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A Textbook of Clinical Pharmacology and Therapeutics

A Textbook of Clinical Pharmacology and Therapeutics

an anti-analgesic effect

an anti-analgesic effect when combined with pethidine), and naloxone (an opioid antagonist) must always be available. Respiratory depression in the newborn is not usually a problem with modern general anaesthetics currently in use in Caesarean section. Several studies have shown an increased incidence of spontaneous abortions in mothers who have had general anaesthesia during pregnancy, although a causal relationship is not proven, and in most circumstances failure to operate would have dramatically increased the risk to mother and fetus. ANTI-EMETICS Nausea and vomiting are common in early pregnancy, but are usually self-limiting, and ideally should be managed with reassurance and non-drug strategies, such as small frequent meals, avoiding large volumes of fluid and raising the head of the bed. If symptoms are prolonged or severe, drug treatment may be effective. An antihistamine, e.g. promethazine or cyclizine may be required. If ineffective, prochlorperazine is an alternative. Metoclopramide is considered to be safe and efficacious in labour and before anaesthesia in late pregnancy, but its routine use in early pregnancy cannot be recommended because of the lack of controlled data, and the significant incidence of dystonic reactions in young women. DYSPEPSIA AND CONSTIPATION The high incidence of dyspepsia due to gastro-oesophageal reflux in the second and third trimesters is probably related to the reduction in lower oesophageal sphincter pressure. Nondrug treatment (reassurance, small frequent meals and advice on posture) should be pursued in the first instance, particularly in the first trimester. Fortunately, most cases occur later in pregnancy when non-absorbable antacids, such as alginates, should be used. In late pregnancy, metoclopromide is particularly effective as it increases lower oesophageal sphincter pressure. H 2-receptor blockers should not be used for nonulcer dyspepsia in this setting. Constipation should be managed with dietary advice. Stimulant laxatives may be uterotonic and should be avoided if possible. PEPTIC ULCERATION Antacids may relieve symptoms. Cimetidine and ranitidine have been widely prescribed in pregnancy without obvious damage to the fetus. There are inadequate safety data on the use of omeprazole or other proton pump inhibitors in pregnancy. Sucralfate has been recommended for use in pregnancy in the USA, and this is rational as it is not systemically absorbed. Misoprostol, a prostaglandin which stimulates the uterus, is contraindicated because it causes abortion. ANTI-EPILEPTICS PRESCRIBING IN PREGNANCY 49 Epilepsy in pregnancy can lead to fetal and maternal morbidity/mortality through convulsions, whilst all of the anticonvulsants used have been associated with teratogenic effects (e.g. phenytoin is associated with cleft palate and congenital heart disease). However, there is no doubt that the benefits of good seizure control outweigh the drug-induced teratogenic risk. Thorough explanation to the mother, ideally before a planned pregnancy, is essential, and it must be emphasized that the majority (�90%) of epileptic mothers have normal babies. (The usual risk of fetal malformation is 2–3% and in epileptic mothers it is up to 10%.) In view of the association of spina bifida with many anti-epileptics, e.g. sodium valproate and carbamazepine therapy, it is often recommended that the standard dose of folic acid should be increased to 5 mg daily. Both of these anti-epileptics can also cause hypospadias. As in non-pregnant epilepsy, single-drug therapy is preferable. Plasma concentration monitoring is particularly relevant for phenytoin, because the decrease in plasma protein binding and the increase in hepatic metabolism may cause considerable changes in the plasma concentration of free (active) drug. As always, the guide to the correct dose is freedom from fits and absence of toxicity. Owing to the changes in plasma protein binding, it is generally recommended that the therapeutic range is 5–15 mg/L, whereas in the non-pregnant state it is 10–20 mg/L. This is only a rough guide, as protein binding varies. The routine injection of vitamin K recommended at birth counteracts the possible effect of some anti-epileptics on vitamin K-dependent clotting factors. Magnesium sulphate is the treatment of choice for the prevention and control of eclamptic seizures. Key points • Epilepsy in pregnancy can lead to increased fetal and maternal morbidity/mortality. • All anticonvulsants are teratogens. • The benefits of good seizure control outweigh drug-induced teratogenic risk. • Give a full explanation to the mother (preferably before pregnancy): most epileptic mothers (�90%) have normal babies. • Advise an increase in the standard dose of folic acid up to 12 weeks. • Make a referral to the neurologist and obstetrician. • If epilepsy is well controlled, do not change therapy. • Monitor plasma concentrations (levels tend to fall, and note that the bound : unbound ratio changes); the guide to the correct dose is freedom from fits and absence of toxicity. • An early ultrasound scan at 12 weeks may detect gross neural tube defects. • Detailed ultrasound scan and α-fetoprotein at 16–18 weeks should be considered.

