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Versatile Spaces – construct.deconstruct.reconstruct - Design Studio SS 2021

The overall goal of the design studio Versatile Spaces | construct.deconstruct.reconstruct was to experimentally develop a pavillion-like spatial structure with self-supporting / interlocking structural elements, which enable multiple different spatial and functional configurations. Design task S. 6 Project FEST S. 16 Woodstack S. 40 Pop Up & Down Pavilion S. 60 Colorful Caterpillar S. 84 Frames S. 110 MOWA S. 128 A’MÖBIUS S. 150 Studio directed by Dr.Ing. Sandra Häuplik-Meusburger & Prof. Peter Bauer – Co-supervised by Miriam Dall‘Igna & Marina Konstantatou | Foster & Partners. Department of Building Construction and Design Institute of Architecture and Design & Department of Structural Design and Timber Engineering TU Wien FEST by: Mellert A., Zimmermann P., Milenkovic M.; Woodstack by: Iankov A., Avdic B., Nedic I.; Pop Up & Down Pavilion by: Prückl G., Poyrazoglu E., Chen W., Sakarya F.; Colorful Caterpillar by: Kukutsov I., Simeonova M., Grimm J.; Frames by: Aydar G.; MOWA by: Alomia P., Chelariu F., Fridrich S.; A’MÖBIUS by: Kientsch D., Bogataj T., Traub C.;

The overall goal of the design studio Versatile Spaces | construct.deconstruct.reconstruct was to experimentally develop a pavillion-like spatial structure with self-supporting / interlocking structural elements, which enable multiple different spatial and functional configurations.

Design task S. 6
Project
FEST S. 16
Woodstack S. 40
Pop Up & Down Pavilion S. 60
Colorful Caterpillar S. 84
Frames S. 110
MOWA S. 128
A’MÖBIUS S. 150

Studio directed by Dr.Ing. Sandra Häuplik-Meusburger & Prof. Peter Bauer – Co-supervised by Miriam Dall‘Igna & Marina Konstantatou | Foster & Partners. Department of Building Construction and Design Institute of Architecture and Design & Department of Structural Design and Timber Engineering TU Wien

FEST by: Mellert A., Zimmermann P., Milenkovic M.; Woodstack by: Iankov A., Avdic B., Nedic I.; Pop Up & Down Pavilion by: Prückl G., Poyrazoglu E., Chen W., Sakarya F.; Colorful Caterpillar by: Kukutsov I., Simeonova M., Grimm J.; Frames by: Aydar G.; MOWA by: Alomia P., Chelariu F., Fridrich S.; A’MÖBIUS by: Kientsch D., Bogataj T., Traub C.;

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HB2 & ITI

VERSATILE

SPACES

Reviews by Miriam Dall’lgna & Marina Konstantatou,

Foster & Partners

Department of Building Construction and Design

Institute of Architecture and Design &

Department of Structural Design and Timber Engineering

TU Wien



VERSATILE SPACES

construct.deconstruct.reconstruct

Design Studio SS 2021

Department of Building

Construction and Design

Institute of Architecture and Design

&

Department of Structural Design

and Timber Engineering

TU Wien

2021

HB2


VERSATILE SPACES

Design Studio 2021

Published by

TU Wien

Institute of Architecture and Design

Department of Building Construction and Design, Hochbau 2

www.hb2.tuwien.ac.at

&

Department of Structural Design and Timber Engineering, ITI

www.iti.tuwien.ac.at

Project pages are designed by the students. All texts and

illustrations are minimally edited by the editors.

Editors

Sandra Häuplik-Meusburger, Dipl.-Ing. Dr.-Ing.

Laura Farmwald

Coverdesign

Laura Farmwald

Copyright

Department of Building Construction and Design,

Hochbau 2 (HB2), TU Wien; authors; students; photographers

© 2021

All texts and illustrations by students and minimally edited by the

editors.

Images may be used for educational or informational purposes if

HB2, TUWien and the author are credited as the source of the

image.

ISBN: 978-3-9519864-0-1

Print

Vica Druck


CONTENT

Design Task

Design Studio Approach

Warm Up Exercise

Online Semester

Projects:

FEST | folding structure

Woodstack | interlocking wood

Pop Up & Down Pavilion | asymptotic gridshell

Colorful Caterpillar | dovetail joint

FRAMES | transformative structure

Mowa | interactive structure

A’Möbius | kinetic structure

The Students

Teaching Team

6

8

10

14

16

40

60

84

110

128

150

174

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HB2 & ITI | VERSATILE SPACES

DESIGN TASK

The overall goal of the design studio Versatile Spaces |

construct.deconstruct.reconstruct was to experimentally

develop a pavilion-like spatial structure [pavilion:

free-standing, lightweight building] with self- supporting /

interlocking structural elements, which enable multiple (at

least two) different spatial and functional configurations.

6


DESIGN TASK

Poster for announcement of Design Studio, Image: RobsPuzzlePage.com

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HB2 & ITI | VERSATILE SPACES

DESIGN STUDIO

APPROACH

WORK FROM HOME

The design studio Versatile Spaces | construct.deconstruct.

reconstruct was held at the TU Wien during the summer

semester 2021. It started with the idea of an experimental

approach where students would think and develop a project

from a combined architectural and structural point of view.

Originally it was planned to realize one of the student’s

projects, but due to Covid-restrictions most of the time was

spent in the virtual realm and the original idea was adjusted.

The studio was directed cooperatively by the department

of building construction and design (Hochbau 2) and the

department of structural design and timber construction

(ITI) from the TU Wien: Prof. Peter Bauer and Senior

Lecturer Sandra Häuplik-Meusburger. In addition two

researchers form the esteemed architectural office Foster

+ Partners, London supported the studio; Miriam Dall’Igna,

Associate Partner at Foster + Partners from the Specialist

modelling group and Marina Konstantatou, researcher of

structural design, form-finding, and architectural geometry

at Fosters.

/ Self Supporting Structures and Reciprocal Structures.`

Throughout the studio, students developed an independent

experimental design approach. After the concept

presentation and the discussion of the design approaches,

teams of 2 -4 students joined to work together, with the

aim to expand the possibilities for discussion. Following

the intermediate presentation, selected projects should be

detailed in such an extent that a realisation is possible.

Lukas Zeilbauer and Georg Lobe supported the students with

additional workshops on tools such as Rhino, Grashopper.

Prof. Sabine Knierbein was invited to talk about the use of

public space and Prof. Klaus Zwerger provided an input on

wood joints and traditional details in Japan and China.

All critics took place together, simultaneously discussing

architecture and structural engineering. From the very

beginning, students were encouraged to design and

evaluate structural variants for their envisioned spatial

design using physical models as well as relevant software.

As a warm-up, the first task was an individual work in

order to read, explore and discuss ‘Interlocking Structures

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STUDIO APPROACH

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HB2 & ITI | VERSATILE SPACES

WARM UP

EXERCISE

1. Read, explore and discuss with your colleagues about

Interlocking Structures / Self Supporting

Structures / Reciprocal Structures

2. Get some material to start your experiment.

Task A: STICKS or RODS

for example a package of wooden skewers, any other

sticks will do as well.

Task B: PLATES or SHEETS

for example of wooden panels, any other plates will do as

well.

3. Experiment, explore, build, design spatial structures …

With the same sticks / plates build another structure, and

another, … experiment with the spatial and constructive

possibilities. Can you discover and reveal the structural rules

behind it?

4. Try to build a roof-like structure. With the same sticks

/ plates try to build a vertical structure. With the same

sticks / plates try to build a spatial structure that you feel

is exciting. What human activities could take place here?

5. Optional – If you already have ideas for the spatial

structure and its spatial and functional configurations,

sketch them.

6. Document the process and prepare a presentation.

Then upload it in TUWEL.

Max. 10 pages with your experiments, structures and design

concept. The last page shall summarize your findings

through the experimentation process.

Rules:

- Only one kind of material is allowed. (only sticks or plates,

no combination, no glue, no additional materials.). You can

however edit and process the skewers.

- Make sure you use a human figure to indicate the scale

10


DESIGN TASK

Irena Nedic

WanYu Chen

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HB2 & ITI | VERSATILE SPACES

Aron Iankov

Karmen Janzekovic

12


DESIGN TASK

Florin Chelariu

13

Emre Poyrazoglu


HB2 & ITI | VERSATILE SPACES

ONLINE

SEMESTER

The tutoring took place from March til June 2021, mostly in the virtual realm.

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STUDIO APPROACH

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HB2 & ITI | VERSATILE SPACES

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VERSATILE SPACES

project, text & images

by

adrian mellert, philipp zimmermann & milomir milenkovic

ABSTRACT

#publicspace #foldingstructure

We began our design process with a simple question:

What makes spaces versatile? Our answer and therefore

approach was simple: through movement. So instead of

trying to design a certain structure or form, we focused on

understanding and designing movement. Oh...and obviously

it should be fun and easy to use.

The next question was: why should it be versatile? This

question was inherited in our idea of a temporary pavilion.

A temporary structure doesn‘t change the characteristics

of its surrounding. Moreover, it shows another side of it

and different possible uses. So we were looking for places

that are undervalued or simply invisible in the urban fabric

of Vienna. With our structure we are creating a variety of

different spaces and scenarios to show as many hidden

strengths of the place as possible and hopefully help

strengthen the place to its surroundings.

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HB2 & ITI | VERSATILE SPACES

ORIGAMI APPROACH

How do we design movement? This is not an easy answer,

since movement is way more complicated to understand

and imagine than a rigid structure. A big help in that regard

has been studying various origami patterns.

We have built many different patterns to understand the

basic principles and inherited movements of the folding

process. Further, we experimented with possible cuts

instead of folds which is a part of origami, called kirigami.

Piece by piece we reached a better understanding and a

clearer path in which to follow.

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origami movement with triangle pattern


F.EST

miura pattern ron resch pattern triangle pattern miura pattern

kirigami miura pattern kirigami pair pattern kirigami pair pattern origami pair pattern

triangle kirigami pattern kirigami pair pattern kirigami pair pattern origami pair pattern

ron resch pattern triangle kirigami pattern origami pair pattern curve pattern

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HB2 & ITI | VERSATILE SPACES

PARAMETRIC SYSTEM

Our interest has been drawn to how a certain angle between

two faces creates not only a movement but transfers it

along its surrounding faces and creates a transformation in

the structure. We experimented with linking pairs of folding

faces to a chain and studying its movement.

Slowly we singled out the possible parameters and

incorporated it in our newly created grasshopper design

tool. First, it generates the folding pattern by applying the

parameters, then it generates the chosen material with a

certain thickness and lastly it simulates the movement by

folding the faces in a given degree. With this tool, we‘re able

to influence every parameter of the fold and design all kinds

of movements and forms.

grasshopper design tool

outer spine

number of cuts

outer line

inner spine width of cuts inner line

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VERSATILE SPACES

possible forms generated

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HB2 & ITI | VERSATILE SPACES

LOCATION

site plan resselpark

With our design tool ready our focus shifted towards a

suitable location. As we‘ve tackled in a previous slide, we

looked for a site, which lacks purpose and meaning. In

short: a lost space in the urban fabric.

GSEducationalVersion

We found a suitable place close to our university at

Resselpark. Our attention was drawn towards a slim green

strip above the metro entrance. It is hidden from the upper

square with the two Wagner pavilions by a thick and tall

hedge. This upper square is noticeably cut off from the rest

of the park. Which is a travesty, since it might be the best

place in it, with a great panoramic view over the park and

its landmarks. So our pursuit of this green strip between

them in combination with our structure will activate this

lost space and connect it with its surroundings.

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GSEducationalVersion

GSEducationalVersion

F.EST

6.70 m

7.50 m

5.70 m

4.80 m

floor plan view state

floor plan cinema state

cross section through location

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HB2 & ITI | VERSATILE SPACES

TRANSFORMATION

„Transforming a place by a transforming structure.“

This sentence could be the essence of our project, albeit

a cheesy one. With our parametric tool we designed a

movement to compliment two distinct states. The first

one we call „view state“, and as the name promises it‘s

all about exposure. Framing the surrounding landmarks

it gives a slight nudge of how great the panoramic view

is from atop the upper square. The structure opens up

to the square, while facing to the park accommodating

pedestrians with a lying and sitting area.

The prominent location puts our folding nest into

focus and reversibly the place and its benefits itself.

By motioning into the other state we expect people to

wonder and be intrigued what‘s happening in order to

lure them to our location and show them the possibilities.

The „cinema state“ is a bit enclosed to help reduce noise

pollution and act as a sun roof. With a short-distance

projector hidden in the turf it can be used for lectures,

movies and public viewings for example. By focusing on

the inside it gives a very different feel compared to the

extroversion of the „view state“ and therefore enables

other ways of using it.

view state

The process of motion should be as simple as fun. A

little electric engine powers the folding movement and

therefore the transformation. We‘ll go into detail, of how

this works later on.

A group of people from the TU could be in charge of

a schedule and assign people to slots. Classes, groups

as well as unaffiliated people could book a slot and

the desired state and express themselves in the urban

context.

cinema state

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motion into the view state

motion into the cinema state

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HB2 & ITI | VERSATILE SPACES

ELEMENTS & MATERIAL

plates vary from 60x60cm up to 60x220cm

In the upper picture you can see all the plates we used for

our folding nest structure. In order to generate the force

necessary to initiate the fold as small as possible we went

for a super light structure composed out of a aluminium

honeycomb layer sandwiched between two aluminium

sheets. On the inner side a plywood surface is applied for

making the nest cozier and better to use.

The plates itself always interlock with two to three

other plates. In order to keep the forces low and the

structure sturdy we went with a simple hinge design. The

interlocking plates are connected by a metal rod which

gives them the sturdiness but also allows the movement

of the fold.

To reduce the friction, which is the main possible hindrance

of motion, we implemented ball bearings between the

rod and the plates as well as axial bearings between the

plates themselves.

plate material

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interlocking plates

joint between interlocking plates

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HB2 & ITI | VERSATILE SPACES

DETAILING OF MOTION

view state fold

cinema state fold

The motion is applied by „folding“ the structure.

This happens by rotating the plates around their

common axis. The plate oriented to the park moves

from 0 degrees up to 70 degrees. The plate oriented

to the park moves from 0 degrees up to 70 degrees.

Whereas the one looking to the upper square only

moves from 35 degrees down to 10 degrees.

The plates interlock with each other but also with

the metal footings beneath them. The interlocking

mechanism stays the same as the metal rod goes

through the opening at the top before inserting into

the plate comparable to a crochet movement. By

adding axial bearing as well the friction is kept low.

The metal footings are part of a structure beneath

the folding nest, which also contains the motion

mechanism and the necessary infrastructure such

as cables and electric parts. One side the plates rest

on the concrete joist of the metro entrance and the

other side rests on metal bearings which also holds

up a LED-containing display installation. Lastly we

distributed some gravel and put weight on top the

wooden beams.

intersection of plates with footings

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cross section view state

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HB2 & ITI | VERSATILE SPACES

DETAILING OF MOTION

We used a ball screw drive system to move two rods per

side. They‘re both connected to the plate on one side and

the ball screw drive on the other. By moving them apart

the angle between them widens and pulls the plate down.

By moving them together the opposite takes place and the

plate is being pushed up.

Since the plates are connected to each other we will only

need to use this system with one pair of plates. We placed

it at the most fragile part of our construction. The two rods

in combination with the plate itself form a kind of tripod and

further strengthen the folding nest against forces such as

wind. Using a motor and the necessary amount of gears we

can rotate and move the ball screw drives simultaneously

and create a homogeneous motion for the fold. By adding

and changing the size of the gears we can further lessen

the amount of force needed for the movement.

ball screw drive motion system

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cross section cinema state

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HB2 & ITI | VERSATILE SPACES

VERSATILITY &

PROGRAMMING

Our imaginary day starts around 9:00 o‘clock. We are

strolling around the park, when we see a group of young

people listening to a lecture about bridges. Sadly we

have no time for that, we need to get to a work related

appointment. However, the weather is so nice we already

think of coming back for a lunch break later in the day.

It‘s already 18:00 o‘clock, and we‘re on our way home.

