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A Textbook of Clinical Pharmacology and Therapeutics

A Textbook of Clinical Pharmacology and Therapeutics

● Introduction 41 ●

● Introduction 41 ● Role of drug monitoring in therapeutics 41 CHAPTER 8 THERAPEUTIC DRUG MONITORING INTRODUCTION Drug response differs greatly between individuals. This variability results from two main sources: 1. variation in absorption, distribution, metabolism or elimination (pharmacokinetic); 2. variation at or beyond tissue receptors or other macromolecular drug targets (pharmacodynamic). Monitoring of drug therapy by biological response encompasses both kinds of variability. There must be a continuous variable that is readily measured and is closely linked to the desired clinical outcome. Such responses are said to be good ‘surrogate markers’. (‘Surrogate’ because what the prescriber really wants to achieve is to reduce the risk of a clinical event, such as a stroke, heart attack, pulmonary embolism, etc.) For example, antihypertensive drugs are monitored by their effect on blood pressure (Chapter 28), statins by their effect on serum cholesterol (Chapter 27), oral anticoagulants by their effect on the international normalized ratio (INR) (Chapter 30). Many other examples will be encountered in later chapters. In some circumstances, however, there is no good continuous variable to monitor, especially for diseases with an unpredictable or fluctuating course. Measuring drug concentrations in plasma or serum identifies only pharmacokinetic variability, but can sometimes usefully guide dose adjustment, for example in treating an epileptic patient with an anticonvulsant drug. Measuring drug concentrations for use in this way is often referred to as ‘therapeutic drug monitoring’, and is the focus of this chapter. ROLE OF DRUG MONITORING IN THERAPEUTICS Measurement of drug concentrations is sometimes a useful complement to clinical monitoring to assist in selecting the best drug regimen for an individual patient. Accurate and ● Practical aspects 41 ● Drugs for which therapeutic drug monitoring is used 42 convenient assays are necessary. Measurements of drug concentrations in plasma are most useful when: 1. There is a direct relationship between plasma concentration and pharmacological or toxic effect, i.e. a therapeutic range has been established. (Drugs that work via active metabolites, and drugs with irreversible actions, are unsuited to this approach. Tolerance also restricts the usefulness of plasma concentrations.) 2. Effect cannot readily be assessed quantitatively by clinical observation. 3. Inter-individual variability in plasma drug concentrations from the same dose is large (e.g. phenytoin). 4. There is a low therapeutic index (e.g. if the ratio of toxic concentration/effective concentration is �2). 5. Several drugs are being given concurrently and serious interactions are anticipated. 6. Replacement treatment (for example, of thyroxine) is to be optimized. 7. Apparent ‘resistance’ to the action of a drug needs an explanation, when non-compliance is suspected. Another indication, distinct from therapeutic drug monitoring, for measuring drug concentrations in plasma is in clinical toxicology. Such measurements can guide management when specific intervention is contemplated in treating a poisoned patient (e.g. with paracetamol or aspirin). PRACTICAL ASPECTS Drug distribution and the location (tissue and cell) of the drug’s target influence the relationship between plasma drug concentration and effect. A constant tissue to plasma drug concentration ratio only occurs during the terminal β-phase of elimination. Earlier in the dose interval, the plasma concentration does not reflect the concentration in the extracellular tissue space accurately. Figure 8.1 illustrates an extreme example of this in the case of digoxin. Measurements must be made when enough time has elapsed after a dose for distribution to