50 DRUGS IN PREGNANCY ANTICOAGULATION Warfarin has been associated with nasal hypoplasia and chondrodysplasia when given in the first trimester, and with CNS abnormalities after administration in later pregnancy, as well as a high incidence of haemorrhagic complications towards the end of pregnancy. Neonatal haemorrhage is difficult to prevent because of the immature enzymes in fetal liver and the low stores of vitamin K. It is not rcommended for use in pregnancy unless there are no other options. Low molecular weight heparin (LMWH), which does not cross the placenta, is the anticoagulant of choice in pregnancy in preference to unfractionated heparin. LMWH has predictable pharmacokinetics and is safer – unlike unfractionated heparin there has never been a case of heparin-induced thrombocytopenia/ thrombosis (HITT) associated with it in pregnancy. Moreover there has only been one case of osteoporotic fracture worldwide, whereas there is a 2% risk of osteoporotic fracture with nine months use of unfractionated heparin (see Chapter 30). LMWH is given twice daily in pregnancy due to the increased renal clearance of pregnancy. Women on long-term oral anticoagulants should be warned that these drugs are likely to affect the fetus in early pregnancy. Self-administered subcutaneous LMWH must be substituted for warfarin before six weeks’ gestation. Subcutaneous LMWH can be continued throughout pregnancy and for the prothrombotic six weeks post partum. Patients with prosthetic heart valves present a special problem, and in these patients, despite the risks to the fetus, warfarin is often given up to 36 weeks. The prothrombin time/international normalized ratio (INR) should be monitored closely if warfarin is used. Key points • Pregnancy is associated with a hypercoagulable state. • Warfarin has been associated with nasal hypoplasia and chondrodysplasia in the first trimester, and with CNS abnormalities in late pregnancy, as well as haemorrhagic complications. • Heparin does not cross the placenta. Low molecular weight heparins (LMWH) are preferable as they have better and more predictable pharmacokinetics, are safer with no evidence of heparin-induced thrombocytopenia and thrombosis (HITT) and osteoporotic fracture is very rare. • Refer to the guidelines of the Royal College of Obstetricians for thromboprophylaxis and management of established venous thromboembolism in pregnancy. CARDIOVASCULAR DRUGS Hypertension in pregnancy (see Chapter 28) can normally be managed with either methyldopa which has the most extensive safety record in pregnancy, or labetalol. Parenteral hydralazine is useful for lowering blood pressure in preeclampsia. Diuretics should not be started to treat hypertension in pregnancy, although some American authorities continue thiazide diuretics in women with essential hypertension, who are already stabilized on these drugs. Modified-release preparations of nifedipine are also used for hypertension in pregnancy, but angiotensin-converting enzyme inhibitors and angitensin II receptor antagonists must be avoided. HORMONES Progestogens, particularly synthetic ones, can masculinize the female fetus. There is no evidence that this occurs with the small amount of progestogen (or oestrogen) present in the oral contraceptive – the risk applies to large doses. Corticosteroids do not appear to give rise to any serious problems when given via inhalation or in short courses. Transient suppression of the fetal hypothalamic–pituitary–adrenal axis has been reported. Rarely, cleft palate and congenital cataract have been linked with steroids in pregnancy, but the benefit of treatment usually outweighs any such risk. Iodine and antithyroid drugs cross the placenta and can cause hypothyroidism and goitre. TRANQUILLIZERS AND ANTIDEPRESSANTS Benzodiazepines accumulate in the tissues and are slowly eliminated by the neonate, resulting in prolonged hypotonia (‘floppy baby’), subnormal temperatures (hypothermia), periodic cessation of respiration and poor sucking. There is no evidence that the phenothiazines, tricyclic antidepressants or fluoxetine are teratogenic. Lithium can cause fetal goitre and possible cardiovascular abnormalities. NON-THERAPEUTIC DRUGS Excessive ethanol consumption is associated with spontaneous abortion, craniofacial abnormalities, mental retardation, congenital heart disease and impaired growth. Even moderate alcohol intake may adversely affect the baby – the risk of having an abnormal child is about 10% in mothers drinking 30–60 mL ethanol per day, rising to 40% in chronic alcoholics. Fetal alcohol syndrome describes the distinct pattern of abnormal morphogenesis and central nervous system dysfunction in children whose mothers were chronic alcoholics, and this syndrome is a leading cause of mental retardation. After birth, the characteristic craniofacial malformations diminish, but microcephaly and to a lesser degree short stature persist. Cigarette smoking is associated with spontaneous abortion, premature delivery, small babies, increased perinatal mortality and a higher incidence of sudden infant death syndrome (cot death). Cocaine causes vasoconstriction of placental vessels. There is a high incidence of low birth weight, congenital abnormalities and, in particular, delayed neurological and behavioural development.