Interestingly an exhibition is being presented. The people tell

me it‘s from a local group of artists. We start a conversation

and so the time flies by.

We look around, discuss possible meanings and drink some

wine, when some students start taking the installations

down. They say, the match is about to start, so they have

to prepare the scene.

I think of maybe staying a bit longer and watching some

football. Certainly better than on my tiny notebook at home.

The game starts, the people are on the edge of their seats.

Austria the home team scores the lead, and it‘s actually

not offside. The place erupts. More and more people come

by, filled with joy and alcohol. The celebration is already

starting. I‘m wondering what this will lead to.

friday 9:00 lecture

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friday 12:30 lunch break

friday 14:00 exhibition

friday 20:00 public viewing

saturday 0:00 rave party

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HB2 & ITI | VERSATILE SPACES

WORK PROCESS

Working in the midst of a pandemic isn‘t easy or

straightforward. Since we had the benefit of all of us three

living in Vienna we could mitigate this circumstance. We

started to work separately from home and used Zoom to

stay in contact.

However, working together in the same room turned out

to be way more effective and easier. Therefore we tried to

work together as often as possible. Having a comparably

solid COVID structure of free and rapid testing and

vaccinating program helped in that regard.

Since our approach had to do with movement and folding

patterns we built a vast array of models. Since the design

tool wasn‘t nearly as finished as we would have wanted it to

be at that stage, there was no alternative to test and prove

our ideas. We experimented with ropes, folds and all kinds

of different movements. We built big models, folded small

origami ones and even some 1:10 details.

It was a constant back and forth. Like a dance it moved one

step back, two steps forwards. There were times where we

didn‘t know if we could finish it on time.

Like with the 3D tool for example, which was also essential

for designing the final movement and form. So we designed

the tool in parts. By building the model we began to better

understand the movement and changed the parameters to

create new shapes and a new movement. This went back

and forth and was mighty tiring compared to how it is now.

In the last 7-10 days we said „stop, thats how far we‘ll go“.

Even, if we knew how to further improve and strengthen

the project, the date was important too. We wanted to

show the present state and the concept behind all our

ideas. Even if not all of them could make it thus far. That is

why we looked at this work as a first, very important, step

that needed further time and effort to complete it to reach

all of its promised potential.

origami and kirigami paper models

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pretension structure

form finding modelling

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HB2 & ITI | VERSATILE SPACES

REFLECTION

Looking at the working process and where we started

compared to the „final“ piece of work it is hard not to giggle

in our collective mind. We started with a bold preposition

of constructing a bridge which can also transform into a

pavilion. Oh, and it best be modular and light and, and, and...

It was a very difficult, nearly impossible task, but we held

onto our idea and built models testing different movement

structures and looking for something slightly similar in the

real world. Had we not been that persistent we doubt we

would have ended up where we are.

We‘ve also had to cut some corners and make some

compromises in order to make it in time. That‘s why not

all our ideas made the cut for the final presentation. Like

the idea of reusing the plates to create new motions and

structure to tailor to the needed intervention at other „lost

spaces“ in the urban fabric.

We know that the next step is to create a limited number

of pairs and sizes which can perform the similar if not

same movements as shown before. If we create such a

lego-like system of movable structures we would certainly

have an everlasting pool of possibilities. However, we also

knew that our time was very limited. So we made a choice

at a certain time in the design process. Either we start

designing movements with a predetermined set of pieces,

or we design movements with no restrictions to completely

understand the possibilities of the fold. We went with the

latter, thinking it would be a sensible first step. However,

also knowing we wouldn‘t make it to step two in time for

the final presentation.

All in all it was a joy working on an interesting topic such as

a moving and folding architecture. Reading trough quite a

few papers concerning origami and its possible application

in architectural structures and installations showed us how

rich the topic is and we hope that this exemplary work

can inspire some people to further pursue some ideas and

applications in this direction.

end of life circle

end of life circle

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F.EST

end of life circle

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HB2 & ITI | VERSATILE SPACES

REVIEWS

Marina Konstantatou

This project translated the concept of versatility through

the notion of movement, and specifically by using origami

and kirigami inspired structures which can be mechanically

actuated. The structure aims to move between two states,

namely, between the ‘view’ and the ‘cinema’. The site

choice was interesting since the team opted for an ‘undervalued’

public space thus introducing the concept of

repurposing and valuing areas of the urban fabric which

would not be normally visited and enjoyed by users while

introducing a structure as a focal point.

The team conducted extensive studies in origami and kirigami

patterns along with a computational implementation.

The script was developed in Grasshopper and included the

generation of the folding pattern, the definition of material,

thickness, and dihedral folding angles. The output was

the movement simulation and resulting folded form. This in

conjunction to the numerous physical models informed the

design development of the folding structure.

In terms of materials, the panels were envisioned to be

lightweight pieces consisting of aluminium layers enclosing

an aluminium honeycomb. Also, an extra, external,

layer of plywood was added to enhance the experience

of the users. Care has been given to design and detail the

connections between the panels and their motion actuators

as well as minimise friction; however, the ‘folding’

process will be the most challenging part of the envisioned

structure.

Given the fact that each panel is unique the reconfigurability

and reusability can be limited as stated from the team.

Thus, further steps could include the optimisation of the

component geometry in terms of repeatable modules, calculation

of the required forces for converting the structure

from one state to the other, as well as analysis of how it

would perform in terms of lateral, wind loads.

Overall a very interesting project which was thoroughly

studied and developed.

This type of folding structures does not only result in two

abovementioned states, but the range of motion also covers

a whole array of transformations from one state to

the other. The mechanically actuated folding is also visually

appealing and can constitute a type of performance in itself

around which the users can gather to witness, and even

control themselves. Thus, the function of the space can be

interactively defined depending on the requirements.

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Miriam Dall’Igna

1. In this project the parametric dependencies are crucial

to stablish the motion mechanism. The reader would benefit

if on page 109, the script could be better explored i.e.

enlarged and this key parametric relationships explained,

drawing also a connection to the states of the structure

illustrated on the right side of the page on ‘possible forms

generated’.

2. Appropriate application of intervention in terms of

connecting spaces within a city.

3. Spelling check and English check.

4. If would be valid to see a discussion in terms of reusability

– benefits and disadvantages of same sized modules.

Would the mechanism also benefit from same sized parts?

What shapes of regular size could form similar motion?

Having same sized elements can facilitate the disassembly

and reassembly of completely different function infrastructure

re-using the same parts. (a) Geometric Considerations

for the Design of Rigid Origami Structures

5. Demonstrated great use of physical origami models for

the experimentation period.

6. The project would benefit from structural analysis of the

different configurations

7. The presentation is well structured, however, it would be

enriched by precedents documented and also references

page.

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HB2 & ITI | VERSATILE SPACES

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VERSATILE SPACES

WOODSTACK

#theater #interlockingwood

project, images and text

by

Aron Iankov

Benjamin Avdic

Irena Nedic

ABSTRACT

Woodstack is a combination of versatility and simplicity.

Three modules give you the possibility to create something

new and original.

You can create a chair, a platform, a table, a little garden, a

storing structure, a sculpture. There are many possibilities

that can be achieved with these modules, so let the

creativity guide you.

Modules are easy to handle, as they are formed so that

people of different ages, sizes and postures can use them.

They are eco-friendly and can be used at any time of the

day. It is a flexible and a durable system.

Sometimes you can take the elements with you. Bring the

old memories and turn them into new ones.

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HB2 & ITI | VERSATILE SPACES

DESIGN APPROACH

„From man as a measure and from the numbers as a

measure: the Modulor developed by Le Corbusier, is a

scale for harmonic measurement of space.“

(Le Corbusier, 1955. Modulor 2, 1962, Editorial Poseidon,

Buenos Aires, pp.172.)

The Modulor by Le Corbusier inspired the dimension of

the three different modules. When stacked together, they

perform differently at a specific height, while respecting

diverse measure, age and posture of the human figure. The

main goal was to produce a stackable structure that fits a

wide range of people.

Physical and psychological human needs play a role in

determining the material and how it is connected. Wood

is perceived as a warm and inviting material. It is also

environmentally friendly.

The structure enables different kinds of activities like sitting,

sunbathing, eating, working, talking, watching, storage and

entertainment. It is balanced by itself and its rhythm varies

according to the order of elements.

The emphasis of the project lies in the proportion and scale

of human limbs in connection to the whole body. Variety is

achieved by different ways of connecting, configuring an

open or a closed structure and something in between.

It doesn‘t matter how many elements and how wide apart

from each other they are, they always form a unity.

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WOODSTACK

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HB2 & ITI | VERSATILE SPACES

GEOMETRIC DEVELOPMENT

“A chair is a machine for sitting in and should, implicitly,

not be decorated more than any other pure machine.“

(Boyer, M.C., 2011. Le Corbusier homme de lettres,

Princeton Architectural Press, pp.314.)

The essential goal of this project was to enable a seating area

clear of decoration and easy to manage with a reflection to

the credo of Le Corbusiers‘ purity and simplicity.

The main square module has a length and width of 60

cm, giving a 3600 cm 2 resting area. It is 2.4 cm thick and

perforated in order to be connected with vertical elements.

Perforations of 2.4/2,4 cm are distanced 10 cm from the

edges and 20 cm from each other.

Dimension of the main square element

To achieve different vertical configurations, two additional

modules serve as connecting elements. They are 56 cm

long, one is 37.6 cm wide and the other one is 17.6 cm. They

are also perforated according to their ratio.

Dimension of connecting element

Dimension of connecting element

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WOODSTACK

Connecting dots

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HB2 & ITI | VERSATILE SPACES

STRUCTURE & ELEMENTS

Few simple forms generate an infinite number of

architectural expressions.

The variety of elements enables the desired versatility in

structure and therefore also in function. The initial idea for

a seating and storing space developed into so much more

through our work in process.

The simple stacking technique is logical and understandable

and can be integrated in different environments.

“..he reiterates that it is `technique` that matters—

construction methods, materials, and structure. taste,

style, and simplicity: all that is to be acquired with age.“

(Boyer, M.C., 2011. Le Corbusier homme de lettres,

Princeton Architectural Press, pp.61.)

Elements are made of the same material to underline their

unity when connected. They invite and inspire people to

become creators and spread joy.

Axonometic portrays of a chair, a stool and a bench

46

Drinking, Eating, Talking


WOODSTACK

Gardening

Structural simulation

A simple configuration of the woodstack pavillion was

put into the Grasshopper plugin „Karamba 3D“ in order

to further investigate the structural behaviour. For the

structural simulation a load of 6 kN/m² was assumed,

approximating a crowd of people standing on the structure.

Its own weight is also considered in the simulation. The

color diagram shows the materials‘ structural utilization.

The woodstack pavillion has strong structural capabilities

and only achieves a utilization of around 20% assuming

a load of 6 kN/m². This means that the simplicity and

versatility of the pavillion comes at the cost of decreased

structural optimization.

Reading

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DETAILING OF ELEMENTS

connective blocks from solid

birch wood

Material: birch plywood

Thickness: 24 mm

Cost: 90-100 €/m 2

Wood treatment: water based impregnating wood glazing

Cost: 18,10 €/liter

1 litre = 8-12 m 2

• has to be recoated every 2 - 3 years

• environmentally friendly alternative to other glazings

Connective blocks: solid birch wood

Connection detail: 45 mm long M6 bolt

washer

solid pre-drilled block

M6 threaded inserts

24mm birch plywood

with rounded edges

rounded edge radius

connection

detail

Connective blocks from solid birch wood

45mm long M6 bolt

washer

connection connection

detailsolid detail pre-drilled block

M6 threaded inserts

24mm birch plywood board

45mm long M6 bolt

connection

detail

24.00

18.00

6.00

24.00

7.00 10.00

7.00

assembly

9.00

6.00

9.00

45mm long 45mm M6 long bolt M6 bolt

24.00

washer washer

solid pre-drilled solid pre-drilled block block

M6 threaded M6 threaded inserts inserts

washer

solid solid block section

24mm birch 24mm plywood birch plywood board board

solid pre-drilled block

assembly

M6 threaded inserts

Connection detail

assembly assembly

Assembly

Connection detail

assembly

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• ha

• en

material research

WOODSTACK

24 mm birch plywood boards

plywood boards

birch mm 24

water based Coating impregnating pigment options wood glazing

Since the beginning of the design studio, one of the main

objectives was to design an environmentally friendly

product with a sustainable life cycle.

We created the concept around using wood. In order to

improve its outdoor durability, a protective coating was

considered. We visited Austria‘s leading wood coating

producer for more information on environmentally

sustainable wood coating options.

~ 90-100 €/m²

material research

18,10 €/liter

1 liter = 8-12 m²

• has to be recoated every 2 - 3 years

• environmentally friendly alternative to other glazings

The most suitable product for our project is a water based

wood coating which would have to be renewed every 2 to

3 years to ensure maximum wood protection. In order to

shield the wood from UV radiation a slight pigmentation in

visiting the company Adler for research on wood treatment

the coating is nessecary, which would darken the plywood

slightly.

material research

We visited the austrian company Adler for research on wood treatment

visiting the company Adler for research on wood treatment

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TRANSFORMATION

As a starting point, a pre-planned, on-site constructed

pavilion will be placed in the Sigmund-Freud-Park in front of

the Votiv Kirche. A minimalist, space-optimized and simple

enclosed pavilion. One could say it is a finished product, but

now the real “construction process“ begins, or to be exact,

the “deconstruction process“. Different functions can be

realized by adding, removing and rearranging the plates.

The pavilion offers the users the possibility to rebuild the

structure to their needs and wishes.

With the passing of time the structure will change, even a

complete disassembly of the pavilion is possible. Shown in

the drawings are just a few scenarios and functions of how

the pavilion can change and be used differently by a wide

range of users.

An amphitheater or structure for plays and events offers

the possibility to host many people at once while other

functions around can also be used.

Vienna, 9th district, https://www.wien.gv.at/

A platform for speaches and dancing, or even a public

library where users can exchange books and talk about

interesting topics. With integrated modules for gardening

we invite different groups of people to plant their own

herbs and spices.

The pavilion slowly dissolves. Many users even took some

modules home, decorated them and adapted them for new

functions. We see the users and their creativity to explore

spatial compositions as our core interest of the project.

Sigmund-Freud-Park

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WOODSTACK

Private pavillion

0 7 14 21 m

Open pavillion

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VERSATILITY &

PROGRAMMING

We used 3 different modules to build the pavilion. A

horizontal plate (dim. 60x60 cm) and 2 vertical, connection

plates (56x37.6 cm and 56x17.6cm). Building a construction

is easy, with self-intuitive connection patterns. This easy

building process gives the users the opportunity to build,

investigate and change the structure, fast and without any

effort, and adapt it to their needs.

One module alone can serve as a base for a seating, eating

or observation area, as it is compact and easy to carry. If

one has two additional, connecting modules, a chair can

be built. Added elements can form a bench, a platform, an

auditorium. The main contrasting transformation of the

project is the metamorphosis of the closed space into an

open one.

Private space provides a place for focussing and embraces

actions like reading, thinking and resting. One can also

easily work, stretch or even play in such surroundings. This

private space is placed in the middle of the structure, but

the structure also offers a public use on the outside. The

entrance is in between and can be reconfigurated. It is a

combination of all three sectors of privacy.

Private

The open space creates an inviting gesture and apart from

sitting, lying and reading, encourages activities like playing,

dancing, gardening and communicating. In this time of

the pandemic, one can only eat and drink outdoors, if it

is in an open place. This concept enables those activities

respecting the given measures and it can practically be built

in any area.

Transformation from a simple chair to a multi-functional platform

Open

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WOODSTACK

de-constructing re-constructing

constructing

eating, drinking, gardening

resting, sunbathing

reading, working

action dissolving

performing

opening

exhibiting

interlocking

6

7

8

9

10

11

12

13

14

15

16

17

18

19

20

21

22

23

24

hour

Closed structure: open, semi-private and private sector

Open re-constructed form

eating / drinking

speaking / playing

timetable

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WORK PROCESS

Kengo Kuma & Associates, kodama pavillion

repeated “core module”

dividable in X / Y / Z components

Kengo Kuma & Associates

kodama pavillion

application in 3D

initial interlocking concept

interlocking concept

Photograph of the process from the first task, wood, rectangular profile,

5mm x 5 mm (model), scale 1:100, 50cm x 50cm

While developing the first concepts for the pavillion, one of

our first approaches was to create endless configurations

through the repetition of interlocking parts by reducing the

amount of elements as much as possible.

interlocking joints with additional elements

While researching and analyzing existing examples of such

structures, our efforts shifted from the creation of complex

geometries and sculptures to figuring out how our sculpture

would be perceived by and used by people, if deployed in

public space.