42 THERAPEUTIC DRUG MONITORING Digoxin concentration (nmol/L) 4 3 2 1 0 Distribution phase Elimination phase Sampling time 0 4 8 12 16 20 24 Digoxin administration Time (h) Figure 8.1: Serum concentration–time course following digoxin administration. have occurred. Greater care is therefore required in the timing and labelling of specimens for drug concentration determination than is the case for ‘routine’ chemical pathology specimens. Usually during repeated dosing a sample is taken just before the next dose to assess the ‘trough’ concentration, and a sample may also be taken at some specified time after dosing (depending on the drug) to determine the ‘peak’ concentration. Given this information, the laboratory should be able to produce useful information. Advice on the interpretation of this information is sometimes available from a local therapeutic drug-monitoring service, such as is provided by some clinical pharmacology and/or clinical pharmacy departments. In general, the cost of measuring drug concentrations is greater than for routine clinical chemical estimations, and to use expensive facilities to produce ‘numbers’ resulting from analysis of samples taken at random from patients described only by name or number is meaningless and misleading, as well as being a waste of money. Analytical techniques of high specificity (often relying on high-performance liquid chromatography (HPLC), or HPLCtandem mass spectroscopy or radioimmunoassay) avoid the pitfalls of less specific methods which may detect related compounds (e.g. drug metabolites). Even so, quality control monitoring of anticonvulsant analyses performed by laboratories both in the UK and in the USA have revealed that repeated analyses of a reference sample can produce some startlingly different results. The most important principle for the clinician is that plasma drug concentrations must always be interpreted in the context of the patient’s clinical state. There are few prospective studies of the impact of therapeutic drug-monitoring services on the quality of patient care. A retrospective survey conducted at the Massachusetts General Hospital showed that before the use of digoxin monitoring, 13.9% of all patients receiving digoxin showed evidence of toxicity, and that this figure fell to 5.9% following the introduction of monitoring. DRUGS FOR WHICH THERAPEUTIC DRUG MONITORING IS USED Table 8.1 lists those drugs which may be monitored therapeutically. Table 8.1: Therapeutic range of several important drugs, for which therapeutic drug monitoring is often used. Drug Therapeutic range Digoxin 0.8–2 mg/L (1–2.6 nmol/L) Lithium 0.4–1.4 mmol/L a Phenytoin 10–20 mg/L (40–80 μmol/L) Theophylline 5–20 mg/L (28–110 μmol/L) Ciclosporin 50–200 μg/L a An upper limit of 1.6 mmol/L has also been advocated. 1. Digoxin: measuring the plasma concentration can help optimize therapy, especially for patients in sinus rhythm where there is no easy pharmacodynamic surrogate marker of efficacy, and is also useful in suspected toxicity or poor compliance. 2. Lithium: plasma concentrations are measured 12 hours after dosing. 3. Aminoglycoside antibiotics – for gentamicin, peak concentrations measured 30 minutes after dosing of 7–10 mg/L are usually effective against sensitive organisms, and trough levels, measured immediately before a dose, of 1–2 mg/L reduce the risk of toxicity; for amikacin, the desirable peak concentration is 4–12 mg/L, with a trough value of �4 mg/L. With extended interval aminoglycoside dosing (a single daily dose of 5–7 mg/kg), a single drug concentration determined at a time after the completion of the distribution phase is used to define further dosing intervals using validated nomograms. 4. Phenytoin: it is important to be aware of its non-linear pharmacokinetics (Chapters 3 and 22), and of the possible effects of concurrent renal or hepatic disease or of pregnancy on its distribution. Therapeutic drug monitoring is also widely used for some other anticonvulsants, such as carbamazepine and sodium valproate. 5. Methotrexate: plasma concentration is an important predictor of toxicity, and concentrations of �5 μmol/L 24 hours after a dose or 100 nmol/L 48 hours after dosing usually require folinic acid administration to prevent severe toxicity. 6. Theophylline: has a narrow therapeutic index (Figure 8.2) and many factors influence its clearance (Figure 8.3). Measurement of plasma theophylline concentration can help to minimize toxicity (e.g. cardiac dysrhythmias or seizures). A therapeutic range of 5–20 mg/L is quoted. (Plasma concentrations �15 mg/L are, however, associated with severe toxicity in neonates due to decreased protein binding and accumulation of caffeine, to which theophylline is methylated in neonates, but not in older children.) 7. The therapeutic ranges of plasma concentrations of several anti-dysrhythmic drugs (e.g. lidocaine) have been established with reasonable confidence. The therapeutic range of plasma amiodarone concentrations for ventricular dysrhythmias (1.0–2.5 mg/L) is higher than that needed

  • Page 2 and 3: A Textbook of Clinical Pharmacology
  • Page 4 and 5: A Textbook of Clinical Pharmacology
  • Page 6 and 7: This fifth edition is dedicated to
  • Page 8 and 9: FOREWORD viii PREFACE ix ACKNOWLEDG
  • Page 10 and 11: PREFACE Clinical pharmacology is th
  • Page 12 and 13: PART I GENERAL PRINCIPLES
  • Page 14 and 15: ● Use of drugs 3 ● Adverse effe
  • Page 16 and 17: and acquired factors, notably disea
  • Page 18 and 19: 100 Effect (%) 0 0 5 10 1 10 100 (a
  • Page 20 and 21: Dose ratio -1 100 50 The relationsh
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  • Page 24 and 25: In reality, processes of eliminatio
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  • Page 30 and 31: ROUTES OF ADMINISTRATION ORAL ROUTE
  • Page 32 and 33: Transdermal absorption is sufficien
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  • Page 36 and 37: and thromboxanes are CYP450 enzymes
  • Page 38 and 39: and lorazepam. Some patients inheri
  • Page 40 and 41: Orally administered drug Parenteral
  • Page 42 and 43: ● Introduction 31 ● Glomerular
  • Page 44 and 45: ACTIVE TUBULAR REABSORPTION This is
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  • Page 48 and 49: Detailed recommendations on dosage
  • Page 50 and 51: DIGOXIN Myxoedematous patients are
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  • Page 56 and 57: ● Introduction 45 ● Harmful eff
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  • Page 62 and 63: Case history A 20-year-old female m
  • Page 64 and 65: METABOLISM At birth, the hepatic mi
  • Page 66 and 67: lifelong effects as a result of tox
  • Page 68 and 69: DISTRIBUTION Ageing is associated w
  • Page 70 and 71: DIGOXIN Digoxin toxicity is common
  • Page 72 and 73: FURTHER READING Dhesi JK, Allain TJ
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  • Page 82 and 83: ● Introduction 71 ● Useful inte
  • Page 84 and 85: Response Therapeutic range Toxic ra
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    ETHICS COMMITTEES Protocols for all

