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LUNAR OASIS – Architectural Visions for an Integrated Habitat

During the Fall semester 21/22, an experimental collaborative design studio has been held between the Institute for Architecture and Design, Hochbau 2 at TU Wien and the Department of Architecture and Design of Abu Dhabi University. Students from the course Sustainable Design at ADU, and the Space Architecture design studio of TU Wien have been coordinated in mixed groups for a project named Lunar Oasis – Architectural Visions for an Integrated Habitat. Within this collaborative design studio students explored opportunities, limits, and constraints related to the design, construction, operation and implementation of integrated life-support and greenhouse technologies for a habitat in an isolated and extreme environment. The goal was to explore possible solutions in the context of an intercultural and cross-disciplinary design process and transform them into an innovative architectural project. Within the joint studio, students from 24 diff erent countries worked in 11 mixed teams, each consisting of 4-6 students. In 2022, the projects have been presented at the EXPO Dubai, the Copuos - Unoosa conference in Vienna, and the IAC in Paris

During the Fall semester 21/22, an experimental collaborative design studio has been held between the Institute for Architecture and Design, Hochbau 2 at TU Wien and the Department of Architecture and Design of Abu Dhabi University. Students from the course Sustainable Design at ADU, and the Space Architecture design studio of TU Wien have been coordinated in mixed groups for a project named Lunar Oasis – Architectural Visions for an Integrated Habitat.
Within this collaborative design studio students explored opportunities, limits, and constraints related to the design, construction, operation and implementation of integrated life-support and greenhouse technologies for a habitat in an isolated and extreme environment. The goal was to explore possible solutions in the context of an intercultural and cross-disciplinary design process and transform them into an innovative architectural project.
Within the joint studio, students from 24 diff erent countries worked in 11 mixed teams, each consisting of 4-6 students. In 2022, the projects have been presented at the EXPO Dubai, the Copuos - Unoosa conference in Vienna, and the IAC in Paris

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HB2 & ADU

LUNAR OASIS

Architectural Visions for an Integrated Habitat

Research Unit of Building Construction and Design 2 - HB2

Institute of Architecture and Design, TU Wien

&

Department of Architecture and Design

College of Engineering, Abu Dhabi University



LUNAR OASIS

Architectural Visions for an

Integrated Habitat

Design Studio WS 2021

Sustainable Design ARC 540

Research Unit of Building

Construction and Design 2 - HB2

Institute of Architecture and Design

TU Wien

Department of Architecture and

Design

College of Engineering

Abu Dhabi University

2022

HB2


LUNAR OASIS

Architectural Visions for an Integrated Habitat

Cooperative designstudio between the Design Studio WS

2021 [TU WIEN] and Sustainable Design ARC 540 [ADU]

© 2022

Sandra Haeuplik-Meusburger, Paolo Caratelli (Eds.), and students

TU Wien

Faculty of Architecture and Planning

Institute of Architecture and Design

Research Unit of Building Construction and Design, Hochbau 2

www.hb2.tuwien.ac.at

Abu Dhabi University

Department of Architecture and Design

College of Engineering

www.adu.ac.ae

Editors

Dr. Ing. Sandra Häuplik-Meusburger

Dr. Paolo Caratelli

Editorial Assistance

Laura Farmwald

Alessandra Misuri

Franziska Peters

Coverdesign

Alessandra Misuri

ISBN: 978-3-9519864-2-5

Copyright and Credits

All illustrations are copyright of the respective photographers.

The rights of the texts, plans and graphics are held by the

authors. All rights reserved.

Images produced during this cooperative designstudio may be

used for educational or informational purposes. Please credit the

authors / editors.

Project pages are created by the students. Texts and illustrations

are minimally edited.

Print

Vica Druck and Abu Dhabi University

Online

https://issuu.com/hochbau2

Support

The activities held in Austria have been funded by the

Federal Ministry Republic of Austria

Climate Action, Environment, Energy, Mobility

Innovation and Technology

The activities held in UAE have been funded by

Abu Dhabi University, ORSP Research Grant n.19300542


CONTENT

Studio Approach

Abstract

Introduction

Cooperative Design Studio Approach

Presentation at EXPO 2020 Dubai

Presentation at Copuos Unoosa, Vienna

Projects

Lunar Shell

Atrio

Mother Fungus

Inside.Out Garden

Green Lab

Green Luna

The Mobile Nest

The Moon Loop

Lunar Fiber

The Honeycomb

The Students

Academic Team

6

6

8

10

12

19

20

20

40

62

80

100

116

124

138

156

168

180

184


HB2-TUW & ADU | LUNAR OASIS

Poster Design Studio, Image: RobsPuzzlePage.com

6


STUDIO APPROACH

ABSTRACT

During the Fall semester 21/22, an experimental collaborative

design studio has been held between the Institute

for Architecture and Design, Hochbau 2 at TU Wien and

the Department of Architecture and Design of Abu Dhabi

University. Students from the course Sustainable Design

at ADU, and the Space Architecture design studio of TU

Wien have been coordinated in mixed groups for a project

named Lunar Oasis – Architectural Visions for an Integrated

Habitat.

Within this collaborative design studio students explored

opportunities, limits, and constraints related to the design,

construction, operation and implementation of integrated

life-support and greenhouse technologies for a habitat in

an isolated and extreme environment. The goal was to explore

possible solutions in the context of an intercultural

and cross-disciplinary design process and transform them

into an innovative architectural project.

Within the joint studio, students from 24 diff erent countries

worked in 11 mixed teams, each consisting of 4-6 students.

In 2022, the projects have been presented at the

EXPO Dubai, the Copuos - Unoosa conference in Vienna,

and the IAC in Paris.

7


HB2-TUW & ADU | LUNAR OASIS

INTRODUCTION

Since 1972 no human has walked on the Moon. This

is about to change within the next few years. The ‘new

space age’ with a number of governmental and private

entities is targeting for a settlement on the Moon within

2030, as per Artemis’ mission goals. In contrast to the

Apollo missions , men and women from all over the world

and with a variety of cultural and social backgrounds will

become the next Moonwalkers. They will live and work in

an extreme and isolated environment for a much longer

period. Therefore the architectural design and formulation

of the habitat is key for mission success as well as for physical

and mental health.

The cross-cultural experimental design course Lunar Oasis

- Architectural Visions for an Integrated Lunar Habitat

has been initiated between Dr. Sandra Haeuplik-Meusburger

and Dr. Paolo Caratelli, both board members of

AIAA-SATC (Space Architecture Technical Committee).

The idea was joining together the undergraduate Sustainable

Design course at Abu Dhabi University, and the postgraduate

Space Architecture Design Studio at TU Wien

into a multi-disciplinary, cross-cultural design experience,

envisioning a collaborative international milieu.

Three sections of the undergraduate Sustainable Design

course at Abu Dhabi University, and the Master Design

Studio at TU Wien, for a total of 60 students belonging

to 24 different nationalities, attended online the Lunar Oasis

Design Workshop which lasted from 30th of August

to 22nd of November 2021. The goal was to experience

how designing for habitats in space, the most extreme of

the environments, could help in addressing energy and resources

issues more responsibly also on Earth. In short, the

opportunity to design for a lunar habitat could represent a

powerful driver for a better understanding the issues affecting

our ‘ordinary’ terrestrial environment.

Students were therefore introduced to the architectural

design for habitats in isolated, confined, and extreme (ICE)

environments, such as deserts, polar regions, high altitudes,

underwater, and outer space, including habitable spaces

for vehicles such as submarines, airplanes, driverless

cars, and spacecraft. Challenges and design consideration

of individuals and organizations responsible for manned

space missions and mission simulators were considered,

including planetary settlements, and technology spinoffs

for terrestrial austere environments (e.g., remote operational

and research facilities, hospitals, prisons, manufacturing,

etc.). The aim of the course was to equip students

with general insights on the socio-spatial relationship and

the important topic of sustainability from environmental

and social sciences, engineering, industrial design, and architectural

standpoints.

8


STUDIO APPROACH

Online project discussion with the students and international guests

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HB2-TUW & ADU | LUNAR OASIS

COOPERATIVE

DESIGN STUDIO

APPROACH

Within the entire design course, the following three principles

of Extreme Environment Design were explored and

discussed:

First, everything is limited, and you have to do more with

less.

Due to transportation constraints, available space is limited.

Spaciousness and usability have to be increased by

design, rather than by physical volume. We discussed zoning,

multipurpose and versatile spaces. Not only physical

space, but everything is limited: air, water, food, power,

fuel, …even people [1]. Every ‘solution’ must address multiple

things; they cannot take up too much room or power,

while they must not interfere with the operation of critical

systems or human activities.

Second, we have to make either without or substitute

for what is not there.

There is no natural atmosphere, no fauna and flora. In order

to survive, a lunar habitat requires an integrated life-support

system. A greenhouse is necessary for the utilitarian

aspect of food production, but also for representing a

physical and psychological bond with the terrestrial lifecycle.

Currently, those ‘systems’ (the habitat and the greenhouse)

are seen as single (almost ready-made) elements

and are not architecturally connected.

This solely engineering approach misses the restorative effects

of greenery for optimal cognitive functioning in isolated

environments.

Third, everything is a valuable resource.

“Pollution is nothing but the resources we are not harvesting”,

Buckminster Fuller said in 1970 [2,3]. For a habitat in

an extreme environment ‘circularity’ of the use of all ‘resources’

is an important component, representing an optimal

testbed for possible ‘spinoff s’ of sustainable systems

and technologies into ‘ordinary’ buildings.

[1] S. Haeuplik-Meusburger, S. Bishop, Space Habitats and Habitability:

Designing for Isolated and Confined Environments on

Earth and in Space, Springer International Publishing, (2021)

[2] B. Fuller, I seem to be a Verb, Bantam Books, (1970)

[3] B. Fuller, Operating Manual for Spaceship Earth, (1969, reprinted

2008)

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STUDIO APPROACH

The task for the students was to explore opportunities,

limits, and constraints related to the design, construction,

operation and implementation of integrated life-support

and greenhouse technologies for a habitat in an isolated

and extreme Environment. Hence, the expected Learning

Outcomes were synthetically framed as follows:

1- Explore and analyse the limits, constraints, and opportunities

of extreme environmental conditions in relation to

construction, operation and habitability and its consequences

for design;

2- Demonstrate an understanding of design challenges in

isolated, confined, extreme (ICE) environments such as

desert, sea, antarctica, vehicles, and space;

IAC2021 in Dubai, a group of students from Abu Dhabi University

visited the exhibition and had the opportunity to interact

directly with experts and astronauts present there.

The final presentation of projects for course evaluation has

been held online on 29th of November 2021, with the presence

of esteemed guest critics from all over the world

who commented each proposal. To conclude the experience

and celebrate this first coordinated design workshop

between ADU and TUW, a selection of projects has been

presented at the Austrian and Swiss pavilions at Expo2020

in Dubai on 5th of January 2022, and in occasion of the

65th General Assembly of COPUOS-UNOOSA in Vienna

on 8th of June 2022.

3- Select appropriate design strategies given real-world

ICE environments and their limitations;

4- Recognize, discuss and evaluate essential project-related

(structure, material, function and design) issues within

an intercultural group;

5- Develop a multidisciplinary approach in order to systematize

and address multiple issues (technological, environmental,

psychological, physiological) into a coherent

design synthesis;

6- Design for habitats and analogue simulators in ICE environments,

considering design constraints, requirements

and standards;

7- Elaborate a coherent design solution within a set of environmental

constraints, as well as appropriately present it

to a professional audience.

Mixed groups were formed, with TUW master‘s students

acting as team leaders, and ADU undergraduate students

actively collaborating throughout the research and design

development process. In occasion of the Public Day at

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HB2-TUW & ADU | LUNAR OASIS

PRESENTATION

AT EXPO 2020

DUBAI

March 2022, seemed an appropriate opportunity for a presentation

event, with the physical presence of students,

instructors, and guests.

Thanks to the generous availability of the Austrian and

Swiss delegations at EXPO 2020 in Dubai, a full day experience

at EXPO was arranged on 5th of January 2022,

where students would have the opportunity to meet in

person and present publicly their projects, at the presence

of instructors and invited guests.

Due Covid-related restrictions in terms of maximum capability

of people in enclosed spaces, the event was arranged

in two-phases, with a welcome tour at the Austrian pavilion,

where students had the opportunity to experience

firsthand one of the most remarkable pavilions displayed at

EXPO 2020, and then a conclusive projects’ presentations

at the rooftop terrace of the Swiss pavilion.

The final online presentation of projects on 29th of November

2021, with participation of a rich panel of experts,

concluded the experimental teaching and learning experience

initiated at Abu Dhabi University with the Technical

University of Vienna TU Wien.

However, we as instructors and the students as well, felt

the need of more adequate conclusion of this first international

collaboration and interuniversity experience, a conclusive

event which would include the participation of an

enlarged public.

The exquisite kindness and availability of Austrian staff lead

students and guests in a memorable journey into the pavilion,

designed by Querkraft Architekten as a sequence of

timeless spaces, a mystic place where different cultures

meet spatially and sensorially, and the overarching sustainability

concept translates physically into a combination of

vernacular forms and reassuring materials.

After an entire semester necessarily experienced through

distant learning, due geographical and pandemic reasons,

the opportunity to meet in person for the first time was

set as conclusive goal. In between the many side effects

that Covid-19’s pandemic spread globally, the widening in

physical proximity has been accompanied, paradoxically,

by a tightening in social relations and cultural exchanges,

even if virtually mediated. The coincidence with the EXPO

2020 in Dubai, forcibly postponed due the pandemic and

opened to the public from 1st of October 2021 until 31st of

12


STUDIO APPROACH

The integration of technology with forms seemingly shaped

by an ancient wisdom, the passive ventilation induced

by the conical shape of exhibition spaces, and the mesmerizing

effect of natural daylight raining from atop the

vaults, make this pavilion a poetic message to future generations.

Hence, the event shifted to the neighbor Swiss

pavilion, where guests’ reception and projects presentations

would have been arranged in the events’ space at

the rooftop terrace.

13


HB2-TUW & ADU | LUNAR OASIS

Designed by the architecture fi rm OOS, the Swiss pavilion

welcomes its visitors with a giant recessed mirror façade

displaying the red-white national flag, which is in real the

reflection of an immense walkable red carpet leading to

the main entrance.

In fact, “reflections” is the dominant concept here, evoked

through the dematerialized surface of the pavilion inducing

reflections between nature and artifice, past and future,

art and technology, mountain’s breathtaking panoramas

and dystopic cityscapes.

The stereometric, apparently impenetrable shape introverts

a cinematic ascensional experience, an experiential

promenade which starts in the darkness of an early morning

mist of a piedmont valley and rise along a trail to reach

the mountain top, with the sunlight as a reward.

The presentation at the rooftop of this almost alienlike mirror

cube, seemed the perfect conclusion for this educational

journey, initiated as an experiment between two distant

universities, combining in mixed workgroups students of

the most disparate nationalities and cultural backgrounds,

challenging on an advanced topic which is constantly developing,

and in a time of forced seclusion which will be

remembered globally for decades to come.

Overall, we could say without any doubt that the scope

of this first collaboration has been reached: participating

ADU and TUW students have been introduced to a new

advanced aspect of design and fostered to delve and research

into, invited to think critically figuring out original

alternative approaches out of the box, and encouraged

to think about sustainability not as an accrual of abstract

principles ready-to-use, but as an ethical approach to the

living environment, with the hope for a possible future

both on earth as well as in space.

In retrospect, the EXPO itself represented the perfect stage

to present the design experiment between ADU and

TUW during the Fall semester 2021/2022, in a place which

14


STUDIO APPROACH

is collecting an array of contrasting flavors being combined

into an extraordinary new taste, hosting a collection of

concepts variously listed within the message of connecting

people and minds, temporarily concentrated into a

transitional space which would evolve into something else

at the end or simply given back to its previous ordinary

function.

This character of impermanence, constant evolution,

further transformation, disaggregation, and reinterpretation

maybe is marrying perfectly with the experimental

message and quintessence of the habitats which Space

Architecture prefigures, necessarily impermanent through

time, continuously adapting to a challenging, dynamic, and

extreme environment.

15


HB2-TUW & ADU | LUNAR OASIS

16


STUDIO APPROACH

17


HB2-TUW & ADU | LUNAR OASIS

18


STUDIO APPROACH

PRESENTATION AT

COPUOS UNOOSA, VIENNA

Technical Presentation to the Committee on the Peaceful

Uses of Outer Space (COPOUS), 65th session, at the UN

in Vienna on 8th of June 2022

19



LUNAR SHELL

a project by

Flora Münzer, Sara El Masri, Iman Al

Husseini, Rawan Al Solh, Manal Hamdan, Fardous

Al Akrabi

ABSTRACT

Lunar Shell – a safe oasis and self-sufficient research base

for a long term mission.

The motivation for going on a mission to the moon is to

continue exploring and to overcome lunar challenges to

achieve secure habitation. Lunar Shell was designed for

a crew of 6 members to explore the lunar environment,

planetary history and its potential resources. The mission

is planned for 2030 to arrive at Lunars’ South Pole at

the edge of the Shackleton Crater. The goal is gaining

knowledge and supporting diverse scientific disciplines to

develop sustainable technologies within a self-sufficient

system, such as water recovery and solar energy supply

as well as discovering the benefits of local materials. The

architectural design is based on the following implemented

aspects to create a comfortable living environment for the

crew on lunars’ surface: protection, flexibility, sustainability,

wellbeing, supporting science and easy maintenance.

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HB2-TUW & ADU | LUNAR OASIS

LUNAR OASIS

“As you walk through the desert of life, may you always

find your oasis – a place where you can find safety and

sustenance.“ – Everest Hillwalker

Our Lunar Oasis represents the calm during chaos and

symbolises vitality, safety, home, comfortability and limitless

growth. It is a Microcosmos where life sustains and is

surrounded by a cruel environment. This delicate system

has to be protected. The shell represents protection for the

organisms that live in it.

22


LUNAR SHELL

MOTIVATION

Overcoming challenges to

achieve secure habitation and

understanding lunar environment,

planetary history and its potential

resources.

CHALLENGES

• no atmosphere

• severe danger from radiation

• micrometeoroid impacts

• high temperature fluctuations

• rough terrain

GOAL

Gaining knowledge to supporting

science disciplines to develop

sustainable technologies in plant

science. By Integrating Water

recovery and solar energy supply,

we focus on a self-sufficient

system as well as discovering the

benefits of local materials.

https://de.vexels.com/free-vectors/astronaut/.

exe

/free-

vectors/astronaut/

t/.

