Africa Surveyors May-June issue 2023 digital

Africa Surveyors is Africa’s premier source of Surveying, Mapping and Geospatial news and an envoy of surveying products/service for the Construction, Maritime, Onshore & Offshore energy and exploration, Engineering, Oil and Gas, Agricultural and Mining sectors on new solution based trends and technology for the African market.

Africa Surveyors is Africa’s premier source of Surveying, Mapping and Geospatial news and an envoy of surveying products/service for the Construction, Maritime, Onshore & Offshore energy and exploration, Engineering, Oil and Gas, Agricultural and Mining sectors on new solution based trends and technology for the African market.


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<strong>May</strong>-<strong>June</strong> <strong>2023</strong> Volume 5 <strong>issue</strong> no. 27<br />

<strong>Africa</strong> <strong>Surveyors</strong><br />

UXO Surveying<br />

The best innovative UXO detecting technology methods<br />

Drone Technology to Advance Development in <strong>Africa</strong><br />

Important aspect of Radiometrics Surveying<br />

3D mapping tool to conduct virtual patrols<br />

In this <strong>issue</strong>......<br />

Angola’s Position<br />

as an Oil and Gas<br />

Hub....<br />

www.africasurveyorsonline.com<br />

The Legal and Ethical<br />

Considerations of using Drones for<br />

Commercial Purposes....<br />

New survey to assess<br />

challenges and foster<br />

solutions....<br />

pg 29 pg 16 pg 16<br />

<strong>May</strong>-<strong>June</strong> <strong>issue</strong> l <strong>2023</strong> 1

Angola’s Position<br />

as an Oil and Gas<br />

Hub....<br />

www.africasurveyorsonline.com<br />

The Legal and Ethical<br />

Considerations of using Drones for<br />

Commercial Purposes....<br />

New survey to assess<br />

challenges and foster<br />

solutions....<br />

<strong>May</strong>-<strong>June</strong> <strong>issue</strong> l <strong>2023</strong> 1<br />

Contents<br />


Current Issue<br />

In this <strong>issue</strong> we look at<br />

the best innovative UXO<br />

detecting technology<br />

methods and many more....<br />

enjoy the <strong>issue</strong>!<br />

<strong>May</strong>-<strong>June</strong> <strong>2023</strong> Volume 5 <strong>issue</strong> no. 27<br />

<strong>Africa</strong> <strong>Surveyors</strong><br />

UXO Surveying<br />

In this <strong>issue</strong>......<br />

The best innovative UXO detecting technology methods<br />

Drone Technology to Advance Development in <strong>Africa</strong><br />

Important aspect of Radiometrics Surveying<br />

3D mapping tool to conduct virtual patrols<br />

pg 29 pg 16 pg 16<br />

18 26<br />


News Briefs 4<br />

Events 8<br />

16<br />

Innovation 10<br />

Opinion 14<br />

Project review 36<br />

Director<br />

Augustine M. Rang'ondi<br />

Senior Editor &<br />

Marketing Lead<br />

Dorcas Kang’ereha<br />

Writers<br />

Violet Ambale<br />

Harriet Mkhaye<br />

Irene Joseph<br />

Innocent Momanyi<br />


UXO Surveying: The best innovative UXO detecting<br />

technology methods<br />

Features<br />

Radiometrics Surveying: The important aspect of<br />

Radiometrics Surveying<br />

20<br />

Sales Executives<br />

East <strong>Africa</strong><br />

Jimmy Mudasia<br />

Lydia Kamonya<br />

Caiser Momanyi<br />

Vincent Murono<br />

Sheila Ing’ayitsa<br />

South <strong>Africa</strong><br />

Paul Nyakeri<br />

Sean Masangwanyi<br />

Lisa Brown<br />

Thembisa Ndlovu<br />

Drones: The Legal and Ethical Considerations of using<br />

Drones for Commercial Purposes<br />

Drones in <strong>Africa</strong>: Utilizing Drone Technology To Advance<br />

Development In <strong>Africa</strong><br />

Energy: How financial institutions can drive <strong>Africa</strong>’s energy<br />

transition<br />

Geoscience: New survey to assess challenges and foster<br />

solutions<br />

12<br />

Nigeria<br />

Emelda Njomboro<br />

Uche Maxwel<br />


Designed and<br />

Published by:<br />

P.O. Box 52248-00100,<br />

Nairobi, Kenya.<br />

Nailex <strong>Africa</strong> Publishing Ltd.................................................IFC<br />

Caroni.......................................................................................IBC<br />

Nailex <strong>Africa</strong> Publishing Ltd.................................................OBC<br />

Altavec.....................................................................................pg23<br />

Position Partners....................................................................pg 32<br />

Imagenex.................................................................................pg 34<br />

Saab..........................................................................................pg 35<br />

MacArtney...............................................................................pg 38<br />

36<br />

Contact us<br />

Tel: +254 113 194 740<br />

Emaii: info@africasurveyorsonline.com<br />

Web: https://africasurveyorsonline.com<br />

The Editor accepts letter and manuscripts for publication from readers all over the world. Include your name and address as a sign of good faith although you may<br />

request your name to be withheld from publication. We can reserve the right to edit any material submitted. Send your letters to: info@africasurveyorsonline.com<br />

Disclaimer:<br />

Nailex <strong>Africa</strong> Publishing makes every effort to ensure the accuracy of the contents of its publications, but no warranty is made to such accuracy and<br />

no responsibility will be borne by the publisher for the consequences of actions based on information so published. Further, opinions expressed on<br />

interviews are not necessarily shared by Nailex <strong>Africa</strong> Publisher.<br />

www.africasurveyorsonline.com<br />

<strong>May</strong>-<strong>June</strong> <strong>issue</strong> l <strong>2023</strong> 3


Petrofac wins facilities management contract for<br />

FPSO offshore West <strong>Africa</strong><br />

Petrofac has been awarded a facilities<br />

management contract by CNR<br />

International (CNRI) offshore the Ivory<br />

Coast, West <strong>Africa</strong>.<br />

The initial three-year, multi-million dollar<br />

contract will see Petrofac’s Asset Solutions<br />

business providing integrated services for<br />

the Espoir Ivoirien Floating Production<br />

Storage and Offloading (FPSO) vessel. Around<br />

110 personnel currently supporting the<br />

FPSO, including those onshore and on the<br />

vessel, will transition to Petrofac from BW<br />

Offshore following the recent sale of the<br />

vessel to CNRI. The transition of people and<br />

operatorship is expected to complete before<br />

the end of July.<br />

Woodside sanctions 3D survey on prospective<br />

offshore Namibia license<br />

Woodside sanctions 3D survey on prospective<br />

offshore Namibia license | image: courtesy<br />

Nick Shorten, Chief Operating Officer for<br />

Petrofac’s Asset Solutions business, said,<br />

"We bring our considerable global FPSO<br />

experience to the Ivory Coast, adding to<br />

our portfolio of service contracts in <strong>Africa</strong>.<br />

Petrofac is expanding across the continent,<br />

providing local jobs, developing local skills<br />

and collaborating with local partners.<br />

This latest award builds on contract successes<br />

achieved throughout 2022, including<br />

decommissioning in Mauritania for Tullow<br />

Oil, operations and maintenance for Tullow<br />

Oil in Ghana and the provision of offshore<br />

operations services for bp’s Greater Tortue<br />

Ahmeyim (GTA) Project, including an FPSO, in<br />

Mauritania and Senegal.<br />

3D seismic survey over an area of at least<br />

5,000 sq km and will in addition pay<br />

Pancontinental $1.5 million in cash. If it<br />

exercises the option, Woodside will drill the<br />

first exploration well, carrying the costs of<br />

the existing partners.<br />

Acquisition of the survey is set to start this<br />

month, with fast-track processed results to<br />

be delivered in <strong>June</strong>.<br />

Pancontinental has reportedly also paid<br />

$1.5 million to enter an option agreement<br />

with another of the licensees, Custos<br />

Investments, on acquiring an additional 1%<br />

interest, lifting Pancontinental’s share in<br />

PEL87 (post-completion of the transaction<br />

with Woodside) to 20%.<br />

<strong>Africa</strong> Oil to acquire<br />

additional stake in block<br />

offshore South <strong>Africa</strong> for<br />

$10.5M<br />

When the deal is completed, <strong>Africa</strong> Oil’s<br />

stake in the block will rise to 26.25% while<br />

Azinam holds a 20.00% stake and Ricocure<br />

(Proprietary) Limited holds the remaining<br />

53.75% interest. |Image: Courtesy<br />

<strong>Africa</strong> Oil Corp (TSX:AOI) said it has<br />

entered an agreement to buy an<br />

additional 6.25% interest in Block<br />

3B/4B in the Orange Basin off the coast of<br />

South <strong>Africa</strong> for $10.5 million in cash. The<br />

company said it signed a legally binding<br />

Letter of Intent (LOI) with Azinam Limited, a<br />

wholly owned subsidiary of Eco (Atlantic) Oil<br />

& Gas Ltd for the additional stake.<br />

The cash consideration of $10.5 million<br />

will be paid in tranches, starting with<br />

$2.5 million within 30 days after signing<br />

the LOI and another $2.5 million when the<br />

government approves the transfer of the<br />

stake. The company will pay $4.0 million on<br />

the completion of a farm-out deal to a third<br />

party and the final $1.5 million on spudding<br />

the first exploration well on the block.<br />

The plan is to farm out up to a 55% gross<br />

working interest in the Block. When the deal<br />

is completed, <strong>Africa</strong> Oil’s stake in the block<br />

will rise to 26.25% while Azinam holds a<br />

20.00% stake and Ricocure (Proprietary)<br />

Limited holds the remaining 53.75% interest.<br />

Pancontinental Energy has granted<br />

Woodside Energy an option to take a<br />

56% interest in the deepwater PEL87<br />

exploration license in the Orange Basin<br />

offshore Namibia.<br />

The 10,970-sq-km concession, which contains<br />

the extensive Saturn turbidite complex, is<br />

on trend with Total and Shell’s recent Venus,<br />

Graff, La Rona and Jonker oil discoveries, and<br />

adjacent to acreage held by Chevron and Galp.<br />

Woodside will cover the cost of a $35-million<br />

Toronto-based Sintana Energy, which has<br />

an indirect interest in Custos, said that<br />

while the license area had been mapped<br />

previously with good quality technical data,<br />

the new survey would allow the identified<br />

prospects to be matured for drilling.<br />

The semisub Deepsea Bolllstar reportedly<br />

made the Jonker-1 Cretaceous light oil<br />

discovery earlier this year. TotalEnergies is<br />

preparing to drill further exploration and<br />

appraisal wells on its Namibian deepwater<br />

permits in the next few months.<br />

The company said an independent review<br />

reported that Block 3B/4B has total unrisked<br />

gross prospective resources of approximately<br />

4 billion barrels of oil equivalent and put the<br />

probability of success from 11% to 39% over<br />

the 24 prospects identified.<br />

Block 3B/4B covers an area of 17,581 square<br />

kilometres within the Orange Basin off the<br />

coast of South <strong>Africa</strong>. This block lies to the<br />

southeast and on trend with number of oil<br />

discoveries including Venus and Graff.<br />

4 <strong>May</strong>-<strong>June</strong> <strong>issue</strong> l <strong>2023</strong> www.africasurveyorsonline.com