The result is a simple and user-friendly concept of

universally understandable building parts which allows

limitless configurations of multi-functional structures and

public furniture.

models

Evaluation of connecting elements

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WOODSTACK

wooden beams on height-adjustable steel foundations

steel profiles on height-adjustable steel foundations

steel profiles on height-adjustable steel foundations

connected elements

exhibition

organic form

chair and stool

adaptable

elevation

platform

model

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REFLECTION

It has been a fun journey. Knowledge on how to treat

wood, different connection methods and how to apply

them were part of this journey. It was fun and at the same

time exhausting, exploring all possibilities that one specific

method demands.

The group work was enjoyable, as the students found

understanding for each other and luckily valued the same

principles. Two group members also work partly/full-time

and one is not in Vienna due to the pandemic. That didn‘t

intervene with the dynamics of the work process, as we

would meet via „Zoom“, discuss, evaluate and organize who

is responsible for what.

We surely had some mishaps, but that did not discourage

us, as we all have a good sense of humor and try to make

the best out of the situation. The group members were

randomly picked out with the Zoom-Meeting algorithm,

which turned out well.

Respecting the nature

Connecting, Recycling

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WOODSTACK

20

40

20

Reminiscing

REFERENCES

Boyer, M.C., 2011. Le Corbusier homme de lettres, Princeton Architectural Press, pp.61-314.

https://www.wien.gv.at/

Le Corbusier, 1948. Le Modulor, 1953, Editorial Poseidon, Buenos Aires, p.62.

Le Corbusier, 1955. Modulor 2, 1962, Editorial Poseidon, Buenos Aires, p.172.

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REVIEWS

Marina Konstantatou

The Woodstack project shout to develop a modular system

comprising three simple timber elements which can be arranged

in multiple ways. This system was envisioned for a

wide range of applications such as furniture, platforms, sitting

areas, storing space, and even sculptural forms whilst

being environmentally friendly and sustainable in terms of

its lifecycle.

One of the main spatial features of this pavilion is the

transformation between open and closed configurations.

Closed space is intended for focused-based activities such

as working, reading and reflecting, whereas the external

open space can enable an appreciation of the surrounding

nature. Furthermore, the entrance connecting the two is

also considered of spatial significance and could have its

own function due to the co-existence of different levels

of privacy. From an architectural point of view, the strong

geometric language of the three components indeed allows

for a unified synthesis which nonetheless can consist

of discrete configurations, or sub-systems, of different applications.

Geometrically, the system comprises square perforated

modules which can be connected via two types of vertical

elements. The modularity of the system allows for a potentially

continuous reconfiguration by the users depending

on their needs. What is more, the structure is envisioned

to ‘dissolve’ after a point by gradually subtracting components

of it and shifting them from the public to the private

realm of individual users. As such, the underlying concept

of versatility is expressed in terms of module reconfiguration

which in turn results both in a reconfiguration of functions

and a transformation from open to enclosed space.

Furthermore, the material of choice was birch plywood,

the environmentally-friendly treatment of which was explored

for outdoor uses in conjunction to its sustainability

performance in terms of life-cycle.

In terms of computational implementation, one pavilion

configuration was analysed in terms of Finite Elements

Analysis in Karamba3D plugin within the Grasshopper environment.

This explored the performance of the specific

structure; however, an area of potential concern is the lack

of bracing and the small connections which might not be

robust in the general case of a configuration assembled

on-site by the users. Moreover, future steps could include

structural analysis for more than one configuration scenarios

since the geometry of the structure is envisioned to

be in constant flux.

Overall a well-developed and well-researched project

which did propose a creative solution to the brief of spatial

versatility.

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WOODSTACK

Miriam Dall’Igna

1. The modules are in great accordance with the intent of

the course. We can see great thinking and care in that regard.

2. Great application of the Le Corbusier’s Modulor to find

component’s appropriate dimensions

3. Students achieved an incredibly flexible system.

4. Excellent and appropriate structural analysis/evaluation.

5. Connectors proposed increase flexibility of the system.

6. Excellent work maybe to complement a comparison

between the Modulor and other scale measures to document

benefits or otherwise.

7. Maybe a brief review on similar system precedents, and

a critical comment of what your system is contributing.

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60


VERSATILE SPACES

POP UP & DOWN PAVILION

#asymptoticgridshell #reassemble

project, images and text

by

Georg Prückl, Emre Poyrazoglu

WanYu Chen, Fulya Sakarya

ABSTRACT

Our goal was to create a structure out of simple elements

that later enable dismantling and reassembly into a different

structure. This eventually leads to a journey of constructing,

deconstructing and reconstructing. Based on the idea of

transforming one structure into another, we want to impose

a great versatility in terms of using the exact same material

in order to create different spaces. For the realization of this

concept we propose erecting an asymptotic gridshell that

can be simply „popped up“ to form a pavilion and, when

necessary, „popped down“ to temporarily use the material

as part of another structure, like a flat roof. The „Pop Up &

Down Pavilion“ is designed in a way that the two mentioned

states of the structure create the possibility of offering a

space to perform, exhibit and rest on the one hand and to

socialize or get informed on the other. This eventually helps

us to accomplish our goal of enabling a broad variety of

scenarios while minimizing material use, construction time

and production costs.

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DESIGN APPROACH

In the course of the design studio “Versatile Spaces” we

explored a deeper understanding of versatility. In the very

early stages, we discussed what versatility means to us,

then we asked ourselves what the reason to accomplish

a versatile space, in an architectural context, is. A versatile

space can mean a space that is able to adapt or be adapted

to different functions or activities, a space which is skillful

and also capable of being adapted to meet the demands

of a particular situation. Our desire was to create a

multipurpose, adaptable, flexible yet all-round space within

a certain structure.

The initial idea was to propose a temporary pavilion that can

be easily assembled and dismantled within a short period of

time while being able to house different activities and save

material. It is located near the Messehalle, the exhibition

center of Vienna, or to be more exact between the Messe

Prater metro station and the exhibition center, where there

is a public space with trees and a shallow pool. During the

day, the site is greatly occupied by pedestrians, who mainly

attend the nearby WU, or people any age who like to spend

their leisure time underneath the trees to socialize or to

rest. Considering several features of the site, we propose

two scenarios at the site where both are able to provide

different functions and also simultaneously appreciate the

green space without any harm.

The first scenario, a gridshell pavilion, is erected next to

the pool and, because of the openings, in a way that the

pedestrian path is not disrupted. Opening the structure to

the pool ultimately leads to the final shape.

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form-finding process

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messe

POP UP & DOWN PAVILION

vorgartenstraße

U

wu-gelände

site plan

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850

Scenario 1 floor plan S : 1/130

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POP UP & DOWN PAVILION

GEOMETRIC DEVELOPMENT

As our goal is to produce a very efficient structure, we

wanted to use a minimal surface as a starting geometry

for scenario 1. A minimal surface is the surface with the

smallest area inside of certain boundary curves. On a

minimal surface, the two principal curvatures at every

point on the surface are equal, but with different algebraic

signs, which makes the mean curvature zero. The gaussian

curvature, on the contrary, is negative at every point.

Having studied minimal surfaces in theory, our next step was

to practically generate them using soap films, considering

the fact that soap films approximate minimal surfaces. This

can be easily achieved by dipping a wire frame into soap

sud, forming a film that is made up of a minimal surface and

whose boundary is the wire frame.

In order to design a pavilion that is also self-supporting we

propose using asymptotic curves on the minimal surface

as basis for the structure. There are numerous reasons

for that: Unlike other surfaces, on minimal surfaces there

are two asymptotic directions at any point on the surface,

the directions of zero normal curvature. By following

these directions, step by step, asymptotic curves can be

generated. Since their normal curvature is zero at every

point, these curves bend in only one direction and have

torsion. Therefore they can be unrolled as straight strips.

On minimal surfaces, these strips always intersect at an

angle of 90° and are bisected by the principal curvature

planes. In order to get an asymptotic gridshell, it is possible

to use these strips that are following asymptotic directions

and generate a network of curves on the surface.

These features are, among others, the reason asymptotic

curves and minimal surfaces are predestined to be used for

repetitive structures, especially asymptotic gridshells.

Minimal surface

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two asymptotic directions of a point on a minimal surface

principal curvature planes bisecting the asymptotic curves on a minimal

surface

the extrusion of the asymptotic curve follows the normal vector of the

surface at every point

The asymptotic curve is only bent around one axis and can be unrolled

as a flat strip

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POP UP & DOWN PAVILION

Our approach to finding an approximately regular grid on the minimal surface was to commence by finding a singularity,

in this case the point with the gaussian curvature nearest to zero, on the surface and using it as a starting point. From

this grid point, construction

six directions were defined, and a sphere was constructed using it as a midpoint. At their intersection points,

we constructed a set of six asymptotic curves. As a next step, we constructed a sphere with twice the radius of the

first sphere and intersected it with the asymptotic curves. The intersection points were again the points from which we

constructed the next set of asymptotic curves. This process was continued until we reached the boundaries of the surface

and it left us with an asymptotic grid network as a result.

grid construction

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A

A

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STRUCTURE & ELEMENTS

In scenario A, structural elements that run along asymptotic curves and are oriented orthogonally to the minimal surface

can be unrolled to become straight strips. This is a decisive advantage in terms of the possibility to prefabricate the

elements and of material efficiency. Because the strips are orthogonal to the surface and the loads therefore meet their

strong axis, this results in a very good bending stiffness of the shell-structure. As stated earlier, the strips always intersect

at an angle of 90°, which enables a faster and simpler construction with same-sized cut outs at the joints, where two

strips are interlocked. As material, we rely on plywood – to be more exact, “Waggonbauplatten”, for a better durability when

exposed to the weather. It is elastic enough to accomplish such a shape, very lightweight and suitable for prefabrication.

Strips with a thickness of 5 mm and a height of 220 mm fulfill all of the requirements such as the bending radius on the

one hand and the load transfer on the other hand for example. These strips will have cut-outs, of a third of the total strip

height, at the joints. Later on, diagonals made of steel cables are used to stabilize the gridshell and neutralize lateral forces.

850

250

600

720

Section A-A

Scenario A S : 1/150

45

Section A-A

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POP UP & DOWN PAVILION

For scenario B, we use the exact same strips as in scenario 1, but they will be aligned differently: Assembled orthogonally,

this shape will form a flat roof that can be attached to the trees nearby in order to prevent needing other structural

elements like columns. Because of that, it is necessary to make a second set of cut-outs on the strips. The two different

sets of cut-outs – one for the gridshell and one for the flat roof, will be marked with different colors.

This structure will be mounted to the trees using steel cables. At the places where they are attached to the roof, the roof

has a higher density in strips than at the other parts in order to distribute the loads better.

B

B

B

B

250

Scenario B S : 1/150

1.200

250

Section B-B

1.200

Section B-B

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DETAILING OF ELEMENTS

The idea for the foundation was, in general, to come up with

a simple solution. In Japanese architecture natural massive

stones are used as foundation. The timber supports are

carved to fit the natural shape of the foundation stone.

Inspired by that, we propose using massive concrete blocks

as foundation for our gridshell - first of all to resist the

forces of the gridshell and second to protect the wooden

strips from the bottom water.

0.5 cm steel cables

0.5 cm x 22 cm plywood rods

0.5cm Steel Cables

The areas with a clear height lower than 2.50 m at the edges

of the structure are designed as seating accomodation.

0.5cm x 22cm Plywood

Asymptotic gridshell detail

0.5cm Steel Cables

0.5cm x 22cm Plywood Rods

45

45

45

250

Foundation detail S : 1/40

Asymptotic gridshell detail

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0.5cm Steel Cables

POP UP & DOWN PAVILION

0.5cm x 22cm Plywood Rods

0.5cm Steel Cables

0.5cm x 22cm Plywood Rods

Asymptotic gridshell detail

Scenario B detail

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0.5cmx22cm plywood rods

2cm steel cables

Scenario B detail section S : 1/40

tree connection detail

Scenario B detail

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POP UP & DOWN PAVILION

TRANSFORMATION

Considering our journey to construct, destruct and reconstruct, we propose two states of the structure that could be

reassembled depending on particular needs or demands. All elements of the gridshell structure are marked for further

construction. The strips bear the cut-outs for two scenarios, each scenario marked with a different color.

1. First, all of the strips are assembled to a flat surface by placing them into the cut-outs of each other.

2. The structure is erected. Once the flattened structure is finished, lateral forces need to be applied to each anchor point

by pushing towards the center in order to erect the desired pavilion. Additionally, the diagonal steel cables provide a greater

stability and tightness.

3. In order to transform scenario A into scenario B, the gridshell has to be manually dismantled by pulling it out of the

foundation and bringing it back to the flattened state. Once all of the strips are disconnected from each other, they need

to be reassembled on the desired position in between the trees using the cut-outs for scenario B and then need to be

lifted up and attached to the surrounding trees by steel cables. For the transformation, one day is reserved for a team of

workers to rearrange the structure – this provides them with more than enough time. The transformation is planned to be

happening according to the demands, but probably no more than every quarter of a year.

1 2 3

A A A A B B B B B

construct.deconstruct.reconstruct diagram

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VERSATILITY &

PROGRAMMING

The final design offers two varying scenarios that enable

different functions. In scenario A, the pavilion provides a

space for exhibitions. QR codes serve as exhibits and are

disconnected from the structure. Because of this, the

actual exhibits that the guests see when scanning the QR

codes, can be changed from the office within a minute,

further reducing the effort. During the day, it serves as a

parasol for people who can sit around the pool and even

use it for bathing. In the evening, the existing platform of

the pool underneath the pavilion will serve as a stage for

street. The highest opening is oriented towards south west

so that the sunlight lights up the space in the evening when

the performance stage gets the most attention.

In scenario B, the flat roof can serve as an info point in

front of the exhibition center during the events and

conferences and enables the organizers to expand the fairs

to the outside. In order to utilize the space in between the

trees and to further appreciate the public green space, we

propose the flat roof to be placed between trees on the

site.

Scenario A

Scenario B

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SCENARIO 1

POP UP & DOWN PAVILION

performance

performance

Scenario 1 top view/ floor plan - performance S : 1/600

top view

SCENARIO 2

floor plan

outdoor messe info point

outdoor messe info point

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Scenario 2 top view/ floor plan - outdoor messe infor point S : 1/600

top view

floor plan

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WORK PROCESS

Starting the semester with constructing physcial models

of modules out of interlocking sticks, we continued by

converting this idea of interlocking into trying out kagome,

a triaxial form of weaving, as structural system for our

pavilion. Having studied various references, we sought

to create a regular kagome pattern by weaving geodesic

curves. Geodesic curves form the shortest connection

between two points on a surface and are only bent around

one axis. The surface we used as a base, was formfound

by applying loads to it. After struggling with arranging the

geodesic curves on the surface in a way that they match

an evenly distributed weaving pattern for some time, we

finally managed to do that, but, at the same time, started

investigating in differenct concepts because we started

questioning our current one. Efficiency as a major theme

for our pavilion always being in the back of our heads, we

discovered minimal surfaces and found that this could be

the solution. The reason is that a minimal surface is the

surface with the smallest area in between certain boundary

curves which is a big advantage when it comes to saving

material. We experimented a lot with minimal surfaces,

especially using soap films for the production of physical

models. Soap films that are formed when dipping wires

in soap sud, approximate minimal surfaces and helped us

understand them better.

first task

In the next step, we created a minimal surface that fit the

chosen site and started finding asymptotic curves on that

surface, The main reason for that was that asymptotic

curves bear many strucutral advantages like only being

bent around one axis, forces being applied in the normal

direction of the curves, etc. Out of these asymptotic curves

we eventually generated an approximately regular grid on

the minimal surface and received an asymptotic gridshell

as a result. So our path this semester started by taking

interlocking, geodesic curves, later realizing that this would

not be the right approach for our project and switching to a

structural system that we found more suitable that include

efficency regarding production and material in general, easy

assembly and easy dismantling.

first task

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Kagome weaving

form-finding process

geodesic lines on the surface

geodesic lines on the surface

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References:

Wedl, M. (2020). Ein Beitrag zur Erstellung von

Gitterschalen unter der Verwendung asymptotischer

Kurven auf Minimalflächen. Technische Universität Wien.