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    A Textbook of Clinical Pharmacology

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    A Textbook of Clinical Pharmacology

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    This fifth edition is dedicated to

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    FOREWORD viii PREFACE ix ACKNOWLEDG

  • Page 10 and 11: PREFACE Clinical pharmacology is th
  • Page 12 and 13: PART I GENERAL PRINCIPLES
  • Page 14 and 15: ● Use of drugs 3 ● Adverse effe
  • Page 16 and 17: and acquired factors, notably disea
  • Page 18 and 19: 100 Effect (%) 0 0 5 10 1 10 100 (a
  • Page 20 and 21: Dose ratio -1 100 50 The relationsh
  • Page 22 and 23: ● Introduction 11 ● Constant-ra
  • Page 24 and 25: In reality, processes of eliminatio
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  • Page 28 and 29: ● Introduction 17 ● Bioavailabi
  • Page 30 and 31: ROUTES OF ADMINISTRATION ORAL ROUTE
  • Page 32 and 33: Transdermal absorption is sufficien
  • Page 34 and 35: FURTHER READING Fix JA. Strategies
  • Page 36 and 37: and thromboxanes are CYP450 enzymes
  • Page 38 and 39: and lorazepam. Some patients inheri
  • Page 40 and 41: Orally administered drug Parenteral
  • Page 42 and 43: ● Introduction 31 ● Glomerular
  • Page 44 and 45: ACTIVE TUBULAR REABSORPTION This is
  • Page 46 and 47: DISTRIBUTION Drug distribution is a
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  • Page 50 and 51: DIGOXIN Myxoedematous patients are
  • Page 52 and 53: ● Introduction 41 ● Role of dru
  • Page 54 and 55: 25 20 10 Life-threatening toxicity
  • Page 56 and 57: ● Introduction 45 ● Harmful eff
  • Page 58 and 59: vagina in girls in their late teens
  • Page 62 and 63: Case history A 20-year-old female m
  • Page 64 and 65: METABOLISM At birth, the hepatic mi
  • Page 66 and 67: lifelong effects as a result of tox
  • Page 68 and 69: DISTRIBUTION Ageing is associated w
  • Page 70 and 71: DIGOXIN Digoxin toxicity is common
  • Page 72 and 73: FURTHER READING Dhesi JK, Allain TJ
  • Page 74 and 75: Factors involved in the aetiology o
  • Page 76 and 77: analgesic. Following its release, t
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  • Page 82 and 83: ● Introduction 71 ● Useful inte
  • Page 84 and 85: Response Therapeutic range Toxic ra
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    A case report has suggested a possi

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    including hypericin and pseudohyper

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    PART II THE NERVOUS SYSTEM

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    ● Introduction 105 ● Sleep diff

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    and daytime sleeping should be disc

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    Key points • Insomnia and anxiety

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    Box 19.1: Dopamine theory of schizo

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    The Boston Collaborative Survey ind

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    Oral medication, especially in liqu