Nilepet, SFF ink deal to<br />

conduct aerial survey in<br />

South Sudan<br />

South <strong>Africa</strong>’s Strategic Fuel Fund (SFF)<br />

kickstarts South Sudan exploration with<br />

aerial contract. (Image Source: Energy<br />

Capital & Power)<br />

The Ministry of Petroleum of South<br />

Sudan has announced the launch of<br />

exploration efforts in the country’s<br />

Block 2 during the South Sudan Oil & Power<br />

conference in Juba.<br />

The announcement follows the signing of<br />

an agreement that would see the Strategic<br />

Fuel Fund (SFF) utilise one of South Sudan’s<br />

geophysical planes to conduct aerial surveys,<br />

thereby kicking off a highly anticipated<br />

upstream programme in a country rich with<br />

untapped acreage.<br />

“The Ministry of Petroleum purchased a<br />

physical plane which we struggled for three<br />

years but finally, we have it in the Republic<br />

of South Sudan. We have officially launched<br />

the plane to start the work of Block 2.<br />

Strategically, the SFF will commence their<br />

work on Block 2. Block 2 is now online and it<br />

will work. It will be historical,” Puot Kang Chol,<br />

Minister of Petroleum of South Sudan, stated.<br />

The SFF and Nilepet inked the contract at<br />

a ceremony ahead of the SSOP conference.<br />

Leveraging the strong bilateral cooperation<br />

that has existed for years between the two<br />

countries, the contract will enable the SFF to<br />

acquire new data in an environmentally sound<br />

manner through aerial mapping.<br />

“South Sudan is endowed with a lot of<br />

resources, and this aircraft will make this<br />

evident,” stated Nilepet managing director<br />

Bernard A Makeny. “We are sending the<br />

message to the world that South Sudan is<br />

open for investment. South <strong>Africa</strong> and South<br />

Sudan will generate the resources needed for<br />

both countries.”<br />

South <strong>Africa</strong>n engineering consultancy Zutari<br />

launches in Kenya<br />

South <strong>Africa</strong>n engineering and<br />

infrastructure advisory firm Zutari has<br />

opened its East <strong>Africa</strong>n office in Nairobi,<br />

which will serve the entire region.<br />

This comes after the company received a<br />

licence from the Government to set up an<br />

office in the country.<br />

Diplomatic relations between Kenya and<br />

South <strong>Africa</strong> have been growing since the<br />

introduction of a mutual visa-free agreement<br />

in January <strong>2023</strong>.<br />

Engagements between Trade ministries<br />

from both countries are set to address trade<br />

barriers, opening up business opportunities<br />

for both countries.<br />

ALX launches Software Engineering Cohort for<br />

Women in <strong>Africa</strong><br />

ALX has announced its first dedicated<br />

Software Engineering cohort for<br />

women, enabling up to 50,000<br />

women across <strong>Africa</strong> to participate in the<br />

global technology revolution and helping to<br />

transform the tech status quo throughout the<br />

continent.<br />

Applications for the ALX Software<br />

Engineering intake for women close on<br />

15 March. The programme will start on 27<br />

March. No prior experience or background<br />

in IT is required to apply. For more<br />

information on the programme and its entry<br />

requirements visit www.alxafrica.com/<br />

women-in-tech/.<br />

The cohort forms part of ALX’s ‘WomXn<br />

and Tech’ initiative and was inspired by the<br />

United Nations IWD theme of ‘DigitALL:<br />

Innovation and technology for gender<br />

equality.’ ALX is showing its commitment to<br />

bridging the <strong>digital</strong> gender divide in <strong>Africa</strong>,<br />

increasing the representation of women<br />

in the technology sector and driving the<br />

participation of women to innovate and<br />

create solutions for a diverse world. This<br />

cohort will provide a launchpad for women<br />

to grow their careers in one of the world’s<br />

most exciting and in-demand fields.<br />

“East <strong>Africa</strong> has long been identified as a<br />

growth area for Zutari, with Kenya at the<br />

centre of our expansion initiatives into the<br />

region,” says Zutari CEO Teddy Daka.<br />

The advisory firm has been involved in a<br />

couple of projects in the country, including<br />

Two Rivers Mall and the Kenya Water Security<br />

and Climate Resilience Project.<br />

However, it aims to grow its presence in<br />

the country through engagements with<br />

government agencies such as the Kenya<br />

National Highways Agency (KeNHA), Kenya<br />

Rural Roads Authority (KeRRA), and Kenya<br />

Urban Roads Authority (KURA) in the<br />

improvement of transport infrastructure.<br />

Image: courtesy<br />

Part of <strong>Africa</strong>n Leadership International<br />

(ALI), ALX is a leading technology training<br />

provider that offers world-class programmes<br />

to thousands of young people across <strong>Africa</strong>,<br />

equipping them with both the professional<br />

and technical skills that enable them to<br />

thrive in high-growth industries.<br />

The statistics make for grim reading.<br />

Women comprise just 5% of global software<br />

engineers. Considering that there are an<br />

estimated 690 000 software engineers in<br />

<strong>Africa</strong>, even applying the global average<br />

means that there is a significant gender<br />

divide that must be addressed.<br />

www.africasurveyorsonline.com<br />

<strong>May</strong>-<strong>June</strong> <strong>issue</strong> l <strong>2023</strong> 5


TGS, PGS, and<br />

Schlumberger to<br />

conduct 3D seismic<br />

survey offshore<br />

Malaysia<br />

The 6,885km² survey acquisition is due to<br />

start in <strong>June</strong> <strong>2023</strong>. Credit: Nathan Forbes on<br />

Unsplash.<br />

GS and its partners PGS and oilfield<br />

services company Schlumberger have<br />

secured pre-funding for a multi-client<br />

3D seismic survey offshore Malaysia.<br />

Planned to be carried out in North Luconia<br />

Province of the Sarawak Basin, the 6,885km²<br />

survey acquisition is due to start in <strong>June</strong> <strong>2023</strong>.<br />

It is scheduled to conclude in August <strong>2023</strong><br />

while the final deliverables are anticipated in<br />

Q2 2024.<br />

TGS noted that the interim results would be<br />

made available to assist with evaluation of<br />

the early acreage.<br />

NUVIEW on mission to map entire globe in 3D<br />

with LiDAR for first time<br />

NUVIEW, an American<br />

Earth observation<br />

and geospatial<br />

technology company,<br />

announced that it<br />

is building the first<br />

commercial LiDAR satellite<br />

constellation which will map<br />

the entire land surface of the<br />

Earth in 3D for the first time.<br />

The announcement was made<br />

during the Geospatial World<br />

Forum in Rotterdam, the Netherlands.<br />

The company has $1.2 billion dollars in early<br />

adopter agreements.<br />

Currently satellite imagery provides a 2D<br />

view of the planet, with only an estimated<br />

5% of the Earth’s landmass having been<br />

mapped with LiDAR. The limited depth<br />

and accuracy restrict its use for challenges<br />

such as climate change, disaster response,<br />

sustainable farming, conservation, and<br />

forestry.<br />

NUVIEW’s technology will be powered by a<br />

constellation of satellites. It will collect data<br />

more than 100 times faster than current<br />

commercial aerial solutions. This will give<br />

3D mapping. Credit NUVIEW<br />

NUVIEW access to the geospatial market<br />

which is expected to grow to a $1.7 trillion<br />

industry.<br />

“NUVIEW is thrilled to be leading a new<br />

era in geospatial technology to provide the<br />

first, most complete, high-resolution 3D<br />

point cloud of the Earth’s surface,” says Clint<br />

Graumann, CEO & Cofounder of NUVIEW.<br />

“Our LiDAR satellite constellation will offer a<br />

wealth of information that has never before<br />

been available at scale, driving innovation<br />

and progress throughout numerous industries<br />

and revolutionising the way we understand<br />

and interact with our planet.”<br />

Cepton is developing groundbreaking LIDAR<br />

technology to make driving safer<br />

The survey is the second phase of a multiyear<br />

contract, which was awarded initially by<br />

Malaysian firm Petronas in 2020. The contract<br />

was awarded to acquire and process up to<br />

105,000km² of multi-client 3D data in the<br />

Sarawak Basin over a period of five years.<br />

The latest survey builds on this project’s<br />

initial phase in the Sarawak North Luconia<br />

Province.<br />

TGS CEO Kristian Johansen said: “TGS has<br />

built an expansive multi-client data library<br />

across the Asia-Pacific region, and we are<br />

pleased to return to the Sarawak Basin with<br />

our partners. Sarawak is an area that has<br />

recently experienced multiple oil and gas<br />

discoveries, and we expect this to be a very<br />

important basin for future exploration.<br />

Cepton Inc (NASDAQ:CPTN) is making<br />

a name for itself in the fast-paced<br />

world of automotive innovation with<br />

its game-changing technology poised to<br />

revolutionize vehicle safety.<br />

A leading Silicon Valley startup, Cepton has<br />

harnessed the power of LIDAR to enhance the<br />

security and autonomy of everyday vehicles.<br />

In an exclusive interview with Proactive,<br />

Cepton’s CEO Jun Pei shared insights into<br />

the burgeoning world of LIDAR and its<br />

transformative impact on the automotive<br />

industry.<br />

LIDAR, short for Light Detection and Ranging,<br />

is an optical device that measures the<br />

distance between objects by emitting laser<br />

pulses and analyzing the reflected light. While<br />

this technology has been around for decades,<br />

recent advancements in miniaturization<br />

and technical capabilities have enabled its<br />

application in modern vehicles. Contrary to<br />

popular belief, LIDAR's first application is not<br />

autonomous vehicles; instead, it serves as a<br />

powerful safety device.<br />

Pei emphasized that LIDAR equips vehicles<br />

with the ability to perceive objects in their<br />

surroundings, detecting obstacles and<br />

enhancing safety for drivers and pedestrians<br />

alike.<br />

"As we drive toward a safer future, LIDAR<br />

plays a pivotal role in reducing accident rates<br />

and instilling a sense of certainty and comfort<br />

while driving," Pei explained.<br />

6 <strong>May</strong>-<strong>June</strong> <strong>issue</strong> l <strong>2023</strong> www.africasurveyorsonline.com