Adiels, A./Brandt-Olsen C./Isaksson, J./Näslund, I./Olsson,

K./Poulsen, E./Williams, C. (2019). The design, fabrication

and assembly of an asymptotic timber gridshell. Chalmers

University of Technology. Gothenburg.

Schling, E./Barthel, R. (2017). Experimentelle Studien

zur Konstruktion zweifach gekrümmter Gitterstrukturen.

Fachwissen. In: Detail structure 10/17 (01), 52–56.

Schling, E./Hitrec, D./Barthel, R. (2017). Designing

Grid Structures Using Asymptotic Curve Networks. In:

Humanizing Digital Reality. Design Modelling Symposium

Paris 2017. Springer Singapore, 125–140.

Sources:

People in the illustrations on p. 60 and 74 were purchased

from https://toffu.co

soap film

soap film

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REFLECTION

Throughout the process of creating a design together,

finding a common sense in a group of four people takes

more time, especially in this particular period, stamped by

the Covid-19 pandemic, when we have to communicate and

to share our opinions and thoughts online. The experience

was challenging yet very exciting for all of us. Not being

able to discuss in person was probably one of the reasons

that lead us to focus too much on thoughts and ideas

that would not have been aligned with the goals we set

ourselves. We invested a lot of time in studying weaving

for example, which we later deemed the wrong approach.

But all of these experiences eventually made us find an

approach that everyone in the group agreed to and that

we were really keen to finish. Building the pavilion in 1:10

scale was for sure not as exciting as building it for real, but

it still was a particularly rewarding moment for us to see the

thoughts and hard work of weeks take form. So, after the

troubles of misunderstanding each other in the first stages

of the design studio, it was very pleasing for us to see that

we created something we feel truly satisfied about.

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REVIEWS

Marina Konstantatou

The main concept of the Pop up & Down Pavilion revolves

around a grid shell, the flat timber laths of which follow

asymptotic curves on a minimal surface and can transform

between a doubly-curved pavilion and a flat roof. The architectural

intention was to create a structure and space

which can adapt to hosting multiple functions throughout

the year. This versatility is expressed through the two possible

states of the structure. These two are envisioned

to enable a multi-space for performance, socialising, and

exhibitions. Given the chosen site – a pedestrian-focused

area on a park among trees and in close proximity to

a swimming pool – the space could indeed function as a

focus point for users to socialise and interact within the

natural surroundings whilst initiating a visual dialogue between

the structure and the water surface.

The team explored initially various geometrical concepts

revolving around weaving straight elements into structures,

such as grillages and kegome weaving configuration

based on geodesic curves on free-form surfaces. The

chosen geometrical concept, that of asymptotic curves on

minimal surfaces, has indeed a number of manufacturing

advantages which were studied, highlighted, and exploited

by the team. In particular, grid shells which are based on

these sets of curves can be made out of flat timber laths

which can bent to form a doubly curved structure. As a result,

this type of structures can be assembled and formed

(‘popped-up’) on site simply by applying lateral forces on

the flat grid of interlocked laths. As such, the assembly and

disassembly qualities are evident. Moreover, they can offer

advantages in terms of prefabrication, reducing material

and production cost, as well as construction time.

However, although it is true that the plywood laths can

be assembled and disassembled with relative easy, their

predefined length and cutting/ joint patter will not allow

for reconfigurability into different forms. This is due to one

of the main design features which is that the transformation

between the two states is based on developing two

different sets of cuts on the plywood laths which form the

required joints for each one of the two final geometries. On

the one hand, it is interesting to use an extremely versatile

component such as flat plywood laths as base components

and embed the wanted structural geometry in terms

of colour-coded cuts and lengths. On the other hand, this

methodology might not be suitable for transformations

between more than 2 structures, since then the multitude

of different cuts could potentially start to affect the structural

performance of the laths as well as the visual result.

Further development undertaken from the team included:

a 1:10 prototype of the pavilion configuration; an interesting

detail whereby the foundations were integrated to the

structure though their reinterpretation as public furniture

(inspired by traditional Japanese architecture references);

and lastly the provision for extra stability provided by the

inclusion of diagonal steel cables.

The team presented a methodology for sequentially deriving

the set of asymptotic curves; however, these seem

to not have been fully resolved and perhaps could benefit

from further development. Also, some more development

could be beneficial in terms of diagrammatic explanations

of the various design, geometry, and detailing developments.

The Pop up & Down Pavilion is a promising project underpinned

from very interesting geometrical constructions

which could be explored and exploited even further.

80


POP UP & DOWN PAVILION

Miriam Dall’Igna

1. Outstanding investigation and use of asymptotic curves.

Appropriate application in accordance to studio

proposal. Asymptotic gridhshels are appropriate for this

matter.

2. Demonstrated great understanding of the project purpose,

as construct, deconstruct, reconstruct.

3. Design for different states of the structure is present

4. Excellent use of physical experimental models

5. Provided appropriate referencing - please reference already

completed asymptotic gridshels (a) (b) Please

provide emphasis on the flat state of your structure which

makes it different from previous - VERSATILITY.

6. The project would benefit from structural analysis of the

different configurations

81


HB2 & ITI | VERSATILE SPACES

REVIEWS

Marina Konstantatou

The main concept of the Pop up & Down Pavilion revolves

around a grid shell, the flat timber laths of which follow

asymptotic curves on a minimal surface and can transform

between a doubly-curved pavilion and a flat roof. The architectural

intention was to create a structure and space

which can adapt to hosting multiple functions throughout

the year. This versatility is expressed through the two possible

states of the structure. These two are envisioned

to enable a multi-space for performance, socialising, and

exhibitions. Given the chosen site – a pedestrian-focused

area on a park among trees and in close proximity to

a swimming pool – the space could indeed function as a

focus point for users to socialise and interact within the

natural surroundings whilst initiating a visual dialogue between

the structure and the water surface.

The team explored initially various geometrical concepts

revolving around weaving straight elements into structures,

such as grillages and kegome weaving configuration

based on geodesic curves on free-form surfaces. The

chosen geometrical concept, that of asymptotic curves on

minimal surfaces, has indeed a number of manufacturing

advantages which were studied, highlighted, and exploited

by the team. In particular, grid shells which are based on

these sets of curves can be made out of flat timber laths

which can bent to form a doubly curved structure. As a result,

this type of structures can be assembled and formed

(‘popped-up’) on site simply by applying lateral forces on

the flat grid of interlocked laths. As such, the assembly and

disassembly qualities are evident. Moreover, they can offer

advantages in terms of prefabrication, reducing material

and production cost, as well as construction time.

However, although it is true that the plywood laths can

be assembled and disassembled with relative easy, their

predefined length and cutting/ joint patter will not allow

for reconfigurability into different forms. This is due to one

of the main design features which is that the transformation

between the two states is based on developing two

different sets of cuts on the plywood laths which form the

required joints for each one of the two final geometries. On

the one hand, it is interesting to use an extremely versatile

component such as flat plywood laths as base components

and embed the wanted structural geometry in terms

of colour-coded cuts and lengths. On the other hand, this

methodology might not be suitable for transformations

between more than 2 structures, since then the multitude

of different cuts could potentially start to affect the structural

performance of the laths as well as the visual result.

Further development undertaken from the team included:

a 1:10 prototype of the pavilion configuration; an interesting

detail whereby the foundations were integrated to the

structure though their reinterpretation as public furniture

(inspired by traditional Japanese architecture references);

and lastly the provision for extra stability provided by the

inclusion of diagonal steel cables.

The team presented a methodology for sequentially deriving

the set of asymptotic curves; however, these seem

to not have been fully resolved and perhaps could benefit

from further development. Also, some more development

could be beneficial in terms of diagrammatic explanations

of the various design, geometry, and detailing developments.

The Pop up & Down Pavilion is a promising project underpinned

from very interesting geometrical constructions

which could be explored and exploited even further.

82


POP UP & DOWN PAVILION

Miriam Dall’Igna

1. Outstanding investigation and use of asymptotic curves.

Appropriate application in accordance to studio

proposal. Asymptotic gridhshels are appropriate for this

matter.

2. Demonstrated great understanding of the project purpose,

as construct, deconstruct, reconstruct.

3. Design for different states of the structure is present

4. Excellent use of physical experimental models

5. Provided appropriate referencing - please reference already

completed asymptotic gridshels (a) (b) Please

provide emphasis on the flat state of your structure which

makes it different from previous - VERSATILITY.

6. The project would benefit from structural analysis of the

different configurations

83


HB2 | VERSATILE SPACES

84


COLORFUL CATERPILLAR

COLORFUL CATERPILLAR

#multimediapavilion #dovetailjoint

project, images and text

by

Kukutsov, Iliyan

Simeonova, Marina

Grimm, Johannes

ABSTRACT

The Colourful Caterpillar was inspired by the regular pentagonal

geometry and the final design concept features 5 half regular

dodecahedrons combined in different ways. An open and bright

space was one of our main goals. We started designing with

the idea of uniting people, especially after the situation we are

going through currently. We wanted a pavilion that can enhance

its surroundings and include people of all ages and genders.

Our pavilion can be a music hub, a presentation and exhibition

space, an art installation and a game station. Structure-wise, the

Colorful Caterpillar is made out of one material: plywood – strong,

durable and water-resistant. It features a three piece panel design

glued together with a combined thickness of around 50 mm.

The structure is put on adjustable rubber feet for a better height

clearance and in the roof panels we integrated a Voronoi pattern

for more organic cuts. They are covered with illuminated colourful

plexiglas pieces to add a splash of colour to the space and the

surroundings. The 32 individual panels are connected by employing

the “impossible” dovetail joint which is hidden to provide a better

watertight fit and has two articulating panels on both ends to

serve as entrances. We integrated screens and speakers into the

panels too. What could be a better place to go and play a game,

watch a football match or enjoy a light show at night?

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HB2 | VERSATILE SPACES

DESIGN APPROACH

The Colorful Caterpillar derives from experimenting with

pentagonal geometry. We went through different designs

and ideas in size, use, mechanism and construction until

we reached the final design concept which features 5 half

regular dodecahedrons combined in different ways.

Dynamic is achieved by rotating the half dodecahedrons, so

they can fit together and create a more interesting space

inside. Thus, each pentagon faces a different direction and

more view points from the inside to the outside are possible.

Structure-wise, the Colorful Caterpillar is made out of one

material: plywood – strong, durable and water-resistant.

Through the rotation the space inside is dominated by different angles

and inclined plains, thus unique innerspace is created.

The 32 individual panels are connected by employing the

“impossible” dovetail joint which stays hidden to provide

better watertight fit and has two articulating panels on

both ends to serve as entrances to the space.

Dynamic is achieved by rotating the half dodecahedrons, so they can fit

together and create a more interesting space inside. Thus, each pentagon

faces a different direction and more view points from the inside to

the outside are possible.

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COLORFUL CATERPILLAR

Bruno Pittermann Platz

Our Location in Vienna

Plenty of space for a wide variety of leisure activities where you might

hardly expect them: Along and around Wiental and Gürtel! Regardless of

whether you are in the mood for exercise or prefer to look for a cozy place

to chill out - everyone will find the right thing here.

The districts around the Gürtel and Wiental are popular residential areas that

offer a lot of quality of life for young and old. Local shops, a colorful cultural

scene and lively neighborhoods alongside open spaces and numerous games

and sports activities - especially for children and young people - all contribute

to this.

Searching for a place where to put out jewel.

Trying to find out what is missing in the neighborhood and the surrounding buildings.

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GEOMETRIC DEVELOPMENT

Simple Geometry - Pentagon

Sum of the interior angles of a pentagon:

Can be found by dividing the pentagon up into 3 triangles.

Knowing that the sum of the angles of each triangle is 180

degrees...

We get 3 x 180 = 540 degrees

Thus, the sum of the interior angles of a pentagon is 540.

The properties of regular pentagons:

All side lenghts and interior angles are the same (congruent).

In order to find the measure of the interior angles, we need

to divide the sum of all the angles to five.

We get 540 / 5 = 108 degrees

Thus, the measure of the interior angle of a regular pentagon

is 108 degrees.

The measure of the central angles of a regular pentagon:

We can find the measure of the central angle of a regular

pentagon, by making a circle in the middle (360 degrees)

and divide that by the five angles.

We get 360 / 5 = 72 degrees

Thus, the measure of the central angle of a regular pentagon

is 72 degrees.

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COLORFUL CATERPILLAR

Dodecahedron

12 pentagonal flat surfaces form a convex regular

dodecahedron, a platonic solid, which has:

- 12 faces, each with 5 edges (a pentagon)

- 30 edges

- 20 vertices (corner points) and at each vertex

3 edges meet

The inner angle must be smaller than 144 degrees in order

to shape a three dimensional form. Thus, the inner angles

of the pentagon define the spatial structure and the

resulting angles are true for all spatial forms that emerge

from equally edged pentagons.

In our construction we use regular petagons that form half dodecahedrons. The same angles and rules apply for the

whole structure. Our structure is made out of 32 regular pentagons ( 5 half-dodecahedrons) that are rotated around

their axis in order to fit perfectly together.

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STRUCTURE & ELEMENTS

Plywood is a wonderful combination of lightness, strength and

flexibility. It is an engineered wood which is made by stacking

several layers of wood veneers (thin slices of natural wood).

Thus, it inherents properties like strength and stability, ease

of working, and it‘s cost-effective. This is in addition to the

plywood properties obtained due to its laminated construction.

Cross-graining allows the plywood sheets to resist splitting

and provides uniform strength with increased stability.

High impact resistance – Plywood has high bending strength

in both plane directions due to the cross lamination of panels.

Water and chemical resistance – While manufacturing thin

plies, veneers are treated with a substance that makes

plywood highly resistant to water and chemicals.

The assembly of the panels takes place one after another from

one end to the other, thus the tails of the dove joints can slide

into one another and all pieces fit perfectly together, creating

a very stable structure.

Exploded axo of the structure

Wireframe of the structure

Assembly sequence

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COLORFUL CATERPILLAR

Prefabrication

We have 32 panels prefabricated in a woodshop. All panels have the same dimensions but vary in their structure - with

voronoic structure, clean, cut under 54 or 90 degrees. A mortise (socket) is the female part of a joint. It is a notch, hole

or cut in a piece of wood into which a tenon is inserted. A tenon (tail) is the male part of a joint. It is the cut end that

fits into a mortise.

Fire Resistance

Wood has natural fire protection ability. As wood burns, it creates a

char layer on the outside that prevents heat buildup at the center.

This charring effect helps wood retain its strength during a fire.

Transport and construction

The prefabricated parts can vary in dimensions and are limited mainly by transportation requirements. That is why the parts

have a maximum dimension of 3 m. The panels are fabricated off-site, construction can be done relatively quickly on site.

When the parts arrive, they are lifted off the truck and placed on their exact position. Moreover, the wooden structure is light,

thus it requires lighter foundations, which may result in cost savings. Also, wood has a natural and warm appearance.

CO2 reduction and sustainability

Wood is a great sustainable and durable building material. One of the most important benefits of wood products is its ability

to absorb carbon and store it. For example, with a cubic meter of timber, about a ton of CO 2 emissions are reduced from the

atmosphere. Timber is also a great renewable building material.

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HB2 | VERSATILE SPACES

STRUCTURE & ELEMENTS

A Voronoi pattern divides the space into subspaces in an organic way. Through the openings light enters the structure.