23


HB2-TUW & ADU | LUNAR OASIS

CONCEPTUAL IDEA

The overall goal, how to integrate the first idea of ISRU and greenhouse.

ISRU

Regolith

A ready construction material found on lunar grounds and

can be solar sintered into meaningful interlocking building

elements. Using thermal energy, it can be sintered into

bricks, blocks, roads and landingpads. Regolith provides

protection from radiation and allows people to live for

extended periods on the moon.

Solar 3D Sintering

Fine raw grains are heated into becoming solid materials.

Sources are sunlight and regolith. Using laser technology

to create precise 3D Objects can be crafted at large scale

in dry environments. This method minimizes transport

of resources transported from earth and contributes to

sustain future exploration on the moon.

Advanced Regolith Protection

The architectural design is based on the following

implemented aspects to create a comfortable living

environment for the crew on lunars’ surface: protection,

flexibility, sustainability, wellbeing, supporting Science

and easy maintenance. The habitat is prefabricated as a

hardshell module with integrated inflatables to extend more

volume.

In addition, to cover itself from harmful impacts, a multilayer

construction with Lunar Regolith is necessary for advanced

protection. The entrance area provides a shelter-like zone

to place suitlocks and charging rovers. This triangular

habitat structure is expandable through additional modules

to an interconnected network.

24


LUNAR SHELL

Crew and Plant Bonding.

GREENHOUSE

Oasis Environment

• atmosphere control, air circulation and recycling

• fully integrated organism within the habitat system

• needs protection from plant disease and contamination

Variety of Oasis Food

• hydroponic system

• small growing cops: herbs, lettuce, radishes

• high growing crops: dwarf tomatoes, capsicum

• high source of energy: potatoes, peas

Crew and Plant Symbiosis

• plant health monitoring and nutrients delivery

• water, air, food for the crew

• closed air loop of CO 2

and O 2

• dining area where the food grows

The Garden

• gardening as an activity

• crew plant relationship

• positive mental health effects

• symbolises vitality

Integrating a Greenhouse is essential for having an Oasis on the moon. It provides food,

cleans the air and brings in gardening activities that have positive mental effects on the crew.

25


HB2-TUW & ADU | LUNAR OASIS

TIMELINE 2021-2050

hnicans c for Engineering

Scientists for Research

Timeline of the Lunar Shell Mission for the next 30 years.

26


LUNAR SHELL

LOCATION

Cratered Lunar South Pole.

Final Location at Lunar

South Pole

+ chosen moon site

location for diverse

gelological Research

+ moon site with 64-

98% light per Lunar

day for unlimited source

of solar

Lunar Shell Position - Peak of eternal light.

27


HB2-TUW & ADU | LUNAR OASIS

DEPLOYMENT

A combination of an inflatable torus and a

telescopic cylinder were the most effective

prefabricable volumes to choose. The inflatabe

gives horizontal volume and allows connections

to other modules through a connection corridor.

The telescopic cylinder is expanding vertically and

allows creating different levels for the habitat.

Deployment of Lunar Shell- from prefabrication to ISRU.

28


LUNAR SHELL

Mission includig robotics can help the crew

to set up the module. The athlete robot does

exact tracking and can position the module

very precisely. Furthermore, the crew prevent

exposing to hazards. All in all robots can be

built to do things that would be too risky for

astronauts.

29


HB2-TUW & ADU | LUNAR OASIS

ARCHITECTUAL

CONCEPT & DESIGN

First: Zoning begins with seperating areas

in 4 big groups by activity and noise level:

1. noisy Machine and LSS, getting in and out

2. private and quiet Crew Quarter

3. the social dining Greenhouse

4. moderate noise working zones

Second: The most effective connection

between those area is this triangular shape.

Third:

Within those areas, there are

seperate and overlapping zones, that have

to be organized and merged within the

habitat.

Diagram of noisy-quiet-social-private functions.

Zoning the habitat for the Design.

30


LUNAR SHELL

PLAN

Expansion

Lunar Shel Main Floor Plan.

31


HB2-TUW & ADU | LUNAR OASIS

HABITAT ZONES

Axonometry of Crew Qarter, Working Area and Greenhouse.

32


LUNAR SHELL

33


HB2-TUW & ADU | LUNAR OASIS

Detailed Plans.

34


PLAN

LUNAR SHELL

The most important aspect of designing the Areas was by

giving the crew the most comfortable and home feeling

atmosphere. Humans living in a can: Creating a well-being

home is a significant parameter of designing a habitat for

this crew to prevent mental health instability and physical

degradation. Following smart facilities are set to enhance

the life in this habitat:

Crew Quarters

• private Sleeping pods

• quiet lounge with a programmed sky

projector

or

• socializing corners

• VR-gym boxes are absorbing noise and sweat

• hammock relaxing zone

Greenhouse

• cooking and dining where the cops are grown

• visual connection of the crew with the plants

• gardening for vital activity and

plant relationship

• quiet Lab and research of the plants in the upper level

Working Area

• workshop and equipment

• 3D printing for spare parts

• science research desk and sample analysing

• storing samples and equipment by creating different levels

• seating areas at cupolas for moon surface view

• climbing and group workout zone with gravity zone

35


A

HB2-TUW & ADU | LUNAR OASIS

SECTION A-A: AIR FLOW

A

Filtering Habitat Water

This could be a research

point at Lunar Shell. Does

Lunar Soil or Lunar Regolith

filter water like the soil on

earth? This can be another

sustainable way, to use and

integrate local resources in

the habitat.

Section A-A showing gthe Working Area and the Greenhouse.

en 36


LUNAR SHELL

Water Extraction from Habitat Air

The atmospheric water generator is a device that extracts water

from humid ambient air. A ventilation system regulates the flow

of the air. With the position of the centerpiece, the generator is

placed here, where the can air flow in all modules at the same time

efficiently.

Biological air filtering System

The plants in the greenhouse are not only growing food, but also

producing Oxygen from used air. There are 3 support columns in

each module, where fresh air from the greenhouse flows through

and gets released on the top parts of the modules. At the same

time, at the bottom part of the support, used air is getting sucked

and flows back to the greenhouse. The transport of the air can be

integrated in the flooring construction,

37


HB2-TUW & ADU | LUNAR OASIS

SECTION B-B: SOLAR ENERGY

B

Solar Mirrors are attached outside of the

Regolith Shell. Sun beams are reflected on the

Solar Mirrors parabolic surface. The receiver,

filled with a fluid that has a deep freezing

point, leads the energy towards the turbine.

Here, electricity is generated and is ready to

use. At the same time, there is a basalt tank,

that stores the heat. In case of an emergency

scenario, this heat can be used for energy

production.

B

Section B-B of Crew Quarter and Solar Energy transport.

38


DETAILS

LUNAR SHELL

Like in an organic shell, this centerpiece is the safest place

in the habitat. In fact, following facilities are arranged in a

systematic way:

• connecting all 3 modules

• same distances from all habitat parts

• getting in and out

• water tanks linked to the hygiene unit

• water walls can be flooded for a safe haven

• LSS (bioreactor, solar still, water collection)

• energy storage with basalt salt

• rover docking station

Multifunctional Zone: LSS, Safe Haven, Water tanks, Hygiene Unit, Getting in and out, Rover docking, Solar Energy storage.

39



ATRIO

a project by

Aysha Alkaabi, Merna Ayman, Alma Kugic,

Valentina Radic, Fatima Saeed, Khairi Zrik

ABSTRACT

Atrio was designed as a research facility that explores the

relationship between humans and plants, with an emphasis

on discovering the full potential of plant development

in a micro-gravity environment. The lunar facility can

accommodate six crew members, planned to arrive in 2027,

with the goal of constructing an ultima-basis, where the

plant research will allow a creation of a self-sustainable

settlement and help the inhabitants to reach full nutritional

independency from Earth. The implementation of plants in

the living areas of the habitat will help to maintain the mental

health and reduce stress and anxiety, which can often occur

in confined environments. Sustainability and habitability are

the main tools, which help us develop an independent and

an agreeable living environment on the lunar surface. By

improving the physiological, socio-cultural factors, as well as

the environmental factors the inhabitants will experience an

increase in the quality of life and professional performance,

which will be reflected on their overall wellbeing.

41


HB2 | LUNAR OASIS

LUNAR OASIS

An oasis on Earth is a testimony of how shear will can force life into

nothingness. It is the vibrant, lively green spot in the middle of a dry,

dead sandy desert, or a small plant forcing itself through asphalt or

concrete. Similarly, a habitat on the moon should be considered the

same way, and should deliver the same feeling. The moon is dead, dry

and silent. A habitat on its surface should act as a sanctuary, breathing

life into this alien, distant environment. It should be a safe haven for

those seeking shelter within it.

Much like a desert oasis, a lunar oasis should provide all the requirements

for sustaining life on the moon. Additionally, since it is on a

completely deserted and alien location, it should offer a sense of security

and belongness to those inhabiting it. A lunar oasis feeling like home

is key to maintain the mental health of its people. Souvenirs, personal

items and even natural elements from earth can aid in emphasizing that

emotion, making people feel like they do actually belong to this place,

or at least feel like they’re safe at home, even when they’re literally out

of their world.

Plants integration into interier

42

Vertical circulation

Library idea


ATRIO

Earth view from the dining space

View from above

43


HB2 | LUNAR OASIS

CONCEPTUAL IDEA

Considering the fact that plants and humans have an

unbreakable bond, the main goal is to discover the full potential

of the plant development in a partial gravity environment,

following the main parameters of habitability and enhancing

the human life conditions .

Sustainability and habitability are the main tools, which

will create an agreeable living environment. By improving

the physiological, socio-cultural factors the inhabitants

will experience an increase in the quality of life and performance,

which will be reflected on their overall wellbeing.

The construction of a

long-term lunar base

The promotion of

habitability following

Maslow’s parameters

Encouragement of

self-sustainability

using ISRU

Exploration of the envirnoment

in order to learn more

about evolution and the

solar system

Plant research that shall

provide an independet and

sustainable lunar diet

In-depth research about

the human well being in

correlation with plants

self-actualisation

desire to become the most that one can be

ESTEEM

respect, self-esteem, status, recognition, strenght, freedom

LOVE AND BELONGING

friendship, intimacy, family, sense of connection

SAFETY NEEDS

personal security, employment, rescources, health, property

PHYSIOLOGICAL NEEDS

air, water, food, shelter, sleep, clothing, reproduction

Once all the essentials of a functioning small society are provided and maintained,

creativity and self-expression shall be next qualities to be polished and improved in

the lunar base inhabitants. Such features, if grown properly, can further emphasize

the feeling of comfort, achievement and belonging no matter how foreign this new

frontier could be.

On foreign, hostile lands, order must be maintained. Respect and appreciation

among the Moon inhabitants shall always be encouraged to further keep them

moving forward in union to achieve the goals behind this expedition.

Since the lunar base inhabitants are already living milions of miles away from their

original home, a sense of connection is considered essential in such a foreign

environment. Social gathering areas in the lunar base are a must to sustain the

need for human connection on a land far away from home.

In order for humans to thrive on the Moon, the lunar base must guarantee a feeling

of security for its inhabitants. It should be considered a sanctuary where humans

can feel safe and protected.

Much like how an oasis in the desert provides life-saving sustenance in the middle of

harsh surrounding, a lunar base has to offer all the basic human needs to make life

possible in such an unhabitable environment. If humankind is to make a home on

the Moon’s surface, all the essentials like air, water, food and shelter must be

provided.

Maslow’s Hierarchy of Needs

44


ATRIO

For the crew members a home is associated with emotions,

and therefore they decide to create the atrio.

Atrio is seen as the main central space, where people can

relax, but also interact and socialize with each other.

45


HB2 HB2 | LUNAR | LUNAR OASIS OASIS

SUSTAINABLE DESIGN ASPECTS

AIR AND WATER SYSTEM

science

lab

library

science

lab

science

greenhouse

kitchen

FOOD PRODUCTION

GREENHOUSE

bathroom

bedroom

grey water

clean water

air flow

bathroom

CONSUMABLES

Water Tank

• Water for the Crew - 1197 kg

• Water for Elecrolysis - 445 kg

• Potential for recycling is 80%

The Crew

• Consumption of Oxygen - 210 kg

• Consumption of Water - 1197 kg

• Needed Nitrogen - 210 kg

H 2

Recycle

• Recycling greywater, waste from the crew

(urine, respiration steam), and wastewater

from the fuel cells

• Recycling is efficient by 80%

Hydrogen Fuel Cells

• Producing oxygen and hydrogen by

performing elecrolysis makes hydrogen fuel

cells to use on rovers and it is more efficient

than batteries, however fuel cells produce

wastewater which can be used later

46


ATRIO ATRIO

SIMPLIFIED LIFE SUPPORT SYSTEM

Urine

Humidity

Condensate

Urine Processor

Water Processor

Brine

Brine Processor

Water Vapor

(To Cabin)

Portable Water

Oxygen

Cabin Air

Purified Air

Oxygen Generator

Carbon Dioxide

Removal

Hydrogen

Carbon Dioxide

Carbon Dioxide

Reduction

Acetylene

(Vented)

OR Carbon

(Solid, Disposed)

Water Quality

Monitor(s)

Air Quality

Monitor(s)

Cabin Air

Trace Contaminant

Control

Microbial

Monitor(s)

CHEMICAL PROCESS

GREENHOUSE 144 kg per month

CH4

Sabatier Reaction

4H2+CO2 - 2H2+CH4

Anaerobic Composting

Heat Reactor

O2

2H2

40, 16L per month

Fertilizer

CH4

Heat

Fertilizer

0.334 l per month

H2O - Water

O2 - Oxygen

N2 - Nitrogen

H2 - Hydrogen

P - Phosphate

NH - Ammonia

H2S - Hydr. Sulphide

CH4 - Methane

K N2 P H20

Molecule Separator

Urine Processor

URINE45L per person per month

Elecrolysis

BIOGAS

CH4

CO2

N2

O2

H2S

NH3

Bioreactor

Rocket Fuel

Human Waste 9.83 kg per person per month

47


HB2 HB2 | LUNAR | LUNAR OASIS OASIS

RESEARCH TOPICS

The Lunar Oasis research focuses around four main topics,

The habitability on moon, Materials and Construction, Lunar

Greenhouse and Sustainability.

HABITABILITY ON MOON

The demand for habitability is present process changes:

Following the preliminary constraints related to short

duration missions, we now need to face the conditions

of long duration and long-distance missions. as a result,

habitability is needed to support performance. In order to

create a habitable space, a certain plan has been drawn up

are to be transported and launched into space.

MODELS IN SPACE

One of the most especially credited models is given by

means of the content of “living Aloft, Human Re- quirements

schema.

HABITABILITY

HUMAN FACTORS HABITABILITY

ENVIRONMENT

HUMAN SPACE

SPACE / ARCHITECTURE

INDIVIDUAL

input output

physiological needs

psychological needs

human technical

interaction

DEVICE / OBJECT

human human

interaction

GROUP / SOCIETY

Figure 2 : The schematic diagram shows the interconnected elements

of the habitability system (credit: Hauplik-Meusburger)

ELEMENTS OF HABITABILITY

The Setting: The physical environment wherein human

operated missions take place is existence-threating and

physically, psychologically and socially demanding. The subcomponents

consist of actual environmental situations, the

most important of which are the length of the task, the

type of habitat, commitments, and many others.

The individual: thus far individuals for space missions come

48

PHYSICAL ENVIRONMENTHEAT & LEISURE PRIVACY COMPLEX EFFECT

FOOD

EXERCISE

ODOR

RECREATION

NOISE

HYGIENE

INTERIOR SPACE

DECOR & LIGHTING

TEMPERATURE &HUMIDITY

Figure 1: NASA Structure of Habitability Requirements

THEORY AFTER EFFECTS

CROWDING MULTIPLE STRESSORS

MECHANISMS

TERRITORIALITY

BASES OF NEEDS

PRIVACY IN SPACE

MEANING & FUNCTIONS

psychological and physical disabilities were selected or

selected in various criteria such as experience, knowledge,

personality and many others. But the subcomponents

consist of mental and physical state, experience, and

behavioural health and cognition.

The group or (Micro) society: In extra-terrestrial habitats a

small group of humans are living together in a enormously

small space. Examples that consist of subcomponents:

others.

component—the individual, the whole group—as well as

the habitat and technical facilities. Subcomponents consist

of : mission length, changes all through the mission, and

scheduling


ATRIO

MATERIALS AND CONSTRUCTION & AUTONOMOUS DEPLOYMENT

Compact form

Autonomous deployment

process

Inflated form

Cupola window with hatch

PRIMARY STRUCTURE

Rigid core - Aluminum 2024-T4

• MMOD Layer (Al 2024-T4) 26.5cm

• Load Bearing Layer, Top (Al 2024-T4) 20 mm

• Load Bearing Layer, Front/Back (Al 2024-T4) 80 mm

• Load Bering Layer, Bottom (Al 2024-T4) 125 mm

Integrated stairs and ladder

secondary STRUCTURE

Load-bearing beams

Floor panels

Wall panels

inflatable STRUCTURE

External Layers:

• Dust resisting layer: - Nextel AF-62

• MMOD Shielding: - MLI for thermal control

- MMOD fabric layer layer (Nextel AF-62)

- MMOD lightweight polyurethane foam

Restraint Layer: - Kevlar

Internal Layers:

• Redundand Bladders: - Air Containment Layer

- Bladder Separation Layer (Aramid Kevlar)

- Nomex – meta aramid as inner liner

49


HB2 | LUNAR OASIS

GREENHOUSE SYSTEMS

AIR MANAGEMENT SYSTEM

The prototype greenhouse gets its carbon dioxide from

pressurized cylinders, but astronauts in the lunar colony

might just breathe it in. Each petal‘s air is controlled

each batch. Every petal has a connecting ring that connects

it to the habitat air loops.

NUTRITION AND OXYGEN

A viable source of oxygen — the protein-rich algae could

someday make up as much as 30 percent of an astronaut’s

diet.

The algae-powered bioreactor, called the Photobioreactor,

represents a major step toward creating a closed-loop lifesupport

system, which could one day sustain astronauts

without cargo resupply missions from Earth.

WATER SYSTEM

The water cycle begins with freshwater that either be with

the astronauts or discover where it is from there. That

water is then oxygenated and given nutrient salts. That

of the plants and returning to the system. We can run it

in the makeup water for the plants, which transpire it into

the atmosphere of the greenhouse, and we condense that

atmosphere, and we get clean water.

The crew uses this water for hygiene, water for drinking,

and other purposes. Then this wastewater is generated,

which goes into the composter, and you harvest this Gray

water from the composter‘s atmosphere.