MBARI, 3D Aim To Create New LIDAR Seafloor Mapping Technology<br />

Imaging the structure of the deep seafloor<br />

is critical to understanding the biology and<br />

ecology of the largest living space on our<br />

planet. But to date, only about 20 percent<br />

of the ocean floor has been mapped at a<br />

resolution useful for scientific study.<br />

For the past 10 years, MBARI has worked<br />

with 3D at Depth to develop innovative tools<br />

to map the seafloor using lidar technology.<br />

Now, this partnership aims to create the next<br />

generation of subsea lidar technology that<br />

can generate detailed high-resolution maps<br />

of underwater features.<br />

“To meet our goal of surveying the complex<br />

and rugged terrain of the deep seafloor at<br />

one-centimeter resolution, we’re working<br />

closely with 3D at Depth to develop enhanced<br />

lidar technology that will be smaller in<br />

size and weight and require less power,<br />

making it ideal for deployment on MBARI’s<br />

robotic submersibles and eventually, our<br />

autonomous robots too,” said Dave Caress, a<br />

MBARI uses lidar technology from 3D at Depth to visualize the deep seafloor at high resolution.<br />

This year, MBARI and 3D at Depth will build and test a more portable lidar system designed for<br />

seafloor mapping. Image: Todd Walsh © 2018 MBARI<br />

principal engineer at MBARI and the principal<br />

investigator of MBARI’s Seafloor Mapping Lab.<br />

“We’re excited that a research organization<br />

such as MBARI continues to use and invest in<br />

our technology to meet one of their strategic<br />

goals. These projects are truly a win-win<br />

for both organizations as it provides MBARI<br />

with a tool to meet their scientific goals and<br />

helps us improve our subsea lidar systems for<br />

diverse robotic platforms,” said 3D at Depth<br />

CEO Carl Embry.<br />

IOGP Releases Land Survey Data Model<br />

The International Association of Oil and<br />

Gas Producers has released its Land<br />

Survey Data Model (LSDM), continuing<br />

the practice of its Geomatics Committee of<br />

maintaining an "out-of-the-box" data model<br />

template to manage survey data within a<br />

geodatabase.<br />

The LSDM is an industry standard template<br />

for operators to maintain land survey data,<br />

mainly acquired for the oil and gas industry.<br />

The model enables the storage of key<br />

geospatial and nongeospatial descriptive and<br />

feature-specific elements of the following<br />

land-based survey activities:<br />

• Design, engineering, and construction<br />

surveys of infrastructure and facilities<br />

including proposed routes, as-found,<br />

as-left, as-installed, and as-built<br />

positions; depth of burial; general/<br />

detail layout surveys—for company or<br />

third-party facilities that may overlap<br />

or affect exploration and production<br />

infrastructure (e.g., those owned or<br />

operated by utility companies)<br />

• Land and topographic surveys, including<br />

elevation (e.g., contours, spot heights,<br />

relief shading, terrain modeling), natural<br />

and man-made features, explosive<br />

remnants of war, archaeological sites,<br />

and underground services surveys<br />

• Geodetic and survey control network<br />

surveys, including coverage, line of sight,<br />

and monumentation<br />

• Land survey measurements, survey<br />

line plans, and similar documentation<br />

for unmanned aerial vehicle (UAV)/<br />

light detection and ranging (LiDAR)<br />

operations or similar (planned and asexecuted)<br />

• Vegetation and land use surveys<br />

• Imagery from satellite, UAV, and crewed<br />

survey flights (e.g., satellite imagery,<br />

LiDAR, aerial photography)<br />

• Right of Way (ROW) surveys and<br />

surveillance (ROW anomalies and<br />

The model is an industry<br />

standard template for<br />

operators to maintain<br />

land survey data, mainly<br />

acquired for the oil and<br />

gas industry. | Image<br />

Source: IOGP<br />

observations) such as pipeline route<br />

surveys, pipeline and facility UAV<br />

inspection, and access road surveys<br />

• Administrative boundaries and cultural<br />

information (e.g., roads, railways, rivers,<br />

habitation)<br />

• Geophysical/seismic, exploration and<br />

reconnaissance, geohazard, shallow and<br />

intermediate geology surveys<br />

• Geotechnical soil investigations<br />

• Environmental baseline and monitoring<br />

surveys<br />

• Infrastructure condition and subsidence<br />

monitoring surveys<br />

A detailed description of the data model may<br />

be found in the IOGP Report 640 – LSDM<br />

Guideline for Delivery and Use report, which<br />

is included in the package.<br />

Download the LSDM package here.<br />

www.africasurveyorsonline.com<br />

<strong>May</strong>-<strong>June</strong> <strong>issue</strong> l <strong>2023</strong> 7

EVENTS<br />

Construction industry gathers to innovate,<br />

celebrate, and build a resilient future at this<br />

year’s Big 5 Construct Southern <strong>Africa</strong><br />

The tenth edition of Big 5 Construct Southern <strong>Africa</strong> concluded<br />

recently with co-located events including the Big 5 Southern<br />

<strong>Africa</strong> Construction Impact Awards and <strong>Africa</strong>n Smart Cities<br />

Summit.<br />

“The construction industry is an engine for economic growth and<br />

prosperity and it’s through working together that we can ensure a<br />

more resilient future,” said Tracy-Lee Behr, Portfolio Director: Built<br />

Environment at dmg events.<br />

Big 5 Construct Southern <strong>Africa</strong> contributes significantly to the<br />

economic recovery, growth and transformation of Southern <strong>Africa</strong>’s<br />

construction industry, placing a special focus on accelerating business<br />

through face-to-face engagement. The event united over 200<br />

exhibitors, 80 speakers, and stakeholders from over 45 countries,” Behr<br />

said.<br />

Attendees enjoyed access to 6000+ products and technologies and<br />

30 CPD accredited workshops, covering an array of themes from<br />

transformation to professional development, smart construction<br />

to architecture, real estate and more, offering a great selection of<br />

insights, particularly at the Stakeholders Engagement Forum.<br />

“This is a sunrise industry, not a sunset industry. Brick by brick, let<br />

us build a better construction sector together,” were the words of<br />

the Minister of South <strong>Africa</strong>’s National Department of Public Works<br />

and Infrastructure, Mr Sihle Zikalala as he expressed government’s<br />

commitment to lead the sector to recovery, reflecting on the triumphs<br />

and challenges, including R1 billion in blended finance to accelerate<br />

growth and focusing on creating a thriving and more inclusive<br />

industry. He added that improving on learning opportunities to enter<br />

the industry, technical know-how and particularly, supporting womenowned<br />

construction firms are among the key deliverables to see the<br />

sector improve, along with promoting resilient infrastructure methods.<br />

Among important projects like the Just Energy Transition, The Build<br />

Programme is now operational to promote large scale industry<br />

movement extending to skills- and enterprise development.<br />

Mr. Bongani Dladla, CEO of South <strong>Africa</strong>’s Construction Industry<br />

Development Board said that while we don’t have all the money to<br />

close the funding gap in the construction sector, we must still do all<br />

we can to move projects to ‘shovel ready’ status while paving the<br />

way for an industry that adequately reflects the demographics of the<br />

country.<br />

Dr Msizi Myeza, CEO of the Council for the Built Environment, South<br />

<strong>Africa</strong> agreed that we can improve on the good work being done<br />

towards achieving a transformed industry. This includes encouraging<br />

the youth to consider a career in construction and creating real<br />

opportunities for growth.<br />

Mr Khulekani Mathe, Deputy CEO of Business Unity South<br />

Image: Big 5 Construct Southern <strong>Africa</strong><br />

<strong>Africa</strong> reiterated how crucial it is to improve the status quo on<br />

unemployment in the country, where the construction industry could<br />

provide many jobs and contribute to GDP growth.<br />

Mrs Petra Devereux, Sub-Saharan <strong>Africa</strong> Regional Hub Manager<br />

for the Chartered Institute of Building said the built environment’s<br />

contribution to the economy cannot be disputed. But beyond the rand<br />

value, buildings keep us safe, healthy, and serve many other practical<br />

purposes. It’s important to set the industry to global standards,<br />

prioritising and maintaining ethical, top-quality work with health and<br />

safety, and other relevant, modern methods measuring up globally,<br />

enabling <strong>Africa</strong> to keep up with trends and to deliver reliable work<br />

that will stand the test of time.<br />

Among other speakers at the events were Dr. Nicol Chang, Technical<br />

Director at Keller on reducing carbon in geotechnical construction and<br />

Ryan Woodward, Operations Manager of CAD4ALL Institute of Applied<br />

Architecture on upskilling architecture professionals, equipping<br />

them for working in the Fourth Industrial Revolution. Increasing<br />

professionalism within the industry was a definite call to action, along<br />

with fighting corruption and improving tender and job completion<br />

processes.<br />

The Real Estate Talks were new to the programme this year, hosted<br />

by Broll Property Group, covering green innovation, technology and<br />

a range of property considerations given the current market. The<br />

winners at the Big 5 Southern <strong>Africa</strong> Construction Impact Awards<br />

celebrated while the <strong>Africa</strong>n Smart Cities Summit delegates delved<br />

into how these innovative urban spaces can enhance quality of life. A<br />

clear message was that you can’t build a smart city without a smart<br />

grid, so priorities need to match up accordingly and all industries must<br />

work together to make smart cities a reality on the continent.<br />

The shortage of reliable, affordable energy is among the biggest<br />

challenges with a lot of work to be done to see improvements.<br />

Integrating sustainable solutions into industry best practice is the<br />

way forward and these events served as a platform for exchanging<br />

knowledge, fostering collaboration, and promoting inclusivity and<br />

sustainability across construction and infrastructure.<br />

“It will take time and ongoing commitment to see further positive<br />

progress but as the saying goes; if you want to go fast, go alone. If you<br />

want to go far, go together,” Behr concludes.<br />

8 <strong>May</strong>-<strong>June</strong> <strong>issue</strong> l <strong>2023</strong> www.africasurveyorsonline.com

