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A Textbook of Clinical Pharmacology and Therapeutics

A Textbook of Clinical Pharmacology and Therapeutics

lipoprotein (LDL) is

lipoprotein (LDL) is impaired. LDL receptors are needed for hepatic uptake of LDL and individuals with FH consequently have very high circulating concentrations of LDL, and suffer from atheromatous disease at a young age. Homozygotes completely lack the ability to synthesize LDL receptors and may suffer from coronary artery disease in childhood, whereas the much more common heterozygotes have intermediate numbers of receptors between homozygotes and healthy individuals, and commonly suffer from coronary disease in young adulthood. β-Hydroxy-β-methylglutaryl coenzyme A (HMG CoA) reductase inhibitors (otherwise known as statins, an important class of drug for lowering circulating cholesterol levels) function largely by indirectly increasing the number of hepatic LDL receptors. Such drugs are especially valuable for treating heterozygotes with FH, because they restore hepatic LDL receptors towards normal in such individuals by increasing their synthesis. In contrast, they are relatively ineffective in homozygotes because such individuals entirely lack the genetic material needed for LDL-receptor synthesis. INHERITED DISEASES THAT PREDISPOSE TO DRUG TOXICITY GLUCOSE-6-PHOSPHATE DEHYDROGENASE DEFICIENCY Glucose-6-phosphatase dehydrogenase (G6PD) catalyses the formation of reduced nicotinamide adenine dinucleotide phosphate (NADPH), which maintains glutathione in its reduced form (Figure 14.4). The gene for G6PD is located on the X-chromosome, so deficiency of this enzyme is inherited in a sex-linked manner. G6PD deficiency is common, especially in Mediterranean peoples, those of African or Indian descent and in East Asia. Reduced enzyme activity results in methaemoglobinaemia and haemolysis when red cells are exposed to oxidizing agents (e.g. as a result of ingestion of broad beans (Vicia faba), naphthalene or one of several drugs). There are over 80 distinct variants of G6PD, but not all of them produce haemolysis. The lower the activity of the enzyme, the more severe is the clinical disease. The following drugs can produce haemolysis in such patients: 1. analgesics – aspirin; 2. antimalarials – primaquine, quinacrine, quinine; 3. antibacterials – sulphonamides, sulphones, nitrofurantoin, fluoroquinolones: ciprofloxacin 4. miscellaneous – quinidine, probenecid. Patients with G6PD deficiency treated with an 8-aminoquinoline (e.g. primaquine) should spend at least the first few days in hospital under supervision. If acute severe haemolysis occurs, primaquine may have to be withdrawn and blood transfusion may be needed. Hydrocortisone is given intravenously and the urine is alkalinized to reduce the likelihood of deposition of acid haematin in the renal tubules. The INHERITED DISEASES THAT PREDISPOSE TO DRUG TOXICITY 83 Methaemoglobin GSH Reduced glutathione NADP NADPH Glucose- 6-phosphogluconate 6-phosphate Glucose-6-phosphate dehydrogenase Figure 14.4: Physiological role of glucose-6-phosphate dehydrogenase. high incidence of this condition in some areas is attributed to a balanced polymorphism. It is postulated that the selective advantage conferred on heterozygotes is due to a protective effect of partial enzyme deficiency against falciparum malaria. METHAEMOGLOBINAEMIA Several xenobiotics oxidize haemoglobin to methaemoglobin, including nitrates, nitrites, chlorates, sulphonamides, sulphones, nitrobenzenes, nitrotoluenes, anilines and topical local anesthetics. In certain haemoglobin variants (e.g. HbM, HbH), the oxidized (methaemoglobin) form is not readily converted back into reduced, functional haemoglobin. Exposure to the above substances causes methaemoglobinaemia in individuals with these haemoglobin variants. Similarly, nitrites, chlorates, dapsone and primaquine can cause cyanosis in patients with a deficiency of NADH-methaemoglobin reductase. MALIGNANT HYPERTHERMIA Haemoglobin GSSG Oxidized glutathione This is a rare but potentially fatal complication of general anaesthesia (Chapter 24). The causative agent is usually an inhalational anaesthetic (e.g. halothane, isoflurane) and/or suxamethonium. Sufferers exhibit a rapid rise in temperature, muscular rigidity, tachycardia, increased respiratory rate, sweating, cyanosis and metabolic acidosis. There are several forms, one of the more common ones (characterized by halothane-induced rigidity) being inherited as a Mendelian dominant. The underlying abnormality is a variant in the ryanodine R1 receptor (Ry1R) responsible for controlling intracellular calcium flux from the sarcolemma. The prevalence is approximately 1:20 000. Individuals can be genotyped