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    Table 16.1: Recombinant proteins/en

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    duration and benefit. Adenoviral ve

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    ● Introduction 97 ● Garlic 97

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    A case report has suggested a possi

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    including hypericin and pseudohyper

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    PART II THE NERVOUS SYSTEM

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    ● Introduction 105 ● Sleep diff

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    and daytime sleeping should be disc

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    Key points • Insomnia and anxiety

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    Box 19.1: Dopamine theory of schizo

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    The Boston Collaborative Survey ind

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    Oral medication, especially in liqu

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    e.g. interpersonal difficulties or

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    Partial response to first-line trea

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    Key points Drug treatment of depres

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    Case history A 45-year-old man with

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    Levodopa PRINCIPLES OF TREATMENT IN

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    • pulmonary, retroperitoneal and

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    CHOREA The γ-aminobutyric acid con

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    Cholinergic crisis Treatment of mya

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    ● Introduction 133 ● Mechanisms

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    absolute arbiter. The availability

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    Table 22.2: Metabolic interactions

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    FURTHER ANTI-EPILEPTICS Other drugs

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    Case history A 24-year-old woman wh

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    Assessment of migraine severity and

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    ● General anaesthetics 145 ● In

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    is the theoretical concern of a ‘

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    • Respiratory system - apnoea fol

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    Competitive antagonists (vecuronium

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    have also proved useful in combinat

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    ● Introduction 155 ● Pathophysi

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    ASPIRIN (ACETYLSALICYLATE) Use Anti

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    Key points Drugs for mild pain •

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    increases, correlating with the hig

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    • If possible, use oral medicatio

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    PART III THE MUSCULOSKELETAL SYSTEM

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    ● Introduction: inflammation 167

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    Chapter 33). All NSAIDs cause wheez

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    • Stomatitis suggests the possibi

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    Pharmacokinetics Allopurinol is wel

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    PART IV THE CARDIOVASCULAR SYSTEM

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    ● Introduction 177 ● Pathophysi

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    esponsible for the strong predilect

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    Ezetimibe Fat Muscle Dietary fat In

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    educed). The risk of muscle damage

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    ● Introduction 185 ● Pathophysi

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    Each of these classes of drug reduc

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    AT 1 receptor) produce good 24-hour

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    Table 28.2: Examples of calcium-cha

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    Key points Drugs used in essential

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    Case history A 72-year-old woman se

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    Assess risk factors Investigations:

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    Persistent ST segment elevation Thr

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    Mechanism of action GTN works by re

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    Because of the risks of haemorrhage

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    Intrinsic pathway XIIa XIa the acti

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    that the pharmacodynamic response i

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    used with apparent benefit in acute

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    ● Introduction 211 ● Pathophysi

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    The drugs that are most effective i

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    therapeutic plasma concentration ca

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    ● Common dysrhythmias 217 ● Gen

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    BASIC LIFE SUPPORT CARDIOPULMONARY

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    arrest. The electrocardiogram is li

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    should be given to insertion of an

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    Drug interactions Amiodarone potent

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    effect when treating sinus bradycar

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    Case history A 24-year-old medical

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    PART V THE RESPIRATORY SYSTEM

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    CHAPTER 33 THERAPY OF ASTHMA, CHRON

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    STEP 5: CONTINUOUS OR FREQUENT USE

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    Adenylyl cyclase Table 33.1: Compar

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    Drug interactions Although synergis

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    use in asthma has declined consider

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    α 1-antitrypsin deficiency, neutro

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    PART VI THE ALIMENTARY SYSTEM

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    ● Peptic ulceration 247 ● Oesop

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    PEPTIC ULCERATION 249 • With rega

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    Ranitidine has a similar profile of

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    Vestibular stimulation ? via cerebe

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    cortical centres affecting vomiting

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    • in hepatocellular failure to re

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    Ciprofloxacin is occasionally used

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    withdrawal), small doses of benzodi

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    Table 34.7: Dose-independent hepato

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    ● Introduction 265 ● General ph

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    dinucleotide (NAD) and nicotinamide