EVENTS<br />

INTERGEO <strong>2023</strong><br />

Discover the latest technologies and applications<br />

at first hand and let yourself be inspired by the<br />

diverse exhibitors.This year’s INTERGEO EXPO and<br />

CONFERENCE is taking place in Berlin from 10 to 12 October.<br />

The BIM Days Germany will offer additional exhibitions and events on<br />

the BIM stages on 11 and 12 October and will conclude on 12 October<br />

with the BIM Capital Congress, including an evening reception at the<br />

AXICA event location next to the Brandenburg Gate.<br />

IMAGE ’23<br />

SEG, AAPG, and in conjunction with SEPM are hosting the third<br />

annual International Meeting for Applied Geoscience and<br />

Energy (IMAGE), 28 August–1 September in Houston, Texas at<br />

the George R. Brown Convention Center.<br />

IMAGE ’23 has been designed and built by industry professionals<br />

as the place for geoscientists, energy professionals, and thought<br />

leaders to meet and shape the future of applied geosciences and<br />

energy. It will provide an influential platform for sharing best<br />

practices, discovering solutions, and developing new perspectives<br />

and strategies to challenge and plan for what’s ahead.<br />

Plan now to explore a traditional and forward-looking technical<br />

program of more than 1,000 presentations and a unique exhibition<br />

experience where all sectors of geosciences and energy come<br />

together to innovate, collaborate, and network.<br />

MAGE ’23 will showcase these new and exciting advances in activity<br />

through the technical program, panels, and the Exhibition Hall.<br />

IMAGE ’23’s strategic panel program will highlight the value of<br />

partnerships across all sectors, providing insights and discussing<br />

challenges in investment, diversity and inclusion, business<br />

development, energy diversification, education, data management,<br />

and ESG. The meeting will also host a variety of social and<br />

networking events, luncheons, receptions, and artwork. We look<br />

forward to having you discover and discuss our industry’s breakout<br />

research, innovative science, and new business opportunities.<br />

Houston has more than just hot weather; this summer, it will be<br />

burning with the hottest topics in energy.<br />

Register for IMAGE ’23 today for an unparalleled opportunity to<br />

enhance your knowledge, expand your network, and contribute to<br />

the growth and development of the energy industry.<br />

Don’t miss this in-person only meeting to take advantage of<br />

everything IMAGE ’23 has to offer.<br />

www.africasurveyorsonline.com<br />

<strong>May</strong>-<strong>June</strong> <strong>issue</strong> l <strong>2023</strong> 9


Cemex launch dedicated BIM software plug-in<br />

CEMEX have launched a dedicated plug-in<br />

for the Building Information Modelling<br />

(BIM) REVIT software used for designing<br />

and managing construction projects. The tool<br />

will allow architects and engineers to identify<br />

the best Cemex products and solutions<br />

for their work, highlighting those that are<br />

particularly innovative and more sustainable.<br />

The BIM software offered by Cemex has been<br />

expertly designed for architects, engineers,<br />

contractors or construction professionals<br />

working on the development of residential,<br />

commercial, industrial or infrastructure<br />

projects. It allows users to search concrete<br />

by properties, compare concrete products<br />

by essential characteristics and target an<br />

embodied-carbon value.<br />

Users can also view detailed information on<br />

materials such as physical and mechanical<br />

performance with relevant data, among<br />

other technical characteristics. Products that<br />

could be recommended include those that<br />

CEMEX| Image: CEMEX<br />

are part of the Vertua range of Cemex’s more<br />

sustainable solutions.<br />

This software is said to be the first of its kind<br />

in the UK construction industry and will also<br />

be launched into other Cemex businesses<br />

across the globe over the coming months.<br />

National technical manager Mike Higgins<br />

commented: ‘We know how valuable BIM<br />

tools are to those designing construction<br />

projects, as they save time and money by<br />

providing immediate access to information<br />

and recommendations on the best-suited<br />

products while encouraging a collaborative<br />

process.<br />

RIEGL and Schiebel cooperate to enhance<br />

UAV-Lidar bathymetric mapping<br />

RIEGL Laser Measurement Systems and<br />

Schiebel have successfully completed the<br />

integration of a high-end laser scanning<br />

system, the RIEGL VQ-840-G topobathymetric<br />

Lidar sensor, on the Schiebel Camcopter<br />

S-100 uncrewed aerial system (UAS).<br />

Operating a high-end laser scanning system<br />

remotely on an uncrewed aerial vehicle<br />

(UAV or 'drone') requires a tailored solution<br />

that goes beyond what is currently available<br />

off-the-shelf. To maintain the broad operating<br />

range of the UAS, it is imperative to keep the<br />

weight of the sensor payload low. Additionally,<br />

the effective execution of the survey mission<br />

requires full remote control of the payload<br />

instruments and real-time feedback to the<br />

operator via a data link.<br />

Surveying shallow waters<br />

The compact topobathymetric laser scanner<br />

was designed for use in a variety of maritime<br />

and hydrographic environments. The Lidar<br />

The RIEGL VQ-840-G topobathymetric Lidar sensor mounted on the Schiebel Camcopter S-100<br />

UAS. (Image courtesy: RIEGL)<br />

sensor payload system is controlled remotely<br />

via a data link, which is crucial for integration<br />

into the S-100 system. The scanner is<br />

controlled using the onboard software<br />

RiACQUIRE-Embedded via the available<br />

data link, while data acquisition and laser<br />

safety are also monitored. Once the survey is<br />

completed, the raw data seamlessly integrates<br />

into the RIEGL data processing workflow.<br />

The RIEGL VQ-840-G, combined with the<br />

outstanding technical specifications and<br />

performance of the Camcopter S-100 UAS,<br />

enables an efficient and secure way to<br />

survey shallow waters, where monitoring<br />

from boats becomes a challenge. The<br />

applications of airborne Lidar bathymetry<br />

(ALB) include mapping coastlines and river<br />

banks, monitoring natural habitats and<br />

water reservoirs, and hydraulic engineering<br />

applications (e.g. canals, dams, bridges). Data<br />

both below and above the water surface<br />

can be covered in a single data acquisition<br />

mission.<br />

10 <strong>May</strong>-<strong>June</strong> <strong>issue</strong> l <strong>2023</strong> www.africasurveyorsonline.com


DEME to tap Liftra cranes for new offshore wind installation<br />

method<br />

DEME Offshore and Liftra ApS, a<br />

Danish lifting specialist focused on<br />

the wind industry, are teaming up to<br />

develop a new offshore installation method<br />

for the upcoming generation of wind turbine<br />

generators.<br />

The exclusive partnership will see Liftra crane<br />

technology be integrated onboard DEME’s<br />

vessels to enable the erecting of higher and<br />

heavier turbines using existing vessels at a<br />

lower cost.<br />

According to an announcement today, the<br />

companies plan to develop the technology<br />

in stages and, after a testing programme, to<br />

bring it into operation in 2027. The system<br />

can be placed on DEME’s floating offshore<br />

heavy-lift vessels such as Orion or Green Jade,<br />

as well as its existing jack-ups.<br />

Bart de Poorter, general manager DEME<br />

Offshore Renewables, said that the major<br />

advantage of the new joint technology is the<br />

ability to install fixed or floating turbines<br />

The Emlid Flow functionality for fieldwork has been enhanced with linework and coding I Image<br />

Emlid<br />

from a floating vessel, which means no<br />

limitations to water depth. The new approach<br />

also results in a reduced environmental<br />

footprint on the seabed.<br />

“Liftra is proud to contribute with our<br />

innovative LT1500 installation crane<br />

technology which is based on 10 years of<br />

Self-Hoisting crane product experience, and<br />

the special configuration with two cranes<br />

working in parallel, is also proven and goes<br />

back many years,” committed Liftra chief<br />

executive Per Fenger.<br />

OpenSpace Introduces New Product for BIM<br />

Technology to Be Adopted by the Field<br />

OpenSpace, the global leader in<br />

360° reality capture and AIpowered<br />

analytics, today introduced<br />

OpenSpace BIM+, a suite of easy-to-use<br />

3D tools that helps field teams and Virtual<br />

Design and Construction (VDC) teams<br />

get work done faster by unlocking BIM<br />

coordination on the jobsite. Announced at<br />

its Waypoint customer conference, this is<br />

the third product from OpenSpace that uses<br />

cutting-edge technology to empower project<br />

teams to get things done faster, together.<br />

OpenSpace Capture, introduced in 2018, is<br />

used to fully document construction sites<br />

in over 93 countries, and OpenSpace Track,<br />

introduced in 2021, automatically quantifies<br />

progress on those sites. OpenSpace BIM+ adds<br />

to this portfolio with tools that accelerate<br />

BIM and field coordination workflows.<br />

popular BIM Compare feature in OpenSpace<br />

Capture allows field teams to navigate and<br />

compare site conditions to the project's<br />

BIM, with the model fully aligned to the<br />

OpenSpace 360° capture. Last quarter,<br />

OpenSpace observed more than half its<br />

customers using this feature, and they<br />

represented the most active OpenSpace<br />

customers.<br />

Working in both 2D drawings and 3D models<br />

is not new to OpenSpace customers. The<br />

OpenSpace BIM+ product - BIM Element Overlay feature |Image: courtesy<br />

www.africasurveyorsonline.com<br />

<strong>May</strong>-<strong>June</strong> <strong>issue</strong> l <strong>2023</strong> 11