LIGHT SYSTEM

LED LIGHTS

Replacing water-cooled high-pressure sodium (HPS)

NUTRIENT

OXYGENATION

CREW RESPIRATION

OXYGEN

CARBON

DIOXIDE

prototype lunar greenhouse result in an increased amount

of high-quality edible indoor crops while dramatically

(depends on a recent study from NASA ).

COMPOST

WASTE

INCINERATION

HUMAN WASTE

AQUEOUS

BIOREACTOR

OXYGEN

GREENHOUSE

COMPOSTER

MICROBIAL

RESPIRATION

ORGANICS FILTER

CARBON

DIOXIDE

Figure 3: Atmosphere Recitalization Pathway

Figure 4: LED Lights System

50


ATRIO

LUNAR SUSTAINABILITY

Water Mining - Water extracted from the lunar poles may

be used to create propellants and provide water to a human

settlement on the Moon.

Metal Mining - the lunar soil is enriched in metals in the

form of oxides Silicon, aluminum, calcium, iron, magnesium,

and titanium make up the bulk of the oxides found in the

lunar regolith. Metal extraction from lunar soil is inextricably

linked to oxygen extraction, which is required to maintain

human life on the Moon because the latter must be

removed from minerals by separating the oxide molecules.

In situ metals manufacturing, together with other facilities

and equipment, maybe a source of raw materials for the

construction of spacecraft and rocket structures.

Power - Solar concentrators might provide heat for

activities such as 3D printing, while photovoltaic arrays

could create energy. Lasers might send energy from the

bright portions to the shaded sections. Solar-powered

electrolyzers might split water into oxygen and hydrogen,

which can then be used as a propellant or recombined in

fuel cells to generate electricity at night.

Figure 5: No Waste Away

WASTE MANAGEMENT

Recycling Organic Trash

Anaerobic composting is another method of composting.

Anaerobic composting occurs spontaneously in nature

when microorganisms decompose organic materials

without the need for oxygen, resulting in high-quality

anaerobic compost.

Converting waste to fertile soil produces heat which is

perfect for long lunar nights and The process of composting

anaerobically produces a biogas (e.g. methane and carbon

dioxide), bi-product which can be captured and used as an

alternative energy or fuel.

Recycling Plastics and Metals

plastic and metals can be recycled and used in 3D printing

to print safe items for food and medical use and that way it

helps to save room and space on the lunar base.

Oxygen for survival

we can get oxygen by electrolysis splitting water into

hydrogen and oxygen and also from nature (plants and

the oxygen and storing it. Algae create the most oxygen

on the earth and can absorb carbon dioxide. As a result,

humans may employ this capacity to minimize carbon

dioxide while producing more oxygen.

51


HB2 | LUNAR OASIS

TIMELINE

infrastructure

deployment

2025

robotic assembly

of the habitat

Initial habitat components have been launched

to the Moon and are robotically assembled

before the arrival of astronauts

arrival of 6 crew

members

2027

Creation of se

sustainable settl

Plant research will allow a creatio

diet which would help the inhabit

nutritional independency fr

spacex starship

Diameter: 9 m

Landing the habitat on the

Moon

Robotically placing the

habitat on the Moon

surface

EARTH

space

moon

In order to plan in advance and develop a sustainable

process that minimizes energy, space and resource

consumption, a specific timeline has been set. It describes

the operations through a time period of 4 years and it is

divided in 3 steps.

In the year 2025, the first step called Infrastructure

deployment is planned, where initial habitat components

are launched to the Moon. The robotic assembly of the

habitat is predicted to be done before the arrival of astronauts.

52


ATRIO

selftlement

ultima

basi

2029

Crew:

Duration:

Distance:

6 astronauts

3 days

386,400 km

tion of sustainable

bitants reach a full

y from Earth

Captain Pilot Engineer 1 Engineer 2 Scientist 1 Scientist 2

Inflating the habitat

Piling up regolith

around the habitat

Adding an Airlock

and two Greenhouse

modules

3D sintering regolith

around the habitat

Science

Greenhouse

Emergency

Airlock

Food

Production

Greenhouse

After landing, the habitat is placed on the lunar surface and

inflated. A certain amount of regolith is piled around the

habitat. Two airlocks and two greenhouse modules are

added and connected and finally a layer of regloth is

sintered around it as a radiaton protection.

The Arrival of 6 crew members is predicted in the year

2027, and their task is going to be to create a self sustainable

settlement that has full nutritional independency from

Earth. The finalisation of this goal is expected in the year

2029 in the third fase called: Ultima basi.

53


HB2 HB2 | LUNAR | LUNAR OASIS OASIS

ARCHITECTUAL

CONCEPT & DESIGN

The location that was chosen is the Lunar South Pole, due

to it's potential pressence of water in the eternal shadowed

craters, almost always available sunlight that casts

long shadows, mild temperature differences in comparison

to the Moon’s equator, diverse terrain and Earth visibility

that is necessary for communication.

More precisely, the Shackleton crater ridge (lat -89.46, lon

175.36) was chosen because it offers best sunlight to

darkness ratio. Even during the worst lunar day the longest

period of darkness is ~7 Earth days, with shortest periods

of light between darkness of ~3 Earth days

potential

presence

of water

available

sunlight

MILD

temperature

differences

diverse

terrain

EARTH

VISIBILITY

300° e

30° e

300° e

60° e

10

1.50

0.75

0

0.00

270° e

90° E

-0.75

-10

-1.50

240° e

210° e

150° e

120° e

-20

-2.25

-3.00

-3.75

Lunar South Pole

180°

SCALE 1:6078683 (1mm = 6.0786683 km) AT -90° latitude

polar stereographic projection

1000 500 0 500 1000 km

-90°

-90°

-70°

-70°

-55°

-55°

-10 0 10 20

Shackleton Crater Ridge (lat -89.46, lon 175.36)

54


ATRIO ATRIO

Components that

are placed on the

lunar surface are:

inflatable habitat,

greenhouses for

food production

and solar panels

for production of

elecrtical energy.

Water is extracted

from the nearby

Shackleton crater

and oxygen out of

regolith.

Landing pad is

located 1.5 km

away, and can be

reached with

pressurized lunar

vehicle.

greenhouse

solar energy

regolith

crater

food

production

Electrical

energy

oxygen

production

water

extraction

shielding against : radiation

micrometeorites

extreme temperature

HABITAT

habitat includes:

sleeping quarters

food & Dining areas

washrooms

body training

social areas

work areas

communication

suitport

airlock

pressurized

lunar vehicle

Site Organisation

earth direction

0 10 20 30 40 50

landing

site

oxygen

production

WATer supply

power supply

1.5 km

away

SHACKLETON

CRATER

lunar

vehicle

communication

Site Plan

55


HB2 HB2 | LUNAR | LUNAR OASIS OASIS

01 st FLOOR

The greenhouses are separated

into two modules:

one for food production and

the other one for research

purposes. The food production

greenhouse is connected

directly to the kitchen.

01

04

02 03

05

10

06

09

07

08

01

Lunar Ve

hicle

02

Emer

ergenc

en yAirloc

rlock

with

Suitpor

tports

ts

03

Dist

ributor

Module

04

Food

Pro

duct

ction

Greenhous

house

05

Kitc

hen

06

Dinn

ing Area

04

11

08

Bath

room

09

Working

Area

10

Med

Lab

11

Airlock

with

Suitports

07

Gym

02 nd FLOOR

The research greenhouse

doesn‘t have a direct access.

It is controlled through

the robotic arm and the

space is connected directly

to the science lab, allowing

a direct examination of the

samples.

14

12

13

16

15

16

12

Livi

ng Area

13

Gym

14

Scie

nce Lab

15

Dist

ributor

Module

16

Scie

nce

Greenhou

se

56


ATRIO

SECTION

07

03

09

08

12

01

02

04

11

Elastic Safety

Net

05

11

06

10

06

Saf

afe H

aven Door

Sys

tem - Sleepi

epi

ng

quarte

rters

rs are used

as a

saf

e

h

ave

nin n case

of

as

sola

r particl

icle ee

e

vent

01

Emerge

gency

Airlo

ck

02

Distri

ibut

or Module

03

Sci

ence e Lab

07

Librar

y

08

Livinging

Area

09

Dinnin

ning gA

rea

04

Kit

chen

05

Sleepiepi

ng Quarte

rter

06

Storag

age

10

11

12

Air and Wate

rSyst

ystem

Bat

athro

hroom

om

Distri

ribut

or Module

57


HB2 | LUNAR OASIS

•When it comes

to the selection

of the functional

plants, one of the

most important

criteria was the

nutritional value

and the benefits

that they are

offering the crew

members at the

same time various

and tasteful meals.

•The main idea is

to implement a

plant-based diet

and through the

greenhouse cultivation.

In this way

the inhabitans will

reach a full nutritional

independency

from Earth.

58


ATRIO

What smells so

good down

there?

Mia is cooking

with thymne again!

HOW DO WE IMPLEMENT OUR CULTURAL VALUES?

Yes, we cook a lot

with thyme in Italy!

Didn’t know that

you use it so much

as we do in Africa!

• As humans, we want

to take our cultural

values and implement

them into new spaces

that we explore.

• The herb pallete is

selected in the way that

their origin and usage

is common to several

continents.

La menta è

meglia!

In Cuba you’ll get

a good old Mojito!

A Vietnamesse

Pho!

I think

Taboulleh

beats y’all!

So what can you

guys get with

mint in your

countries?

• It is a way to increase

the bond between the

lunar base inhabitants,

where everybody

promotes their own culture,

using the common

herbs in a specific way.

THE MENTAL BENEFITS OF

Jasmin helps me

PLANTS

to sleep.

Lavender helps me to

relax, so I am finally

able to play!

Aloe vera helps me with

stress and depression.

• Plants are also considered

to be a pleasant

environment creator,

since they produce

oxygen and help in the

regulation of humidity.

Narcissus brings me

energy.

Chrysanthemum

boosts my mood.

Great! Calendula

helps me heal!

So how are you

feeling today?

• The implementation

of plants in the living

areas of the habitat

will help to maintain

the mental health

and reduce stress and

anxiety, which can

often occur in confined

environments.

59


HB2 | LUNAR OASIS

DETAILS

However a future lunar society might look like, people will

spend most of their time indoors. In order for the crew to

stay mentally stable over a long period of time it is very

important not to feel trapped in a confined space. That’s

why one of the main design principles was to create a fluid

spatial programm with spaces as open and connected as

possible. An open space with visual links between different

levels sparks interest and encourages crew communication

and motion of the body and contributes to good

mental health.

Greenhouse

Med La

Greenhouse

Sleeping Quarter

Interior view

Interior view

Library

60


ATRIO

Lab

Work Area

Exterior view

61



project by

Mahsa Abdi, Ludovica Breitfeld

Margaryta Kaliberda, Sara Laila, Fatemeh

Mohammadi, Shada Salloum

ABSTRACT

Mother Fungus is a fungi-based biotechnology research

center on the Moon. Self-propulsion and-self regeneration

are catalyst engines for the topic of sustainability on the

Moon.

A myco-structure off-planet, whose aim is to study and test

out future strategies based on the use of fungi as building

material which can tackle down multiple challenges of

inhabiting an extreme environment such as the Moon‘s one.

By investigating one of the world’s most sought-after

fungi, we examine the possibility of life on such a remote

environment such as the lunar one. The research might lead

to various outcomes due to the fungi‘s versatilities and to

future bio-technological strategies.

63


HB2-TUW & ADU | LUNAR OASIS

LUNAR OASIS

An oasis is a complex system based on a harmonic blend

of coexistence. A virtuous circuit capable of self-propulsion

and self-regeneration. The oasis is self-sustainable and

doesn’t produce waste. Everything is essential and

therefore a source.

The Oasis is a complex web of interconnections between

humans, animals, plants & other beings. It‘s a place where

we get the chance to learn from the errors of the past to

live in complete balance and respect of nature.

An oasis is a place of hope, to learn from existing sources

and a catalyst of possibilities. A place that needs to be

taken care of.

An Oasis is a place of desire and of balance between living

things. An Oasis is resilient, where existing in-situ resources

are the driving forces to a whole new system.

CONCEPTUAL IDEA

WHAT A RARE MUSHROOM CAN TEACH US ABOUT SUSTAINING

LIFE ON A FRAGILE PLANET...

Throughout history, our ecosystem has witnessed some

catastrophic events such as the Hiroshima and Nagasaki

atomic explosion which jeopardized life on Earth. The

Matsutake was among the first signs of life to appear in

such a tragically alien landscape after the atomic explosions

and today is a symbol of rebirth and regeneration, due to its

extraordinary resilience capabilities. Matsutake is the most

valuable mushroom in the world and a weed that grows in

human-disturbed forests across the northern hemisphere.

Through its ability to nurture trees, matsutake helps forests

to grow in daunting places. It is also an edible delicacy in

Japan, where it is sold at astronomical prices.

THE LIFE-CYCLE OF FUNGI & THE ROLE OF MYCELIUM

Looking closely to the life-cycle of fungi, we can see how its

existence can be seen as a closed-loop system.

The first phase of the fungal life cycle is the spore phase. All

fungi begin as spores that are ‘haploid,’ meaning they only

have one copy of all their genetic information. This is similar

to human sex cells, like sperm and eggs. These spores

can travel vast distances from where they were produced

by hitching a ride on another organism or even the wind.

Once the spore lands in a favorable environment, it will

germinate and grow a mass of ‘roots’ called a mycelium.

These support the spore just like roots by finding nutrients

to help the spores grow.

As the mycelium grows, it may encounter another,

compatible fungi. If this occurs, the cells from each

individual fungi can fuse together to form one, single cell.

These fused cells are now ‘diploid’ meaning they have two

copies of all their genetic information. This is like the rest of

all human cells that aren’t sex cells.

These cells then undergo a process called ‘meiosis.’ This is

when a single cell splits into two cells. Importantly, during

this fission, the genetic information from each parent gets

jumbled up and mixed together. The resulting two ‘daughter’

cells are neither identical to either of their parents nor

each other. This is how fungi (and all sexually reproductive

organisms) maintain their genetic diversity. 1

All fungi are heterotrophic, which means that they get the

energy they need to live from other organisms. Like animals,

fungi extract the energy stored in the bonds of organic

compounds such as sugar and protein from living or dead

organisms. Many of these compounds can also be recycled

for further use. 2

1

https://www.plantsnap.com/blog/intro-to-the-fungi-life-cycle/

64

2

http://www2.clarku.edu/faculty/dhibbett/tftol/content/3interaction.html


MOTHER FUNGUS

Scarcity is not a threat, since

every little thing, even the most

inconceivable, serves a purpose and

therefore becomes of vital necessity

for its existence.

65


HB2-TUW & ADU | LUNAR OASIS

LOCATION

A 3d trace-mapping is performed robotically in advance in order to look out for possible lava tubes.

The Base is located in the proximity of the Shackleton Crater, in the South-Pole coordinates.

Lava tubes create caves beneath lunar surface that could serve as protective living areas for

future explorers. Lava tubes offer a stable temperature environment as well as shielding from

solar & cosmic radiation, meteoroids and ejecta.

PHASES

.exploration and creation of a map

of lava tubes on the south pole,

near Shackleton Crator

FUTURE VISION

The idea of using lava tubes is integrated in the future vision

of Mother Fungus.

Although the future settlement will be expanded into a

suitable lava tube, the Base will carry on its function as a

research, production and surface outpost facility. Bricks

produced in the Base, made of fungi and plant waste, will

be used as construction materials.

EXPLORATION - ROBOTIC

PAYLOAD

robotic | ATHLETE x2

solar panels

SHACKLETON CRATOR

89.9°S 0.0°E

equipment

rover

66

foto: „peppering of craters at the Moon’s south pole“

(ESA/SMART-1/AMIE camera team; image mosaic: M. Ellouzi/B. Foing, CC BY-SA 3.0 IGO)


MOTHER FUNGUS

.selection of a suitable lava tube

for future settlement

.the Base construction on the

Moon‘s surface

.excavation of a slope to acces

lava tube

.crew arrival (6 people)

.inhabitation of the Base

.start of research & fungi-bricks

production

.completion of slope

.preparation of lava tubes‘s surface

.start of fungi-settlement

.completion and move into

fungi-settlement

.further use of the Base as

research & production facility

CONSTRUCTION - ROBOTIC INHABITATION - ROBOTIC EXPANSION - ROBOTIC & HUMANS FUTURE VISION

habitat module x1

airlock

greenhouse / lab

module x4

connection modules

airlock

crew x6 people

supplies

equipment

rover

materials for future fungi-settlement

.fungi-bricks:

produced in the motherbase from a mycelia & plant waste;

baked using solar energy

.furniture:

produced from fungi on the Moon

.airtight inner layers, additional airlocks, necessary supplies and

equipment for new habitat modules:

brought from Earth on request

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HB2-TUW & ADU | LUNAR OASIS

DEPLOYMENT

1

2

.the deployment of the inflatable

module begins with 3d-sintering of

regolith in order to make stable and

even surface for the Base

.an initial structure inflates after release of compressed O 2

from canisters

embedded within the pneumatic tubes

3

4

.to fill wall structure with mycelia N, CO 2

and H 2

O are released into a

growth cells

.growth of the rooms‘ and furniture‘s

modules is activated within a

completed structure

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MOTHER FUNGUS

CREW

The Biotechnology Research Centre for fungi-based

materials and structures on the Moon hosts 6 crewmembers

belonging to different expertises.

The six astronauts are testing different biotechnological

strategies for sustaining life on the Moon.

1 x BIOSCIENTIST

1 x MYCOLOGIST

1 x ENGINEER

3 x ASTRONAUTS

5

.to ensure radiation protection of the

Base, the wall cavity is filled with

hydrogen produced from fungi

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HB2-TUW & ADU | LUNAR OASIS

SITE PLAN & SECTION

ATHLETE performs a maintenance

for solar panels

ATHLETE’s weekly

check of the slope

for any damages

EARTH

LAVA TUBE PIT

srover in process of docking;

research team returned from

a three day mission

SLOPE

INTO THE LAVA TUBE

ROVER GARAGE

SOLAR PANELS

THE BASE

rover on its way up from the lava

tube after delivering harvest from

the Base’s greenhouses

FUTURE FUNGI

SETTLEMENT

70


MOTHER FUNGUS

FLOOR PLAN - LEVEL 1

B

2 2

A

A

5

6 7

8

1

1

9

10

12

11

3 4

FLOOR PLAN - LEVEL 2

B

B

A

15

13

14

13 13

A

13

13

14

13

16

1

2

3

4

5

6

7

8

airlock

greenhouse: food

greenhouse: mycelia

lab & fungi-brick production

bouldering

workshop

kitchen

dining area

B

9

10

11

12

13

14

15

16

medical room

life support

working area

leisure greenhouse

sleeping unit

wc

cinema

library

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HB2-TUW & ADU | LUNAR OASIS

3D SECTION B-B

The two floors habitat, has 3 types of vertical connections:

one climbing wall, one circular staircase and a steel pole.