84 PHARMACOGENETICS for Ry1R or undergo muscle biopsy to assess their predisposition to this condition. Muscle from affected individuals is abnormally sensitive to caffeine in vitro, responding with a strong contraction to low concentrations. (Pharmacological doses of caffeine release calcium from intracellular stores and cause contraction even in normal muscle at sufficiently high concentration.) Affected muscle responds similarly to halothane or suxamethonium. ACUTE PORPHYRIAS This group of diseases includes acute intermittent porphyria, variegate porphyria and hereditary coproporphyria. In each of these varieties, acute illness is precipitated by drugs because of inherited enzyme deficiencies in the pathway of haem biosynthesis (Figure 14.5). Drugs do not precipitate acute attacks in porphyria cutanea tarda, a non-acute porphyria, although this condition is aggravated by alcohol, oestrogens, iron and polychlorinated aromatic compounds. Uroporphyrin Coproporphyrin Glycine � succinyl CoA �-aminolevulinic acid (ALA) Porphobilinogen (PBG) PBG deaminase Hydroxymethylbilane UPG III synthetase Uroporphyrinogen (UPG) III Coproporphyrinogen (CPG) III CPG oxidase Protoporphyrinogen (PPG) PPG oxidase Protoporphyrin IX ALA synthetase CO 2 UPG decarboxylase Ferrochelatase Deficient in acute intermittent porphyria Deficient in hereditary coproporphyria Deficient in variegate porphyria Haem Figure 14.5: Porphyrin metabolism, showing sites of enzyme deficiency. Drug-induced exacerbations of acute porphyria (neurological, psychiatric, cardiovascular and gastro-intestinal disturbances that are occasionally fatal) are accompanied by increased urinary excretion of 5-aminolevulinic acid (ALA) and porphobilinogen. An extraordinarily wide array of drugs can cause such exacerbations. Most of the drugs that have been incriminated are enzyme inducers that raise hepatic ALA synthetase levels. These drugs include phenytoin, sulphonylureas, ethanol, griseofulvin, sulphonamides, sex hormones, methyldopa, imipramine, theophylline, rifampicin and pyrazinamide. Often a single dose of one drug of this type can precipitate an acute episode, but in some patients repeated doses are necessary to provoke a reaction. Specialist advice is essential. A very useful list of drugs that are unsafe to use in patients with porphyrias is included in the British National Formulary. GILBERT’S DISEASE This is a benign chronic form of primarily unconjugated hyperbilirubinaemia caused by an inherited reduced activity/lack of the hepatic conjugating enzyme uridine phosphoglucuronyl transferase (UGT1A1). Oestrogens impair bilirubin uptake and aggravate jaundice in patients with this condition, as does protracted fasting. The active metabolite of irinotecan is glucuronidated by UGT1A1, so irinotecan toxicity is increased in Gilbert’s disease. Case history A 26-year-old Caucasian woman has a three-month history of intermittent bloody diarrhoea and is diagnosed with ulcerative colitis. She is initially started on oral prednisolone 30 mg/day and sulfasalazine 1 g four times a day with little improvement in her colitic symptoms. Her gastroenterologist, despite attempting to control her disease with increasing doses of her initial therapy, reverts to starting low-dose azathioprine at 25 mg three times a day and stopping her sulfasalazine. Two weeks later, on review, her symptoms of colitis have improved, but she has ulcers on her oropharynx with a sore mouth. Her Hb is 9.8 g/dL and absolute neutrophil count is 250/mm 3 and platelet count 85 000. Question What is the most likely cause of this clinical situation? Answer The patient has haematopoietic toxicity due to azathioprine (a prodrug of 6-MP). 6-MP is inactivated by the enzyme thiopurine methyltransferase (TPMT). In Caucasians 0.3% (one in 300) of patients are genetically deficient in this enzyme because of polymorphisms in the gene (*3/*4 is most common) and 11% of Caucasians who have a heterozygous genotype have low levels of the enzyme. Patients with absent or low TPMT expression are at a higher risk of bone marrow suppression. In this patient, the azathioprine should be stopped and her TPMT genotype defined. Once her bone marrow has recovered (with or without haematopoietic growth factors), she could be restarted on very low doses (e.g 6.25–12 mg azathioprine daily).

