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A Textbook of Clinical Pharmacology and Therapeutics

A Textbook of Clinical Pharmacology and Therapeutics

Factors involved in the

Factors involved in the aetiology of adverse drug reactions can be classified as shown in Table 12.2. IDENTIFICATION OF THE DRUG AT FAULT It is often difficult to decide whether a clinical event is drug related, and even when this is probable, it may be difficult to determine which drug is responsible, as patients are often taking multiple drugs. One or more of several possible approaches may be appropriate. 1. A careful drug history is essential. The following considerations should be made to assess causality of the effect to the drug: did the clinical event and the timecourse of its development fit with the duration of suspected drug treatment and known adverse drug effects? Did the adverse effect reverse upon drug withdrawal and, upon rechallenge with the drug, reappear? Were other possible causes reasonably excluded? A patient’s drug history may not always be conclusive because, although allergy to a drug implies previous exposure, the antigen may have Table 12.2: Factors involved in adverse drug reactions. Intrinsic Extrinsic Patient factors Age – neonatal, infant and elderly Environment – sun Sex – hormonal environment Xenobiotics (e.g. drugs, Genetic abnormalities (e.g. herbicides) enzyme or receptor Malnutrition polymorphisms) Previous adverse drug reactions, allergy, atopy Presence of organ dysfunction – disease Personality and habits – adherence (compliance), alcoholic, drug addict, nicotine Prescriber factors Incorrect drug or drug combination Incorrect route of administration Incorrect dose Incorrect duration of therapy Drug factors Drug–drug interactions (see Chapter 13) Pharmaceutical – batch problems, shelf-life, incorrect dispensing ADVERSE DRUG REACTION MONITORING/SURVEILLANCE (PHARMACOVIGILANCE) 63 occurred in foods (e.g. antibiotics are often fed to livestock and drug residues remain in the flesh), in drug mixtures or in some casual manner. 2. Provocation testing. This involves giving a very small amount of the suspected drug and seeing whether a reaction ensues, e.g. skin testing, where a drug is applied as a patch, or is pricked or scratched into the skin or injected intradermally. Unfortunately, prick and scratch testing is less useful for assessing the systemic reaction to drugs than it is for the more usual atopic antigens (e.g. pollens), and both false-positive and false-negative results can occur. Patch testing is safe, and is useful for the diagnosis of contact sensitivity, but does not reflect systemic reactions and may itself cause allergy. Provocation tests should only be undertaken under expert guidance, after obtaining informed consent, and with resuscitation facilities available. 3. Serological testing and lymphocytes testing. Serological testing is rarely helpful, circulating antibodies to the drug do not mean that they are necessarily the cause of the symptoms. The demonstration of transformation occurring when the patient’s lymphocytes are exposed to a drug ex vivo suggests that the patient’s T-lymphocytes are sensitized to the drug. In this type of reaction, the hapten itself will often provoke lymphocyte transformation, as well as the conjugate. 4. The best approach in patients on multiple drug therapy is to stop all potentially causal drugs and reintroduce them one by one until the drug at fault is discovered. This should only be done if the reaction is not serious, or if the drug is essential and no chemically unrelated alternative is available. All drug allergies should be recorded in the case notes and the patient informed of the risks involved in taking the drug again. Key points • Type A reaction – an extension of the pharmacology of the drug, dose related, and accounts for most adverse reactions (e.g. β-adrenoreceptor antagonist-induced bradycardia or AV block). • Type B reaction – idiosyncratic reaction to the drug, not dose related, rare but severe (e.g. chloramphenicolinduced aplastic anaemia). • Other types of drug reaction (much rarer): – type C reaction – continuous reactions due to longterm use: analgesic nephropathy; – type D reaction – delayed reactions of carcinogenesis or teratogenesis; – type E reaction – drug withdrawal reactions (e.g. benzodiazepines). ADVERSE DRUG REACTION MONITORING/ SURVEILLANCE (PHARMACOVIGILANCE) The evaluation of drug safety is complex, and there are many methods for monitoring adverse drug reactions. Each of these has its own advantages and shortcomings, and no single