Leftover wood will be chopped into sawdust and shavings. After they dehydrate, the wood fibers are mixed with resin and wax

and are formed into the cover panels for the multimedia panels. Under intense heat and pressure the panels are compressed and

become rigid, with a hard shell. Finally, the created MDF panels are sanded down for a smooth finish and then fixed onto the final

panels.

Elements of the Structure

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COLORFUL CATERPILLAR

The Blind Mitered Dovetails joints are extremely beautiful and

strong, enabling the woodworker to hide the joint from the outside.

The tails are housed in sockets at the ends of the panels

and are not visible once the two pieces are assembled. The

manufacturing process is long and performed in many steps,

which requires patience and precision.

The pros of this type of joint include the overall amazing look,

the resistance to wear and tear (even without glue), the extremely

strong interlocking between the pieces of wood and all this

without any metal fixtures, screws or fasteners.

The cons of this connections include the challenging design

process and the necessary exactness of the manufacturing of

the joint.

Prefabricated Composite Panels

Principles of assembly of the Blind Dovetail Joint and its parts

The panel is made of 2 parts - 5 cm on the edge and 2,5 cm in

the middle. We have 2 types of panels with voronoic openings

for additional sunlight inside and with a carved voronoic pattern

for an overall finished appearance.

The durable plywood panels have a unique and hidden japanese

joint. Through the hidden joints the construction is also

watertight.

The mechanically openable roof panels use a small motor for a

stable and autonomous movement.

Opening Mechanism Section

Self-leveling soft rubber pedestals , also called “Rubber Feet”.

The prefabricated foot is made out of copolymer polypropylene

and it is proven to be resistent to weathering, chemicals, water

and algae.

The idea is insipired from the japanese flat stone approach,

where the japanese elevate the whole construction in order to

protect it from water and humidity.

The non-slippery adjustable rubber material allows the

construction to be placed anywhere and be elevated for additional

protection from groundwater.

Prefabrication: 10 rubber shoes.

Exploaded Panel View

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DETAILING OF ELEMENTS

In this chapter you can see the detailed plans, sections and elevations. We have a general plan, a site plan and a building

plan. Side and front elevations and cross and longitudinal sections can be seen on the bottom of both pages.

A map of the details shown on the next page can be seen in the two sections, marking where each corresponding detail

is located.

Longitudinal Section

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COLORFUL CATERPILLAR

Cross-Section

95


HB2 | VERSATILE SPACES

DETAILING OF ELEMENTS

What is a Voronoi Pattern?

This type of pattern is created by scattering points randomly on a euclidean plane, which is then divided up into tessellating

polygons, known as cells, one around each point, consisting of the region of the plane nearer to that point than any other.

Step 1:

We started by adding the curve into Grasshopper, converted it into a surface and then populated the geometry

with points.

Step 2:

From the populated geometry we added the Voronoi and used the region intersection to contain it only within

the curve .

Step 3:

We offset the Voronoi with a Python script because it worked best with what we wanted to achieve.

Step 4:

Before filleting the geometry we got, we had to remove the weird points and edges, so we combined the

closest points into one point.

Step 5:

After we tried to differentiate the regions, separated them into surfaces, cut the Voronoi holes and extruded

to add thickness.

Final Grasshopper Code for Voronoi Pattern

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COLORFUL CATERPILLAR

The panels are the bearing elements in our structure and they absorb the entire load together with the dovetail joints.

Grasshopper code of the structure

Grasshopper load diagram

Table of weights of the structure

97


HB2 | VERSATILE SPACES

TRANSFORMATION

The Colorful Caterpillar can become an art gallery, a game space, a

music hub or simply an art installation, all this just by using screens,

speakers and some LEDs. Be emerged in the colorful space, which

is just a phone tap away.

Operating the TV screens can easlily be done in just one click,

which downloads an application and then by scanning a simple

QR-code on your phone. Besides allowing for bluetooth and Wi-Fi

connectivity, users can switch between the TV screen and vice

versa. A file transfer is possible as well.

Interior of the space

Gaming-wise, you can play any game on the screens with your

phone acting as a gamepad or a joystick.

Night view of the LED lights

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COLORFUL CATERPILLAR

Art gallery

Exhibition space

Replacing traditional printed maps and an actual tour guide, the hub utilises multimedia elements such as visual, text-based

and voice-based interfaces, which will enhance the visitors’ experience.

Colorful plexiglass - acrylic sheets with a thickness of 5 mm are used for covering the voronoic openings in order to let light

inside and create a different atmosphere in each part of the structure. Also we use plexiglass because it is light and safe.

LED stripes or bulbs are installed in order to light up the structure from inside at night and to make the atmosphere or

the art installation look even more enchanting and interesting. Each LED module is the same color as the plexiglass of this

pentagon.

Game center

Music hub

99


HB2 | VERSATILE SPACES

VERSATILITY &

PROGRAMMING

Public space is a social issue, it is a place where knowledge

can be gathered and everyday practices can be performed,

it is where public life unfolds. That is why it is important to

ask the people around, living in the neighbourhood, what

they think and what they want.

The place that we want to create should be viewed as an

open invitation for everyone. That is why our structure has

an open functionality and programming, it is comfortable

and easy to use by everyone. It can also create possible

encounters for people that would not normally meet.

Our goal is to activate the place, thus make it more useful

for the people that live in that area – make them meet,

communicate, educate and have fun. The idea is to lower

the barriers of social interaction even more.

Activation of public space with the help of multimedia. The

idea is to take an already existing public urban space and

turn it into a lively and well used open space. With the help

of various multimedia functions the space will provide the

oportunity for all citizens to enjoy it while staying in their

neighbourhood.

Place activation diagram

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COLORFUL CATERPILLAR

Side view of the structure

101


HB2 | VERSATILE SPACES

WORK PROCESS

Throughout the semester we went through many different

ideas before we reached our final form of The Colorful

Caterpillar.

We started with a regular half dodecahedron, tested the

shapes, angles, number of sides. Countinuing on from there

we switched to a full regular dodecahedron and had it be

just a frame, after we tested the rigidity of it. From a single

dodecahedron configuration pavilion we moved on to a five

dodecahedron installation. Removing the inner frame we

kept the opening sides and added a stage in the middle.

Finally, we created the caterpillar: we started with a regular

formation, then moved to the more interesting final idea of

braking the straight lines. We added the Voronoi so we have

more sunlight entering the pavilion and added a splash of

color to the elements.

We underwent a proof of concept with our impossible

dovetail joints and with the opening mechanisms until we

reached the final design and configuration of The Colorful

Caterpillar, a physical model of which can be seen in the last

row of images on the other page.

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103


HB2 | VERSATILE SPACES

REFLECTION

I am satisfied with the work that we have done as a group

during this semester. The topic was interesting and provided

a lot of possibilities of development.

The most difficult part was to figure out the right direction

in which we should go, since the project should entitle so

many aspects like structure, use, versatility and so on.

Another new aspect for me was the use of Grasshopper,

which I have previous encounters with but never used as

a load analysis tool, which was difficult at first, especially

when you are designing a pentagonal structure.

However, with the help of our professors we managed to

come up with a nice idea for a multifunctional public space.

Overall, I am happy that I took part in this course.

- Marina Simeonova

Retrospectively looking at this course and what I learned,

I must admit, half a year ago I didn‘t understand as much

about construction, detail and space, as I do now.

Permanently reconstructing our structure led us to better

and better solutions. The key was really to understand our

workflow as an iterative process to get closer and closer

to ideal solutions. Understanding the maths and methods

used by specialists in terms of parametrically designing

structures was very helpful and easily brought to physical

models with fabrep techniques.

The diversity of used media was really special. I‘m looking

forward to taking the methods I learned here and applying

them in future projects.

- Johannes Grimm

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COLORFUL CATERPILLAR

This studio was the first I have ever done in Vienna and it was stressful at first but was better after. The project task itself

is interesting and I personally had not done anything similar in the past, so it was difficult to change the way you look at a

structure and try to integrated interesting joints, constructions and placements.

Working without having personal contact within the group and with the professors was difficult, but that is the way we live

at the moment, which hopefully soon will pass. But even with this obstacle we were able to deliver a finished and complete

project with a lot of developments from start to finish. I had previous knowledge of Grasshopper, but have never used the

Karamba plug-in and the load analytical functions, but at the end I believe this has helped a lot with the final design concept

and the interesting appearance we have now.

Overall, I am personally happy with what we have accomplished and believe we have a very well done project, it was

difficult but we made it usable, interesting and colorful.

- Iliyan Kukutsov

105


HB2 | VERSATILE SPACES

SOURCES

Inspiration

ArchiloversCom. (n.d.). Folding garden: TOWOdesign. Archilovers. https://www.archilovers.com/projects/262407/folding-garden.html.

Gallery of BUGA Wood Pavilion / ICD/ITKE University of Stuttgart - 23. ArchDaily. (n.d.). https://www.archdaily.com/916758/buga-wood-pavilion-icditke-university-of-stuttgart/5cd4a1e7284dd1d22b0000dd-buga-wood-pavilion-icd-itke-university-of-stuttgart-photo?next_project=no.

HygroSkin: Meteorosensitive Pavilion. achimmenges.net. (n.d.). http://www.achimmenges.net/?p=5612.

Ibrahim, A. (G., & Ahmedgamalibrahim. (n.d.). Smart Skin, a climatic approach to skin design. Issuu. https://issuu.com/ahmedgamalibrahim/docs/

ahmed_ibrahim-t6_smart_skin-final-p.

Marsh, & Instructables. (2017, September 20). How to Make Retractable Casters! Instructables. https://www.instructables.com/How-to-Make-

Retractable-Casters/.

Sánchez, D. (2014, July 9). Landesgartenschau Exhibition Hall / ICD/ITKE/IIGS University of Stuttgart. ArchDaily. https://www.archdaily.com/520897/

landesgartenschau-exhibition-hall-icd-itke-iigs-university-of-stuttgart.

Temporary bionic research pavilion made of wood. Detail. (n.d.). https://www.detail-online.com/article/temporary-bionic-research-pavilion-made-ofwood-16282/.

Unknown, & F., D. (n.d.). Retractable Wheels. SimplyCiderPresses.com. https://www.simplyciderpresses.com/wheels-and-hoppers/retractablewheels/.

Workbench with retractable wheels. LumberJocks.com. (n.d.). https://www.lumberjocks.com/projects/325409.

Construction

A Brief Study into Japanese Joinery. Sarah Wigglesworth Architects. (2018, April 30). https://www.swarch.co.uk/journal/brief-study-japanese-joinery/.

CODE ARCH „ RECIPROCAL STRUCTURE. CODE ARCH. (n.d.). https://www.code-arch.com/research/reciprocal-structure/.

Dodecahedron Structure. Parametric House. (n.d.). https://parametrichouse.com/dodecahedron-structure/.

Gallery of BUGA Fibre Pavilion / ICD/ITKE University of Stuttgart - 2. ArchDaily. (n.d.). https://www.archdaily.com/916650/buga-fibre-pavilion-icditke-university-of-stuttgart/5cd2f4ca284dd1e63e000044-buga-fibre-pavilion-icd-itke-university-of-stuttgart-photo?next_project=no.

Parametric Timber Pavilion - eVolo: Architecture Magazine. eVolo Architecture Magazine RSS. (n.d.). https://www.evolo.us/parametric-timber-pavilion/.

Public Space

Dovetail woodworking joints. Craftsmanspace. (n.d.). https://www.craftsmanspace.com/woodworking-joints/dovetail-woodworking-joints.

Egger, T. (2020, May 25). How do you plan in Vienna? 7 urban planning lessons from the Vienna Exchange Program. Ciudades Sostenibles. https://

blogs.iadb.org/ciudades-sostenibles/en/how-do-you-plan-in-vienna-urban-planning-lessons-from-vienna-exchange-program/.

Secret Dovetail. (n.d.). https://mikes-woodwork.com/SecretDovetail.htm.

Vienna: Active Public Space. Active Public Space - APS. (n.d.). http://activepublicspace.org/category/installations/vienna-installations/.

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Renders of the final strucure

107


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REVIEWS

Marina Konstantatou

The main concept of the Colourful Caterpillar revolved

around the use of platonic solids for developing a bright,

semi-open, and inviting space. This aimed to both enhance

the surroundings and become a focal meeting point for local

residents. In the latter case, the structure would enable

multiple functions such as music, art, and gaming hub as

well as a presentation and exhibition space.

The team investigated the geometrical and trigonometrical

properties of pentagons and dodecahedra and the resulting

linear structure comprises 32 pentagons which form 5

half-dodecahedra. Each one of the panels has the same

dimensions; however, some variation is added in terms

of openings. These follow a Voronoi logic and integrate

colourful plexiglass layers. As a result, organic lighting

patterns greatly add to the spatial qualities of the space

and make it more visual appealing to the users.

The material of choice for the polyhedral panels was plywood

and consideration was given in terms of fire resistance

and CO2 footprint of the structure. Furthermore, leftover

sawdust and shavings resulting from the manufacturing

of the panels were recycled and mixed with resin and wax

to produce parts for the panels which was a thoughtful

addition to the concept. Also, the pavilion is elevated via a

prefabricated foot which is inspired by traditional Japanese

architecture and construction methods.

sequential assembly from one end to the other. Due to

this fact, and in conjunction to the panel dimensions, and

necessary precision, the disassembly and reassembly

potential of the structure could be limited.

In terms of computational implementation, the team

developed a two-fold Grasshopper definition for deriving

the Voronoi pattern of the openings as well as a Karamba3D

Finite Element Analysis script to assess the structural

performance of the structure.

The versatility of the space in terms of use and function was

mainly based on changing interior elements such as colours,

lighting, and sounds rather than on reconfigurability of the

space itself. Consequently, the lighting and colours of the

panels, as well as the proposed multimedia features, play an

integral role to the atmosphere of the pavilion.

Future steps could investigate the development of more

spatially diverse configurations comprising more geometries

(i.e., other platonic and Archimedean solids). Furthermore,

since the pavilion cannot be easily repurposed more could

be said about its end of life and recyclability.

Overall a well-documented project with a clear geometrical

design concept and rigorous detailing.

One of the main features of this project was the

prefabrication approach in relation to panels - the limiting

factor defining their dimensions being transportation

requirements. In terms of detailing and joining, the team

opted for ‘Blind Mitered Dovetails‘. This choice resulted in

a sturdy and visually elegant connection between adjacent

panels; nonetheless, it would require considerable precision

and time both in terms of manufacture and assembly. This

is partly because this dovetailing necessitates a specific

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Miriam Dall’Igna

1. Was the dodecahedra the most flexible polyhedral for

the purpose? What about pentagonal faces, can these

provide enoughflexibility for other assembles?

2. The demounting of the structure does not allow many

combinations as the modules that form the structure are

large in scale and pentagonal faces are large. Furthermore

dodecahedra formation as the joints need to be cut at a

specific angle, which constrain the system. Maybe joints

could be designed in a manner that provides further

versatility.

3. The team did not seem emphasise the construct,

deconstruct, reconstruct approach of the course.

4. Great and appropriate structural evaluation.

5. Maybe the versatility aspect has been given too much

focus on the functions the space ban configure rather

than the physical infrastructure, maybe more emphasis

could also be give to the reconfigurability aspect of the

components as well.

6. The presentation is very well structured and provides

proper referencing.

Maybe some further geometrical studies of platonic solids

could facilitate an informed decision on the most

appropriate choice (a). Also a more flexible design of the

joints that considers more diverse assemblies (b).

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VERSATILE SPACES

FRAMES

#modularpavillion #transformativestructure

project, images and text

by

Günes Aydar

ABSTRACT

FRAMES is an open and experimental, modular and versatile

pavillion, which was designed for the burning man festival.

By using an experimental wooden frame construction with

steel plate reinforcements, and movable components, it can

be moved, transformed and organized for different uses. Its

spatial versitality provides an environment for many people

to meet for different activities.

Its conceptual design was inspired by the rules of the

burning man festival like “radical inclusion” “radical selfexpression”

“participation” and “communal effort”.

FRAMES is an architectural solution for the constructive,

ecological and social-space criteria. It was designed by

considering the interaction between people and space. Its

versatile design gives people different spatial experiences

and spatial interaction within the same structure.