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    A Textbook of Clinical Pharmacology

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    A Textbook of Clinical Pharmacology

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    This fifth edition is dedicated to

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    FOREWORD viii PREFACE ix ACKNOWLEDG

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    PREFACE Clinical pharmacology is th

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    PART I GENERAL PRINCIPLES

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    ● Use of drugs 3 ● Adverse effe

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    and acquired factors, notably disea

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    100 Effect (%) 0 0 5 10 1 10 100 (a

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    Dose ratio -1 100 50 The relationsh

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    ● Introduction 11 ● Constant-ra

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    In reality, processes of eliminatio

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    lood (from which samples are taken

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    ● Introduction 17 ● Bioavailabi

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    ROUTES OF ADMINISTRATION ORAL ROUTE

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    Transdermal absorption is sufficien

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    FURTHER READING Fix JA. Strategies

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    and thromboxanes are CYP450 enzymes

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    and lorazepam. Some patients inheri

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    Orally administered drug Parenteral

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    ● Introduction 31 ● Glomerular

  • Page 44 and 45: ACTIVE TUBULAR REABSORPTION This is
  • Page 46 and 47: DISTRIBUTION Drug distribution is a
  • Page 48 and 49: Detailed recommendations on dosage
  • Page 50 and 51: DIGOXIN Myxoedematous patients are
  • Page 52 and 53: ● Introduction 41 ● Role of dru
  • Page 54 and 55: 25 20 10 Life-threatening toxicity
  • Page 56 and 57: ● Introduction 45 ● Harmful eff
  • Page 58 and 59: vagina in girls in their late teens
  • Page 60 and 61: an anti-analgesic effect when combi
  • Page 62 and 63: Case history A 20-year-old female m
  • Page 64 and 65: METABOLISM At birth, the hepatic mi
  • Page 66 and 67: lifelong effects as a result of tox
  • Page 68 and 69: DISTRIBUTION Ageing is associated w
  • Page 70 and 71: DIGOXIN Digoxin toxicity is common
  • Page 72 and 73: FURTHER READING Dhesi JK, Allain TJ
  • Page 74 and 75: Factors involved in the aetiology o
  • Page 76 and 77: analgesic. Following its release, t
  • Page 78 and 79: antibiotics, such as penicillin or
  • Page 80 and 81: predisposes to non-immune haemolysi
  • Page 82 and 83: ● Introduction 71 ● Useful inte
  • Page 84 and 85: Response Therapeutic range Toxic ra
  • Page 86 and 87: Table 13.1: Interactions outside th
  • Page 88 and 89: Table 13.5: Competitive interaction
  • Page 90 and 91: ● Introduction: ‘personalized m
  • Page 92 and 93: Table 14.2: Variations in drug resp
  • Page 96 and 97: Key points • Genetic differences
  • Page 98 and 99: • Discovery • • Screening Pre
  • Page 100 and 101: Too many statistical comparisons pe
  • Page 102 and 103: ETHICS COMMITTEES Protocols for all
  • Page 104 and 105: Table 16.1: Recombinant proteins/en
  • Page 106 and 107: duration and benefit. Adenoviral ve
  • Page 108 and 109: ● Introduction 97 ● Garlic 97
  • Page 110 and 111: A case report has suggested a possi
  • Page 112 and 113: including hypericin and pseudohyper
  • Page 114 and 115: PART II THE NERVOUS SYSTEM
  • Page 116 and 117: ● Introduction 105 ● Sleep diff
  • Page 118 and 119: and daytime sleeping should be disc
  • Page 120 and 121: Key points • Insomnia and anxiety
  • Page 122 and 123: Box 19.1: Dopamine theory of schizo
  • Page 124 and 125: The Boston Collaborative Survey ind
  • Page 126 and 127: Oral medication, especially in liqu
  • Page 128 and 129: e.g. interpersonal difficulties or
  • Page 130 and 131: Partial response to first-line trea
  • Page 132 and 133: Key points Drug treatment of depres
  • Page 134 and 135: Case history A 45-year-old man with
  • Page 136 and 137: Levodopa PRINCIPLES OF TREATMENT IN
  • Page 138 and 139: • pulmonary, retroperitoneal and
  • Page 140 and 141: CHOREA The γ-aminobutyric acid con
  • Page 142 and 143: Cholinergic crisis Treatment of mya
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    ● Introduction 133 ● Mechanisms