Each of them connecting to unique heights and spaces.

Different spatial arrangements are safely kept separate from

each other, a certain level of communication is nevertheless

facilitated between both habitat and creation sections.

sleeping unit

library

food production

food production:

service station

kitchen & dining area

leisure greenhouse

72


MOTHER FUNGUS

sleeping unit

Another kind of connection relies on the visual level.

Communication between the different modules and the

outside space, is made possible through the windows, and

an overlook to the starry sky and the Earth is therefore

impelled.

sport stop:

yoga / aerobic / stretching / etc.

mycelia production

working area

life support

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HB2-TUW & ADU | LUNAR OASIS

VISUAL CONNECTIONS & SECTION A-A

airlock

lunar landscape

1st level

habitat starry sky

2nd level

74


MOTHER FUNGUS

dining room greenhouse

1st level

library Earth

2nd level

lab

habitat

1st level

75


HB2-TUW & ADU | LUNAR OASIS

WALL STRUCTURE

The inflatable, mycelia filled wall structure was inspired by:

NASA’s accepted proposal “Myco-architecture off planet: growing surface structures

at destination” - NASA Institute for Advanced Concepts, phase 1, Dr. Lynn Rothschild

Tje section through the wall shows all main layers of inflatable structure with their

tasks, requirements and suggested materials; and a mycelia part of a structure with

growth cells, supply, return and proton exchange membranes.

ATOMIC OXYGEN

PROTECTION

protect

against atomic

oxygen

betaglass fabric

MLI LAYER

MULTI-LAYER INSULATION

help maintain

thermal control of the

module’s shell and

interior atmosphere

aluminized material &

aluminized polyimide

RADIATION PROTECTION FOR WINDOWS

The concept of a radiation protection for windows follows the principal developed

by bioHAB 3.0 from redhouse studio. When unused, windows can be closed and

protected from radiation with inflated, hydrogen-filled bladders.

.open position

.clear view

.release of H+ ions

into bladders

.fully closed

.protected from radiation

76


MOTHER FUNGUS

DEPLOYMENT SYSTEM

LAYER

MMOD PROTECTION

LAYER

RESTRAINT LAYER

H+ ION CAVITY

BLADDER LAYER

INNER LINER

protects restraint &

bladder layers from

hyper-velocity impact

damage

execute controlled &

predictable deployment,

restrain the shell during

launch

structural layer

carries loads & stresses

.strong & stiff

.flexible & foldable

.packing & deployment

without degradation

radiation protection

gas (air) barrier

.durable

.flexible

.low permeability at

high & low temp.

barrier for the crew

.flame-resistant

.easy to clean

.durable

.puncture resistant

nextel & kevlar fabric

contains

Hydrogen+ ions

polymeric materials &

felt cloth

PTFE coated

fiberglass fabric

PROTON EXCHANGE

MEMBRANE

split H into electrons &

H+ ions

RETURN

MEMBRANE

extract O 2

& H

RETURN

MEMBRANE

contain grown mycelia

structure

e.g. saprophytic fungi

SUPPLY

MEMBRANE

supplies

N & CO 2

& H 2

O

HEAT-TRACE

PNEUMATIC MEMBRANE

supplies heat to growing

cells, creates right

conditions

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HB2-TUW & ADU | LUNAR OASIS

RESEARCH TOPICS

what This project’s are the MAIN main researchtopics, focus is fungi. This the focus research of the is studying project,

how the integration to use ISRU of (1-5 fungi double in the pages structure as needed) of a lunar habitat. It

also focuses on the multi-use of fungi in different aspects

„Lorem whether ipsum it was dolor for consuming, sit amet, consectetur or the interior, adipiscing spacesuits, elit,

sed microfiltration, do eiusmod or tempor using the incididunt waste as ut labore a substrate et dolore to produce magna

aliqua. fungi bricks Ut enim which ad minim will be veniam, used in quis the future nostrud phase exercitation of this

ullamco project. laboris nisi ut aliquip ex ea commodo consequat.

Duis aute irure dolor in reprehenderit in voluptate velit

esse Fungi cillum are very dolore resilient eu fugiat and nulla resistant pariatur. towards Excepteur multiple sint

occaecat challenges cupidatat we face non the proident, moon so sunt it potential in culpa it qui is a officia great

deserunt option that mollit can anim be id used est laborum.“ in all aspects of living on the

moon wither it was for structure because of it is resilient

„Sed and strong ut perspiciatis character unde or of omnis protecting iste natus from error radiation sit

voluptatem since radiation accusantium enhance the doloremque growth of laudantium, melanized fungi totam or

consuming rem aperiam, this eaque high protein ipsa quae food, ab etc... illo inventore veritatis et

quasi architecto beatae vitae dicta sunt explicabo. Nemo

How enim to ipsam grow voluptatem Fungi on the quia moon? voluptas sit aspernatur aut

odit aut fugit, sed quia consequuntur magni dolores eos qui

antibacterial

ratione voluptatem

come in

sequi

– a kind

nesciunt.

of bacterium

Neque porro

that can

quisquam

use

est, qui dolorem ipsum quia dolor sit amet, consectetur,

energy from theSun to convert water and carbon dioxide

adipisci velit, sed quia non numquam eius modi tempora

into

incidunt

oxygen

ut

and

labore

fungus

et dolore

food. So,

magnam

choosing

aliquam

the most

quaerat

suitable voluptatem. fungi Ut type enim which ad is minima Ermanno veniam, lucid-um quis according nostrum

to exercitationem the research ullam with providing corporis food suscipit for the laboriosam, Cecelia and nisi ut

choosing aliquid ex the ea commodi right temperature, consequatur? the fungi Quis will autem not just vel eum

grow iure reprehenderit easily but fast qui as in well.(hangman, ea voluptate velit 2020) esse quam nihil

molestiae consequatur, vel illum qui dolorem eum fugiat quo

1) voluptas Substrate: nulla Algae, pariatur?“ or plant composites

2) Temperature: 23°C to 30°C

3) Lighting by LED or solar concentrators

4) Water carny by plastic sleeves

Lunar Greenhouse would help keep a crew-member alive

for about 2 years without any outside supplies. Greenhouse

provides all oxygen need for crew member and

the their waste will be added with vitamins and microbial

composer and after filtration it can use for greenhouse

directly.

As the diagram explaining greenhouses are having this

ability to grow and provide 50% of crew-member food,

100% of their water and 100% of the fresh air need. all

the greenhouse waste will condense and filter and mix

with all the water waste from different source and will

reuse for greenhouse.

(space greenhouse,2018)

Hydroponic fungi greenhouse consideration :

• Consider lighting and humidity

• Around 30 days vegetables are ready to use

• Carbon dioxide is fed into the greenhouse from pressurized

tanks, but astronauts would also provide CO 2 at the

lunar base simply by breathing.

• Similarly, water for the plants could be extracted from

astronaut urine

(D. Subbed,2019)

Sustainablity on the moon

The concept of vernacularity and the reduction of human

footprint on the site location stands at the base of our

analyses. Our architectural approach is “hyperlocal”,

which leverages the concept of in-situ resource utilization

(ISRU) to create sustainable living solutions for extreme

environments in remote places.

so we take advantage of the existing morphology of the

moon since we don‘t want to make the same mistake of

leaving extreme footprint as we did on earth, but rather we

should use what‘s already existing there.

In this project we have adopted various sustainable

methods such as ISRU, mycofiltration, reduce, reuse, and

recycle method, which can immensely help in keeping track

and limit the footprint we create on the moon.

78


MOTHER FUNGUS

Mycelium brick production

Growing mycelia in molds procedure:

1. Ground the substrate into a loose particles.

2. Sterilized the substrate and put everything under

laminar flow hood.

3. Divided the substrate among the bags and record

weight of the bags.

4. Re-sterilizing with ethanol and put it back under

laminar flow hood.

5. Added a specific amount of PDY will help easily

substrate to break down.

6. Substrate plates of mycelium were added.

7. Bags were filled, they were sealed (30 °C for 1-2

weeks)

8. Once mycelium grown, material was remixed under

the laminar flow hood.

9. Packed into molds and baked at 120 °C for several

hours.

design studio - group assignment #2 (M.Abdi, L.Breitfeld, M.Kaliberda, S.Laila, F.Mohammadi, S.Salloum)

79



by Nahida Shamim, Samiya Khan, Manal Al

Hosani, Amira Mayassi, Mohammed Alghazo &

Milomir Milenkovic

ABSTRACT

We have started with analyzing existing approaches done

by different design studios and science teams. While there

were great projects focusing on the first step to establish

manned bases outside of our globe, there was a lacking

in the possible growth from those bases into settlements

and further into cities. In order to achieve cohesive steps

between the stages of growth, we were looking for specific

patterns. Islamic Tessellations and their geometric nature

allowed us the most freedom while giving us a set of rules

to follow.

The other two points of emphasis are concerned with the

use of space inside the habitat. How do the astronauts

move in 1/6 of gravity without a heavy spacesuit? How can

greenhouses be integrated with living and working spaces

to create interesting and diverse spaces, which fully achieve

the unique potential of living on the moon surface? Living

inside a lunar habitat should be fun and exciting while also

making maximal use of the limited space available.

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HB2-TUW & ADU | LUNAR OASIS

LUNAR OASIS

When we start thinking about an Oasis, we feel the coolness

of the shadow cast by the trees. We smell the sweetness of

the fruits traveling with the wind. We hear the fresh stream

of the water, filling the place with live. All these images

convey an essence of sensation.

Living on the lunar surface means living far away from

home. It is a deserted place without live, without flowing

water, without sound. In order to create sensations, we

need to look at the limited resources which are available to

us and how we can combine them to more than their parts.

82

storyboard: looking for a pen


INSIDE.OUT GARDEN

Living on the lunar surface also means being able to move

in 1/6 of gravity. Instead of the conventional 30 cm jump on

Earth you’ll be able to jump nearly two meters. If you’re as

talented as Michael Jordan, you’ll be able to jump over six

meters while being airborne for more than 5 seconds. For

the duration time of the mission, you’ll feel like a bona fide

superhero by just moving around.

On the other hand, you want to have familiar sensations

from back home & plants can play a big part in that regard.

Living so far away, you want to be as independent as

possible. Growing your own crops and feeding of them

will be an integral part in living extraterrestrially. The big

question is:

How can we incorporate the needed greenhouses in a

creative and psychologically beneficial way?

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HB2-TUW & ADU | LUNAR OASIS

CONCEPTUAL IDEAS

Looking at the points we’ve mentioned prior, we can

identify two main topics of interest. First, how to implement

the greenhouse(s) to help the extraterrestrial settlers feel

at ease and therefore help their concentration levels over

long periods of the mission. The other question is how

to include big spacious areas to fully make use of the

settlers “superhuman powers” while using the limited and

“expensive” space as efficient as needed.

jumping salute, Apollo 16 mission (NASA)

Let’s focus on the second question first. The inclusion of

“large” spaces in which free lunar movement is possible, is

far from just the sake of fun. Astronauts have to exercise

extensively during their stay in micro or lunar gravity, which

takes up a significant portion of their daily schedule. If they

do not, they would lose muscle mass and have medical

issues. Early research indicates, the motion and physical

stress of jumping is not only better suited for moving around,

but may also limit the amount of exercise needed. In a way

we are looking at the past and the first space “walks” for

inspiration to create a novel environment for the future.

moondulor

84


INSIDE.OUT GARDEN

In order to create those “free movement spaces”, we are

not designing moduels that function as rooms. Instead, we

look at the attributes needed for the specific tasks or needs

and think of how the designed space can accommodate it.

We separate the specific zones in three categories: privacy,

sharing & cooperating.

Privacy for example is needed for the sleeping quarters,

together with a certain tranquility. Cooperating spaces on

the other hand also need a certain degree of tranquility

but the space has to be more open and accessible. The

interesting part is, how you can transform the space in

between the defined categories and allocate the limited

space.

zonal allocation of space

greenhouse inside & outside

A big part of how to differentiate the zones lies in the way

we intend to integrate the greenhouses. The layout is pretty

simple. In one example the greenhouse wraps around the

living quarters and in the other version the greenhouse is

in the center of it. Depending on the number of habitat

modules and their relative location to each other, there will

be areas which will be traversed more frequently than others

and therefore have different characteristics. In combination

with the greenhouses, we can further accentuate or limit

the innate nature of those areas.

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HB2-TUW & ADU | LUNAR OASIS

PATTERN LANGUAGE:

ISLAMIC TESSELLATIONS

ISS (ESA)

NASA 3D printed habitat challenge (Hassell)

Moon village (SOM)

86


INSIDE.OUT GARDEN

Built projects and state of the art concepts have either the

same simple patterns or none at all. This lack of a master

pattern to follow, leads to problems when discussing

further growth. This is applicable for research outposts all

the way up to a sustainable moon village. To account for

sustainable growth, we looked at existing patterns. To be

precise: Islamic tessellations.

All those different and vibrant patterns throughout the

Islamic world, can be traced down to the same three

geometric tessellations. You have either the four-fold, the

five-fold or the six-fold pattern. The four- and the sixfolds

only need a single shape to successfully repeat itself.

Since pentagons by themselves do not fill a surface neatly,

the five-fold pattern needs added shapes. This flexibility

of having three different sizes, while still being simple to

continue sparked our interest.

Reference and credit: Diploma Thesis by Betül Erkmen, TU Wien / 2019

(repositum.tuwien.ac.at)

We started to use the 5-fold grid and put two rules in place.

First, we stay inside the boundaries of our shapes. Which

means the possible habitats, airlocks and greenhouses have

a certain size to distance ratio to each other. Second, we

follow the axes (dotted rose line) between the shapes to

place openings and connections.

Other possibilities are following the shapes between the

axes while looking at the boundaries (thick white lines) as

the openings/connections, or a combination. We chose to

follow the first example.

4-fold pattern (TED-ED)

5-fold pattern (Betül Erkmen )

6-fold pattern (TED-ED)

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HB2-TUW & ADU | LUNAR OASIS

PATTERN LANGUAGE:

SETTLEMENT GROWTH

We used our understanding of the 5-fold pattern to design

a specific grid which is suitable for every state of our lunar

settlement. Starting with a lunar research outpost for a crew

of six, which we’ll get into detail later on. This outpost can

follow the pattern and grow into an even bigger research

outpost with added modules and up to 16 crew members.

It will further grow until a permanent lunar settlement is

created, from which we can operate deep space operations

and future Mars missions.

The basic template is the 5-fold grid. The three innate

shapes, the pattern consists of, will be the base for our

modules. Inside the decagon (the largest of the three) our

inflatable habitat & greenhouse modules will be placed. The

connector modules will be located between the inflatable

modules and inside the pentagons. Through airlocks the

smaller modules connect to the habitat modules, function

as the docking station for the vehicles and are housing the

suit ports as well as the Life-support-systems (LSS).

Sustainability and longevity go hand in hand. If one of our

buildings on Earth is lasting over hundreds of years, while

accommodating generations of humans, it must do a few

things right. The floor plan has to be flexible enough to

accommodate future scenarios. Moreover, the building

should be easily maintainable, repairable, and possibly

expandable. However, first of all it has to shield us from

adverse influences and on the moon surface, we have

many; Radiation, solar storms, micro meteoroids, high

temperature fluctuations and a lack of oxygen.

That’s why we intend to build a protective regolith

shell and create habitat clusters. This shell will guard the

modules, vehicles, and the inhabitants from harm, while

creating a flexible protected outside space for maintenance,

testing and storage. To enable rapid movement inside the

settlement, we intend to create a tunnel system between

the shell clusters without the need to cross every in

between module in the process. The last of the three shapes

(the elongated hexagon) will be the base for the tunnel

connector, from which to enter this system of shortcuts.

from lunar outpost to sustainable settlement

88


INSIDE.OUT GARDEN

inflatable module connector module (LSS) protective regolith shell quick travel tunnel tunnel connector

possible lunar city grid based on the 5-fold pattern

89


HB2-TUW & ADU | LUNAR OASIS

MISSION TIMELINE

autonomous preparation timeline

the crew of settlers (amethyst studio)

A group of six is sent to the lunar surface to continue and

complete the building process. The mission goal is to settle

into the new environment while slowly building towards a

self-sustained future settlement. Building up, sustaining &

researching the lunar greenhouses.

The research and collaboration is focused on sustainability

in food, body and mental health. After 6 months three of the

six settlers will be replaced by a new group of researchers

with updated objectives and equipment. This circle will

continue every three months.

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INSIDE.OUT GARDEN

Before any settlers arrive at the site, autonomous

preparations have to be completed. A swarm of excavating

and 3D-printing robots will transform the building site by

building roads, landing pods & a protective external shell

made from excavated lunar regolith. Then the inflatable

modules will be landed and transported to the site, before

expanding into their final form. After the settlers land, they

will further continue to construct the interior and connect

the power sources to the life-support systems.

The ideal landing spot for the first lunar outpost will be the

PLR ice field close to the Shackleton West Ridge. Water-ice

is found 40-100cm beneath the surface. 50% of the site is

illuminated over 85% of the year to generate solar energy.

60% of the site has less than 5 degrees slopes which makes

the construction and transport easier. Additionally, 60% of

the site has less temperature deviation of 230K.

siteplan: shackleton west ridge

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HB2-TUW & ADU | LUNAR OASIS

ARCHITECTUAL

CONCEPT & DESIGN

In situ resource utilization (ISRU) is an important topic

in every lunar habitat endeavor. We intend to use the

excavated soil of the modules as part of the building material

for constructing the outer protective shell. Inside this semiprotected

space, the habitation elements & equipment can

be closely monitored and maintained. Since solar flares and

high radiation is not fully covered, half the habitat is placed

beneath the surface, hence the excavation material.

3D printed protective shell made of lunar regolith

inflatable extension to habitat module

Apart from ISRU, another big topic is how to transport the

most efficient amount of space to the moon (or Mars in

that regard). Since rockets have a specific load capacity

as well as diameter (our assumption for this project was

4,5 m, based on the Ariane), expandable space will garner

attention. We also make use of an inflatable to generate

more space. The interesting part was, how to use these

two spaces (inside the hard-shell and respectively the

inflatable) in unison.