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DESIGN APPROACH

RULES OF THE BURNING MAN FESTIVAL 1

RADICAL INCLUSION

ANYONE MAY BE A PART OF BURNING MAN: We

welcome and respect the stranger. No prerequisities exist

for participation in.

GIFTING: Burning Man is devoted to acts of gift giving. The

value of a gift is unconditional. Gifting does not contemplate

a return or an exchange for something of equal value.

DECOMMODIFICATION: In order to preserve the spirit of

gifting, our community seeks to create social environments

that are unmediated by commercial sponsorship,

transactions, or advertising. We stand ready to protect our

culture from such exploitation. We resist the subsitution of

consumption for participatory experience.

COMMUNAL EFFORT: We value civil society. Community

member who organize events should assume responsibility

for public welfare and endeavor to communicate civic

responsibilities to participants. They must also assume

responsibilitiy for conducting events in accordance with

local, state and federal laws.

CIVIC RESPONSIBILITY: We value civil society. Community

members who organize events should assume responsibility

for public welfare and endeaver to communicate civic

responsibilities to participants. They must also assume

responsibility for conducting events in accordance with

local, state and federal laws.

RADICAL SELF-EXPRESSION: Radical self-expression

arises from the unique gifts of the individual. No one other

then the individual or a collaborating group can determine

its content. It is offered as a gift to others. In this spirit, the

giver should respect the rights and liberties of the recipient.

LEAVING NO TRACE: Our community respects the

environments. We are committed to leaving no physical

trace of our activities wherever we gather. We clean up

after ourselves and endeavor, whenever possible, to leave

such places in a better state than when we found them.

PARTICIPATION: Our community is committed to a

radically participatory ethic. We believe that transformative

change, whether in the individual or in society, can occur

only though the medium of deeply personal participation.

We achieve being though doing. Everyone is inveted to

work. Everyone is inveted to play. We make the world real

through actions that open the heart.

IMMEDIACY: Immediate experience is, in many ways the

most important touchstone of value in our culture. We

seek to overcome barries that stand between us and a

recognition of our inner selves, the reality of those around

us, participation in society, and contact with a natural world

exceeding human powers. No idea can substitute for this

experience.

RADICAL SELF-REALIANCE: Burning Man festival

encourages the individual to discover, exercise and rely on

their inner resources.

1) Source: https://burningman.org/culture/philosophical-center/10-principles/

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FRAMES

GEOGRAPHICAL INFORMATION ABOUT THE FESTIVAL AREA

Average weekly weather forecast: 30-5 Celcius

Height: 1.17 m from sea level

Coordinates: 40.78N 119.206W

City has 3500 meters width

Windspeed: 11.26 km/hour

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GEOMETRIC DEVELOPMENT

The construction concept is based on a very simple static problem: Single frames are not stable against horizontal forces

lateral to the frame-plane. In order to overcome this problem, the frame construction is supported with a second frame.

The combination of several frames allows us to create architectural spaces.

All frames are connected through a central, symmetrical vertical axis with bearings as incerconnection elements between

frames. The structure gains versatility with rotation. It can be formed depending on its different uses.

I. Single Frame is not stable

against lateral, out-of-plane

forces

II. Two frames are supporting

each other

III. Lots of frames together

form an architectural space

IV. Non intersecting and

supporting frames give the

more flexibility

Constructural Concept

Large place for meetings and events Exhibition rooms Artistic experimental structures

114

Different Variations of Structure


FRAMES

Single Frame and tearing down its components

Open spaces as meeting points Platform Half open spaces for camping and shelter

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STRUCTURE & ELEMENTS

ASSEMBLY

I. Frames are placed on site

II. Main frames are fixed to each other

with metal supports at each corner

III. Beams are fixed to the main frames

IV. Columns are connected to fixed

beams

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FRAMES

V. The same process is applied until all frames are established. During

dissassembly, the exact reverse of this process is done

Connection I - for the main frames with steel

components from the inner corner

Connection Ii - for the main frames with steel

components from the inner corner

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DETAILING OF ELEMENTS

118

Tear down of Corner Components


FRAMES

“Glued laminated timber” is used as the main

material, which is made of “klin dried lumber”.

This material has almost no volumetric

changes due to humidity, minimum impact

from steel plates, bolts and connections,

and minimum damage during assembly and

disassembly of construction.

Wooden components with 175 mm thickness

and 35 mm width are connected to each other

with metal bolts of 10 mm, 35 mm length and

lock nuts.

To increase strength, a 10 mm thick steel plate

is placed between wooden components.

Detail of corner components - top

Detail of corner components - side

Detail of corner components - front

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DETAILING OF ELEMENTS

I. Wooden structures are prone to

deformation due to humidity from the

ground. To prevent this, direct contact

with the ground is prevented.

II. In this structure, we use a

wheeling system to prevent wooden

components from touching the ground

and to make the frames rotate more

conveniently.

III. If the frames are fixed, it is kept

in place by a mechanical lock and

stored behind a 10mm thick aluminium

protective box with its own locking

system.

IV. These boxes also give a durable look

to the whole structure.

V. To rotate frames, the protechtive

aluminium box is unlocked, slid up and

fixed over the wheels.

VI. An Industrial wheel with a

mechanical arm and suspension

system. Its radius is 13cm. It can be

used fore slopes up to 1.8%.

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FRAMES

TRANSFORMATION

The frames are connected to each other with

bearings on a horizontal rotational axis.

Two bearings attached to different frames, one

from the bottom and the other from the top, are

connected to each other with bolts.

All Frames on the same facade are connected to each other on a central rotational axis. Thus, it becomes a structrure that can change

its shape for every different uses.

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VERSATILITY & PROGRAMMING

VARIATION I: Multipurpose space for meetings events and for group activities - 61.4m²

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Floor Plan of Variation I


FRAMES

Model Photo of Variation I

Frontal view of Variation I

Frontal section of Variation I

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VERSATILITY & PROGRAMMING

VARIATION II: Meeting Point Bar - 61.4m²

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Floor Plan of Variation II


FRAMES

Model Photo of Variation II

REFLECTION

With this project, I had the opportunity to practice

and improve my design principle as „constructing ideas

and interractions by using basic elemental architectural

components“.

I want to thank our dear lecturer Dr. Sandra Häuplik-

Meusburger, to Prof. Peter Bauer and our guest critics for

preparing this beautiful design experience and guiding us

with their knowledges to mentor our projects.

Image sources

humans on page 110: https://skalgubbar.se

p. 113: https://commons.wikimedia.org/wiki/File:Burning_

Man_2007_aerial_view.jpg

-Günes Aydar

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REVIEWS

Marina Konstantatou

The main design concept of Frames is a timber pavilion,

the modular geometry of which - along with its mechanical

elements – allows its reconfigurability in a wide range of

different forms. The context for experiencing the pavilion

was the burning man festival, the core principles of

which do resonate with the given brief on versatility and

subsequently informed the design approach.

The geometry of the pavilion is interestingly based on

structural observations, that is, from the fact that single,

unbraced, frames are not optimal under lateral forces.

However, the inclusion of multiple interconnected frames

- which can rotate spatially with respect to each other -

can lead to a quite different structural system which is both

architecturally expressive and highly reconfigurable.

simple 2-dimensional structure, the resulting configurations

– based on scaling and rotating of the main element – result

in an impressive array of open, closed, and curved spaces.

Future steps could include a parametric computational

implementation in terms of geometry reconfigurability as

well as the analysis thereof for various loading scenarios.

Overall a well-thought and well-designed project which

thoroughly and creatively answered the brief for versatility

of space.

This ability to programme multiple nested frames in terms

of their rotation angles results in a multitude of architectural

spaces which can greatly vary in terms of openness,

resulting experience, and function. These can include

meeting, performance, and exhibition spaces, shelter and

gathering areas, as well as structures such as platforms and

even sculptures.

The geometry of the individual GLT (Glued Laminated

Timber) frames was simple and consisted of three timber

linear elements along with reinforcement in terms of steel

plates as well as a wheeling system which was a thoughtful

and well-documented addition. This would allow rotation

and translation of the frames as well as protect the structure

by isolating it from the ground and prevent damage during

assembly and disassembly.

The simplicity of the frame elements also contributes to its

recyclability since the timbers could be easily repurposed. In

relation to this, even though each individual frame is a very

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FRAMES

Miriam Dall’Igna

1. Very good idea considering the nature of the design

studio – construct, deconstruct, reconstruct.

2. The parts are easy to reassemble and re-use.

3. In addition, there is great thinking in terms of assembly

versatility for reuse regarding space function, i.e. the

multiple function of spaces that it generates.

4. The project would benefit from structural analysis of the

different configurations

5. The presentation is well structured, however, it would be

enriched by precedents documented and also references

page.

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VECTORWORKS EDUCATIONAL VERSION

VERSATILE SPACES

#insideoutside #inbetween

#interactivestructure

project, images and text

by

Alomia Paola, Chelariu Florin,

Fridrich Stefanie

ABSTRACT

The project gravitates around the ambivalence of “being

in between”, enriching the surrounding space, generating a

place of gathering around and fueling the space in between.

The idea of the heterotopia, further enhanced the need

for versatility and inclusiveness. The strong division of

mechanical and human mellows down once both engage

and interact within mulitiple spatial configurations adaptable

for a vast array of possible activities. The space in between

being palpable, imposing or ephemeral.

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DESIGN APPROACH

In order to be a generator of various spaces, while

tackling the concept of „in between“, the project started

as a simple roof type structure. Through the two defined

lateral sides various openings can be achieved, creating

spaces adaptable for different activities. This main concept

triggered both the structural and architectural approach. An

aspect present since the beginning depicted by the three

models showing the „blooming structure“ puts emphasis

on the different atmospheres generated in regard to the

diverse openings of the pavilion.

Besides the focus of INSIDE - OUTSIDE, the malleability

of the space IN BETWEEN represented one of the

most important goals of the project. From the closeness

generated by a narrow opening to the spaces‘ amplitude

sheltered under the fully opened structure MOWA‘s design

approach aims to achieve a vast array of possibilities

therefore offering to the mere structure an architectural

and sensitive value.

Blooming pavilion

Blooming pavilion

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MOWA

Metalic rods and glass Longitudinal rods Platform

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GEOMETRIC DEVELOPMENT

Following the general shape generated by the roof type

structure various experiments of opening possibilities

took place. In all attempts the pavilions‘ layered structure

was given close attention in order to establish the main

principles that configured the final design of the project.

Therefore, the analysis of the two structures, the upper

part comprised out of the array of longitudinal rods and the

bottom part portrayed by the platform played an important

role when it came to the structural behaviour of the whole

pavilion.

The longitudinal rods are the elements that make up the

cover of the inner space. In their capacity of opening and

closing up arose the need for movable joints, each requiring

a particular behaviour in order to allow smooth transition.

Therefore, when it came to a pair of two longitudinal rods

it was important to establish a fixed joint at the base and

a movable one (enabling translation on a wheel) both

allowing the rotation of the rod as the structure opens up.

Nevertheless, the upper connection of the two longitudinal

rods played a great role as it created the connection in

between the two elements but also it had enble the rotation

as the structure moves.

When it comes to the platform the development of the

design followed the diverse possibilities to generate

areas where people can gather and sit down. It also took

into consideration the configuration needed to shelter all

mechanical and technical features needed, especially the

rail system for the translation of the upper structure.

The plan on the right shows the pavilion placed at Karlsplatz

on the axis between the church and the metro pavilions,

the lateral openings of the upper structure framing the two

points of perspective. The shape of the platform in this case

is related to the boundaries of the green areas permitting

the circulation of the people around the pavilion‘s platform,

not blocking the paths.

Selected area in Karlsplatz

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MOWA

VECTORWORKS EDUCATIONAL VERSION

VECTORWORKS EDUCATIONAL VERSION

VECTORWORKS EDUCATIONAL VERSION

VECTORWORKS EDUCATIONAL VERSION

Volumetric development

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STRUCTURE & ELEMENTS

The upper system of longitudinal rods is related to the

bottom platform by defining the interval of movement. The

platform is divided into several segments. The material used

is plywood.

8 meters in height and 5 cm thick, the design of the

longitudinal rods required a set of principles. For the lateral

silhouette of the rods a larger width of the elements was

needed in order to prevent bending due to gravitational

efforts. Therefore, the rods start at the base with a width

of 50 cm and taper towards the upper part to 25 cm, partly

connected to the system of the metal gears which enable a

synchronized rotation of the two rods. Due to the reduced

width on the other side only 5 cm transversal metal rods

were placed in between the wooden elements to maintain

the parallelism of the elements and prevent the lateral

curvature at the height of 8 meters.

The metal transversal rods of 1 meter do not only play an

important role in the rods‘ geometry but they enable the

mounting of the glass elements which comprise solar cells

on one side and also generate a certain amount of shade

and protection against wind under the sheltered area.

Upper gears‘ arcticulation

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MOWA

Detailed elevation depicting the cycling benches and the upper structure of the pavilion

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A

6

5

2

3

DETAILING OF ELEMENTS

Due to the different configurations of all the elements –

in regard to their different function when it comes to the

general movement of the pavilion, a series of details were

elaborated in order to describe the mechanism comprised

in the pavilion.

A. UPPER JOINT - system of gears

B. PLATFORM‘S FEATURES - integrated in the bottom part

C. WHEELS‘ SYSTEM

4

A

11

1

7

8

13

A

11 13

Upper joint - longitudinal section

LEGEND:

1.wooden rod 5cm

2.metalic gears 3cm -

syncronization of the longitudinal

rods‘ movement

3.metalic articulation

4.bolt - connection in

between wooden and metalic

elements

5.upper wooden box -

protection for gears system

6.metalic cover - protecti

on against water

7.metalic joint

8.metalic rod - mentaining

the paralelism of the longitudinal

rods - connected

to the lateral supports (6)

and enabling the mounting of

the glass panels

9.glass panel

10.botom metalic articulations

11.U shaped wooden

element - generating a

middle channels within the

rod - enabling the connection

in between the solar cells‘

wires and the bottom battery

12.bolt - connection of the

two wooden elements

13.solar cell

14.wooden logitudinal

frame 5cm

15.rubber distancer

3cm

16.metalic articulationof

the longitudinal rod to the

chain system

16a.fixed connection - en

ables the movement of the

rods controlled by the chain

16b.movable connection -

permits the movement of the

chain in opposite direction

17.rails

18.box comprising phone

charging features

19.battery

20.set of speakers

21.system of metalic

wheels

21a.cycling wheels - enables

the intreaction of the

public in opening the upper

structure

22b.articulation wheel -

transfers the movement ge

nerated by 21a to the system

of wheels directly controlling

the opening of the pavilion

22c.wheels for translation

22d.rod‘s wheel

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MOWA

A

1

10

12

8

7

11

9 b

6

5

2

3

4

1

9

11

12

9

10

8

7

Upper joint - transversal section

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B

3

1

2

18

16 b

19 20

15

22 d

16 a

16

16 b

17

Platform logitudinal section

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MOWA

C

1

3

2

14

22c

16

22c

17

16a 16b 22c 22b 22a

Platform transversal section - wheels‘ system

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TRANSFORMATION

When it comes to the relationship between the movement

of the rods configuring the space and the platform, three

main scenarios have been taken into consideration.

Scenario 1: Upper structure closed

Clearing up the entire platform, the pavilion turns into

a central element that people can gather around. This

scenario is considered to be suitable for events: outdoor

parties, festivals or outdoor presentations, as the structure

can be lit up at the base and turns into a source of light.

Scenario 2: Upper structure opened half way

The duality INSIDE-OUTSIDE is taken into consideration

as the opening of the pavilion creates two paths – one

protected by the upper structure and one in strong relation

to the surroundings as it is uncovered. The second scenario

connects the pavilion to the TU building as it can turn into

an outdoor class room. The open design encourages people

from the outside to participate and be in contact with the

activities of the university.

Scenario 3: Upper structure opened to the maximum

In this configuration the largest sheltered space is made

available. Possible uses include big events as symposiums,

exhibitions and workshops.