UXO Surveys<br />

The best innovative<br />

UXO detecting<br />

technology methods<br />

By Dorcas Kang'ereha<br />

Decades of military operations have left a legacy of unexploded<br />

ordnance (UXO) across the world, including our own countries.<br />

These weapons, which were thrown at the ground during battles<br />

and other military operations, are still present on the ground,<br />

in the subsurface and underwater, and remain a threat to our<br />

communities and our infrastructure.<br />

The threat of UXO is a global and serious <strong>issue</strong>. It is estimated that<br />

around 15,000-25,000 people are killed or maimed by land mines<br />

and UXO each year. Unexploded ordnance is a hazard that can be<br />

found in any war or conflict area either on land or underwater. They<br />

can be dangerous and cause significant disruption to a land or sea<br />

construction sites, from urban centres to rural areas. These include<br />

munitions like bombs, bullets and mines that were dropped during the<br />

maintenance or demolition works.<br />

12 <strong>May</strong>-<strong>June</strong> <strong>issue</strong> l <strong>2023</strong><br />



“Modern weapons are estimated to have a failure rate of 5%.<br />

Depending on various factors, the failure rate can be up to 40%. Any<br />

armed conflict in the world has created, creates, and will create the<br />

same problem,” perceive Alexey Dobrovolskiy, Chief Technology Officer<br />

at SPH Engineering.<br />

Although UXO threat is increasing globally, however, survey<br />

technologies and clearance methodologies are also improving in line<br />

with this threat, allowing for faster, more accurate target identification,<br />

environmentally conscientious clearance and the reduction of overall<br />

risk to land-based and water-based site projects. Detecting land or<br />

underwater UXO is complex and can require well designed surveys<br />

with high sensitivity sensors.<br />

"Unexploded ordnance pose significant risks to both human lives and<br />

infrastructure development. Ground penetrating radar (GPR) can be<br />

an effective tool for locating land-based UXO. GPR can detect objects<br />

at various depths, ranging from a few centimeters to several meters,<br />

depending on the specific equipment and soil conditions. GPR enables<br />

survey teams to detect subsurface anomalies, such as munitions or<br />

buried objects, in real-time without the need for excavation, enabling<br />

faster and informed decision-making,” comments Allison Annan-Bujold,<br />

GPR Product Management Director at Sensors & Software Inc.<br />

Managing the process of UXO surveys is important and often involves<br />

multiple stakeholders. It can be a costly and time-consuming task.<br />

This is where a good workflow and commonly agreed data quality<br />

factors are important. This can make it easier for project stakeholders<br />

to understand how a survey will be conducted, and what data quality<br />

thresholds are expected from the sensors used in order to detect a<br />

given reference object. It also allows the team to spend more time on<br />

data analysis, interpretation and reporting.<br />

With reference to Stephen Wilson, Director of Business Development<br />

& UXO Manager at EPI Group, “We always start with a UXO Threat<br />

& Hazard Assessment. Covering the project site boundaries and<br />

surrounding areas of influence, this is a desk-based study of the<br />

UXO history in the area, describing the types, possible condition, and<br />

density of UXO that may be present within an area of investigation,<br />

where, and why. These potential UXO hazards are then risk assessed<br />

against the planned project operations for their likelihood to cause<br />

harm to people, plant, environment and species of concern. Only those<br />

potential UXO that pose a risk need to be the subject of a UXO survey,<br />

if there are no risks identified, no survey is required. This ensures the<br />

UXO survey is specific to managing the actual project risks and that<br />

the “As Low As Reasonably Practicable” safety methodology, is a viable<br />

cost-effective solution that can be reached by all project developers.”<br />

As multi-sensor datasets become increasingly large, a well-defined<br />

workflow with commonly agreed data quality factors is essential to<br />

improve the transparency of both land or water-based UXO surveys<br />

and trust in their results. This will help to avoid miscommunications<br />

between survey teams, clients and project managers that could lead to<br />

expensive delays or even cancellation of a project.<br />

“GPR systems can collect data over a large land area and map the<br />

results," says Allison. "The software enables detailed data visualization,<br />

interpretation, and integration with geospatial information systems<br />

(GIS), aiding in the creation of UXO hazard maps that accurately<br />

represent the land locations, depths, and sizes of potential UXO<br />

targets. The mapping capability enables UXO detection teams to<br />

prioritize and plan their clearance operations," she adds.<br />

Importance of UXO Surveys<br />

UXO is a major concern for a wide range of projects, from construction<br />

and excavation to wind farm installations, oil exploration, offshore<br />

oil & gas platforms and capital dredging. As a result, it is necessary<br />

to plan and execute the survey to ensure that any potential hazards<br />

are identified prior to any land or sea activities. Detection is the most<br />

important aspect of any UXO survey. The aim is to locate, identify and<br />

then remove any items that are a threat to any property or people<br />

within an area. To achieve this, an expert survey team will need to<br />

understand the local environment and the likely threats. This will<br />

enable them to recommend the best possible detection method for<br />

the site.<br />

“UXO surveys are a key part of the management of UXO contamination,<br />

management meaning normally to remove the contamination for land<br />

release. There are different types of UXO surveys, and the process<br />

would depend on the specific situation at different geographic<br />

levels. Arguably the most important UXO survey is the Non-Technical<br />

Survey (NTS) or desk top survey, normally conducted prior to any<br />

planned encounter with UXO contamination, consisting of research<br />

and interviews. This would determine areas of priority, non or less<br />

contaminated areas, and the type of contamination, which in turn<br />

would determine the type of detection equipment needed for ‘on-site’<br />

survey to further confirm the findings of the NTS, and further clearance<br />

techniques and technologies required,” remarks Steve Marner, Senior<br />

Technical Delivery Manager at Artios Global Ltd.<br />

According to Wolfgang Suess, Managing Director at SENSYS, the<br />

importance of UXO surveys is manifold as buried UXOs in the ground<br />

that are leaking over time. “Chemicals are a threat to our environment<br />

and intact ammunition will lead to a lot of collateral damages and<br />

injuries or deaths. In order to release mined or contaminated areas<br />

to vitalize an economy especially in the areas of agriculture and<br />

civil engineering, UXO surveys have to be done addressing 100%<br />

of an area. For this kind of survey, an assigned expert will provide<br />

(aerial) remote operated or man operated detection systems with<br />

Magnetometers or electromagnetic sensors to detect all kind of bombs<br />

and ammunition in that particular land area. Additionally, metal and<br />

iron free plastic mines have to be detected by more specific devices<br />

or in labor intensive man based ground surveys – which by far are<br />

the most dangerous processes in demining,” expresses Wolfgang. “The<br />

problem of UXO is not only a problem on land, but in the water as well.<br />

Here again, leaking ammunition is harming our marine environment<br />

such that, TNT (Trinitrotoluene) and other elements are found in water,<br />

fishes and plants,” he adds.<br />

“There are four general methods for performing a sea based UXO<br />

survey. The two most common solutions are towed magnetometer/<br />

gradiometer or ROV based gradiometer. In certain scenarios and<br />

regions ROV based electromagnetic systems or 3D chirp systems<br />

could also be used, however, this is a more uncommon approach. The<br />

industry standard towed solution for large scale UXO campaigns today<br />

uses one or several remotely operated towed vehicles (ROTV), with an<br />

array of magnetometers or gradiometer,” acclaims Thomas Mennerdahl,<br />

Technology Director Subsea at Reach Subsea AS.<br />

www.africasurveyorsonline.com<br />

<strong>May</strong>-<strong>June</strong> <strong>issue</strong> l <strong>2023</strong> 13


Allison Annan-Bujold, GPR Product<br />

Management Director - Sensors &<br />

Software Inc.<br />

Steve Marner, Senior Technical Delivery<br />

Manager - Artios Global Ltd<br />

Wolfgang Suess, Managing Director -<br />

SENSYS<br />

“Following a survey campaign and data assessment and anomalies<br />

characterised as probable UXO (pUXO), will be included in a target<br />

list to be further investigated to positively identify the anomaly.<br />

Typically, for water based projects, this is undertaken by specialist<br />

UXO ROVs or Explosive Ordnance Disposal (EOD) divers, or a mixture<br />

of both depending on water depth and tidal effects. If the UXO is<br />

considered ‘viable’ and it is not possible to avoid the identified UXO,<br />

then normally it should be destroyed in situ or removed to a suitable<br />

disposal site. It is best practice for higher risk projects to embark<br />

UXO Specialists on site to verify anomalies or not. However, logistical<br />

and geographical practicalities, or in lower risk water sites, a remote<br />

explosive ordnance identification process can be available. Doing<br />

the right UXO survey, looking for the right potential targets based<br />

upon the threat assessment, is the most pragmatic way to make your<br />

project safe and allow an ALARP (As Low As Reasonably Practicable)<br />

certification,” counsels Stephen.<br />

“The world’s oceans are scattered with an estimated 1.3 million<br />

tonnes of unexploded ordnance (UXO) – hidden dangers that pose a<br />

serious threat to safety and marine pollution,” says Vincent van Santen,<br />

Business Development Manager Offshore Wind and UXO at Fugro.<br />

On the other hand, expressing his opinion, Thomas, signifies that,<br />

Unexploded ordnance (UXO) in the marine environment presents a<br />

significant but varying risk depending on historical conflicts, military<br />

activities, and munitions disposal practices. For example during World<br />

War I and World War II in the years 1848 – 1946 approximately 150<br />

000 mines and millions of aerial bombs were dropped only in the<br />

Baltic Sea. Mines are constructed to endure the water pressure. In<br />

waters where the salinity and oxygen levels in general are very low,<br />

such as the Baltic Sea, the munitions steel casing can be more or less<br />

intact at deeper water depths leaving the UXO inactive but potentially<br />

still well preserved.<br />

Thomas further go into detail that, even though there has been<br />

significant mine hunting and clearance campaigns following the<br />

world wars and the fall of Soviet Union, UXO remains a risk to marine<br />

construction. The requirement for UXO surveys should be based on<br />

desktop studies and is recommended for any seabed-interacting<br />

projects taking the following into consideration:<br />

• Historical Context: Assess the historical conflicts, military activities,<br />