64 ADVERSE DRUG REACTIONS system can offer the 100% accuracy that current public opinion expects. The ideal method would identify adverse drug reactions with a high degree of sensitivity and specificity and respond rapidly. It would detect rare but severe adverse drug reactions, but would not be overwhelmed by common ones, the incidence of which it would quantify together with predisposing factors. Continued surveillance is mandatory after a new drug has been marketed, as it is inevitable that the preliminary testing of medicines in humans during drug development, although excluding many ill effects, cannot identify uncommon adverse effects. A variety of early detection systems have been introduced to identify adverse drug reactions as swiftly as possible. PHASE I/II/III TRIALS Early (phase I/II) trials (Chapter 15) are important for assessing the tolerability and dose–response relationship of new therapeutic agents. However, these studies are, by design, very insensitive at detecting adverse reactions because they are performed on relatively few subjects (perhaps 200–300). This is illustrated by the failure to detect the serious toxicity of several drugs (e.g. benoxaprofen, cerivastatin, felbamate, dexfenfluramine and fenfluramine, rofecoxib, temofloxacin, troglitazone) before marketing. However, phase III clinical trials can establish the incidence of common adverse reactions and relate this to therapeutic benefit. Analysis of the reasons given for dropping out of phase III trials is particularly valuable in establishing whether common events, such as headache, constipation, lethargy or male sexual dysfunction are truly drug related. The Medical Research Council Mild Hypertension Study unexpectedly identified impotence as more commonly associated with thiazide diuretics than with placebo or β-adrenoceptor antagonist therapy. Table 12.3 illustrates how difficult it is to detect adverse drug reactions with 95% confidence, even when there is no background incidence and the diagnostic accuracy is 100%. This ‘easiest-case’ scenario approximates to the actual situation with thalidomide teratogenicity: spontaneous phocomelia is almost unknown, and the condition is almost unmistakable. It is sobering to consider that an estimated 10 000 malformed babies were born world-wide before thalidomide was withdrawn. Regulatory authorities may act after three or more documented events. The problem of adverse drug reaction recognition is much greater if the reaction resembles spontaneous disease in the population, such that physicians are unlikely to attribute the reaction to drug exposure: the numbers of patients that must then be exposed to enable such reactions to be detected are greater than those quoted in Table 12.3, probably by several orders of magnitude. YELLOW CARD SCHEME AND POST-MARKETING (PHASE IV) SURVEILLANCE Untoward effects that have not been detected in clinical trials become apparent when the drug is used on a wider scale. Case Table 12.3: Numbers of subjects that would need to be exposed in order to detect adverse drug reactions Expected frequency Approximate number of patients of the adverse effect required to be exposed reports, which may stimulate further reports, remain the most sensitive means of detecting rare but serious and unusual adverse effects. In the UK, a Register of Adverse Reactions was started in 1964. Currently, the Medicines and Healthcare products Regulatory Agency (MHRA) operates a system of spontaneous reporting on prepaid yellow postcards. Doctors, dentists, pharmacists, nurse practitioners and (most recently) patients are encouraged to report adverse events whether actually or potentially causally drug-related. Analogous schemes are employed in other countries. The yellow card scheme consists of three stages: 1. data collection; 2. analysis; 3. feedback. For one event For three events 1 in 100 300 650 1 in 1000 3000 6500 1 in 10 000 30 000 65 000 Such surveillance methods are useful, but under-reporting is a major limitation. Probably fewer than 10% of appropriate adverse reactions are reported. This may be due partly to confusion about what events to report, partly to difficulty in recognizing the possible relationship of a drug to an adverse event – especially when the patient has been taking several drugs, and partly to ignorance or laziness on the part of potential reporters. A further problem is that, as explained above, if a drug increases the incidence of a common disorder (e.g. ischaemic heart disease), the change in incidence must be very large to be detectable. This is compounded when there is a delay between starting the drug and occurrence of the event (e.g. cardiovascular thrombotic events including myocardial infarction following initiation of rofecoxib therapy). Doctors are inefficient at detecting such adverse reactions to drugs, and those reactions that are reported are in general the obvious or previously described and well-known ones. Initiatives are in progress to attempt to improve this situation by involvement of trained clinical pharmacologists and pharmacists in and outside hospitals. The Committee on Safety of Medicines (CSM), now part of MHRA, introduced a system of high vigilance for newly marketed drugs. For its first two years on the general market, any newly marketed drug has a black triangle on its data sheet and against its entry in the British National Formulary. This conveys to prescribers that any unexpected event should be reported by the yellow card system. The pharmaceutical company is also responsible for obtaining accurate reports on all patients treated up to an agreed number. This scheme was successful in the case of benoxaprofen, an anti-inflammatory