Scenario 4: The public claims the pavilion

This scenario represents the most common daily use of the

pavilion where the public has the possibility of changing

the space generated by small segments according to their

needs .

human silhouettes - open source: https://www.pngwing.com /en/free-png-bzffz

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MOWA

Scenario 1

Scenario 2

Scenario 3

Scenario 4

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VERSATILITY

The movement of the upper structure enables the

adaptability of the inner space to diverse programmes. The

configuration of the platform plays a great role in regard to

versatility. Following the configuration of the pavilion and

foremost the platform into segments, the final object can

vary in shape as intervals can be interchanged, obtaining

multiple variations. The platform comprises three main

components: the ramps of access positioned on two

sides of the platform, intervals related to the rods enabling

defined openings (in relation to the possibilities of the three

scenarios and intervals) which enable the interaction of

the public. In the case of the last ones listed, the segments

comprise a cycling bench at one end linking the mechanism

controlled by the people to the platforms‘ system of wheels

generating the movement of one interval created out of

three longitudinal rods.

In regard to the idea of SCALING, the platform intervals are

able to be mounted in a different order on one side, and on

the other, can be reduced in number. Therefore, a different

mounting will permit a better adaptation of the pavilion to

different areas where, for example, the scale may need to

be reduced.

human silhouettes - open source: https://www.pngwing.com

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Variation 1

Variation 2

Variation 3

Variation 4

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WORK PROCESS

A considerable amount of the work process was defined

by multiple geometrical experimentations in regard not

only to the final arched design of the upper longitudinal

rods and the system of meta rods holding the glass panels,

but also the configuration and the wavy shape of the

platform. Therefore during the development of the project

an important step was depicted by the process of detailing

which enabled a great insight towards the structural and

mechanical requirements in relation to the architectural

aims.

PHASE I - possible variation of volumetry

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MOWA

Volumetric development - PHASE IV - integration of metalic rods in between the longitudinal one - support for the glass panels

Elevation development - PHASE II - first integration of colored glass panels combined with opaque ones (plywood)

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REFLECTION

When it comes to our group, a defining moment was

depicted throughout the first task required by the studio,

in which we experimented with creating a structure out

of sticks without using glue. By coincidence or not, the

three structures created followed similar principles and

furthermore generated the main concept of our project

tackled the idea of „being in between“.

resulting in heated, stimulating discussions. But even after

hours of meetings, the pleasant togetherness meant that

fun was not neglected. It was very nice to see and feel that

our vision of our project was understood by the mentors,

critically questioned and supported with many inspiring

comments. This made it possible to enjoy the time with

enthusiasm and fun even during the corrections.

What started at the beginning as an experiment regarding

a more conceptual approach, reached its main objectives,

that enabled the realization of the project, through long

group debates encouraged and fueled through a close

implication and complex feedback discussed during the

studio meetings. Furthermore, the analysis of already built

projects as case studies gave us a great insight when it

came to the possible structural behaviour and scale that

our structure was able to achieve.

The two workshops and the additional lectures with guests

had a great impact on the development of the project as

they opened the way to detailed and inspiring ideas on one

side practical, in regard to the use of Grasshopper, and on

the other theoretical, regarding the intricacy of Japanese

wood building and the importance of configuring public

space.

Nevertheless, the studio was a great opportunity in

understanding the capacity that structural elements have

in obtaining an architectural value and therefore generating

certain atmospheres. What at first sight might seem to

be a rigid element able to generate order turns out to be

the central point of complex debates regarding the quality

of space, the sensitivity of intervention where the mere

structure is enriched through its attached symbolical

value, as in our project, a place of social encounter.

Due to the given circumstances, we were confronted with a

different way of working and, above all, cooperating. In our

case, three people came together who generally pursued

one vision, but each did so in his or her own way, often

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SOURCES

Snøhetta - Zero

https://www.designboom.com/architecture/snohetta--

ero/

Rafael Moneo - Kursaal Auditorium

https://www.detail.de/artikel/leuchtzeichen-fuer-diekultur-kursaal-in-san-sebastian-von-rafael-moneo-2000/

Daniel Buren - Centre Pompidou Malaga

https://centrepompidou-malaga.eu/exposicion/danielburen/

Chiangmai Life Construction - Bamboo sports hall

https://www.baunetz.de/meldungen/Meldungen-

Sporthalle_von_Chiangmai_Life_Construction_in_Thailand

_5128768.html

Frei Otto - Multihalle in Mannheim

https://www.bauwelt.de/themen/bauten/Frei-Otto-

Multihalle-Mannheim-2845677.html

University of Auckland‘s School of Architecture and

Planning /Leo Zhu, Dorien Viliamu, Daniel Fennell,

Wenhan Ji - THE WOOD PAVILION

https://www.brickbaysculpture.co.nz/folly-2019-thewood-pavilion

Foster + Partners - Vatican Chapel

https://www.fosterandpartners.com/projects/vaticanchapel-pavilion-of-the-holy-see/

EmTech at the Timber Expo in Birmingham - The TWIST

https://www.archdaily.com/775842/emtechs-twistdisplayed-at-the-timber-expo-in-birmingham

DRS + FARMM - The ContemPLAY Pavilion

https://www.archdaily.com/258929/the-contemplaypavilion-drs-farmm

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REVIEWS

Marina Konstantatou

This project aimed for a three-fold architectural function

by developing a reconfigurable component-based structure

made out of plywood. Specifically, the three objectives of

the resulting space were to enhance its surroundings, provide

a focal gathering point, and accentuate the space between

destinations. These different briefs can be achieved

by adapting the roof in terms of kinetically reconfiguring

its components in regard to openness. Interestingly, even

though the structure is linear, the ability of its two longitudinal

road to open can result in interesting and curved spaces.

The main concept of the structure is simple and elegant. It

is inspired by Japanese timber construction and is based on

a two-layer roof comprising a linear sequence of longitudinal

rods with movable joints standing on top of a platform

which functioned both as a seating area and a part of the

kinetic mechanism. In particular, each pair of rods had one

fixed joint as well as one with a wheel – something that

enabled the rods to rotate and open and thus the structure

to reconfigure allowing for the various architectural briefs.

The geometry of the rods was informed from the structural

behaviour. Specifically, the silhouette of the rods was designed

by considering their structural performance in terms

of bending. Also, the detailing of the components and their

mechanisms was thoroughly and clearly documented.

Future steps could include further development and documentation

of the computational process for parametrically

designing and analysing the various configurations,

as well as a colour study with regards to the glass panels.

The latter could enhance the stunning lighting effect of the

structure and even be an element of reconfigurability and

perforation control of the pavilion from the users depending

on the environmental conditions and functions.

A geometrically elegant and nicely executed project which

combines simplicity with versatility.

In the case where the rods were closed, the structure could

be lit up and function as a lighting installation or sculpture,

which would invite the users to gather around it. In the

case where the rods were half opened, then the structure

would form a corridor which creates paths for the users

to transverse. When the rods were fully opened the resulting

space can be suitable for gatherings such as meeting

and symposia, whereas a variety of rotation angles chosen

interactively from the users on a daily basis allows for a mixed

level of openness which could in turn facilitate various

other functions.

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MOWA

Miriam Dall’Igna

1. It is good that the system allows multiple opening degrees

as well as full demountability.

2. The system could be more flexible when it comes to different

configurations, i.e. the system only allows a shelter

pavilion. It can only be changed in terms of number of modules

used.

3. If the pavilion was to be deconstructed and reconstructed,

what other functions could be assumed? Could the

pavilion be reassembled of, for instance, an openable bench

or part of urban furniture? This is an instance of reusability

questions that can be asked.

4. The project would benefit from structural analysis of the

different configurations

5. The presentation is well structured, however, it would be

enriched by precedents documented and also references

page.

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HB2 & ITI | VERSATILE SPACES

150


VERSATILE SPACES

A‘MÖBIUS

#floatingquayextension #kineticstructure

project, images and text

by

Daniel Kientsch

Timo Bogataj

Cleo Traub

ABSTRACT

A‘Möbius‘ intention is to create a pleasant experience along

the Danube Canal and expand the famous public quay onto

the water surface. Calls for a more vivid transformation of

the Danube Canal can be found in the city‘s 2010 and 2014

masterplan and recent initiatives like the „Schwimmverein

Donaukanal“, a project by students from the University of

Applied Art in Vienna, that encourages using the Canal for

swimming.

Our structure offers a protected space for swimming,

sunbathing, relaxing, and climbing. In its Möbius configuration

it integrates a projection surface for media and light shows,

which can also be observed from the quay wall.

Through its pneumatic hinges, the structure unfolds and

can offer a more disclosed spatial experience. A‘Möbius can

be moved around the Danube Canal and can be attached

to different stairs of Otto Wagner‘s historic quay wall, left

mostly untouched by the structure.

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DESIGN APPROACH

“Suggestions for change were [...] architectural changes,

which intensify the experience of the water and lifelines

through more special activities.”

Urban development and urban planning (2010)

1. stairs at Flex / Swimming Park

The Möbius strip is the simplest geometric shape which

has only one surface and only one edge. It can be created

by taking a strip of paper, giving it a half twist along its

long axis, and then joining the two narrow ends together.

The Möbius Strip in three dimensions can be represented

parametrically f(s,t) as follows:

The Möbius strip is the simplest geometric shape which has only one

surface and only one edge. It can be created by taking a strip of paper,

giving it a half twist along its long axis, and then joining the two narrow

ends together.

The Möbius strip is the simplest geometric shape which has only one

surface and only one edge. It can be created by taking a strip of paper,

giving it a half twist along its long axis, and then joining the two narrow

ends together.

2

1

2. stairs at Freda-Meissner-Blau Promenade

The Möbius Strip in 3 dimensions can be represented parametrically f(s,t)

as follows:

The Möbius Strip xxxx in 3 dimensions cos(ssss) + tttt can × cos(ssss be represented ÷ 2) × cos(ssss) parametrically f(s,t)

yyyy = sin(ssss) tttt as × follows: cos(ssss ÷ 2) × sin(ssss)

xxxx

tttt × sin(ssss ÷ 2)

xxxx cos(ssss) + tttt × cos(ssss ÷ 2) × cos(ssss)

where s ranges yyyy = from sin(ssss) 0 to 2ππππ tttt and × cos(ssss t ranges ÷ 2) typically × sin(ssss) from -0.4 to 0.4

xxxx

tttt × sin(ssss ÷ 2)

where s ranges from 0 to 2π and t ranges typically from

-0.4 to 0.4.

where s ranges from 0 to 2ππππ and t ranges typically from -0.4 to 0.4

3. stairs at Franzensbrücke

3

mathematical inspiration of the möbius strip‘s infinity surface

possible locations with access stairs to the canal‘s water surface

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A‘MÖBIUS

50

200

100

top view “möbius” 1:200

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HB2 & ITI | VERSATILE SPACES

GEOMETRIC DEVELOPMENT

elevation “möbius” 1:200

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A‘MÖBIUS

50

200

100

top view “trail” 1:200

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HB2 & ITI | VERSATILE SPACES

To check the buoyancy behaviour, we analysed the floating

behaviour of the individual triangular elements, as well

as the total buoyancy behaviour of the whole structure.

The thin, textile-concrete shell in combination with the

formwork and seating cushion inside the shell enables

the element to float, because it includes a large volume

in comparison to its weight. From the total weight of the

element (calculation below) we calculated buoyancy data,

like the displaced volume and the buoyancy force. With this

data and the element surface area, a calculation of how

deep the elements sink into the water is possible. This

individual analysis must be supplemented by an analysis of

the complete, connected structure. We did this with the

software RhinoHyd, using center of gravity and volume.

concrete shell data

shell volume: 0.40m 3

shell weight (2300kg/m 3 ): 920.00kg

element data

additional gear weight: 50.00kg

(cushions, textiles, rubber hinge)

total element volume: 2.75m 3

total element weight: 970.00kg

buoyancy data

buoyancy force: 9515.70N

displayced volume: 0.97m 3

element surface area: 5.21m 2

height in water: 0.19m

element principle 1:150

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A‘MÖBIUS

For the complete buoyancy analysis, we added the weight

of 20 people on the wall or the floor side. This shifts the

centre of gravity towards the wall or the floor side. The

shift causes a different tilt of the structure. In the images

below this shift is displayed in the green colorized areas in

comparison to the white, non-loaded structure. The exact

movement is noted in the captions.

1. load case: möbius 45t; dynamic load 2t(~20 people) on wall side > wall -15cm; floor +3cm

movement under load without load

2. load case: möbius 45t; dynamic load 2t(~20 people) on floor side > wall +12cm; floor -7cm

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HB2 & ITI | VERSATILE SPACES

STRUCTURE & ELEMENTS

In the assembling process overview, the different parts

of the system are visible: the PVC cushion for the inner

formwork and seating, the concrete shells around them and

the boltrope connection system between the elements for

the textiles, holding the elements together and covering

the pneumatic cushions for the transformation process,

which is further detailed in the chapter “transformation”.

The special UHPC concrete mixture for the thin textileconcrete

shells, was developed in cooperation with TU

Wien‘s Institute for Construction Material Technology.

element principle

air cushion

pvc 0,8mm

transparent matt

frosteffect

pneumatic hinge

leashing-strap fabric

pneumatic cushion

stiff bottom hinge

concrete shell

anti-slip UHPC

shell 40mm

pigmented

boltrope-profile

3mm steel profi le

attached on

carbonfi ber reinforcement

construction principle of the structure

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A‘MÖBIUS

UHPC concrete

sand

350l

1-3mm

cement

700kg

CEM1 C3A3

HOLCIM white cement

quartz flour / lime powder

350kg

silicafume

140kg

high performance

super plasticizer

35kg

ACE 430

w/c ratio

0,25-0,35

concrete deaerator, hydrolysable

expanding adjunct, consistency

regulator, reducer

concrete mixture

GSEducationalVersion

physical model 1:5

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HB2 & ITI | VERSATILE SPACES

The biggest challenge for the element production is the

need for 48 differently sized triangular concrete shells. This

results from the specific möbius geometry, which cannot

be simplified to a few equal triangles without compromising

the steady curvature. To build the different triangles we

developed a flexible formwork. This formwork consists

of a base- and cover plate, where clay can be added to

fillet the edges and for the surface textures used to climb

and for grip. The PVC cushion, as an inner formwork, and

the carbon fiber reinforcement are then placed inside the

length adjustable board formwork, that works through

flexible metal sheet edge brackets. This system allows the

production of every element from smallest to biggest.

cover plate

steel plate with

clay texture + fillet inlay

inner formwork

multiple chamber PVC cushion

reinforcement

carbonfiber

outer formwork

wooden board +

flexible edgebracket

baseplate

steel plate with

clay texture + fillet inlay

formwork

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A‘MÖBIUS

biggest piece

the PVC cushion may be used as

formwork, but will later be part of the

final configuration

1683kg

6260

3000

900

3850

smallest piece

along the loose edgebracket the

formwork can be adjusted to suit

different size elements

516kg

adjustability of the formwork

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HB2 & ITI | VERSATILE SPACES

DETAILING OF ELEMENTS

450

250

500

210

boltrope-profile

concrete shell

tensile textile

pneumatic cushion

stiff hinge

3mm steel profile with

reinforcement connection

40mm carbonfiber reinforced

UHPC concrete

polyester-based

lashing-strap fabric

industry standard with

connectors for hinge mounting

steel reinforced rubber ma

waterline

500

pneumatic transformation detail

40

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A‘MÖBIUS

40

The detailed section illustrates how the pneumatic

cushion/hinge system works. In the möbius configuration

the cushions between the elements are inflated. Through

the cushions, an angle between the elements is adjusted,

which forms the möbius geometry. All pneumatic cushions

are connected. The shorter stiff hinge in combination

with the pneumatic cushion holds the distance between

the elements, while the tensile textile keeps them from

falling over. The textiles are connected to the elements

with boltrope profiles that are attached to the carbon fiber

reinforcement of the shells. For the flat trail configuration,

the hinges can be locked in position for security reasons.

t

air cushion

central chamber: concrete formwork

side chambers: seating + buoyancy

„the möbius“

The connection to the quay wall is also built with a

boltrope profile attached to the wall. The steel reinforced

rubber hinges carry the tension load, while the buoys act

as pressure resistant distance holders. The goal of the

connection was to reduce the impact on the protected

quay wall. If necessary, due to the wind loads, a steel rope

could also be attached to the wall side of the möbius stripe

to fixate its position.

stiff hinge

„the trail“

steel reinforced rubber mat

buoy

pressure-resistant distance holder

boltrope-profile

3mm steel profile with screw connection

40

waterline

40

140

quay connection detail

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45 min

36 min

27 min

HB2 & ITI | VERSATILE SPACES

TRANSFORMATION

The structure can shape-shift between two states with

different uses. The first state is the möbius form and the

second one is the trail form. The pneumatic cushions and

the hinge system can lift the elements of the 45 t structure

to achieve different angles and finally create the möbius

from the trail stage.

transformation process top view

The pneumatic cushions need to be filled with 3400

litres of air to reach a pressure of 10 bar. Therefore,

each bag has the capability to lift 6,8 t. To achieve

the filling quantity with a 200 liter compressor tank,

which can be transported easily, the transformation

process from trail to möbius takes around 45 minutes.