and disposal campaigns in the area. This shall also include past<br />

practices of dumping munitions at specific sites. Where trawling is a<br />

fact there is a risk of UXOs being displaced randomly increasing the<br />

risk to encounter UXO in the vicinity and potentially outside what is<br />

considered a risk area.<br />

• Geographical Location: Evaluate the specific characteristics of the<br />

marine environment. Factors such as water depth, seabed composition,<br />

currents, sediment movement, and tides can impact the distribution<br />

and potential exposure to UXO.<br />

UXO consultants generate survey designs that are optimised for<br />

efficiency and high quality data acquisition in order to meet the<br />

client’s requirements. This is often achieved through the use of<br />

gradiometers; proton and caesium magnetometers in conjunction with<br />

high resolution side scan sonar.<br />

Detection Methods from Broadband Electromagnetic Signals<br />

UXO surveys are conducted to detect metallic objects that may have<br />

been buried in the ground or present on the seabed and that are<br />

believed to be related to unexploded ordnance (UXO) or explosive<br />

remnants of war (ERW). The purpose of this study is to introduce an<br />

automated anomaly-picking method for detecting metallic objects<br />

from broadband electromagnetic signals.<br />

“Unmanned Aerial Vehicle (UAV) technology allows for the use of<br />

broadband frequency domain electromagnetic system for shallow<br />

subsurface target detection. The technology allows for determining the<br />

range to an object and may be of benefit to detect objects remotely,”<br />

articulates Stephen. “Existing ranging technologies can be: susceptible<br />

to mutual interference (e.g. traditional sonars on the same frequency<br />

band operating at the same time may cause cross interference); not<br />

operating continuously (e.g. pulsed), therefore detection of obstacles<br />

between pulses is not possible; and operate on a narrow band, which<br />

may lead to lack of detections at certain frequencies,” adds Stephen.<br />

This technique combines multibeam Echosounder (MBES) and acoustic<br />

survey data with towed magnetometer arrays to produce detailed<br />

bathymetry and target localization results. This approach has the<br />

advantage of providing a high spatial resolution and the benefit of<br />

using only one platform for survey operations.<br />

“UXO survey campaigns are complex with many variables. They<br />

frequently combine a variety of different techniques, depending on<br />

14 <strong>May</strong>-<strong>June</strong> <strong>issue</strong> l <strong>2023</strong> www.africasurveyorsonline.com


Stephen Wilson, Director of<br />

Business Development & UXO<br />

Manager - EPI Group<br />

Alexey Dobrovolskiy, Chief<br />

Technology Officer - SPH<br />

Engineering<br />

Thomas Mennerdahl, Technology<br />

Director Subsea - Reach Subsea<br />

AS<br />

Vincent van Santen, Business<br />

Development Manager Offshore<br />

Wind and UXO - Fugro<br />

the site's particular conditions, the target's features, and the survey's<br />

goals,” says Vincent. “To achieve reliable and accurate identification of<br />

UXO artefacts, automated detection approaches are often combined<br />

with human experience and visual confirmation. Multiple detection<br />

techniques to identify potential UXO objects can be applies in<br />

the seabed, electromagnetic signals being one of them. The latest<br />

developments in data processing algorithms can also be used to<br />

improve processing time and ensure methods are objective, repeatable<br />

and auditable,” he adds.<br />

“The utilisation of this emerging broadband electromagnetic<br />

technology could allow for superior detections when compared to<br />

most technologies currently available. The purpose of UXO survey<br />

techniques is to produce a master target list of potential pUXO, which<br />

will need to be investigated prior to ALARP. It is imperative that we<br />

do not miss pUXO and that we do not unnecessarily add pUXO to<br />

the master target list, as investigation is a very expensive process,”<br />

observed Stephen.<br />

During the initial phase of a technical UXO survey, a range of<br />

different sensor methods are deployed. This phase requires a deep<br />

understanding of the type of munitions, geophysical survey methods,<br />

data processing and management skills.<br />

Innovative technologies for UXO surveys<br />

When it comes to best technologies for land-based UXO surveys,<br />

Allison affirms that Ground Penetrating Radar is complementary to<br />

other detection methods. “GPR uses low energy, high frequency radio<br />

waves to image metallic and non-metallic objects in the subsurface,<br />

making it a natural technology to use for locating buried UXO. There is<br />

a wide selection of GPR systems and configurations available, making<br />

GPR adaptable to different terrains for UXO applications”, she adds.<br />

Moreover, magnetometers are subject to systematic errors inherent to<br />

the sensor itself and the magnetic environment it is placed in. These<br />

errors are induced by hard and soft iron effects, zero bias errors, scale<br />

factors and non-orthogonality- which will show up as an orientationand<br />

movement induced noise on the measured total magnetic field.<br />

The sources of these magnetic influences are the sensor, the sensor<br />

platform and the surface vessel (in shallow water); this is with regards<br />

to Thomas.<br />

“In late 2000s ROV based gradiometer systems were introduced which<br />

has advantages but also some challenges. The main reason why<br />

magnetometers measuring total field are very complicated to use on<br />

ROVs, is due to the noise induced by the motion of the ROV/vessel<br />

in relation to the magnetometer which will change the measured<br />

magnetic field,” he adds. Additionally, Thomas is certain that, “The<br />

main solution to this is the use of two or more magnetometers in a<br />

gradiometer configuration. In such a setup, the influence on the total<br />

field from the surface vessel is assumed to be equal on all sensors due<br />

to the relative distance between the ROV and the surface vessel, and<br />

the distance between the magnetometers in the array. As this is not<br />

the case for the targets located on the seabed, this method does not<br />

suppress any data of interest in an archaeological or sea based UXO<br />

survey.”<br />

“When there is a risk for non-ferrous UXOs or there are subsea<br />

structures and/or geology/boulders that could mask the magnetic<br />

signature of a possible UXO target a ROV based electromagnetic<br />

system or 3D chirp system can be an appropriate solution. In shallow<br />

water the 3D chirp could be fitted to the surface vessel without<br />

requirement for ROV or towed solutions,” adds Thomas.<br />

“Once the fact that intervention into a UXO contaminated area, for<br />

survey or clearance, is determined, factors have to be taken into<br />

consideration for the best suited and most practicable technologies or<br />

techniques required. For example, the most up to date third generation<br />

detection equipment may not be suitable for very simple small-scale<br />

contamination; or time and speed of clearance may be the precedence<br />

over cost of such high-end technologies (and techniques such as<br />

mechanical clearance with armoured earth moving machines)” clinches<br />

Steve.<br />

In recent decades, a number of new and innovative technologies have<br />

been developed to improve the detection of UXOs. These include<br />

<strong>digital</strong> geophysics and a combination of electromagnetic sensors.<br />

Combined with data analysis workflows, these technologies can<br />

greatly improve the accuracy of locating UXOs.<br />

The opinions expressed by individual experts are their sole<br />

responsibility and do not imply any endorsement or support<br />

by other participants in this context.<br />

www.africasurveyorsonline.com<br />

<strong>May</strong>-<strong>June</strong> <strong>issue</strong> l <strong>2023</strong> 15


The Legal and Ethical<br />

Considerations of using Drones for<br />

Commercial Purposes<br />

Author: Oyetola Muyiwa Atoyebi, SAN, Managing<br />

Partner of O. M. Atoyebi, S.A.N & Partners (OMAPLEX<br />

Law Firm). | Image: Courtesy.<br />

As the popularity of drones continues to rise, so do the<br />

legal and ethical implications of using them. In Nigeria,<br />

the use of drones has become more prevalent, particularly<br />

in areas such as agriculture, surveillance, and aerial photography.<br />

However, in order to ensure the proper and safe use of drones, it is<br />

essential to consider the legal and ethical implications associated<br />

with their use. This includes obtaining necessary permits and<br />

adhering to regulations set forth by the Nigerian Civil Aviation<br />

Authority, respecting privacy laws, and ensuring proper liability<br />

protection. Additionally, ethical considerations such as privacy<br />

invasion, noise pollution, safety concerns, and environmental impact<br />

must be taken into account. By considering the legal and ethical<br />

implications of using drones, we can ensure that the use of drones<br />

in Nigeria is safe, secure, and ethical.<br />

From a legal standpoint, the operation of drones is subject to a<br />

complex set of regulations that vary depending on the country<br />

and jurisdiction. These regulations cover <strong>issue</strong>s such as licensing,<br />

registration, and flight restrictions. In addition, the use of drones<br />

can give rise to privacy concerns, particularly if they are equipped<br />

with cameras or other sensors. From an ethical standpoint, there<br />

are questions about the appropriate use of drones and the potential<br />

impact on individuals and communities. In this article, we would<br />

discuss the legal and ethical considerations of using a drone.<br />

16 <strong>May</strong>-<strong>June</strong> <strong>issue</strong> l <strong>2023</strong> www.africasurveyorsonline.com