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INSIDE.OUT GARDEN

INSIDE.OUT habitat ground floor and basement

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HB2-TUW & ADU | LUNAR OASIS

ARCHITECTUAL

CONCEPT & DESIGN

The basic idea was very simple. We have two inflatable

modules. In one module, the greenhouse is located in the

middle and the living quarter is wrapped around it. With

the other one, we did the opposite. Now the fun begins.

As an inhabitant you have to access the wrapped quarter

through the greenhouse, meaning that the greenhouse and

the living quarter have to intersect each other, to make a

coherent and accessible space.

greenhouse around the living quarters

greenhouse wrapped between the living quarters

The next step was as simple. Since we have two floors (the

reasons behind it have been expressed earlier) we can mirror

them to each other. With these two simple acts we have

created very interesting and diverse space. Open spaces,

which go into a loop over two floors as well as private parts

surrounded by greenhouses and of course everything in

between. The last step was to follow our previous graphic

of “zonal allocation of space” and look for spaces that fit

for function. And also, further refine those characteristics

of spaces and make the most out of them.

94


INSIDE.OUT GARDEN

an illustration of the first true space jam and other activities around the fitness area

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HB2-TUW & ADU | LUNAR OASIS

ARCHITECTUAL

CONCEPT & DESIGN

1 5 10

1. gallery greenhouse

(growing crops with DWC)

2. gallery and meal room

3. storage

4. flexible private room

(movable walls)

5. flex-use space

(by reducing private space)

6. storage and field research

7. suitport and glovebox

8. ladder

9. command room

10. workshop

20

7

8

6

19

6

8

7

3

4

4

4

10

11

1

2

3

5

7

3

8

9

14a

14

12

13

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INSIDE.OUT GARDEN

11. lab (monitoring plant growth)

12. central greenhouse

(growing trees with NFT)

13. side greenhouse

(growing crops with aeroponics)

14. gym

14a. Oculus

15. shower & toilet

16. LSS and water filtration

17. medical room

18. kitchen

19. experimental greenhouse

(effect from radiation exposure)

20. lunar rover docking

1 5 10

8

15

16

15

8

16

3

1

13

11

4

2

12

3

4

4 4

3

5

15

16

8

14

17

17

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HB2-TUW & ADU | LUNAR OASIS

ARCHITECTUAL

CONCEPT & DESIGN

1. kitchen

2. gallery and meal room

3 gallery greenhouse

(growing crops with DWC)

4. flexible private room

(movable walls)

5. flex-use space

6. storage and field research

7. workshop

8 central greenhouse

(growing trees with NFT)

9. side greenhouse

(growing crops with aeroponics)

10. lab (monitoring plant growth)

a. waste water collection tank

b. greywater treatment

c. fresh water tank

d. biogas backup generator, fuse box

e. air filtration system & ventilation

1

3 4 5

6

2 d e

c

b

1 5 10

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INSIDE.OUT GARDEN

7 8

9

100mm composite floor panel

200mm Installations

(water, air & power)

60mm polycarbonate tank wall

(Teflon membrane & Lexan wall)

a

10

15mm Aluminized Mylar

90mm Alternating opencell foam

30mm Kevlar 29

150mm Kevlar 29/BR180

15mm Nomex, flame resistant

120mm Structural cage

25mm Composite wall panels

cross section through both habitat modules

99


HB2 | LUNAR OASIS


GREEN LAB

FOOD RESEARCH CENTRE

a project by

Meleksima Akarcay, Rukiye Ulak, Abdullah

Kanbari, Muna AlHarbi, Dima ElBsat, Aya

AlKhatib

LOCATION

Lunar south pole,

near shackleton crater

YEAR VISION 2068

YEAR FIRST

CREWED MISSION

CREW MEMBERS

MISSION OBJECTIVE

CHARACTERISTICS

2038

3 scientists, 3 astronauts

Research on plants and

food production

Prefabricated inflatable

structures and in-situ

resource utilization for

radiation protection

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HB2-TUW & ADU | LUNAR OASIS

LUNAR OASIS

For many, an oasis is the source of life in a barren land,

where life surrounds it and is attracted to it.

The idea for this research facility is to implement the image

of an oasis, to search for food and provide colour to the

moon.

This base is meant to become much more than a research

base. It is meant to enforce the idea that life can existe on

the Moon, to give hope.

LOCATION

The Green Lab is located in the South polar region of the

moon, near the Shackleton crater. A lunar base would

benefit from a location that possesses three things: ice,

ample sunlight and relatively moderate temperatures.

Shackleton has at least two of these three attributes.

Measuring 21 km across and 4 km deep, the crater’s peaks

are exposed to almost continuous sunlight while its floors

and walls are in near perpetual shadow. Mild temperature

differences, a high percentage of sunlight for supplying

solar power and the possibility that the deep crater may

harbour ice, which could be tapped as a water supply make

it interesting as a location of a permanently manned lunar

base.

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GREEN LAB

SITE PLAN

For safety reasons, the base will be > 2 km away from the landing zone. It will have two airlocks, one to connect to the

greenhouse and one for the rover.

The solar panels will be at a safe distance, but at the same time close enough for maintenance and the IMM solar cells

will be added to the shielding of lunar regolith in order to provide the base with sustainable energy resources and also to

use the surface of the shell in the best way. An antenna will be nearby, so the crew can have a connection with earth.

Future habitat development can expand in all directions and make optimal use of the space.

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HB2-TUW & ADU | LUNAR OASIS

CONCEPTUAL IDEA

SPHERE

Ideal compact design for

inflatable structures

TORUS

Easily segmented into

separate pressure compartments

for safety

INFLATABLE STRUCTURES

Surrounding outer belt of

greenhouses acts as a source of

food

Visual connections between

habitat, laboratory and

greenhouses

Fluid spatial program

Visual connection between habitat

and starry sky through cupola

Visual connections between

different levels

Spatial organization according to

radiation and noise level

104


GREEN LAB

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HB2-TUW & ADU | LUNAR OASIS

RESEARCH TOPICS

FOOD PRODUCTION

Research on producing food in outer space has increased in the past decade. Resources in space, like oxygen and water,

are precious. Hence, lunar bases must find ways to provide these resources to elongate the astronauts‘ stay. The idea of

transporting enough food for a long mission is not possible. Growing food is more reasonable other than transporting it.

Planting on the moon provides a multilevel of benefits.

VEGGIE SYSTEM

The vegetable production system, known as veggie, is a

space garden residing on the space station. Veggie’s purpose

is to help NASA study plant growth in microgravity, while

adding fresh food to the astronauts’ diet and enhancing

happiness and well-being on the orbiting laboratory.

WHY THE VEGGIE SYSTEM?

The veggie system is a light-weight system with a promising

future. It requires minimal maintenance and uses simple

technology. It is also able to grow flowers, unlike other

technologies.

WHICH CROPS GROW IN VEGGIE?

• Red romaine lettuce

• ‘Tokyo bekana’ chinese cabbage

• Mizuna mustard

• Outredgeous red romaine lettuce

• ‘Waldmann’s green’ lettuce

• ‘Red russian’ kale and ‘dragoon’ lettuce

• ‘Wasabi’ mustard and ‘extra dwarf’ pak choi

• Mizuna mustard

Credit Image: ISS Vegetable Production System (NASA)

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GREEN LAB

HOW DOES IT WORK?

The veggie system consists of a LED lighting system with

modular rooting “pillows” designed to contain substrated

media and time-release fertilizer. The pillows are watered

manually by the astronauts in low earth orbit (LEO). The

design of Veggie allows cabin air to be drawn through the

plant enclosure for thermal and humidity control and for

supplying CO 2

to the plants.

WHAT IS THE FUTURE OF THE VEGGIE SYSTEM?

The Kennedy Space Center team envisions planting more

productive in the future, such as tomatoes and peppers.

Foods like berries, certain beans and other antioxidantrich

foods would likely have the added benefit of providing

some space radiation protection for crew members.

WATER RESOURCES

Apart from being a marker of potential life, water is a

precious resource. On the moon, water is necessary not

only to sustain life but also for many other purposes such

as generating rocket fuel. If space explorers can use the

moon’s resources, it means they need to carry less water

from Earth.

There are a few methods available to extract water from

regolith. For example:

- Based on phase change: pumping energy into the

regolith to sublimate the ice into vapor, then capturing

the vapor, re-freezing it, and hauling the solid ice to a

chemical processor where it is converted again into vapor

for purification then electrolysis.

- Based on strip mining: hauling the resource along with

slag (the unwanted silicates, which constitutes about 95%

of the mass), to a processing unit

- An Ultra-low-energy grain-sorting process can extract

the ice without phase change. The ice can then be

hauled to the chemical processing unit in solid phase and

converted into water or rocket propellant.

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HB2-TUW & ADU | LUNAR OASIS

STORYBOARD

1

2

spacecraft launch

separation of the solid rocket

3

4

detachment of the lunar lander from the rocket

arriving of the lander on moon‘s surface

108


GREEN LAB

5

6

unloading of the airlock and autonomous robots

digging the holes

7

8

inflating the first module

3D-printing the cover of lunar regolith

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HB2-TUW & ADU | LUNAR OASIS

TIMELINE

Phase 1

Phase 2

Phase 3

The mission design process is based

on a robotic exploration of the

chosen crater area, a research for

a suitable location and resources.

Robotic exploration missions to

the deployment site will ensure

preparation, the placement of the

habitation module and all necessary

support equipment. The GREEN LAB

is based on a set of habitable modules

that can be transported to the moon

separately and connected on site.

The next missions will be roboticonly

and prepare the base for the

first humans. The first rocket will

launch in 2034 and will transport the

habitat. Once the module is deployed

and inflated to its full size, it will be

covered with the previously excavated

lunar regolith to provide shielding. An

airlock, a 3D-printer, an excavation

robot, a construction robot and solar

panels will be brought to build the

base and make the habitat ready for

the humans.

The second mission will bring three

greenhouses, a second airlock and

a rover. Once the greenhouses are

deployed, inflated, attached to the

habitat and the shell is 3D-printed,

robots start growing food for the

future inhabitants. Energy will be

needed for the base to properly

function and will be generated from

the solar panels. The harsh lunar

environment will be a true challenge

for humans, therefore it is important

for them to have all life-support ready

when they arrive.

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GREEN LAB

Phase 4

Phase 5

With a third rocket, the crew of six

people will arrive. They will bring an

antenna for communication with

Earth and additional supplies for their

survival. The robots should already be

finished with their job, so the humans

can settle into their new home and

begin scouting the area. It won’t be

long until scientists can start with

their research on sustainable plantbased

food. Production on the moon

and the first plants in the greenhouses

grow.

Completion of the habitation area,

research facility and transformation of

the base into the inhabitants home is

the main goal of this phase. The crew

is settled in and starts working on the

interior outfitting, such as inflation and

rigidization of interior walls, mounting

of floors and furnishings of each area

by adding internal installations and

sanitation elements. Production on

the moon and the first plants in the

greenhouses keep growing.

By and by, new modules can be added

and the initial system might get

modified as technology advances and

the needs of the inhabitants change.

As successive astronauts and people

arrive, the settlement will expand.

People will continue developing the

greenhouses as wellasset additional

habitation units, laboratories and

power supplies around the initialbase,

and pressurized tunnels will be used

for connections.

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HB2-TUW & ADU | LUNAR OASIS

ARCHITECTURAL CONCEPT & DESIGN

The lunar base uses 3D-printed regolith as environmental

shelter. The facility consists of one spherical habitat in the

middle, and three surrounding semi-torus shaped inflatable

structures used as greenhouses connected with an airlock.

Greenhouses are physically separated in order to keep the

atmospheric conditions ideal for farming purposes. Still

visual connections exist.

The greenhouses are not intended for the astronauts to

interact with the plants, their only purpose is to grow enough

fresh food to feed the crew. The systems of aeroponics and

veggie are used to produce food.

I

n order for the crew to remain mentally healthy over a

long period of time, it is important to not feel trapped in

a confined space. So we wanted to create a fluid spatial

program with functional areas separated by different levels.

An open space encourages communication between the

crew and contributes to good mental health.

The ground floor of the habitat is divided into three main areas

- laboratory, kitchen, open living space, as well as toilet and

medical unit. The crew members will have the opportunity

to do sports and relax on the upper level. A cupola provides

the chance to gaze at the stars and increases habitability

by alleviating the feeling of confinement.

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GREEN LAB

1. Rover

2. Airlock 1 (rover docked)

3. Greenhouse aeroponics

4. Stargazing platform

5. Recreation space

6. Research laboratory

7. Kitchen and Dining

8. Greenhouse aeroponics

9. Crewquarters

10. Crew Lounge

11. Bathroom

12. Tech Compartment

To fully protect from radiation, the private rooms

were placed on the underground level. The center

serves as a small common space, with sleeping

quarters and bathrooms surrounding it.

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HB2-TUW & ADU | LUNAR OASIS

ARCHITECTURAL CONCEPT & DESIGN

Life-support system

114


GREEN LAB

115


HB2 | LUNAR OASIS


GREEN LUNA

project by

Anna Maria Just-Kunrath, Sara Abuhelweh,

Amna AlHammadi, Haleema Sadia

ABSTRACT

The project utilizes an hybrid structure to effectively design

the lunar habitat. Given the year-long mission and occupying

4-8 astronauts, the habitat requires comfortable and safe

spaces. The inflatable structure would aid comfortability

and the rigid structure for safety. The core of the project

is the underground vertical greenhouse, drilled in situ by a

drill onboard an ATHLETE rover, and using a 3D syntering

process to cast the outer walls of the well.

This one is composed by a membrane tube which

carry water and nutrients, with a yield per tube of

2,5 m 2 , and up to 60 tubes in the greenhouse for a total

of 150 m 2 (37,5 m 2 per person). The overall volume of the

greenhouse is 200 m 3 .

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ROVER DOCK

& POWER STATION

HB2-TUW & ADU | LUNAR OASIS

THE CAMP

GROUNDFLOOR

M 1 : 100

integrated

irrigation

head

GREENHOUSE MODULE

Nursery

Preparing the Membran Tube Pots

Seedling Storage

Research Lab

Harvest

Life Support System [Water- & Air - Treat

THE HABITAT

NURSERY

Multimedia Fitness

"Monkey Park" [Wall bars, Roof Bars, Gymnastic Rings]

Wii

- Tour the France

- Golf

- Boxing ...

"Weight Lift"

Storage

Life Support System [Waste/Water]

Private Room per Person

Sanitary

SUIT PORTS

HARVEST

RESEARCH LAB

WW FW

Monitoring

Life Support System

8.80

RESEARCH LAB

&

EXIT GATE

CO2

O

GATE

EXIT

WASTE

GATE

SUIT PORTS

FITNESS

WATER

ATRIUM

- REGOLITH

- MEMBRAN

STORAGE

STORAGE

OPTIONAL

EXTENSION

40.50

118


GREEN LUNA

reatment]

THE COMMON SPACE

Kitchen

Pantry

Lounge

Life Support System [Waste/Water]

ROVER DOCK

& POWER STATION

Sanitary

Save Haven

EXIT GATE

WATER

KITCHEN

21.50

DINING AREA

WASTE

ATRIUM

PANTRY

PANTRY

OPTIONAL

EXTENSION

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HB2-TUW & ADU | LUNAR OASIS

THE CAMP

LIFE SUPPORT SYSTEM

CO2 Storage [> PLANTS]

O2 Storage [>HUMAN]

N2 Storage > Pressure Control

Energy Storage

Ventilation

MONITORING 0th Floor

ROOM 1-4

STAR LOUNGE (2nd Floor)

Sanitary

"LET´S WATCH THE STARS"

LIFE SUPPORT SYSTEM

ROOM 4

TOILETTE

BATH

SKYLIGHT

ROOM 3

TOILETTE

ROOM 1

ROOM 2

120

40.50


GREEN LUNA

MULTIMEDIA ROOF [SAVE HAVEN]

Multimedia Lounge

Music Lounge

Sanitary

Lounge has bedfuntction

SHUT THE SLIDING DOOR

FOR PRIVACY

TOILETTE

MULTIMEDIA

LOUNGE

21.50

BATH

TOILETTE

MULTIMEDIA

LOUNGE

MUSIC LOUNGE

& KARAOKE

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HB2-TUW & ADU | LUNAR OASIS

THE CAMP

SECTION

M 1 : 100

SOLAR SYSTEM Lorem ipsum

SOLAR SYSTEM

SOLAR SYSTEM

- REGOLITH

- MEMBRAN

1.50

3.30

ROOM

VESTIBULE

2.50

TOILETTE

AIRLOCK EVA

ROVER DOCK

AIR TREATMENTA

CO2O

ENERGY

IR TREATMENT

STORAGE

10

6.20

FITNESS

3.50

WASTE /

WATER

GATE

EXIT

2.70

GATE

MONITORING

LIFE SUPPORT

SYSTEM

NURSERY

4.10

"LET´s HARVEST!"

RESEARCH LAB

GATE

50

90

TECH.

5.00

AUTOMATED

PLANT CARE

REGOLITH

2nd Floor: STAR LOUNGE

1st Floor: PRIVATE ROOM

0th Floor: FITNESS

9.70

MEMBRAN TUBE POT

LED CURTAIN

WASTE WATER (Phase I)

LIFTING SYSTEM

1st Floor: LIFE SUPPORT SYSTEM

0th Floor: RESEARCH LAB

-1st Floor: GREENHOUSE

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GREEN LUNA

SOLAR SYSTEM

MUSIC LOUNGE

- REGOLITH

- MEMBRAN

AIRLOCK EVA

ROVER DOCK

TOILETTE

3.00

10

KEEP THE VEGGIES FRESH

WITHOUT A FRIDGE

3.50

TE

EXIT

GATE

WASTE /

WATER

KITCHEN

DINING AREA

0GK

50

TECH.

5.00

1st Floor: IN CASE OF EMERGENCY = SAVE HAVEN

1st Floor: MULTIMEDIA LOUNGE

0th Floor: KITCHEN

123


124


THE MOBILE NEST

project, images & text by

Karmen Janzekovic, Edis Kujovic, Widad Nasir,

Areej Shawahna, Zainab AbuArabi, Ghada Khalil

ABSTRACT

The mobile nest is a project that investigates possibilities

of the human kind out of the box and out of the everyday

comfort. It is a journey in an environment no one has ever

seen or written before. It is an opportunity to remind us

how far we have come and how far we still can and shall go.