The transformation from the möbius configuration back to

the trail only takes around 10 minutes for a safe deflation

process, where the air pressure is released slowly through

controlled valves.

Trail

10 min

9 min

18 min

Möbius

45 min

transformation schedule

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A‘MÖBIUS

first assembly in the water before launch

transport in the water to different locations around the canal

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VERSATILITY &

PROGRAMMING

The goal of the versatility and programming is to bring more

life on, in and next to the water. The water is no longer just

passing by, but can be experienced, touched and felt with

the A‘Möbius. The structure creates new places of leisure,

where it anchors around the historic Vienna Danube Canal.

During a hot summer night people can watch movies or

light shows while sitting on the A‘Möbius or the quay wall,

or even inside the water. The soft lighting through the

cushions creates a relaxed atmosphere on the structure

and in the water and encourages visitors to linger.

Möbius

sunbathing

public viewing

climbing

swimming

On the visualization the möbius configuration is displayed

The Trail

relaxing

get together

yoga classes

swimming

utilization

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A‘MÖBIUS

nighttime visualization

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HB2 & ITI | VERSATILE SPACES

WORK PROCESS

For the research of the möbius geometry, we looked

at paper strips, which can be twisted to achieve these

geometries, although there are limits to the use of paper

models. If you divide the möbius strip into different parts or

elements, you can achieve geometries not possible with a

single band of paper.

One ongoing discussion we had along the design process

was if we want to build the möbius from sticks or plates/

elements. In general, both ways are possible, but for

transformation and buoyancy reasons we decided to use

elements for our floating structure.

1. researching möbius geometry and construction approaches

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A‘MÖBIUS

To find the optimal geometry for the möbius configuration,

as well as the trail configuration we developed a script,

which stretches the parametric mathematical möbius

definition. The goal was to have a reasonable balanced

amount of flat area on the möbius strip for easy access, as

well as a well-formed structural appearance. The stretch

also influences the unrolled geometry, the trail. Here we also

tried to achieve the most interestingly curved path on the

water surface. The model on the left shows this geometry.

10/75 30/75 50/75

90/75 50/10 50/30

50/75 50/90 10/10

30/30 50/50 75/75

2. final geometry and element system

3. mock-up prototype production and research

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REFLECTION

Everyone in the group was excited to start the new

semester, because we all wanted to learn about parametric

design and collect our first experiences with Grasshopper.

The little knowledge we initially had made it difficult in the

beginning, but after the workshops, countless tutorials and

browsing through forums, we made progress and, most

importantly, realized which opportunities lay in parametric

design.

The engineering and structural analysis, which was the focus

of this design studio, was very challenging. Our project in

the water confronted us with a lot of structural difficulties

and the pneumatic transformation somehow seemed more

like mechanical engineering, than what we experienced in

architecture before. But this was the challenge, why we

chose the design studio, and we did our best to solve these

new problems and learned a lot on the way.

grasshopper script for A‘Möbius

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A‘MÖBIUS

The building of the diverse physical models and especially

the model using the self-built formwork was a great

experience which led us to talk to concrete specialists

and specialists of experimental building construction. This

experience emphasised the importance of the feasibility of

each detail.

zoom sessions

The online group work via Zoom was challenging

sometimes, because, especially in this very holistic design

studio, making design decisions together was hard to do

with distance learning. In traditional design studios it might

have been easier to divide the work into separate tasks for

3 people. Still, we managed to do this, but had to adjust

our different ideas in meetings to combine them into one,

meaningful project.

It was very rewarding to dig into all these new fields and

try learning-by-doing. When we had solved a hard problem,

it was even more fun to continue. We hope to apply this

knowledge about kinetic architecture in further projects as

well.

shopping model building material

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REVIEWS

Marina Konstantatou

This project aimed to develop a structure which could

serve as a medium to experience the water flow of Vienna’s

Danube via extending the public quay on the river’s surface.

This was achieved by designing a structural geometry,

and subsequently a space, which enables multiple public

functions and is inspired by the mathematical concept and

geometrical properties of the Moebius strip.

The versatility of this project is achieved in two ways. Firstly,

through the reconfiguration of the structure between two

states: the ‘unfolded’ and the ‘A’Moebius’. The latter is

envisioned to serve a multitude of public functions such as

swimming, sunbathing, relaxing, and climbing.

Secondly, adaptability in relation to the space’s functions

can be further enhanced in the A’Moebius configuration by

incorporating lighting and media elements. These allow both

for the structure to host shows for those experiencing it

and for accentuating it as a reference point of architectural

interest on the river’s surface when viewed from the quay.

Furthermore, the placement of the structure on the

water surface, in conjunction with the design of a noninvasive

attachment system on the quay’s walls, allows for

A’Moebius to travel and reconfigure on various locations

throughout Vienna.

The team had as a starting point the mathematical concept

and geometrical properties of the Moebius strip which was

then developed holistically into a reconfigurable structure.

This was studied and developed in terms of: component

geometry and materials, assembly sequence, detailing of

the reconfiguration mechanism, computational analysis of

buoyancy, and statics. Specifically:

• Geometrically, the structure comprises 48 unique

triangular concrete components which were manufactured

via a flexible formwork. To this end, the team developed a

parametric computational design process in Grasshopper,

which transforms and discretises the geometry of a

Moebius strip. This is achieved by incorporating as

objectives the resulting flat usable area in relation to the

structural geometry and unrolled configuration.

• In terms of materials, the system includes the

development of a tailor-made concrete mixture in the

context of thin textile concrete-shells.

• Assembly-wise, the system comprised three

distinct elements, the design language of which was visually

discrete. These were an inner PVC formwork - functioning

as a cushion for seating - the enclosing thin concrete shell,

and the connection system between adjacent triangular

components.

• Mechanically, the reconfiguration between folded

and unfolded states - and their subsequent functions - is

achieved via the development of a system of pneumatic

hinges and interconnected pneumatic cushions. Moreover,

the required pressure and necessary litres of air were

calculated.

• In terms of Analysis, the team performed

computational buoyancy calculations both in terms of

individual components and the structure as a whole. Form

these, the structural performance and requirements of the

structure and its hinges were derived for a give load of a

number of occupants.

Features and novelties of the project include the material

development for which the team worked collaboratively

with TU Vienna’s Institute for construction material

technology.

Further steps could include: the optimisation of the

components’ geometry so that they are not all unique;

and the consideration of composite materials in terms

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A‘MÖBIUS

of enhancing their recyclability performance. These

steps could contribute even more to the afterlife and

reconfigurability performance of the project.

Overall a very good project which was thoughtfully and

holistically developed.

Miriam Dall’Igna

1. Great use of adaptable formwork, we can see extensive

experimentation and structural/mechanical consideration

2. Excellent analysis and research on assembly with buoyancy

elements that bring flexibility

3. Clarify why a Mobius strip can not be made of same sized

modules. Couldn‘t the deviations be accommodated on the

inflatable joints?

3. Interesting versatility adding two different states.

4. The project would benefit from structural analysis of the

different configurations

5. The presentation is well structured, however, it would be

enriched by precedents documented and also

173


HB2 | ENVISIONING THE MOON VILLAGE

THE

STUDENTS

Paola Alejandra Alomia Aldaz

Benjamin Avdic

Stefanie Fridrich

Johannes Grimm

Iliyan Kukutsov

Marc Luncer

Georg Prückl

Fevziye Fulya Sakarya

174


THE STUDENTS

Günes Aydar Timo Bogataj Florin Daniel Chelariu

Chen Wanyu

Aron Iankov

Karmen Janzekovic

Daniel Kientsch

Emre Kilic

Adrian Mellert

Milomir Vincent Milenkovic Irena Nedic Emre Poyrazoglu

Miriam Sengstbratl Marina Simeonova Cleo Sophie Traub Philipp Zimmermann

175


HB2 | LUNAR OASIS

TEACHING

TEAM

Peter Bauer

Studio Director

TU Wien, ITI

Peter Bauer is university professor for

Structural Design at the TU Wien and

teaches at the Academy of Fine Arts, he

is the vice president of the engineering

consultants of the ZiviltechnikerInnen

Vienna, Lower Austria and Burgenland;

state authorized civil enignieer and head

of the structural engineering office Werkraum-Ingenieure

with a focus on structural

enginieering; member of the building

standards committee in the International

Association for Bridge and Structural

Engineering (IABSE) and the AG BIM.

Sandra Häuplik-Meusburger

Studio Director

TU Wien, HB2

Sandra Häuplik-Meusburger is Senior lecturer

at the Institute for Architecture and

Design. Her teachings include design

courses in space architecture and extreme

environment architecture and a

regular course on ‘Emerging Fields in

Architecture’. Sandra is also director of

the Space course at the Science Academy

in Lower Austria. She is an architect

at space-craft Architektur and expert in

habitability design solutions for extreme

environments.Over the last 15 years, she

has worked and collaborated on several

architecture and aerospace design projects.

Sandra is Vice-chair of the AIAA

Space Architecture Technical Commitee,

and Co-chair of the IAA History Committee.

She is author of several scientific

papers and books, her latest is co-authored

with Shery Bishop; Space Habitats

and Habitability (Springer 2020).

176


EXTENDED TEACHING TEAM

Miriam Dall’Igna

Co-Supervisor

Architect | Foster & Partners

Miriam Dall’Igna is Associate Partner at

Foster+Partners‘ research and

development team Specialist Modelling

Group. Working as a computational

designer, she has experience on research

and design of complex structures for

manufacturing and construction. She

joined the company in 2008 and has

worked with integration of environmental

and structural design strategies through

architectural geometry. Part of her tasks

are the experimentation and

implementation in architectural practice

of state-of-the-art software and

hardware. Miriam also works on research

and innovation projects, with recent

winning entries for Innovate UK, H2020

and NASA. She is currently focusing on

the research of goal-oriented autonomous

robotic systems and additive

manufacturing for large scale

construction. Miriam is Professor of

Computational Methods and Complex

Geometry at University of Westminster‘s

School of Architecture and Cities.

Marina Konstantatou

Co-Supervisor

Researcher | Foster & Partners

Marina is a researcher of structural

design, form-finding, and architectural

geometry. Her interests revolve around

the development of theoretical and

computational frameworks of geometrybased

methods for the design and analysis

of materially efficient structures in the

context of the built environment. Marina

has a background in applied mathematics

and physics, after which she specialised in

computational design, at the ‘Emergent

Technologies & Design’ master’s program

at the Architectural Association, and in

civil engineering at the University of

Cambridge. She holds a PhD from the

University of Cambridge, Department of

Engineering, on geometry-based

structural analysis and design for which

she won the University’s CSAR award for

‘outstanding research with real world

application’. She currently holds an R&D

position at Foster + Partners, Specialist

Modelling Group.

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HB2 | LUNAR OASIS

178

Lukas Zeilbauer

Workshop Basics & Tools

Univ.-Assistant | TU Wien

Lukas Zeilbauer is Univ.-Assistant at the

Institute of Architectural Sciences. His

Department - Structural Design and

Timber Engineering - primarily focuses on

the material-appropriate structural design

with special consideration of the aspects

of resource efficiency, sustainability and

reusability as well as on the topics of

timber engineering. With a view to the

continuous application of digital planning

methods and technologies, the ITI team is

experimenting with form, material and

assembly principles using parametric

algorithms and robotics. Lukas is mainly

teaching Master courses, like several

Design to Build Studios and Module

lectures.

Georg Lobe

Workshop Basics & Tools

Student Assistant | TU Wien

Georg Lobe is student assistent at the

Institute for Structural Design and

Engineered Timber Construction.

His focus is on computational and

structural design specializing in design to

production.

Sabine Knierbein

Lecturer Public Spaces

Associate Professor | TU Wien

Sabine Knierbein is the Head of the

Interdisciplinary Centre for Urban Culture

and Public Space at the Faculty of

Architecture and Planning, TU Wien.

Trained in landscape architecture, she

received the first Dr. phil. degree at the

Faculty of Architecture of the Bauhaus-

Universität Weimar ever in the field of

European Urban Studies. She is a founding

member of the Thematic Group of Public

Spaces and Urban Cultures of the

Association of European Schools of

Planning. Her research interests relate to

the city as a collective political and

democratic project, recent theory of

urbanization through the lenses of

everyday life and lived space, intersectional

urban research methodology, ethnography

of construction sites, concepts of truly

open and public innovation, social

inequality and disruptive and to

intercultural philosophy of science with a

spatial and urban focus.


EXTENDED TEACHING TEAM

Klaus Zwerger

Lecturer Japanese Building and Joinery

Associate Professor | TU Wien

Laura Farmwald

Tutor HB2 | TU Wien

Klaus Zwerger is Associate Professor at

the TU Wien. Three long-term

scholarships at Todai and a guest

professorship at Hosei University provided

ample opportunity to become familiar

with Japan. Extensive field research in

China, Europe and Southeast Asia

resulted in several lecture series,

numerous seminars and workshops in

China and Europe. Working as a joiner and

carpenter he collected experience with

the material wood. His scientific research

is focused on historic wood architecture.

He specialized in comparing East Asian

and European building traditions and

published widely on this topic. Following

his seminal book „Wood and Wood Joints:

Building Traditions in Europe, Japan and

China“ currently in translation into

Chinese, his recent monograph on „Cereal

Drying Racks. Culture and Typology of

Wood Buildings in Europe and East Asia“

was published in 2020.

Laura Farmwald is an architecture student

based in Vienna. Her work includes film,

photography, design and site-related art

installations from an architectural point of

view. Since 2019 she has been working as

a tutor at the Institute of Architecture and

Design at the Technical University of

Vienna. She holds a Bachelor of

Architecture from the University of Art

and Industrial Design, Linz.

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HB2 | LUNAR OASIS

HB2

VERSATILE SPACES

Architecture Design Studio 2021

Published by

TU Wien

Institute of Architecture and Design

Department of Building Construction and Design

Hochbau 2

www.hb2.tuwien.ac.at

© 2021, Department of Building Construction and Design

HB2 – TU Wien

180



The overall goal of the design studio Versatile Spaces | construct.

deconstruct.reconstruct was to experimentally develop a pavillion-like

spatial structure with self-supporting / interlocking structural elements,

which enable multiple different spatial and functional configurations.

Projects by:

Paola Alejandra Alomia Aldaz, Benjamin Avdic, Günes Aydar, Timo

Bogataj, Florin Daniel Chelariu, Wan-Yun Chen, Stefanie Fridrich,

Johannes Grimm, Aron Iankov, Karmen Janzekovic, Daniel Kientsch,

Emre Kilic , Iliyan Kukutsov, Marc Luncer, Adrian Mellert, Milomir Vincent

Milenkovic, Irena Nedic, Emre Poyrazoglu, Georg Prückl, Fevziye

Fulya Sakarya, Miriam Sengstbratl, Marina Simeonova, Cleo Sophie

Traub, Philipp Zimmermann

Department of Building Construction and Design

Institute of Architecture and Design

&

Department of Structural Design and Timber Engineering

TU Wien

Studio directed by Dr.Ing. Sandra Häuplik-Meusburger & Prof. Peter Bauer –

Co-supervised by Miriam Dall‘Igna & Marina Konstantatou | Foster &

Partners.

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