A drone is an unmanned aerial vehicle (UAV) or aircraft that can<br />

be remotely controlled or fly autonomously using GPS technology<br />

and sensors. It typically contains a camera or other sensors that<br />

capture data for various applications and can have a range of shapes<br />

and sizes. Drones are commonly used in many fields, including<br />

photography, delivery services, emergency response, surveillance,<br />

agriculture, and journalism.<br />


Drones were originally developed for the military and aerospace<br />

industries, but recently, drones have found their way into the<br />

mainstream because of the enhanced levels of safety and efficiency<br />

they bring. These robotic UAVs operate without a pilot on board and<br />

with different levels of autonomy and because a drone’s autonomy<br />

level can range from being remotely piloted (a human controls its<br />

movements) to advanced autonomy.<br />

In the wake of drones being able to be controlled remotely and<br />

can be flown at varying distances and heights, they make perfect<br />

candidates to take on commercial jobs, which the implications clearly<br />

have a positive impact on businesses and consumers. Consumers<br />

directly benefit from job creation, resulting in additional earnings.<br />

Commercial drones will also allow industries to realize savings from<br />

cost-effective means of inventory, transportation, and distribution.<br />

These cost savings can be passed down to the consumer through a<br />

reduction in prices.<br />

Because drones can be controlled remotely and can be flown at<br />

varying distances, they make perfect candidates to take on some<br />

of the toughest jobs in the world. They can be found assisting in a<br />

search for survivors after a hurricane, giving law enforcement and the<br />

military an eye in the sky during terrorist situations and advancing<br />

scientific research in some of the most extreme climates on the<br />

planet.<br />



1. Permits and regulations: Commercial drone operators must<br />

obtain permits and follow the regulations set by the Nigerian Civil<br />

Aviation Authority (NCAA).<br />

2. Restricted airspace: Certain airspace in Nigeria may be restricted,<br />

and drones should not fly in these areas. This includes restricted<br />

areas around airports or other government facilities.<br />

3. Privacy laws: Drones equipped with cameras can infringe on<br />

privacy laws. Therefore, they should not be used to take pictures of<br />

people or property without consent.<br />

4. Liability: Drone operators are responsible for any accidents or<br />

damage caused by the drone, so adequate insurance coverage must<br />

be in place.<br />

5. Data protection: Drones used for commercial activities typically<br />

collect data, and this data must be handled in accordance with data<br />

protection laws.<br />

6. Intellectual property rights: Drones must not infringe on any<br />

intellectual property rights such as trademarks, copyrights, or patents.<br />

7. National security: Drones should not be used in any way that<br />

could compromise national security. There is a need to control the<br />

manufacture, sale, and use of drones accordingly.<br />

8. Workforce regulations: There may be regulations regarding the<br />

use of drones, prohibiting any form of exploitation of workers that<br />

operate such devices.<br />

9. Consumer protection: Drones must comply with consumer<br />

protection regulations, such as warranties and return policies.<br />

10. Environmental regulations: Drones can have an impact on the<br />

environment, and regulations must be put in place to minimize the<br />

negative impact. Drones should not cause soil erosion, uncontrolled<br />

emissions, or disturbance of wildlife habitats.<br />



1. Invasion of privacy: Drones with cameras can be intrusive and<br />

could violate an individual’s right to privacy.<br />

2. Weaponization: There is a risk of drones being weaponized, which<br />

could be used illegally and pose a major threat to public safety and<br />

national security.<br />

3. Social and cultural impact: The use of drones for commercial<br />

activities may change the way people work and interact with<br />

each other, leading to social and cultural impacts that may not be<br />

immediately apparent.<br />

4. Noise pollution: Drones can generate a significant amount of<br />

noise, creating a potential nuisance to people in the vicinity.<br />

5. Safety concerns: Drones used for commercial activities may pose<br />

a risk to the safety of the public, especially in crowded areas. There’s<br />

also a risk of accidents associated with drone collisions.<br />

6. Environmental impact: Drones can cause environmental damage,<br />

including noise pollution, soil erosion, and disturbance of wildlife<br />

habitats.<br />

7. Responsible use: The use of drones for commercial activities must<br />

be responsible, considering the potential impact on people, property,<br />

and the environment.<br />

8. Liability: Drone operators must be liable for any accidents,<br />

damage, or injuries that occurred while operating the drone.<br />

Therefore, adequate insurance should be put in place.<br />

9. Job displacement: The widespread use of drones for commercial<br />

activities may result in job displacement, leading to a loss of<br />

employment for those who would have been employed to carry out<br />

these tasks.<br />

10. Accountability: Ethical and moral <strong>issue</strong>s will arise with the<br />

use of drones for commercial activities. There is a need to ensure<br />

accountability for their use to avoid negative consequences.<br />


In conclusion, the use of drones in Nigeria has several legal and<br />

ethical implications that must be considered in order to ensure the<br />

proper and safe use of these devices. Drone operators must obtain<br />

the necessary permits and licenses and adhere to regulations set<br />

by the Nigerian Civil Aviation Authority. They must also respect<br />

privacy laws, ensure liability protection, and consider ethical <strong>issue</strong>s<br />

such as safety concerns, noise pollution, environmental impact, and<br />

invasion of privacy. By taking these considerations into account, the<br />

use of drones in Nigeria can be both beneficial and ethically sound.<br />

It is important to balance the potential benefits of drones with the<br />

responsibility of using them in a manner that is safe, secure, and<br />

respectful of the rights and privacy of individuals.<br />

www.africasurveyorsonline.com<br />

<strong>May</strong>-<strong>June</strong> <strong>issue</strong> l <strong>2023</strong> 17


How financial institutions can<br />

drive <strong>Africa</strong>’s energy transition<br />

Absa recently released its annual financial results and from<br />

this, there are two important numbers to highlight. The first<br />

being that Absa is working on power projects representing<br />

over 2000MWs and the second being that the bank has R45bn in<br />

new power projects in the pipeline. This is on top of the ca. 4GW’s of<br />

projects closed to date.<br />

In the context of our economy, these are considerably significant.<br />

As a South <strong>Africa</strong>n, it is easy to become disheartened by the ongoing<br />

economic challenges brought about by load-shedding. Whether it is,<br />

factories standing idle when the power goes off, or coming home to<br />

no electricity, the challenges affect all citizens and businesses.<br />

Therefore, when we look at the sheer scale of projects in the<br />

pipeline, we believe that the next few years will be transformative<br />

for our country, our people and the economy.<br />

While Eskom is a major cog in the South <strong>Africa</strong>n electricity<br />

infrastructure, it is important to realise that the broader ecosystem is<br />

changing quite rapidly, and we should be aware of this shift.<br />

The lifting of the cap on generation projects has opened the door<br />

for several new developments. We are now entering an era where<br />

an independent energy exchange has been licensed and established<br />

to re-sell excess power, and buyers and sellers will be able to<br />

negotiate market-related rates. While there are still questions around<br />

distribution and transmission, this massive leap forward could<br />

potentially serve as a blueprint for the energy transition across the<br />

<strong>Africa</strong>n continent.<br />

Captive power projects are growing rapidly across the country and<br />

as one of the successful major funders of these projects, we have<br />

learnt important lessons over the last 12 to 18 months that make us<br />

a funder-of-choice for many of these transactions.<br />

Unlike the Government-backed renewable energy projects in South<br />

<strong>Africa</strong> where we have sovereign guarantees backstopping Eskom’s<br />

commitments under the PPAs (power purchase agreements), for the<br />

captive market, banks and investors have to take a very long-term<br />

view on the off-taker, where the credit quality may not match that<br />

of the Sovereign. In the normal corporate lending world, corporates<br />

typically raise debt financing for much shorter tenors compared to<br />

what is required under a captive Independent Power Producer (IPP)<br />

project with a 20-year PPA.<br />

Banks and investors are now starting to take a view on the broader<br />

energy market, looking beyond the initial power off-taker to a market<br />

where it will be possible to find alternative off-takers for projects<br />

supplying power into the national grid, and eventually to power<br />

18 <strong>May</strong>-<strong>June</strong> <strong>issue</strong> l <strong>2023</strong> www.africasurveyorsonline.com

traders where a spot market is expected to develop over time.<br />


In this context it becomes important to understand where a specific<br />

project sits on the energy cost curve, to provide some comfort that it<br />

will be able to produce power at a competitive rate should it need to<br />

sell power into a liberated market over time.<br />

For most of our clients the investment in renewable energy serves<br />

three main purposes.<br />

Firstly, it provides a level of energy security, particularly for<br />

captive, behind the meter systems where the combination of a<br />

solar installation with battery storage can supply a minimum level<br />

of baseload power. Secondly, based on the tariffs which we are<br />

witnessing in the market, entering into long term PPAs with grid<br />

connected IPPs, can result in a significant saving on their electricity<br />

bill, compared to what they pay the utility.<br />

Author: Theuns Ehlers, Head: Resource & Project Finance, Absa<br />

CIB | Image courtesy<br />

These projects, therefore, assist clients to lower their operating cost<br />

base and improve their position on the global cost curve. Lastly, the<br />

introduction of renewable energy into a client’s energy mix assists in<br />

their targets to reduce reliance on fossil fuels, thereby reducing their<br />

carbon footprint, where most corporates now have clear ESG goals to<br />

achieve net zero emissions by a certain date.<br />

We are in an exciting phase for the energy market across the continent.<br />

There are short-term pains and frustrations when it comes to grid<br />

capacity, but we must not lose sight of the innovations that are taking<br />

place, and how we can utilise these to be a blueprint for the rest of<br />

<strong>Africa</strong>.<br />

www.africasurveyorsonline.com<br />

<strong>May</strong>-<strong>June</strong> <strong>issue</strong> l <strong>2023</strong> 19