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    e.g. interpersonal difficulties or

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    Partial response to first-line trea

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    Key points Drug treatment of depres

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    Case history A 45-year-old man with

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    Levodopa PRINCIPLES OF TREATMENT IN

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    • pulmonary, retroperitoneal and

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    CHOREA The γ-aminobutyric acid con

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    Cholinergic crisis Treatment of mya

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    ● Introduction 133 ● Mechanisms

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    absolute arbiter. The availability

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    Table 22.2: Metabolic interactions

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    FURTHER ANTI-EPILEPTICS Other drugs

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    Case history A 24-year-old woman wh

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    Assessment of migraine severity and

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    ● General anaesthetics 145 ● In

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    is the theoretical concern of a ‘

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    • Respiratory system - apnoea fol

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    Competitive antagonists (vecuronium

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    have also proved useful in combinat

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    ● Introduction 155 ● Pathophysi

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    ASPIRIN (ACETYLSALICYLATE) Use Anti

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    Key points Drugs for mild pain •

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    increases, correlating with the hig

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    • If possible, use oral medicatio

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    PART III THE MUSCULOSKELETAL SYSTEM

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    ● Introduction: inflammation 167

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    Chapter 33). All NSAIDs cause wheez

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    • Stomatitis suggests the possibi

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    Pharmacokinetics Allopurinol is wel

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    PART IV THE CARDIOVASCULAR SYSTEM

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    ● Introduction 177 ● Pathophysi

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    esponsible for the strong predilect

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    Ezetimibe Fat Muscle Dietary fat In

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    educed). The risk of muscle damage

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    ● Introduction 185 ● Pathophysi

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    Each of these classes of drug reduc

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    AT 1 receptor) produce good 24-hour

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    Table 28.2: Examples of calcium-cha

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    Key points Drugs used in essential

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    Case history A 72-year-old woman se

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    Assess risk factors Investigations:

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    Persistent ST segment elevation Thr

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    Mechanism of action GTN works by re

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    Because of the risks of haemorrhage

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    Intrinsic pathway XIIa XIa the acti

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    that the pharmacodynamic response i

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    used with apparent benefit in acute

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    ● Introduction 211 ● Pathophysi

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    The drugs that are most effective i

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    therapeutic plasma concentration ca

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    ● Common dysrhythmias 217 ● Gen

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    BASIC LIFE SUPPORT CARDIOPULMONARY

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    arrest. The electrocardiogram is li

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    should be given to insertion of an

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    Drug interactions Amiodarone potent

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    effect when treating sinus bradycar

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    Case history A 24-year-old medical

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    PART V THE RESPIRATORY SYSTEM

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    CHAPTER 33 THERAPY OF ASTHMA, CHRON

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    STEP 5: CONTINUOUS OR FREQUENT USE

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    Adenylyl cyclase Table 33.1: Compar

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    Drug interactions Although synergis

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    use in asthma has declined consider

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    α 1-antitrypsin deficiency, neutro

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    PART VI THE ALIMENTARY SYSTEM

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    ● Peptic ulceration 247 ● Oesop

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    PEPTIC ULCERATION 249 • With rega

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    Ranitidine has a similar profile of

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    Vestibular stimulation ? via cerebe

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    cortical centres affecting vomiting

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    • in hepatocellular failure to re

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    Ciprofloxacin is occasionally used

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    withdrawal), small doses of benzodi

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    Table 34.7: Dose-independent hepato

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    ● Introduction 265 ● General ph

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    dinucleotide (NAD) and nicotinamide

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    Table 35.1: Common trace element de

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    PART VII FLUIDS AND ELECTROLYTES

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    ● Introduction 273 ● Volume ove

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    Key points Diuretics Diuretics are

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    is sometimes caused by drugs, notab

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    or with potassium-sparing diuretics

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    Greger R, Lang F, Sebekova, Heidlan

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    PART VIII THE ENDOCRINE SYSTEM

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    ● Introduction 285 ● Pathophysi

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    in prefilled injection devices (‘

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    Metformin should be withdrawn and i

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    FURTHER READING American Diabetes A

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    deficiency. Potassium iodide (3 mg