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    Table 35.1: Common trace element de

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    PART VII FLUIDS AND ELECTROLYTES

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    ● Introduction 273 ● Volume ove

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    Key points Diuretics Diuretics are

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    is sometimes caused by drugs, notab

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    or with potassium-sparing diuretics

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    Greger R, Lang F, Sebekova, Heidlan

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    PART VIII THE ENDOCRINE SYSTEM

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    ● Introduction 285 ● Pathophysi

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    in prefilled injection devices (‘

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    Metformin should be withdrawn and i

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    FURTHER READING American Diabetes A

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    deficiency. Potassium iodide (3 mg

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    fertility. It is contraindicated du

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    ● Introduction 297 ● Vitamin D

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    effective in life-threatening hyper

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    Further reading Block GA, Martin KJ

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    Table 40.1: Actions of cortisol and

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    injection may be useful, but if don

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    CHAPTER 41 REPRODUCTIVE ENDOCRINOLO

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    elease by the pituitary via negativ

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    Treatment with depot progestogen in

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    infusion using an infusion pump to

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    significant proportion of men who r

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    with symptoms caused by the release

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    FURTHER READING Birnbaumer M. Vasop

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    PART IX SELECTIVE TOXICITY

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    ● Principles of antibacterial che

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    2. transfer of resistance between o

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    Pharmacokinetics Absorption of thes

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    Mechanism of action Macrolides bind

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    asic quinolone structure dramatical

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    Case history A 70-year-old man with

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    PRINCIPLES OF MANAGEMENT OF MYCOBAC

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    Pharmacokinetics Absorption from th

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    MYCOBACTERIUM LEPRAE INFECTION Lepr

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    POLYENES AMPHOTERICIN B Uses Amphot

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    therapy is adequate though more fre

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    NUCLEOSIDE ANALOGUES ACICLOVIR Uses

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    Table 45.3: Summary of available ac

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    Uses Interferon-α when combined wi

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    ● Introduction 351 ● Immunopath

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    Table 46.1: Examples of combination

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    NON-NUCLEOSIDE ANALOGUE REVERSE TRA

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    FUSION INHIBITORS Uses Currently, e

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    salvage therapy include azithromyci

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    ● Malaria 361 ● Trypanosomal in

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    Pharmacokinetics Chloroquine is rap

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    Table 47.2: Drug therapy of non-mal

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    ● Introduction 367 ● Pathophysi

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    Table 48.1: Classification of commo

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    Polymorph count/mm 3 (a) (b) 10 000

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    doses are used to prepare patients

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    Adverse effects Methotrexate Inhibi

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    Table 48.7: Summary of clinical pha

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    Table 48.9: Summary of the clinical

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    Plasma membrane Signal transduction

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    Table 48.10: Monoclonal antibodies

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    INTERFERON-ALFA 2B Interferon-alfa

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    PART X HAEMATOLOGY

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    ● Haematinics - iron, vitamin B 1

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    one marrow to produce red cells. Th

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    EPO Erythroid precursors Erythrocyt

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    Therapeutic principles The extent o

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    PART XI IMMUNOPHARMACOLOGY

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    ● Introduction 399 ● Immunity a

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    Key points Antigen recognition Expr

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    Table 50.1: Novel anti-proliferativ

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    Key points Treatment of anaphylacti

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    DRUGS THAT ENHANCE IMMUNE SYSTEM FU

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    PART XII THE SKIN

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    ● Introduction 411 ● Acne 411

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    DERMATITIS (ECZEMA) PRINCIPLES OF T

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    SPECIALISTS ONLY SPECIALISTS ONLY E

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    TREATMENT OF OTHER SKIN INFECTIONS

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    effect of too high a dose of UVB in

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    PART XIII THE EYE

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    ● Introduction: ocular anatomy, p

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    to cause pupillary dilatation, name

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    Table 52.3: Antibacterial agents us

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    Table 52.6: Common drug-induced pro

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    PART XIV CLINICAL TOXICOLOGY

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    ● Introduction 433 ● Pathophysi

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    Table 53.2: Central nervous system

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    which provide anonymized data to th

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    Peak plasma levels after smoking ci

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    Key points Acute effects of alcohol

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    FURTHER READING Goldman D, Oroszi G

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    Table 54.2: Common indications for

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    Table 54.5: Antidotes and other spe

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    Commission on Human Medicines (CHM)

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    Note: Page numbers in italics refer

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    atrial fibrillation 217, 221 digoxi

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    Cushing’s syndrome 302 cyclic ade

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    5-fluorouracil 375-6 fluoxetine, mo

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    children 54 diazepam 108 iron prepa

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    non-steroidal anti-inflammatory dru

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    puberty (male), delay 314 puerperiu

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    tolerance 9, 433 benzodiazepines 10

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