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    absolute arbiter. The availability

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    Table 22.2: Metabolic interactions

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    FURTHER ANTI-EPILEPTICS Other drugs

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    Case history A 24-year-old woman wh

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    Assessment of migraine severity and

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    ● General anaesthetics 145 ● In

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    is the theoretical concern of a ‘

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    • Respiratory system - apnoea fol

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    Competitive antagonists (vecuronium

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    have also proved useful in combinat

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    ● Introduction 155 ● Pathophysi

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    ASPIRIN (ACETYLSALICYLATE) Use Anti

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    Key points Drugs for mild pain •

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    increases, correlating with the hig

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    • If possible, use oral medicatio

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    PART III THE MUSCULOSKELETAL SYSTEM

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    ● Introduction: inflammation 167

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    Chapter 33). All NSAIDs cause wheez

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    • Stomatitis suggests the possibi

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    Pharmacokinetics Allopurinol is wel

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    PART IV THE CARDIOVASCULAR SYSTEM

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    ● Introduction 177 ● Pathophysi

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    esponsible for the strong predilect

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    Ezetimibe Fat Muscle Dietary fat In

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    educed). The risk of muscle damage

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    ● Introduction 185 ● Pathophysi

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    Each of these classes of drug reduc

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    AT 1 receptor) produce good 24-hour

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    Table 28.2: Examples of calcium-cha

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    Key points Drugs used in essential

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    Case history A 72-year-old woman se

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    Assess risk factors Investigations:

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    Persistent ST segment elevation Thr

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    Mechanism of action GTN works by re

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    Because of the risks of haemorrhage

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    Intrinsic pathway XIIa XIa the acti

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    that the pharmacodynamic response i

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    used with apparent benefit in acute

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    ● Introduction 211 ● Pathophysi

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    The drugs that are most effective i

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    therapeutic plasma concentration ca

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    ● Common dysrhythmias 217 ● Gen

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    BASIC LIFE SUPPORT CARDIOPULMONARY

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    arrest. The electrocardiogram is li

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    should be given to insertion of an

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    Drug interactions Amiodarone potent

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    effect when treating sinus bradycar

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    Case history A 24-year-old medical

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    PART V THE RESPIRATORY SYSTEM

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    CHAPTER 33 THERAPY OF ASTHMA, CHRON

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    STEP 5: CONTINUOUS OR FREQUENT USE

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    Adenylyl cyclase Table 33.1: Compar

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    Drug interactions Although synergis

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    use in asthma has declined consider

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    α 1-antitrypsin deficiency, neutro

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    PART VI THE ALIMENTARY SYSTEM

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    ● Peptic ulceration 247 ● Oesop

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    PEPTIC ULCERATION 249 • With rega

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    Ranitidine has a similar profile of

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    Vestibular stimulation ? via cerebe

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    cortical centres affecting vomiting

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    • in hepatocellular failure to re

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    Ciprofloxacin is occasionally used

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    withdrawal), small doses of benzodi

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    Table 34.7: Dose-independent hepato

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    ● Introduction 265 ● General ph

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    dinucleotide (NAD) and nicotinamide

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    Table 35.1: Common trace element de

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    PART VII FLUIDS AND ELECTROLYTES

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    ● Introduction 273 ● Volume ove

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    Key points Diuretics Diuretics are

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    is sometimes caused by drugs, notab

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    or with potassium-sparing diuretics

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    Greger R, Lang F, Sebekova, Heidlan

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    PART VIII THE ENDOCRINE SYSTEM

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    ● Introduction 285 ● Pathophysi

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    in prefilled injection devices (‘

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    Metformin should be withdrawn and i

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    FURTHER READING American Diabetes A