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    fertility. It is contraindicated du

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    ● Introduction 297 ● Vitamin D

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    effective in life-threatening hyper

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    Further reading Block GA, Martin KJ

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    Table 40.1: Actions of cortisol and

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    injection may be useful, but if don

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    CHAPTER 41 REPRODUCTIVE ENDOCRINOLO

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    elease by the pituitary via negativ

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    Treatment with depot progestogen in

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    infusion using an infusion pump to

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    significant proportion of men who r

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    with symptoms caused by the release

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    FURTHER READING Birnbaumer M. Vasop

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    PART IX SELECTIVE TOXICITY

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    ● Principles of antibacterial che

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    2. transfer of resistance between o

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    Pharmacokinetics Absorption of thes

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    Mechanism of action Macrolides bind

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    asic quinolone structure dramatical

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    Case history A 70-year-old man with

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    PRINCIPLES OF MANAGEMENT OF MYCOBAC

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    Pharmacokinetics Absorption from th

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    MYCOBACTERIUM LEPRAE INFECTION Lepr

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    POLYENES AMPHOTERICIN B Uses Amphot

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    therapy is adequate though more fre

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    NUCLEOSIDE ANALOGUES ACICLOVIR Uses

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    Table 45.3: Summary of available ac

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    Uses Interferon-α when combined wi

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    ● Introduction 351 ● Immunopath

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    Table 46.1: Examples of combination

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    NON-NUCLEOSIDE ANALOGUE REVERSE TRA

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    FUSION INHIBITORS Uses Currently, e

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    salvage therapy include azithromyci

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    ● Malaria 361 ● Trypanosomal in

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    Pharmacokinetics Chloroquine is rap

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    Table 47.2: Drug therapy of non-mal

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    ● Introduction 367 ● Pathophysi

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    Table 48.1: Classification of commo

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    Polymorph count/mm 3 (a) (b) 10 000

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    doses are used to prepare patients

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    Adverse effects Methotrexate Inhibi

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    Table 48.7: Summary of clinical pha

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    Table 48.9: Summary of the clinical

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    Plasma membrane Signal transduction

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    Table 48.10: Monoclonal antibodies

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    INTERFERON-ALFA 2B Interferon-alfa

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    PART X HAEMATOLOGY

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    ● Haematinics - iron, vitamin B 1

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    one marrow to produce red cells. Th

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    EPO Erythroid precursors Erythrocyt

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    Therapeutic principles The extent o

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    PART XI IMMUNOPHARMACOLOGY

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    ● Introduction 399 ● Immunity a

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    Key points Antigen recognition Expr

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    Table 50.1: Novel anti-proliferativ

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    Key points Treatment of anaphylacti

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    DRUGS THAT ENHANCE IMMUNE SYSTEM FU

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    PART XII THE SKIN

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    ● Introduction 411 ● Acne 411

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    DERMATITIS (ECZEMA) PRINCIPLES OF T

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    SPECIALISTS ONLY SPECIALISTS ONLY E

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    TREATMENT OF OTHER SKIN INFECTIONS

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    effect of too high a dose of UVB in

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    PART XIII THE EYE

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    ● Introduction: ocular anatomy, p

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    to cause pupillary dilatation, name

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    Table 52.3: Antibacterial agents us

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    Table 52.6: Common drug-induced pro

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    PART XIV CLINICAL TOXICOLOGY

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    ● Introduction 433 ● Pathophysi

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    Table 53.2: Central nervous system

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    which provide anonymized data to th

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    Peak plasma levels after smoking ci

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    Key points Acute effects of alcohol

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    FURTHER READING Goldman D, Oroszi G

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    Table 54.2: Common indications for

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    Table 54.5: Antidotes and other spe

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    Commission on Human Medicines (CHM)

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    Note: Page numbers in italics refer

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    atrial fibrillation 217, 221 digoxi

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    Cushing’s syndrome 302 cyclic ade

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    5-fluorouracil 375-6 fluoxetine, mo

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    children 54 diazepam 108 iron prepa

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    non-steroidal anti-inflammatory dru

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    puberty (male), delay 314 puerperiu

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    tolerance 9, 433 benzodiazepines 10

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