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    A Textbook of Clinical Pharmacology

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    A Textbook of Clinical Pharmacology

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    This fifth edition is dedicated to

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    FOREWORD viii PREFACE ix ACKNOWLEDG

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    PREFACE Clinical pharmacology is th

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    PART I GENERAL PRINCIPLES

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    ● Use of drugs 3 ● Adverse effe

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    and acquired factors, notably disea

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    100 Effect (%) 0 0 5 10 1 10 100 (a

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    Dose ratio -1 100 50 The relationsh

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    ● Introduction 11 ● Constant-ra

  • Page 24 and 25: In reality, processes of eliminatio
  • Page 26 and 27: lood (from which samples are taken
  • Page 28 and 29: ● Introduction 17 ● Bioavailabi
  • Page 30 and 31: ROUTES OF ADMINISTRATION ORAL ROUTE
  • Page 32 and 33: Transdermal absorption is sufficien
  • Page 34 and 35: FURTHER READING Fix JA. Strategies
  • Page 36 and 37: and thromboxanes are CYP450 enzymes
  • Page 38 and 39: and lorazepam. Some patients inheri
  • Page 40 and 41: Orally administered drug Parenteral
  • Page 42 and 43: ● Introduction 31 ● Glomerular
  • Page 44 and 45: ACTIVE TUBULAR REABSORPTION This is
  • Page 46 and 47: DISTRIBUTION Drug distribution is a
  • Page 48 and 49: Detailed recommendations on dosage
  • Page 50 and 51: DIGOXIN Myxoedematous patients are
  • Page 52 and 53: ● Introduction 41 ● Role of dru
  • Page 54 and 55: 25 20 10 Life-threatening toxicity
  • Page 56 and 57: ● Introduction 45 ● Harmful eff
  • Page 58 and 59: vagina in girls in their late teens
  • Page 60 and 61: an anti-analgesic effect when combi
  • Page 62 and 63: Case history A 20-year-old female m
  • Page 64 and 65: METABOLISM At birth, the hepatic mi
  • Page 66 and 67: lifelong effects as a result of tox
  • Page 68 and 69: DISTRIBUTION Ageing is associated w
  • Page 70 and 71: DIGOXIN Digoxin toxicity is common
  • Page 72 and 73: FURTHER READING Dhesi JK, Allain TJ
  • Page 76 and 77: analgesic. Following its release, t
  • Page 78 and 79: antibiotics, such as penicillin or
  • Page 80 and 81: predisposes to non-immune haemolysi
  • Page 82 and 83: ● Introduction 71 ● Useful inte
  • Page 84 and 85: Response Therapeutic range Toxic ra
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  • Page 88 and 89: Table 13.5: Competitive interaction
  • Page 90 and 91: ● Introduction: ‘personalized m
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  • Page 96 and 97: Key points • Genetic differences
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  • Page 102 and 103: ETHICS COMMITTEES Protocols for all
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  • Page 106 and 107: duration and benefit. Adenoviral ve
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  • Page 110 and 111: A case report has suggested a possi
  • Page 112 and 113: including hypericin and pseudohyper
  • Page 114 and 115: PART II THE NERVOUS SYSTEM
  • Page 116 and 117: ● Introduction 105 ● Sleep diff
  • Page 118 and 119: and daytime sleeping should be disc
  • Page 120 and 121: Key points • Insomnia and anxiety
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    The Boston Collaborative Survey ind

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    Oral medication, especially in liqu

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    e.g. interpersonal difficulties or

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    Partial response to first-line trea