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    deficiency. Potassium iodide (3 mg

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    fertility. It is contraindicated du

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    ● Introduction 297 ● Vitamin D

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    effective in life-threatening hyper

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    Further reading Block GA, Martin KJ

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    Table 40.1: Actions of cortisol and

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    injection may be useful, but if don

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    CHAPTER 41 REPRODUCTIVE ENDOCRINOLO

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    elease by the pituitary via negativ

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    Treatment with depot progestogen in

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    infusion using an infusion pump to

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    significant proportion of men who r

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    with symptoms caused by the release

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    FURTHER READING Birnbaumer M. Vasop

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    PART IX SELECTIVE TOXICITY

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    ● Principles of antibacterial che

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    2. transfer of resistance between o

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    Pharmacokinetics Absorption of thes

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    Mechanism of action Macrolides bind

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    asic quinolone structure dramatical

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    Case history A 70-year-old man with

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    PRINCIPLES OF MANAGEMENT OF MYCOBAC

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    Pharmacokinetics Absorption from th

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    MYCOBACTERIUM LEPRAE INFECTION Lepr

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    POLYENES AMPHOTERICIN B Uses Amphot

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    therapy is adequate though more fre

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    NUCLEOSIDE ANALOGUES ACICLOVIR Uses

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    Table 45.3: Summary of available ac

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    Uses Interferon-α when combined wi

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    ● Introduction 351 ● Immunopath

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    Table 46.1: Examples of combination

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    NON-NUCLEOSIDE ANALOGUE REVERSE TRA

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    FUSION INHIBITORS Uses Currently, e

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    salvage therapy include azithromyci

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    ● Malaria 361 ● Trypanosomal in

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    Pharmacokinetics Chloroquine is rap

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    Table 47.2: Drug therapy of non-mal

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    ● Introduction 367 ● Pathophysi

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    Table 48.1: Classification of commo

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    Polymorph count/mm 3 (a) (b) 10 000

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    doses are used to prepare patients

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    Adverse effects Methotrexate Inhibi

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    Table 48.7: Summary of clinical pha

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    Table 48.9: Summary of the clinical

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    Plasma membrane Signal transduction

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    Table 48.10: Monoclonal antibodies

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    INTERFERON-ALFA 2B Interferon-alfa

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    PART X HAEMATOLOGY

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    ● Haematinics - iron, vitamin B 1

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    one marrow to produce red cells. Th

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    EPO Erythroid precursors Erythrocyt

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    Therapeutic principles The extent o

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    PART XI IMMUNOPHARMACOLOGY

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    ● Introduction 399 ● Immunity a

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    Key points Antigen recognition Expr

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    Table 50.1: Novel anti-proliferativ

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    Key points Treatment of anaphylacti

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    DRUGS THAT ENHANCE IMMUNE SYSTEM FU

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    PART XII THE SKIN

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    ● Introduction 411 ● Acne 411

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    DERMATITIS (ECZEMA) PRINCIPLES OF T

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    SPECIALISTS ONLY SPECIALISTS ONLY E

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    TREATMENT OF OTHER SKIN INFECTIONS

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    effect of too high a dose of UVB in

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    PART XIII THE EYE

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    ● Introduction: ocular anatomy, p

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    to cause pupillary dilatation, name

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    Table 52.3: Antibacterial agents us

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    Table 52.6: Common drug-induced pro

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    PART XIV CLINICAL TOXICOLOGY

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    ● Introduction 433 ● Pathophysi

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    Table 53.2: Central nervous system

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    which provide anonymized data to th

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    Peak plasma levels after smoking ci

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    Key points Acute effects of alcohol

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    FURTHER READING Goldman D, Oroszi G

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    Table 54.2: Common indications for

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    Table 54.5: Antidotes and other spe

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    Commission on Human Medicines (CHM)

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    Note: Page numbers in italics refer

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    atrial fibrillation 217, 221 digoxi

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    Cushing’s syndrome 302 cyclic ade

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    5-fluorouracil 375-6 fluoxetine, mo

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    children 54 diazepam 108 iron prepa

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    non-steroidal anti-inflammatory dru

  • Page 474 and 475:

    puberty (male), delay 314 puerperiu

  • Page 476:

    tolerance 9, 433 benzodiazepines 10

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