What we were interested through our project journey, was

to adapt the technologies to the harsh environment and

the psychological effect that an environment as that can

have on a us as humans. We asked ourselves what would

we miss the most and the answer was inevitable.

Please, join our journey. We are ready to take off!

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HB2-TUW & ADU | LUNAR OASIS

“But oh!” thought Alice, suddenly jumping up, “if I don’t

make haste I shall have to go back through the

looking-glass, before I’ve seen what the rest of the house

is like! Let’s have a look at the GARDEN first!

Lewis Carroll: Through the Looking Glass (Chapter One)

Lunar oasis is a reciprocal journey. It is a privilege and goal.

It is a light after darkness and a rain after storm. We can sense it as a

meditation, a guidance, a shelter and an orientation. It is attractive and

fertile. It is our valuable hope and reward. It is our reflection and proximity

of who we are.

126


THE MOBILE NEST

CONCEPTUAL IDEA

We were asking ourselves, what would we miss the most

while traveling into the outer space. Our people, our daily

routine, our plants, our garden. This would definitely

have the biggest psychological effect on us. Therefore we

focused from the beginning, on the prehuman phase on the

lunar surface, for the astronauts to enter the new habitat

as if it were home - by looking at the GARDEN first.

Our mission would start by sending the equipment and

rovers for excavation of the lunar regolith and preparation

for our habitat, focusing on the lunar south pole, because

of its minimal extreme temperature and sunlight conditions.

After successful landing, the main focus would be on

our deployable structure, which would be brought to the

lunar surface in its minimal and shrunken surface, inspired

by Hoberman sphere. Already from the beginning we got

inspired by Water walls bag support system developed by

Marc M. Cohen. We thought of having the bag system all

around the sphere surface, that would get activated after

filling of the bags with water from the lunar south pole.

This would give the structure pressure, stability, radiation

shielding and an approach to a life support system.

We also wanted for our main sphere to be able to move,

find the best spot for the further habitation and to focus on

the research of the behaviour of the plants in low gravity.

Surrounding design and habitation space would follow radial

after the arrival of the astronauts.

02

04

03

01

03

03

06

05

01 water feature - 02 greenhouse - 03 technical part - 04 personal

space - 05 monitoring room - 06 labs and storage

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SUSTAINABLE DESIGN

From the beginning, we strongly believed in human and

natural environment as the fundamental basis for the

creation of a new habitat. Our thoughts went back to

Vitruvius and the Primitive hut that was shown to us in

early phase of studying. How to build in a new environment?

What to use, where and why?

While researching more and more about the conditions

and hazards, it was clear to us that any long-term human

presence on the Moon will require protection from surface

hazards such as radiation, micrometeorites, temperature

amplitude etc. We solved our first sustainable aspect by

choosing the existing cave, the Marius hills pit, around 80

meters deep in the west side of Oceanus Procellarum. It is

an environment that is naturally protected from the hazards

and the extreme temperature differences between the lunar

day and night therefore being a favourable environmental

condition for a human being.

As we mentioned earlier in the concept phase, we got

inspired by another sustainable aspect, water wall life

support system. We chose this system because of its

integration of the air treatment, solid waste treatment

and thermal control recycling all in one. These water wall

bags would consist of series of the membrane bags that

would be pre-integrated into existing modules and would

function via forward osmosis that replicates the processes

of the mechanically passive methods in the nature. With

an approach of the thermal and osmotic differences, we

would avoid many conventional failure prone mechanical

systems. It provides 100% reuse of all metabolic waste with

gray and black water processing of urine and wash water,

air processing for CO 2

removal and O 2

revitalisation and

thermal and humidity control, including of the algae growth

that would play an important role in psychological colour

scheme and well-being of the astronauts.

Next step was to include the higher plants and finding a way

to grow food for a one year mission. In further research we

focused on the greenhouse and aquaponics system.

image description (credits)

Primitive hut by M.A Laugier

Wikimedia Commons

128


THE MOBILE NEST

RESEARCH TOPICS

In the research part we focused mainly on the four topics,

that were relevant for our project development and what is

our actual goal on a one year mission: greenhouse, integration

of an aquaponics system, energy and mobility in the cave

and water walls life support system implementation.

safe, fresh, organic fish and vegetables. When aquaponics

is combined with a controlled environment greenhouse,

quality crops can be grown for few months. Our prototype

consists of an inflatable, transportable greenhouse that will

help with plant and crop production for nourishment, air

rejuvenation, water recycling, and trash recycling. This is

referred to as a bioregenerative life support system

01 GREENHOUSE

Plants can play a significant role in the biological life support

system (BLSS) in future journeys to space (Meggs, 2010).

In the late 20th century, several experiments were done

regarding agriculture in space; since plants grown in space

will not only be able to substitute food carried from Earth

and save weight in the spaceship but will also provide a

refreshing atmosphere in the Space Cabin, as they scrub

the Carbon Dioxide in the air and produce Oxygen. Studies

also showed that plants can help lower humidity levels in

the cabin. In addition, growing and caring for a garden will

contribute to the physiological well-being of astronauts

that are away from home (Ivanova, 1997). Providing light

for the plants to grow is also incredibly challenging. The

moon stays dark for a period of 14.8 days (about 2 weeks)

and follows it 14.8 days (about 2 weeks) of successive

light. A hybrid illumination system can collect natural light

on sunny days and use LED technologies to provide light

on days of successive darkness. The two systems should

work coordinatively but not be fully dependent. In addition,

the moon has an atmosphere composed of 0 CO2. Gases

like Oxygen, Carbon, Nitrogen, and carbon dioxide must

be produced artificially in the lunar base. Other challenges

include thermal control and Air management.

02 AQUAPONICS

Aquaponics is the combination of aquaculture and

hydroponics. In aquaponics, fish and plants are reared

together in one integrated, soilless. The fish waste which is

an output of the fish food being eaten by fishes provides a

food source for the plants and the plants provide a natural

filter for the water the fish live in. aquaponics produces

image description (credits)

Aquaponics system

Source: NemecR, Production Aquaponik-Farm Brno, 18.05.2021, wikicommons

03 CAVES AND EQUIPMENT

The moon is made up of old basaltic lava flows and the

lunar caves are borne from volcanoes, having extremely

favourable environmental conditions for human. Choosing

the Marius Hills pit that is around 80 m deep, with 65 m

diameter, discovered by Japanaese SELENE/ Kaguya

Terrain Camera, we had to think about how are we going to

bring our habitat into life.

03.01 - ENERGY

We need robots to drill in a cave, or even robots to move

and carry cargo, so NASA developed wireless charging

solutions for robots on the Moon as part of NASA ‘Tipping

Point’ project with WiBotic‘s technology. Solar panels are

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HB2-TUW & ADU | LUNAR OASIS

less feasible when the sun is not shining, and the lunar night

on the Moon can last up to 14 days. The goal is to develop

a lunar wireless power grid that can power a variety of

staffed and unmanned aircraft despite of battery type,

voltage, or power level. For now there are three types of

wireless charger.

03.02 - MOBILITY: MOON DIVER

Moon diver is designed by NASA to explore the lava tunnels,

built to descend hundreds of feet into enormous pits on the

surface of the moon. It would land within a few hundred

meters from its target pit and serve as an anchor for Axel, a

modest two-wheeled rover. The Axel would carry a variety

of instruments to explore a lunar cavern, including a stereo

pair of cameras for near imaging of the walls and a longdistance

camera to view across the pit on the opposite side.

A multispectral microscope would examine the cavern‘s

mineralogy, while an alpha particle x-ray spectrometer

would investigate the rock features‘ elemental chemistry.

Axel would investigate the cavern floor once it reached the

bottom of the pit, giving humanity its first close look at the

moon‘s subterranean worlds.

03.03 - MOBILITY: LIGHTWEIGHT ROBOTIC CRANE

First we would need a lightweight robotic crane that is

made of a structurally efficient truss structure with cable

actuation that moves like a human arm but with a far larger

reach. It may be scaled to accommodate any lander, vehicle,

or surface application and it can employ a toolbox of faster

end-effectors, or tools, to do tasks including hoisting,

forklifting, regolith scooping, welding, and more. The new

Lightweight Surface Manipulation System (LSMS) will be

around the same size as the previous prototype, with a

7.62-meter reach and the ability to hoist payloads weighing

around one metric ton on the Moon.

03.04 - MOBILITY: MICRO ROVER

Daedalus is a robot, attached to a tether, that would drop

the robot into the cave, allowing it to explore on its own.

It is a 46-centimetre sphere, with a 360-degree stereoscopic

camera, a LIDAR system for 3D mapping and sensors

to help understand the subsurface environment, such

as temperature and radiation levels. It would also have a

rock-testing and obstacle-moving arm. The hanging tether

Lightweight robotic crane by NASA

Source: https://www.nasa.gov/feature/langley/lightweight-cranetechnology-could-find-a-home-on-the-moon

would serve as a Wi-Fi receiver and wireless charging head

to send data back to Earth.

03.05 - MOBILITY: DRONES

Drones operate within the Earth‘s atmosphere and with a

few tweaks, this technology may operate the Moon too

with lithium hydride and peroxide propulsion system. The

Arne mission is made of a soft-landing spacecraft and three

small „hole robots,“ which are spherical flying robots with a

diameter of 30 centimetres. The probe would land inside,

with a direct line of sight to the earth for communications

from the bottom of the pit. Once they land, tiny robots

will fly into the side chambers, inspecting the walls and

determining the structure.

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THE MOBILE NEST

TIMELINE

I EXPLORATION

II AUTONOMOUS

BUILDING

III HABITAT

prehuman mission

starts with landing of

the first rocket in radius

of 5-40 km around

Marius hills pit

excavation and sending

of the samples about

the floor consistency

and possible integration

preparation of the preintegrated

modules on

Earth with personal

space design by the

crew

first to exit is the rover

with pre-integrated

aquaponics system,

deployable structure

and devices for

exploration

followed by the lightweight

crane which is

going to allow objects

to enter and exit the pit

after finding the

suitable position for

the future habitat, the

aquaponics system in

the rover gets activated

first results of the green

house and aquaponics

are positive, the rover is

able to deploy itself and

awaits the crew

landing of the second

rocket, close to the first

one, with four modules

and four crew members

modules are being

moved to the pit

by NASA athlete,

brought down by the

lightweight crane

and attached to the

deployable structure

micro rover and

drones get activated

after entering the

pit and start sending

informations back to

Earth

crew of biologist,

geologist, doctor and

engineer enters the

habitat by looking at

the GARDEN first

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ARCHITECTURAL

CONCEPT & DESIGN

LANDING - EXCAVATION - EXPLORATION

The prehuman phase starts after landing of the first rocket.

All of the equipment exits and gets to the bottom of the

Marius hills pit by the help of a lightweight crane. All set for

exploration and defining of the position of the habitat.

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THE MOBILE NEST

SAMPLES - COMMUNICATION - AUTONOMOUS BUILDING

After successful sending of the consistency information and samples, we

can determine the floor stabilisation and suitable position. The aquaponics

system in rover gets activated and is ready for the deployment, creating

space for circulation and leisure on 80 m 2 for the future inhabitants.

MODULE ASSEMBLY

While researching the life support system we got inspired

by the water walls bag system (Ref. M. Cohen) which

influenced our spherical form finding for the modules of

around 25 m 2 . Walls of the modules would consist of the

water wall bags pressed between the rigid outer structure

with technical part and heating of the modules in the part

below and storage space in the part above.

Transportation of modules would be possible with NASA

athlete, which would be able to attach or detach the

modules from the rocket and once arriving to the lunar

surface being able to move.

After arrival, our modules would connect via preintegrated

system and attach to the deployable structure

with already functioning lab and greenhouse..

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I II III IV

2 2

3 3

1st floor plan ground floor plan

section

2

2

1

1

1

1

2

2

2

2

2

1

2 1

1 1 2

(1) 6,5 m 2 personal living room

(2) 6,5 m 2 bedroomvanion.

(1) 20 m 2 kitchen

(2) 10 m 2 bathroom

(3) 25 m 2 storage

creation.

(1) 18 m 2 suitports

(2) 7 m 2 technic

(3)25 m 2 storageh

5 m 2 mobile

research station

vi

134


THE MOBILE NEST

7

6

2

5

8

1

10

3

4

9

1 greenhouse

2 monitoring

3 leisure

4 gym

5 research lab monitoring

6 recreation track

7 suitports

8 personal space

9 kitchen and bathroom

10 research lab station

access to the platform

and lightweight crane

9 3 1 4

10

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DETAILS - WATER WALLS

The ‚walls‘ of the modules consist of the water wall bags

pressed between the rigid outer structure with technical

part and heating of the modules in the part below and

storage space in the part above. This life support system

would have additional calming psychological effect because

of the algae green colour which would be able to shine

through the translucent perforated inner membrane, while

also having control over temperature and humidity in the

modules. We would also include smart mechanism for

switching between different colours and daily needs.

Reference:

Water Walls Life Support Architecture by Marc M. Cohen et al

(astrotecture.com)

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THE MOBILE NEST

WW

storage

hygiene facility

heat

WW

moisture

airflow

WW

mechanism

heating

5 cm exterior rigid construction

5 cm of vacuum for thermal insulation

25 cm interior rigid construction to support the walls

and floor with pre-integrated water wall bags

5 cm perforated inner membrane for the possible

temperature and humidity controlling, with translucent

electrochromic layer and switch off/ colour change

mechanism

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THE MOON LOOP

a project by

Stefan Hristoforov, Enaam Ouda, Mayar Jehad

Mariam Al Nuaimi, Hajar Al Khuwaiter

ABSTRACT

The Moon Loop lunar base aims to reuse all resources in

a closed-loop system. The strategies used to realize this

goal include maximizing water recycling, circulating air in a

closed-loop system with the help of the greenhouse, and

maximizing energy production by producing energy through

the crew’s daily exercise. To protect against radiation, the

base would utilize a multi-layer membrane system, preseeded

with fungal bio-composites that inflates once

nurtured through the structure’s circulatory system upon

arrival. Covering that is a whipple shield, which protects

the modules against micro-meteoroids. The Moon Loop

would shelter 6 crew members, and host several functions

including wardroom, galley, crew quarters, research labs,

greenhouse, activity area, and a safe haven.

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LUNAR OASIS

“The most important aspect of my idea of a garden is that

it is not important to have a garden on the property itself,

but a small piece of green in the city is enough to create

your own garden. An Oasis is the perfect place that fits

perfectly with someone who focuses the preferences and

desires on one place.„

Stefan

Fotos from the streets of Vienna (Image by the authors)

Oasis in the Sahara Desert (Unsplash, Foto by Sandra Gabriel)

“As architects, oasis provides visual and physical

comfort. The oasis‘s water provides a calm and sensual

feeling. Gardens entail the creation and ornamentation

of parks, back yards. Moreover, it takes out some of the

pollutions, enhances the ventilation and air quality, and it

creates a better mood for people. People can then enjoy

going for walks in the fresh air rather than going places

using transportation facilities.„

“An oasis is a garden and a treasure found in the middle

of a desert. It is pleasing to the eye and soothing to

the soul. It serves the human being in many different

aspects. The presence of water stimulates the growth of

everything surrounding it. The oasis provides shade, food,

and also materials for design like woven baskets, roof

thatch, and garden fencing.„

Mariam

“Garden and oasis can express a place where we can

breathe and take a break from the chaotic life, recharge

the body and the soul, and give life and comfort to the

environment.„

Enaam

“As an architect, we can use the oasis and the garden as

a main view for the building. Also, the fresh air from the

greenery can be used as ventilation in the building. It is

a place that attracts tourists and visitors because it’s a

natural site and one of the most important places in the

UAE’s culture and history.„

Hajar

Palm Frond (Unsplash, Foto by Valentin Salj)

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MOON LOOP

Gardens and oases are not

only a source of inspiration

for architecture designs, but

also a source of great spiritual

and emotional comfort, and

a place of a break from the

chaotic life.

Architecture shall bring life

and comfort to the habitat

it‘s built-in, and offer the

users a space to breathe and

find the strength to continue

their journey.

Palm tree (Mariam)

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CONCEPTUAL IDEA

BASE OBJECTIVES

The Moon Loop base will focus on two main targets:

1. Sustainability and self-sufficiency

• Produce sufficient energy using solar light, and using

exercise machines of which the crew members have

to use at least 2 hours daily.

• Utilize greenhouses to produce sufficient food for 6

crew members in the lunar base.

• Reuse all the resources in a closed-loop system,

where little to no waste will be produced.

2. Fungi use on the moon

• Use fungal composites to create a biological shield

that protects against radiation.

• Grow fungal composites and investigate their possible

uses in the lunar base.

Greenhouse module inspiration: the water bottle symbolizes energy

source. Similarly, the greenhouse will provide the crew the nutrients and

energy they need to live on the moon (Stefan)

Greenhouse module deployment process (Stefan)

GREENHOUSE MODULE

The greenhouse module will host areas for plant cultivation, gardens, and growing fungi. In order to maximize the integration

of the greenhouse in the lunar base, the greenhouse modules will connect the habitat modules together; allowing the crew

members to interact and connect with plants. This would support the psychological health of the crew, and allow them to

feel at home.

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MOON LOOP

HABITAT MODULE

Because of the pressure levels, curved structures are preferred on the moon for their pressure resistance. Keeping in mind

the launcher dimensions limitation, Chuck Hoberman‘s concept of a twisting structure inspired the habitat modules of the

lunar base. Hoberman‘s twisting structure unfolds a cylinder to a sphere, which allows the structure to fit in the launcher

when folded, and then unfolds the structure to a sphere that would host the different habitat functions.

Habitat modules deployment process (Stefan)

Habitat module structure (Stefan)

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SUSTAINABLE DESIGN

ASPECTS

Biological Shield

The Moon Loop will use fungi composites creating a

bioreactor shield that can protect against radiation and

self-repair when needed.

For future research, scientists can consider extracting the

melanin pigment that the fungus uses to convert gammaradiation

into chemical energy, and incorporate it into the

spacesuit fabric or other materials.

Solar Power For Energy

Using available sunlight is the most common form of ISRU

and has been employed on spacecraft for many decades.

The Moon Loop base will use solar panels to harness

sunlight to power the lunar base and its facilities.

Exercise For Energy

The Moon Loop will utilize crew’s exercises to produce

energy and provide an extra power source. A device used

to realize this is Free Electric Bike that can produce 200

watts per hour.