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    Key points Drug treatment of depres

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    Case history A 45-year-old man with

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    Levodopa PRINCIPLES OF TREATMENT IN

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    • pulmonary, retroperitoneal and

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    CHOREA The γ-aminobutyric acid con

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    Cholinergic crisis Treatment of mya

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    ● Introduction 133 ● Mechanisms

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    absolute arbiter. The availability

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    Table 22.2: Metabolic interactions

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    FURTHER ANTI-EPILEPTICS Other drugs

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    Case history A 24-year-old woman wh

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    Assessment of migraine severity and

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    ● General anaesthetics 145 ● In

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    is the theoretical concern of a ‘

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    • Respiratory system - apnoea fol

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    Competitive antagonists (vecuronium

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    have also proved useful in combinat

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    ● Introduction 155 ● Pathophysi

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    ASPIRIN (ACETYLSALICYLATE) Use Anti

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    Key points Drugs for mild pain •

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    increases, correlating with the hig

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    • If possible, use oral medicatio

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    PART III THE MUSCULOSKELETAL SYSTEM

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    ● Introduction: inflammation 167

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    Chapter 33). All NSAIDs cause wheez

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    • Stomatitis suggests the possibi

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    Pharmacokinetics Allopurinol is wel

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    PART IV THE CARDIOVASCULAR SYSTEM

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    ● Introduction 177 ● Pathophysi

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    esponsible for the strong predilect

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    Ezetimibe Fat Muscle Dietary fat In

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    educed). The risk of muscle damage

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    ● Introduction 185 ● Pathophysi

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    Each of these classes of drug reduc

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    AT 1 receptor) produce good 24-hour

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    Table 28.2: Examples of calcium-cha

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    Key points Drugs used in essential

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    Case history A 72-year-old woman se

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    Assess risk factors Investigations:

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    Persistent ST segment elevation Thr

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    Mechanism of action GTN works by re

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    Because of the risks of haemorrhage

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    Intrinsic pathway XIIa XIa the acti

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    that the pharmacodynamic response i

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    used with apparent benefit in acute

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    ● Introduction 211 ● Pathophysi

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    The drugs that are most effective i

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    therapeutic plasma concentration ca

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    ● Common dysrhythmias 217 ● Gen

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    BASIC LIFE SUPPORT CARDIOPULMONARY

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    arrest. The electrocardiogram is li

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    should be given to insertion of an

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    Drug interactions Amiodarone potent

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    effect when treating sinus bradycar

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    Case history A 24-year-old medical

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    PART V THE RESPIRATORY SYSTEM

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    CHAPTER 33 THERAPY OF ASTHMA, CHRON

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    STEP 5: CONTINUOUS OR FREQUENT USE

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    Adenylyl cyclase Table 33.1: Compar

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    Drug interactions Although synergis

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    use in asthma has declined consider

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    α 1-antitrypsin deficiency, neutro

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    PART VI THE ALIMENTARY SYSTEM

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    ● Peptic ulceration 247 ● Oesop

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    PEPTIC ULCERATION 249 • With rega

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    Ranitidine has a similar profile of

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    Vestibular stimulation ? via cerebe

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    cortical centres affecting vomiting

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    • in hepatocellular failure to re

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    Ciprofloxacin is occasionally used

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    withdrawal), small doses of benzodi

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    Table 34.7: Dose-independent hepato

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    ● Introduction 265 ● General ph

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    dinucleotide (NAD) and nicotinamide

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    Table 35.1: Common trace element de

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    PART VII FLUIDS AND ELECTROLYTES

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    ● Introduction 273 ● Volume ove

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    Key points Diuretics Diuretics are

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    is sometimes caused by drugs, notab

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    or with potassium-sparing diuretics

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    Greger R, Lang F, Sebekova, Heidlan

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    PART VIII THE ENDOCRINE SYSTEM

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    ● Introduction 285 ● Pathophysi

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    in prefilled injection devices (‘

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    Metformin should be withdrawn and i

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    FURTHER READING American Diabetes A

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    deficiency. Potassium iodide (3 mg

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    fertility. It is contraindicated du

