NAD) and nicotinamide

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    Table 35.1: Common trace element de

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    PART VII FLUIDS AND ELECTROLYTES

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    ● Introduction 273 ● Volume ove

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    Key points Diuretics Diuretics are

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    is sometimes caused by drugs, notab

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    or with potassium-sparing diuretics

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    Greger R, Lang F, Sebekova, Heidlan

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    PART VIII THE ENDOCRINE SYSTEM

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    ● Introduction 285 ● Pathophysi

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    in prefilled injection devices (‘

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    Metformin should be withdrawn and i

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    FURTHER READING American Diabetes A

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    deficiency. Potassium iodide (3 mg

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    fertility. It is contraindicated du

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    ● Introduction 297 ● Vitamin D

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    effective in life-threatening hyper

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    Further reading Block GA, Martin KJ

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    Table 40.1: Actions of cortisol and

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    injection may be useful, but if don

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    CHAPTER 41 REPRODUCTIVE ENDOCRINOLO

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    elease by the pituitary via negativ

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    Treatment with depot progestogen in

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    infusion using an infusion pump to

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    significant proportion of men who r

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    with symptoms caused by the release

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    FURTHER READING Birnbaumer M. Vasop

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    PART IX SELECTIVE TOXICITY

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    ● Principles of antibacterial che

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    2. transfer of resistance between o

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    Pharmacokinetics Absorption of thes

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    Mechanism of action Macrolides bind

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    asic quinolone structure dramatical

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    Case history A 70-year-old man with

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    PRINCIPLES OF MANAGEMENT OF MYCOBAC

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    Pharmacokinetics Absorption from th

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    MYCOBACTERIUM LEPRAE INFECTION Lepr

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    POLYENES AMPHOTERICIN B Uses Amphot

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    therapy is adequate though more fre

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    NUCLEOSIDE ANALOGUES ACICLOVIR Uses

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    Table 45.3: Summary of available ac

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    Uses Interferon-α when combined wi

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    ● Introduction 351 ● Immunopath

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    Table 46.1: Examples of combination

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    NON-NUCLEOSIDE ANALOGUE REVERSE TRA

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    FUSION INHIBITORS Uses Currently, e

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    salvage therapy include azithromyci

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    ● Malaria 361 ● Trypanosomal in

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    Pharmacokinetics Chloroquine is rap

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    Table 47.2: Drug therapy of non-mal

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    ● Introduction 367 ● Pathophysi

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    Table 48.1: Classification of commo

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    Polymorph count/mm 3 (a) (b) 10 000

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    doses are used to prepare patients

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    Adverse effects Methotrexate Inhibi

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    Table 48.7: Summary of clinical pha

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    Table 48.9: Summary of the clinical

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    Plasma membrane Signal transduction

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    Table 48.10: Monoclonal antibodies

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    INTERFERON-ALFA 2B Interferon-alfa

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    PART X HAEMATOLOGY

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    ● Haematinics - iron, vitamin B 1

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    one marrow to produce red cells. Th

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    EPO Erythroid precursors Erythrocyt

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    Therapeutic principles The extent o

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    PART XI IMMUNOPHARMACOLOGY

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    ● Introduction 399 ● Immunity a

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    Key points Antigen recognition Expr

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    Table 50.1: Novel anti-proliferativ

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    Key points Treatment of anaphylacti

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    DRUGS THAT ENHANCE IMMUNE SYSTEM FU

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    PART XII THE SKIN

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    ● Introduction 411 ● Acne 411

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    DERMATITIS (ECZEMA) PRINCIPLES OF T

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    SPECIALISTS ONLY SPECIALISTS ONLY E

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    TREATMENT OF OTHER SKIN INFECTIONS

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    effect of too high a dose of UVB in

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    PART XIII THE EYE

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    ● Introduction: ocular anatomy, p

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    to cause pupillary dilatation, name

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    Table 52.3: Antibacterial agents us

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    Table 52.6: Common drug-induced pro

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    PART XIV CLINICAL TOXICOLOGY

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    ● Introduction 433 ● Pathophysi

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    Table 53.2: Central nervous system

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    which provide anonymized data to th

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    Peak plasma levels after smoking ci

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    Key points Acute effects of alcohol

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    FURTHER READING Goldman D, Oroszi G

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    Table 54.2: Common indications for

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    Table 54.5: Antidotes and other spe

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    Commission on Human Medicines (CHM)

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    Note: Page numbers in italics refer

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    atrial fibrillation 217, 221 digoxi

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    Cushing’s syndrome 302 cyclic ade

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    5-fluorouracil 375-6 fluoxetine, mo

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    children 54 diazepam 108 iron prepa

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    non-steroidal anti-inflammatory dru

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    puberty (male), delay 314 puerperiu

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    tolerance 9, 433 benzodiazepines 10

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