Fungi biological shield (Enaam)

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MOON LOOP

Circulation of water (blue) and air (gray) throughout the module and the biological shield

(Stefan)

The greenhouse uses plants to scrub carbon dioxide while providing food and oxygen

(Enaam)

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TIMELINE

The first stages of the lunar base construction would

be uncrewed. Exploring rovers will be sent with the first

landing on the moon to explore the site and search for the

optimal location to build the base. After that, rovers will

start placing the power system near the site. Then rovers

will level and sinter the plot area, and excavate as needed

to place the habitat and greenhouse modules. At the

beginning of the settlement, one habitat module and one

greenhouse would be deployed and assembled. After the

launcher lands, the modules would be transferred to the

site, unfolded, and placed as planned. After the life support

systems are validated, the temporary crew would stay at

the base. As the continues to expand, other habitat and

greenhouse modules will be added and functions would be

distributed. The base would then be able to fully recycle

waste, use full power, and provide the food required for the

long-term crew of 6 that would inhabit the lunar base.

146

1- Travel to the moon

2- Land and transfer the module to the site

3- Excavate the lunar surface


MOON LOOP

Botanist

Engineer

Physician

Chemist

Astrophysicist

Geologist

Storyboard Doodle

(Mayar)

4- Place the module and unfold it 5- Add the airlock and the greenhouse module 6- Expand the base

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ARCHITECTURAL

CONCEPT & DESIGN

The Moon Loop base will host several functions to support

crew living on the moon. The greenhouse would occupy

the largest area. Then the living area, research labs, and

the accommodation. Finally, activity areas and services like

life support systems and hygiene would cover the smallest

space.

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MOON LOOP

The habitat and greenhouse modules will differ in size

according to the function inside. The activity area would

be distributed around the greenhouse modules so that the

crew can enjoy their surroundings while exercising.

The ground floor across the modules will include airlocks,

a common area, kitchen and dining area, medical room,

research labs, WC and showers, greenhouse and gardens,

activity area, and a control room. Also, a running track

would be added where the crew can walk or jog throughout

the base.

Base functions volume diagram

Section A-A

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The lower level would include a safe haven under the

common area; a quiet room under the medical room; food

storage under the kitchen and dining area; food research

lab under the research lab; and life support systems under

the LSS and equipment room.

The upper level would include crew quarters and lounge

areas above the medical room and kitchen and dining

area; living/relaxing room above the common area;

communication and observation room above the research

lab; and technical/mechanical room above the LSS and

equipment room. The upper floor would allow the crew to

look under at the running track, and offer a double volume

for the track area.

-1 Floor Plan

-1 Floor

1. Food storage

2. Quiet room

3. Saven haven

4. Food research

5. Life support system (tanks)

Section B-B

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MOON LOOP

+1 Floor Plan

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Functions Diagram

152


MOON LOOP

The Moon Loop‘s future expansion is inspired by the

chemical bonds pattern, which allows the modules to isolate

damaged modules in case of emergency. That is possible

because each module is connected in two ends, allowing

the crew to escape through one if the other needs to

completely shut and isolate the module.However, the future

expansion pattern would follow the topography of the site,

so it can differ if the terrain doesn‘t allow this pattern.

Moon Loop future expansion

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DETAILS

Structure Layers

To protect against radiation, the Moon Loop base would

utilize a multi-layer membrane system, pre-seeded with

fungal bio-composites that inflate once nurtured through

the structure’s circulatory system upon arrival. The

structure is made of polyethylene, supporting the multilayer

membrane that will include two membrane types.

From the inside, a strong transparent membrane layer

will offer the crew to view the fungal composite texture

that would differ in color according to the types of fungi

used; from the outside, a strong outer membrane will help

contain the fungi. The membranes will be pre-seeded with

fungi composites, which will inflate once the structure’s

circulatory system distributes the nutrients upon arrival.

When it is fully grown, the bio-reactor shield would protect

against radiation.

Covering the structure and the multi-layer membrane

system is the Whipple shield that is composed of multilayer

Kevlar fabric, which would stop or help reduce the

impact of micro-meteoroids on the modules.

Structure folded

Structure unfolded

Structure layers

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MOON LOOP

Moon Loop lunar base cut 3D render

155



LUNAR FIBER

a project by

Mohamed Ahmed Rashad, Ibrahim Jamo,

Mahmud Sani, Emonda Shefiku, Yllka Qarri

“Hope in a time of fear”

J. Marsden, March 2020

ABSTRACT

Where to next? ... Discovering the moon mysteries, using

its obscure materials to design and build for the future with

an awareness of the past.

A lunar habitation is the next aim on the jurney of exploring

the space. The moon is the best first destination to be

explored. Because of its hazardous environment it’s also the

most challenging one. With this project we tried to explore

new ideas and materials for building a self-sustainable

habitation. Different ideas were evaluated and the most

reasonable one was chosen for a detailed design. The main

goal was to use the in-situ resources and to minimalise

carriage delivered from Earth.

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LUNAR OASIS

Lost in space with yourself and a little bit of hope.

A light that shines as a little star but promising to grow into

a galaxy.

The Lunar Oasis, the hope to a completely different life.

A space to redescover life and to face the unlimited

obstacles. A spot out of the comfort zone where human

interactions are minimalised, where the most important

thing is finding a shelter to feel protected. Far away

from home with the need to feel connected and loved. A

base offering all the essential needs for the life to thrive.

A second home, to live, work and explore the limiteless

possibilities the life out of the comfort zone has to offer.

“Start small, think big. Don’t worry about too many things

at once. Take a handful of simple things to begin with, and

then progress to more complex one. Think about not just

tomorrow, but the future. Put a ding in the universe”

Steve Jobs

From the smallest particles to the Solar system. Our idea

is based on the rotation around a base point. Every module

would have different functions, all of them connected with

each other with the possibility to extand in the future.

Functions would be based on the human needs, such

as the greenhouse or the sleeping quarters. The main

function would be the Research Lab, serving for lunar

exploration, in order to use the materials found on site for

building shelters and creating a livable environment. The

first crew members will start building and the habitation

will continue growing.

The shape of an Atom

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LUNAR FIBER

CONCEPTUAL IDEA

Maslow’s Hierarchy of Needs:

• Physiological needs: these are biological requirements

for human survival, e.g. air, food, drink, shelter, clothing,

warmth, sex, sleep.

• Safety needs: People want to experience order,

predictability and control in their lives. These needs

can be fulfilled by the family and society.

• Love and belongingness needs: refers to a human

emotional need for interpersonal relationships,

affiliating, connectedness, and being part of a group.

• Esteem needs: Maslow classified esteem needs into

two categories: esteem for oneself and the desire for

reputation or respect from others.

• Self-actualization needs: are the highest level in

Maslow’s hierarchy, and refer to the realization of a

person’s potential, self-fulfillment, seeking personal

growth and peak experiences.

Functions in different modules

Working / Living spaces

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RESEARCH TOPICS

Hydroponics refers to the technique of growing plants

without soil. In hydroponic systems, the roots of plants are

submerged in liquid solutions containing macronutrients,

such as nitrogen, phosphorus, Sulphur, potassium, calcium,

and magnesium, as well as trace elements, including iron,

chlorine, manganese, boron, zinc, copper, and molybdenum.

Hydroponics offers many advantages, notably a decrease

in water usage in agriculture and the plants grows very

fast.

GROW TO EAT

Artichoke, Arugula, Asparagus, Basil, Bean (Common),

Beat root, Bok, Choy, Broad, Bean, Broccoli, Brussel,

Sprout, Cabbage, Capsicum, Carrots, Cauliflower, Celery,

Cucumbers, Eggplant, Endive, Fodder, Garlic, Kale, Leek,

Lettuce, Marrow, Okra, Onions, Pak, Choi, Parsnip, Pea,

Pea (Sugar), Pepino, Peppers, Peppers (Bell), Peppers

(Hot), Potato, Pumpkin, Radish, Spinach, Silver beet,

Sweet Corn, Sweet Potato, Taro, Tomato, Turnip, Zucchini.

Strawberries, Watermelon, Hydroponic Berries, Grapes,

Canaloupe.

Anise, Basil, Catnip, Chamomile, Chervil, Chicory, Chives,

Cilantro, Coriander, Dill, Fennel, Lavender, Lemon Balm,

Mint, Mustard Cress, Oregano, Parsley, Rosemary, Sage,

Tarragon, Thyme, Watercress.

Fiber is a natural or man-made substance that is

significantly longer than it is wide.

Fibers are often used in the manufacture of other materials.

The strongest engineering materials often incorporate

fibers, for example carbon fiber and ultra-high-molecularweight

polyethylene.

Based on source or origin the fibers classify into 2 types:

• Natural Fiber

• Man-made Fiber.

The fiber produced from the animal, plant, or a geographical

process is called Natural fiber.

Man-made fibers are fibers that are chemically processed.

In this process fibers modified during the manufacturing

process to create properties and required structure.

In addition, it made by synthetic fibers or regenerated

natural fibers.

Man-made Fiber Calculations:

• Spinning 180 km / h

• 1gr Lunar Regolith = 2.4 km Fiber

• Fibers = 16 μm thickness

• Energy cons. = 750 W / h

• 1 Solar Panel 2094x1038x35 mm= 400 W/h

• Module (d=8m, h=5m) A= 50m2

• Fiber needed =ap. 400kg

• Spinning process: 1 day (max 15 gr per day)

• Construction process: 1kg / h = 400h (17days) 24h

ENERGY REQUIRED:

Approximate power consumption of a single unit is 2 kW.

Given that the Moon’s surface experiences a mean

total solar irradiance value of 1363W/m² and assuming

efficiency of energy conversion for GaAs photovoltaic

cells of 30%, a power of 409 W/m² would minimally be

available.

Hence a single fibre processing unit requires 5 m² of solar

panels.

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LUNAR FIBER

BASALT FIBER

CARBON FIBER

Basalt fibre, very similar to fiberglass, is made of volcanic

rock, mainly found in the lunar maria. It is composed of the

mineral’s plagioclase, pyroxene, and olivine.

The main components of basalt are the metal oxides SiO 2

,

Al 2

O 3

, CaO, MgO, Fe 2

O 3

, and FeO.

Possible other components in smaller amounts are K 2

O,

Na 2

O, and TiO 2

.

Basalt is categorized, based on its main component SiO 2

,

into alkaline (up to 42% SiO 2

), mildly acidic (43 to 46 %

SiO 2

) and acidic basalts (over 46% SiO 2

), whereas only

acidic basalts are suitable for continuous fibre production.

The main difference compared to other metal oxide fibres,

such as glass fibres or ceramic fibres, is the content of iron

oxides in the basalt fibres.

This gives the basalt fibres the dark coloration in contrast

to the white and transparent glass and ceramic fibres.

Carbon Fiber is a polymer and is sometimes known as

graphite fiber. It is a very strong material but also very

lightweight, five-times stronger than steel and twice as

stiff. Though carbon fiber is stronger and stiffer than steel,

it is lighter than steel; making it the ideal manufacturing

material for many parts.

Carbon fiber is made of thin, strong crystalline filaments

of carbon that is used to strengthen material. Carbon fiber

can be thinner than a strand of human hair and gets its

strength when twisted together like yarn.

Carbon Fiber: use for the interior walls, slabs, furniture, and

the machinery needed on the moon.

The lignin should be separated from the plants since as

a bio-derived alternative, has received growing interest

in the production of carbon fiber due to its high carbon

content of 50% to 71%.

There are two main methods to separate lignin:

• By disoolving and removing other components in

plants except for lignin.

• By dissolving lignin as a soluble component from other

components (such as cellulose & hemicellulose).

PRODUCTION

PRODUCTION

CARBON FIBER

BASALT FIBER

SILICON DIOXIDE

CARBON FIBER FROM

PLANT

REGOLITH

LIGNIN

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TIMELINE

Photovoltaic panels should be vertical installed due the

sun beams in the lunar surface are just 2 degree covering

horizontally the surface.

4 Crew Members: Engineer, Scientist, Biologist, Astronaut.

The Crew will be the one who’s will start the preparation

for the next level of research.

The inflatable structure will be set for the crew to live in a

short period of time until the modules will be built by the

fibers.

The robots will start building the modules one by one while

the crew will use the common area to live and do the

research.

CREW MEMBERS:

• Engineer: In charge of the technical parts and issue of

the spaceship. After lunar landing, he will be in charge

for the first phase of accommodation.

• Astronaut: Launch and extravehicular activity and also

for lunar landing. Will help for the extreme environment

of the crew.

• Biologist: The extreme condition of food and growing

plant. First growing phase of the plant and saving the

seed through the transportation.

• Scientist: Will be part of the research in the first phase

for materials and the environment in lunar surface.

1. Robots will be sent to

moon to analyze the site

where the habitation will

be built and to set the

power panels.

2. The crew will arrive

with a launcher and an

inflatable structure in the

cylinder.

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LUNAR FIBER

PHASES

1. In the first phase is the landing on the lunar surface

and the accommodation on the inflatable temporary

structure. Will start also to build the new and first fiber

modul.

2. The inflatable temporary structure will be use as a semi

privatcy because the daily work rutine wil be moved

on the new modul, which will be the mein space to

connect the other moduls when is needed.

3. The main Modul will be more livebale and the growing

plants will start to have place on the next experimental

green house. On the other side the common area and

the technic space will be build up.

4. The experimental green house will be build up also the

plants will be grown up to build more the station. More

private room will be build to have more space.

5. More moduls will be instaled through the Air-locks.

Depending on the sound area will be the funksions of

the new moduls.

3. The inflatable

structure will be set

for the crew to live in a

short period of time.

SHACKLETON

4. The robots will start

building the modules

one by one while

the crew will use the

common area to live

and do the research.

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ARCHITECTUAL

CONCEPT & DESIGN

The lunar south pole is of special interest to scientists

because of the occurrence of water ice in permanently

shadowed areas around it.

The lunar south pole region features craters that are

unique in that the near-constant sunlight does not reach

their interior.

Such craters are cold traps that contain a fossil record of

hydrogen, water ice, and other volatiles dating from the

early Solar System.

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LUNAR FIBER

Site plan

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Sleeping

Room

View to the earth

Sleeping

Room

Private /

praying

room

AIRLOCK

Flexible

furniture

from carbon

fiber

Lounge

WC

Greenhouse

WC

Climbing

Wall

Kitchen /

Dinning

WC

Medical

room

Open working space

Greenhouse

Common Area

AIRLOCK

The project concludes two diferent levels. The first floor

is made from three big modules, two of them including a

greenhouse and two Airlocks.

The first Module is the common area consisting of a

greenhouse for food production and connected with it is

the bathroom and the kitchen area.

On those geometrical forms is the climbing wall that brings

to training area with a gallery. Connected to the common

module are three small modules; two bedrooms which can

be used for two people or separated with a wall.

The other room is the private room for praying which can

be used from the crew members to spend some time alone

and feel in touch with their home as the room has a direct

earth-view.

Tomato,

Potato,

Cucumber,

Garlic,

Mushroom,

Lettuce, Pea,

Radish, Wheat,

Ficus, Alow

Vera.

Moso

Bamboo

Ficus

Aloe vera

Ground Floor.

Moving tray

Experimental greenhouse

Open to radiation

Tech room /

Storage

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LUNAR FIBER

View to the earth

Greenhouse

from Carbon

Fiber

Gallery

Gallery

Training Spot

Lounge

Lounge

Meeting

space

The biggest module of the project is the Research-Lab,

that has in the middle a greenhouse where the carbon

fiber is being produced that serves for building. Next

to it is the toilet and the medical room. The area around

includes open spaces for working and also on top of the

greenhouse there is place for entertainment or meeting

spots. The other Airlock and the technical room are directly

connected to the Research-Lab.

Part of the concept is the experimental greenhouse, which

is almost open to radiation to see how the plants will grow

with no protection therefore it is not covered like the other

modules. From it to the Research-Lab is a moving tray to

make a flexible access for the experiment for the plants. In

this greenhouse the plants will serve for the production of

the Carbon Fiber.

Second Floor.

Experimental

greenhouse

Moso, Bamboo,

Ficus, Aloe vera

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THE HONEYCOMB

a project by

Hiba Hamsho, Rania Adel,

Dana Ammoura, Aseel Daraghmi,

Tiana Tasevska

ABSTRACT

“The Honeycomb” is a lunar research center, located at

the rim of the Shackleton crater. The study of space is an

indispensable part of the human future. Through research,

projects and theories we have been trying to achieve a safe

environment for life on the moon. And “Honeycomb” is no

different, with a mission to answer the primary question

“Can humans achieve long-term stay on the moon with

the knowledge that they currently have?”

The main goal is to achieve gradual, multi-directional

expansion of the habitat with time, meaning a quick and

automated assembly is crucial. Inspired by nature, the

process began using honeycomb as a concept to inspire

the feeling of community in the vastness of space.

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LUNAR OASIS

In the middle of a chaotic city, a garden, a quiet place

where your “other” thoughts could run free, thoughts that

make you human, thoughts that separate you from the

monotony of your daily life. Here, no meetings to rush to,

no buses to miss, no angry drivers to yell at, just green

magnetically pulling your gaze as if it were the release you

have been yearning for. Come and let go.

There is a blurry line between our minds and reality, in

which we don’t want to limit our imagination and visions

to. We think that the reality is a limitation to our creativity,

but it’s us who determine whether to see it as a push to be

more realistic, or achieve the unthinkable.

The feeling of the beauty of nature that is interconnected

with man-made architectural designs. How beautiful it is

to have a paradise behind your house, a paradise where

you only hear the wind moving the branches of the trees,

the birds singing on those branches, the sound of water

flowing on that pond, and a place among the grass to sit in

to relieve your mind from the noise of the world.

Humans have an instinctual connection to nature, so

it makes sense that we feel better when in spaces that

reflect characteristics of the outdoor environment or

that offer views and even access to beautiful landscaped

areas, plants, and/or water features. A garden is a planned

space, usually outdoors, dedicated to the cultivation, and

enjoyment of plants and other forms of nature. As for oasis,

the oasis of man-made architecture with natural elements

such as trees, plants, water, etc., Can be open and clear or

hidden behind a wall or inside a building. Gardens increase

the aesthetics of the place in addition to psychological

comfort when seeing plants and green. Maybe we will

always need green and growing natural elements near us

to feel comfortable and safe like oasis.