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    ● Introduction 297 ● Vitamin D

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    effective in life-threatening hyper

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    Further reading Block GA, Martin KJ

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    Table 40.1: Actions of cortisol and

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    injection may be useful, but if don

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    CHAPTER 41 REPRODUCTIVE ENDOCRINOLO

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    elease by the pituitary via negativ

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    Treatment with depot progestogen in

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    infusion using an infusion pump to

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    significant proportion of men who r

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    with symptoms caused by the release

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    FURTHER READING Birnbaumer M. Vasop

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    PART IX SELECTIVE TOXICITY

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    ● Principles of antibacterial che

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    2. transfer of resistance between o

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    Pharmacokinetics Absorption of thes

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    Mechanism of action Macrolides bind

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    asic quinolone structure dramatical

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    Case history A 70-year-old man with

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    PRINCIPLES OF MANAGEMENT OF MYCOBAC

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    Pharmacokinetics Absorption from th

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    MYCOBACTERIUM LEPRAE INFECTION Lepr

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    POLYENES AMPHOTERICIN B Uses Amphot

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    therapy is adequate though more fre

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    NUCLEOSIDE ANALOGUES ACICLOVIR Uses

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    Table 45.3: Summary of available ac

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    Uses Interferon-α when combined wi

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    ● Introduction 351 ● Immunopath

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    Table 46.1: Examples of combination

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    NON-NUCLEOSIDE ANALOGUE REVERSE TRA

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    FUSION INHIBITORS Uses Currently, e

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    salvage therapy include azithromyci

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    ● Malaria 361 ● Trypanosomal in

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    Pharmacokinetics Chloroquine is rap

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    Table 47.2: Drug therapy of non-mal

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    ● Introduction 367 ● Pathophysi

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    Table 48.1: Classification of commo

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    Polymorph count/mm 3 (a) (b) 10 000

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    doses are used to prepare patients

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    Adverse effects Methotrexate Inhibi

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    Table 48.7: Summary of clinical pha

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    Table 48.9: Summary of the clinical

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    Plasma membrane Signal transduction

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    Table 48.10: Monoclonal antibodies

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    INTERFERON-ALFA 2B Interferon-alfa

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    PART X HAEMATOLOGY

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    ● Haematinics - iron, vitamin B 1

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    one marrow to produce red cells. Th

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    EPO Erythroid precursors Erythrocyt

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    Therapeutic principles The extent o

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    PART XI IMMUNOPHARMACOLOGY

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    ● Introduction 399 ● Immunity a

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    Key points Antigen recognition Expr

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    Table 50.1: Novel anti-proliferativ

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    Key points Treatment of anaphylacti

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    DRUGS THAT ENHANCE IMMUNE SYSTEM FU

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    PART XII THE SKIN

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    ● Introduction 411 ● Acne 411

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    DERMATITIS (ECZEMA) PRINCIPLES OF T

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    SPECIALISTS ONLY SPECIALISTS ONLY E

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    TREATMENT OF OTHER SKIN INFECTIONS

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    effect of too high a dose of UVB in

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    PART XIII THE EYE

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    ● Introduction: ocular anatomy, p

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    to cause pupillary dilatation, name

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    Table 52.3: Antibacterial agents us

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    Table 52.6: Common drug-induced pro

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    PART XIV CLINICAL TOXICOLOGY

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    ● Introduction 433 ● Pathophysi

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    Table 53.2: Central nervous system

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    which provide anonymized data to th

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    Peak plasma levels after smoking ci

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    Key points Acute effects of alcohol

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    FURTHER READING Goldman D, Oroszi G

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    Table 54.2: Common indications for

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    Table 54.5: Antidotes and other spe

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    Commission on Human Medicines (CHM)

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    Note: Page numbers in italics refer

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    atrial fibrillation 217, 221 digoxi

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    Cushing’s syndrome 302 cyclic ade

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    5-fluorouracil 375-6 fluoxetine, mo

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    children 54 diazepam 108 iron prepa

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    non-steroidal anti-inflammatory dru

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    puberty (male), delay 314 puerperiu

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    tolerance 9, 433 benzodiazepines 10

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