CONCEPTUAL IDEA

With Earth running out of resources as we speak, this

development is crucial. The primary goal of this mission is

a gradual, multi-directional expansion of the lunar habitat in

time. Secondary goals are stability, flexibility, sustainability

and durability. Building on the Moon is a challenge. Moon

lacks most of the necessary resources that humankind

needs in order to survive. This means that the design should

incorporate new techniques and concepts compared to

those used for building on Earth. Since the transportation

is challenging on its own, using in-situ materials is one

example of the new techniques necessary. Adding a

layer of regolith over the habitat would provide sufficient

radiation protection, which due to the lack of atmosphere

on the Moon, is crucial to our survival. Additionally, a new

collapsible greenhouse could be the key to growing fresh

and healthy food to sustain future lunar habitations. Indoor

farms would reduce the need for costly resupply missions

while removing carbon dioxide from the air, thus replenishing

the astronauts‘ breathing supply, and could produce about

500 pounds of oxygen a year. Lunar greenhouses must

hold up in places where the atmospheric pressures are,

at best, less than one percent of Earth-normal. A farm at

the moon‘s poles could tap water ice trapped in craters.

Burying the farm buildings will protect them from cosmic

rays, micrometeorites and extreme temperatures. The

greenhouses will be easier to construct and operate with

interior low pressure. In such extreme low pressures, plants

have to work hard to survive. Low pressure makes plants act

as if they‘re drying out. Plants can grow on the moon, but

not on moon soil, as earth plants need nutrients, minerals,

moisture, and oxygen, which are not found in moon soil

(regolith). Regolith is mostly very dry dust that comes from

rock, meteors, and meteorites that become powder due

to solar heat, solar wind, cosmic rays, meteoric collisions,

and extreme heat and cold. To grow plants on the Moon

is to recreate, the earth conditions necessary for plants to

develop and grow. This is possible by building superficial

or underground infrastructure where temperature, light,

moisture, nutrients and microbes are artificially controlled.

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THE HONEYCOMB

TIMELINE

Regolith as radiation protection

First year = deployment of infrastructure - Initial habitat

module is launched to the moon and robotically assembled

prior to the crew arrival. Additionally, radiation protection

using in-situ regolith is layered over the inflated habitat.

After two years, four crew members arrive on site,

connecting the habitat with life support systems and

power supply, and constructing the interior of the habitat.

In the upcoming years, the primary goal of the mission is

achieved by continuous expansion of the habitat.

The site location chosen for the mission is South Pole,

at the rim of Shackleton crater. The location has multiple

advantages such as: heavily cratered terrain, average

temperature of -13°C (unlike the rest of the moon’s

temperatures that vary between -173°C and +127°C),

due to the constant shading, the ice in the craters are

potentially a solid water source, the soil shows traces of

essential resources like: hydrogen, sulfur, methane.

Timeline (one arrow = one year)

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HB2-TUW & ADU | LUNAR OASIS

HABITAT DEPLOYMENT

The units are packed during transport. The diameter of

each unit is 5m when packed. Once on the lunar surface,

the top opens up first. The membrane is anchored on the

top and the bottom of the unit. By moving up, the top

releases the outer shell.

These panels have dual functionality: after deployment

they give the unit stability and during transport, they

protect the membrane. The inflating begins, the membrane

is attached to metal frames, which are pulled into place

with inflation. Following the curvature of the membrane,

the metal frames ensure a stable structure. The membrane

contains 3 flexible airlock adapters. To ensure the metal

frames fit, the max. length of each is equal to the height

of the 1st floor, 273cm, which resulted into the angle and

shape of the habitat.

172

Steps of deployment of the habitat on the lunar surface


THE HONEYCOMB

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HB2-TUW & ADU | LUNAR OASIS

ARCHITECTUAL

CONCEPT & DESIGN

It all began by drawing inspiration from nature. In an attempt

to spark the notion of community in space, beehives were

chosen as the primary concept for this project, as well as

one of the main research topics on this mission.

This concept offers many advantages when it comes

to space. One of them, of course, being its geometrical

advantages, such as: compared to a circular shape, the

hexagon doesn’t leave an empty space between each hive;

It has a flat surface „walls“, making it perfect for attaching

additional units; allows equal expansion in multiple

directions, while providing sufficient space for multiple

functionalities , making it a perfect choice for our mission

as the primary goal is expansion.

174

Radiation protection


THE HONEYCOMB

The main design objectives are the following:

- All necessary functionalities within one module

- Multi-directional expansion ability of the module

- A fully automated deployment process.

The habitat is designed as a hybrid structure, which includes

a telescopic rigid core in the middle and an inflatable.

During transport, the top of the core carries interior

elements, and is used as a water tank after assembly. The

bottom carries waste management equipment. A cupola

allows natural light to enter right in the center of the unit,

the water tank around protects from radiation. Two metal

frames contained within one another form the telescopic

structure. The center of the unit is where the sanitary

facility will be located.

Core of the habitat

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HB2-TUW & ADU | LUNAR OASIS

LAYOUT

The lunar surface comes with its challenges such as: heavy

radiation, no breathable air, no atmospheric pressure and

extreme temperatures. Therefore, a habitat should provide

a comfortable and safe environment where the crew could

live and work.

The inflation of the habitat gives the form and surface area

of each functionality, once the metal frames are pulled

into their final position of extension. Thereby, the interior

follows the form of the habitat, simultaneously allowing for

maximal use of space and providing comfort for the crew.

The hexagonal base of the core is offset inwards to create

the circular movement around the sanitary unit. The

resulting space allows for a minimum movement diameter

of 1 m for the crew.

quiet

loud

SOCIAL

PRIVATE

RECREATIONAL

PRIVATE

quiet

Flooring plates and partitioning walls can be mounted

onto the metal frames, allowing for a flexible layout of the

interior. On the images is one possible configuration of the

interior space and layout.

Sanitary facility

Circular movement

Layout Ground Floor

loud

The ground floor surface area is divided in two zones:

quiet and loud zone. The floor area provides the necessary

space for 4 crew members, and additional space for

recreational and social activities. The ceiling of the private

areas provide the floor of the second level, which in this

configuration, is used as a work and research area. Placed

above the sanitary unit, the green house is located in the

middle of the upper floor, where sunlight enters through

the capula above, securing the necessary conditions for

successful growth of the plants. Further on, the capula

allows for the interior to be naturally lit throughout the day.

WORK AND

RESEARCH AREA

Greenhouse

Circular movement

Layout First Floor

176


THE HONEYCOMB

1

BEEHIVES

EXPERIMENTAL

LAB

RESEARCH

LAB

Recreational area

1st FLOOR

1

0 1 2 4 8

First Floor

Social activities area

Social activities area

SECTION 1-1

0 1 2 4 8

Section 1-1

Crew quarters

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HB2-TUW & ADU | LUNAR OASIS

DETAILS

The main idea behind the design was to create a habitat

that would be as time efficient as possible in its assembly.

For this purpose, the sanitary unit was placed in the core

of the packed unit, fully installed on Earth.

The cupola allows for natural light to enter at the top of

the unit and spread primarily through the green house and

continues providing natural light across the whole interior.

Since the radiation is significantly higher on the Moon

compared to Earth, the water tank is placed around the

cupola to ensure radiation protection.

Prior to securing the habitat with a layer of regolith, the

waste management compartment is connected to an

outside waste recycle facility underneath the floor of the

habitat.

As the habitat expands with time, each of the units could

be used as a separate functionality allowing larger spaces,

and with that improving the living conditions.

Pre-installed sanitary unit in the core

Design concepts

178


THE HONEYCOMB

Future expansion of the habitat

Lab and Research area

179


HB2-TUW & ADU | LUNAR OASIS

THE

STUDENTS

In total 63 students from 23 countries

worked togehter in an international

and intercultural environment.

Mahsa Mousa Abdi

Sara Abdelhamid Abuhelweh

Zainab Husam Aburabie

Enaam Mohamed Ahmed

Ouda

Iman Mohammad Al

Hussaini

Hajer Yaseen Al Khuwaiter

180

Widad Nasir AlAlawi

Manal Hamdan AlBlooshi


THE STUDENTS

Amna Eisa Alhammadi Aishah Rashed Alkaabi Mariam Ali AlNuaimi

Rawan Ahmad AlSolh

Mayar Jehad Bani Baker

Ludovica Breitfeld

Baris Dogan

Sara Abdul Hafiz El Masri

Ghada Abdelaziz Elkhalil

Merna Ayman Mohamed

Hanafy

Ibrahim Hussaini Jamo

Karmen Janzekovic

Anna-Maria Just-Kunrath Margaryta Kaliberda

Edis Kujovic Alma Kugic

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HB2-TUW & ADU | LUNAR OASIS

Sara Ayman Laila

Sidorela Lulay

Milomir Milenkovic

Flora Münzer

Haleema Sadia Nabi

Ylka Qarri

Valentina Radic

Fatima Mohammed Saeed

Shada Zuhair Salloum

Mahmud Sani

Mohamed Ahmed Rashad

Ahmed Khalil Shabana

Areej Akef Shawahneh

Emonda Shefiku

Tiana Tasevska

Khairi Jehad Zrik

182


THE STUDENTS

Meleksima Akarcay

Fardous Nabil Al Akrabi

Mohammed Hussein Alghazo

Muna Ezzat Al-Harbi

Manal Hassan Alhosani

Ayah I. Alkhatib

Abdulrahman Omar Al-Tekreeti

Dana Khaled Ammoura

Waseem Fadi Assad Assaf

Samiya Badshah Khan

Aseel Thabet Daraghmi

Dima El Bsat

Hiba Fouad Hamsho

Stefan Hristoforov

Abdullah Abdulkader Kanbari

Amira Mouin Mayassi

Rania Adil Mohamed

Nahida Mohammad Shamin

Fatemeh Mohammadsharif Mohammadi

Ayman Hussein Abdalla Saadeldin

Amr Mohamed Taha Abdou Salem

183


HB2-TUW & ADU | LUNAR OASIS

ACADEMIC

TEAM

184


ACADEMIC TEAM

Sandra Häuplik-Meusburger

Studio Director

TU Wien, HB2

Dr. Ing. Sandra Häuplik-Meusburger is

Senior lecturer at the Institute for Architecture

and Design. Her teachings include

design courses in space architecture and

extreme environment architecture and a

regular course on ‘Emerging Fields in

Architecture’. Sandra is also director of

the Space course at the Science Academy

in Lower Austria. She is an architect

at space-craft Architektur and expert in

habitability design solutions for extreme

environments. Over the last 15 years, she

has worked and collaborated on several

architecture and aerospace design projects.

Sandra is Chair of the AIAA Space

Architecture Technical Committee, and

Co-chair of the IAA History Committee.

She is author of several scientific papers

and books, her latest is co-authored with

Shery Bishop; Space Habitats and Habitability

(Springer 2020) .

Paolo Caratelli

Studio Director

Abu Dhabi University | UAE

Dr. Paolo Caratelli is Associate Professor

at the College of Engineering, Department

of Architecture and Design since

2011. Licensed Architect in Italy (OAPPC,

Florence Chapter), researcher on architectural

and urban sustainability, and

investigator about social and cultural

changes in architectural design. He published

in several international peer-reviewed

journals and conference proceedings.

His teaching and research activity

is focusing on design and technology integration

into habitats in isolated confined

extreme (ICE) environments, investigation

of complex habitation systems as

techno-theoretical resource for buildings

in ordinary environments, and psycho-physiological

effects of confinement

in ICE environments. He is Board Member

of AIAA Space Architecture Technical

Committee, and Scientific Committee

Member of SPSD.

Rowdha Begam Mohamed Hanifa

Teaching Assistant

Rowdha Begam Mohamed Hanifa is

Architect graduated with honors at Abu

Dhabi University in 2018. She collaborated

with Abu Dhabi University as Teaching

and Research Assistant and is currently

completing her Master in Urban Planning

and Design at Politecnico di Milano, Italy.

She is actively collaborating with Abu

Dhabi University on research and design

projects for habitats in extreme

environments, and integration of bioregenerative

life support systems in

orbital and planetary facilities. Rowdha is

an Associate Member of AIAA and Board

Member of the Space Architecture

Technical Committee.

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HB2-TUW & ADU | LUNAR OASIS

Olga Bannova

Guest Critic

Dr. Olga Bannova is a Research Professor

at the University of Houston’s Cullen

College of Engineering, Director of the

world’s only Master of Science in Space

Architecture program and Sasakawa

International Center for Space

Architecture. Olga conducts research and

design studies of orbital and surface

habitats and settlements, including

inflatable structures, special design

influences and requirements for different

gravity conditions in space, and habitat

concepts for extreme environments on

Earth. She is author of the books “Space

Architecture Education for Engineers and

Architects” (2016) and “Space

Architecture: Human Habitats beyond the

Planet Earth” (2021)that received the

Social Sciences Book Award of the

International Academy of Astronautics in

2021.

Sheryl Bishop

Guest Critic

Dr. Sheryl L. Bishop, PhD is a Social

Psychologist and Professor Emeritus at

the University of Texas Medical Branch at

Galveston School of Nursing. As an

internationally recognized behavioral

researcher in extreme environments, Dr.

Bishop has investigated human

performance and group dynamics

involving deep cavers, mountain climbers,

desert survival groups, polar expeditioners,

Antarctic winter-over groups and various

simulations of isolated, confined

environments for space. With over 60

publications and 50 scholarly

presentations in both the medical and

psychological fields, she is frequently

sought out as a content expert by various

media and contributed to multiple

documentaries on space and extreme

environments. Her latest book is

co-authored with Sandra Häuplik-

Meusburger; Space Habitats and

Habitability (Springer 2020).

186


ACADEMIC TEAM

Daniel Inocente

Guest Critic

Daniel Inocente is currently a Senior

Space Architect with Blue Origins

Advanced Development Program working

on LEO and Lunar Space Architecture. He

is an experienced Design Architect, Space

Architect and has worked with SOM,

Gehry Partners, HKS, Gehry Technologies,

and NASA JPL in the past. Daniel works

on international projects across sectors

including skyscrapers, transportation,

aviation, government, culture, science,

education, and research. His project

experience includes Guggenheim Abu

Dhabi, Battersea Development, Tour

Charenton, NEOM Bay Airport, Jiuzhou

Bay Zhuhai Tower, and the Guiyang World

Trade Center. Daniel has played a vital role

in initiating, building, and fostering Space

Architecture partnerships with teams

across government, industry, and

academia including ESA, Lockheed

Martin, and MIT, among others.

Christophe Lasseur

Lecturer

Dr. Christophe Lasseur is Head of

MELiSSA project at ESA. PhD in

bioengineering from University of

Compiegne, he joined first MATRA space

Branch (today Airbus), where he worked

on the control of higher plant chamber for

space missions.He became the project

manager of the echograph Anthrorack

that flew with success on NASA Shuttle

D2 mission. In 1990, he joined ESA for a

research fellow position devoted to the

precursor of the MELiSSA pilot plant. In

1992, he became MELiSSA project

manager, and in 1998 the coordinator of

ESA R&D in the life support domain. From

2000 to 2010, he chaired, with NASA HQ,

the International Life Support working

Group, which involved NASA, JAXA, CSA,

RSA, and ESA. He acts as well as European

representative to the ISS Medical board

for microbiology, and is adviser for several

European Union activities. Since 2012 he

chairs Life Support Sessions of COSPAR.

Cesare Lobascio

Lecturer

Dr. Cesare Lobascio graduated in Nuclear

Engineering at Politecnico di Torino and

then obtained a MS in Environmental

Engineering at the University of California

in Berkeley in 1993. He has worked for

>30 years at Thales Alenia Space in Italy,

in the fields of Space Environment and

Life Support Systems, covering a wide

range of technical and management roles.

He has been involved in the International

Space Station project, on scientific

satellites and human and robotic space

exploration studies for the Moon and

Mars. He is Senior Expert in “Life Support

& Habitability”, teaches at the Space

Exploration Master, authored more than

70 papers, book chapters and 2 patents.

As the Innovation Leader for Space

Exploration and Science, within the

Innovation Cluster, he coaches teams of

innovation fellows through incubation of

innovative ideas, ventures and start-ups.

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HB2-TUW & ADU | LUNAR OASIS

Piero Messina

Lecturer

Piero Messina is a senior policy, strategy

and management support officer in the

ESA Director General’s Cabinet. Among

his duties he is in charge of relations with

some Member States and has been

working on several strategic cross-cutting

projects such as space resources, the

Moon Village vision as well as on the

future of Europe’s role on space

exploration. Piero has been working at the

European Space Agency for over 30 years

in several positions and in different ESA

Centres in Germany, the Netherlands and

Paris. Before he was, for several years,

chief of staff / advisor to successive ESA

Directors of human spaceflight and space

exploration. Previously he was part of the

managing team of the Aurora European

Exploration Programme and the Secretary

of its Board of participating Member

States.

Gerhard Schwehm

Guest Critic

Dr. Gerhard Schwehm studied Physics,

Mathematics and Astronomy. He was a

project scientist and study scientist for

numerous ESA missions. He accompanied

the Rosetta and SMART 1 project as a

mission manager. As a co-investigator he

is involved in many dust experiments at

the MPI for nuclear physics. He was a

member of the Interagency Space Debris

Working Group, external member of the

NASA Planetary Protection Sub-Group

and the ESA Planetary Protection

Working Group. He is a member of the

International Academy of Astronautics

and the IAU named the Asteroid Schwehm

after him.

188


ACADEMIC TEAM

Madhu Thangavelu

Guest Critic

Conductor, ASTE527

Graduate Space Concept Synthesis

Studio, Astronautical Engineering

Department

Viterbi School of Engineering & USC

School of Architecture

University of Southern California, Los

Angeles, California 90089-1191

James Wise

Guest Critic

Dr. James A. Wise is retired after a 40 year

career in academia, private business and a

US government national laboratory. After

receiving his Bachelor’s and Ph.D. in

Experimental+Mathematical Psychology

at the UW, he focused his career on

working with designers, architects and

engineers of complex technical systems

and environments in order to better fit

them to users and organizations. He has

been a university professor, research

scientist, and consultant to government

agencies and major corporations. He has

over 140 publications, with international

research awards in Industrial Design &

Architecture. He is a Board Member of

the Neutra Institute for Survival Through

Design, and President of Sustainable Tri-

Cities. He also remains active with

international research groups developing

fractal design enhancements for medical

wards, and improving habitability design

for planned lunar and Mars bases.

189


HB2-TUW & ADU | LUNAR OASIS

HB2

LUNAR OASIS

Architectural Visions for an Integrated Habitat

Cooperative designstudio between the Design Studio

WS 2021 [TU WIEN] and Sustainable Design ARC

540 [ADU]

© 2022

Sandra Haeuplik-Meusburger, Paolo Caratelli (Eds.), and

students

TU Wien

Faculty of Architecture and Planning

Institute of Architecture and Design

Research Unit of Building Construction and Design,

Hochbau 2

www.hb2.tuwien.ac.at

Abu Dhabi University

Department of Architecture and Design

College of Engineering

www.adu.ac.ae

190

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