The important aspect of<br />

Radiometrics Survey<br />

By Dorcas Kang'ereha<br />

The radiometric measurement of soil gamma radiation, or<br />

gamma ray spectroscopy, is an important geological mapping<br />

tool which has been applied to many environmental and<br />

mineral exploration projects. The use of gamma-ray spectrometry for<br />

the detection and mapping of mineral deposits has developed rapidly<br />

over the past 40 years. Spectrometers (gamma-ray spectrometers) are<br />

used to detect gamma-rays emanating from natural and man-made<br />

sources. They use a number of spectral windows, covering specific<br />

gamma-ray energies, to detect and identify the source. The data<br />

obtained is usually centered on three energy bands which indicate<br />

Uranium, Thorium and Potassium concentrations in the earth's crust.<br />

These bands are typically centered around the Bi214, Tl208 and K40<br />

energy peaks at 2.62 MeV, 1.76 MeV and 1.46 MeV respectively.<br />

With reference to Howard Barrie, President at Terraquest, Radiometric<br />

Surveys detect and map gamma rays, and can be performed on the<br />

ground, in the air, or in a borehole. Airborne gamma-ray spectrometry<br />

or radiometric surveying for mineral exploration measures the gammarays<br />

that are emitted from naturally occurring radioactive isotopes<br />

that are found in rocks and soils near the surface. The most abundant<br />

of these radioactive isotopes are potassium (K40), uranium (U238), and<br />

thorium (Th232).<br />

Howard further elaborates on the usefulness of airborne radiometric<br />

surveys for mineral exploration and geological mapping depends on<br />

the following:<br />

1. The measured radioactive isotope distributions relate to different<br />

lithologies in the bedrock (normal litholigic signatures)<br />

2. Normal lithologic signatures are distinctly modified by mineralizing<br />

processes (alteration zones)<br />

3. Bedrock signatures migrate into surficial materials (exposed<br />

bedrock, sediments, affected by soil and vegetation types, and surface<br />

water)<br />

4. Surficial materials can be spatially related to bedrock sources.<br />

Ramesh Acharya Gundi, Chief Geophysicist at Mcphar international,<br />

says that, “Radiometric survey more specifically Gamma ray<br />

Spectrometric survey measures the natural gamma radiation, in the<br />

range of (0 - 3000 KeV), emanated by the radio nuclides of Potassium<br />

(K), Uranium (U) and Thorium (Th) present in geological formations.<br />

The relative presence of the radio nuclides varies from acidic to basic<br />

geological formations. Mapping the distribution of K, U, Th and the<br />

ratios (U/K, U/Th and Th/K) provide great detail on surface geology<br />

and the alteration zones (radiometric halos). Integrated analysis of<br />

spectrometric data along with other geophysical data sets such as:<br />

magnetic, electromagnetic in a given geological setup aids in mineral<br />

exploration programs.”<br />

“High resolution magnetic and spectrometric surveys on an<br />

airborne platform are routinely being carried out over huge areas in<br />

understanding the subsurface structure and mineral potential and<br />

in narrowing down the areas of interest for subsequent followup.<br />

Airborne spectrometric surveys are also being conducted to track the<br />

radioactive plumes in the event of nuclear disasters in atomic power<br />

plants for safety from environmental perspective,” adds Ramesh.<br />

Gamma-ray spectrometry can also be used to map the concentration<br />

of radioactive elements in the earth's crust and to calculate elemental<br />

ratios. These are important in geochemical exploration because they<br />

allow the presence of hydrocarbons or other buried reservoirs to be<br />

detected by assessing their abundance at various depths.<br />

The spectrometer has a series of crystals that have different properties<br />

and a photomultiplier tube that converts the gamma-ray energy into a<br />

voltage output. This output is used to determine the count rate, which<br />

in turn reflects the gamma-ray intensity.<br />

There are several types of spectrometers, all of which are designed<br />

to measure the gamma-ray intensity from a variety of sources. The<br />

sensitivity of the detector is controlled by a number of instrumental<br />

parameters including the ionization resistance, which can be<br />

influenced by the temperature of the crystal and the photomultiplier<br />

tubes. It is therefore essential that the sensitivity of the detector is<br />

closely monitored during operations. Daily calibration checks using<br />

standard isotope sources are also recommended.<br />

High sensitivity systems, which can sense gamma radiation with a<br />

count rate of over one million counts per second (cps), are essential for<br />

airborne geochemical and geological mapping surveys. However, the<br />

sensitivity of these systems is limited by the total volume of crystals<br />

which can be carried on aircraft and by the speed and altitude of<br />

the aircraft. Larger crystal volumes require larger aircraft, which are<br />

heavier and more expensive to operate.<br />

Medium sensitivity reconnaissance surveys, which may not be intended<br />

to detect a wide range of spectral windows or uranium or thorium<br />

concentrations in particular, can be flown with smaller crystal volumes<br />

and less sensitive spectrometers. This can reduce costs and make the<br />

survey more economical.<br />

Sensitivity constants for the spectral windows of interest are<br />

experimentally determined from measurements on calibration pads<br />

made of concrete containing known amounts of U, Th and K. These<br />

constants are usually referred to as the attenuation coefficients, mTh,<br />

20 <strong>May</strong>-<strong>June</strong> <strong>issue</strong> l <strong>2023</strong> www.africasurveyorsonline.com


mU and mK, for each of the three energy windows; and their values<br />

are dependent on the size of the crystals and detector altitude.<br />

During a low altitude survey, the presence of atmospheric radon and<br />

cosmic rays can also affect the count rates in each of the three spectral<br />

bands. The effect of these non-geologic sources on the count rates<br />

is primarily due to Compton scattering and the fact that they have a<br />

lower energy than gamma rays originating from the earth's surface.<br />

To reduce the impact of background noise on the spectral windows<br />

and count rates, a special spectrometer called a "differential<br />

spectrometer" is used. The difference between this spectrometer and<br />

the multichannel spectrometer is that it does not use "windows" of<br />

fixed energy width; instead, a narrower range of energy windows<br />

are measured. The detectors are of a larger size, and the light<br />

flash counting rates are much lower than with the multichannel<br />

spectrometer.<br />

The optimum line spacing depends on the survey type and the amount<br />

of detail that is required. For fixed wing surveys, a mean terrain<br />

clearance of 130 metres is recommended, and the line spacing should<br />

be about three times this.<br />

For unmanned aerial geophysical systems (UAS) this spacing is not<br />

as critical, and the distance between the surveyed strip and the<br />

closest point on the ground should not exceed half its diameter. For<br />

this reason a circle of investigation is often used for the strip, which<br />

moves with the aircraft. The main value of low altitude radiometrics<br />

is the ability to map uranium dispersion halos, and to indicate local<br />

anomalies in the U/Th and U/K ratios as "red-balls" or "black balls".<br />

In suitable areas these maps can be useful as aids in geological<br />

interpretation.<br />

“High resolution magnetic and spectrometric surveys on an<br />

airborne platform are routinely being carried out over huge areas in<br />

understanding the subsurface structure and mineral potential and<br />

in narrowing down the areas of interest for subsequent follow-up.<br />

Airborne spectrometric surveys are also being conducted to track the<br />

radioactive plumes in the event of nuclear disasters in atomic power<br />

plants for safety from environmental perspective,” says Ramesh.<br />

Important aspect of Radiometrics survey<br />

The important aspect of radiometric surveys is that they can detect<br />

subtle variations in the natural background radiation. These changes<br />

are generally not detectable from the ground, but can be detected by<br />

using "upward looking" crystals that are shielded from atmospheric<br />

radiation and can therefore monitor these variations in real time<br />

during the survey.<br />

“One important aspect of radiometric surveys is their ability to<br />

provide reliable, consistent, and calibrated data. Variations in lighting<br />

conditions or camera settings can be accounted for and do not<br />

compromise the quality and comparability of the imagery captured<br />

over time,” affirms Susanne Scholz, Application Engineer at Vexcel<br />

Imaging. “Precise calibration of the imaging system is a fundamental<br />

prerequisite to achieving such a high level of reliability. In our<br />

calibration lab, our UltraCam aerial camera systems undergo both<br />

geometric and radiometric calibration processes, transforming them<br />

into precise measurement instruments,” she adds.<br />

Changes in the natural background can lead to errors in the<br />

www.africasurveyorsonline.com<br />

<strong>May</strong>-<strong>June</strong> <strong>issue</strong> l <strong>2023</strong> 21


Susanne Scholz, Application<br />

Engineer - Vexcel Imaging<br />

David Armah, Director - Business<br />

Development - A-M Surveys Ltd<br />

Howard Barrie, President -<br />

Terraquest<br />

Ramesh Acharya Gundi, Chief<br />

Geophysicist - Mcphar international<br />

radiometric survey and it is therefore important that a careful control<br />

of the background radiation is maintained during the survey operation.<br />

For example, the survey area can be surveyed in stages to ensure that<br />

there is no deterioration in the natural background before the next<br />

stage.<br />

“During the radiometric calibration, a series of images is captured,<br />

including color targets, white fields, and dark frames. The use of<br />

calibrated shutters ensures a consistent amount of light enters the<br />

camera system. The illumination of the calibration environment is<br />

crucial and requires a stable light source that closely approximates the<br />

spectrum of the sun. By employing a calibrated spectrometer, the light<br />

source can be carefully monitored throughout the calibration process,”<br />

enlightens Susanne.<br />

“The most important aspect of radiometric surveys in my candid<br />

opinion is, ACCURACY,” asserts David Armah, Director of Business<br />

Development and Admin at A - M Surveys Ltd.<br />

“The measuring and analysing the levels of radiation in a given area<br />

to identify and characterize radioactive materials or sources. These<br />

Accurate measurements are crucial for various reasons:<br />

Safety: In the survey conducted to assess potential radiation,<br />

hazards to; and the safety of individuals and the environment must<br />

be ensured. Accurate measurements help identify areas with elevated<br />

radiation levels, allowing for appropriate safety measures and<br />

precautions to be implemented.<br />

For Environmental Monitoring: Radiometric surveys play a vital role<br />

in monitoring environmental radioactivity, such as in nuclear power<br />

plants, waste management facilities, or areas affected by nuclear<br />

accidents. Accurate measurements are necessary to track any changes<br />

in radiation levels over time and detect any potential environmental<br />

contamination.<br />

Resource Exploration: Particularly in the mining industry, to identify<br />

and assess deposits of radioactive minerals such as uranium or<br />

thorium. Accurate measurements are crucial for determining the<br />

extent, grade, and economic viability of these deposits.<br />

Radiometric surveys contribute to Scientific Research; in various<br />

fields, including geology, archaeology, and environmental studies.<br />

Accurate measurements provide reliable data for studying geological<br />

formations, dating artefacts using radioactive isotopes, and<br />

understanding natural radiation background levels,” highlights David.<br />

David emphasizes that,to ensure the accuracy in radiometric surveys as<br />

stated above, several factors should be considered, including<br />

1. calibration of instruments<br />

2. Appropriate sampling techniques,<br />

3. proper shielding from external radiation sources,<br />

4. Quality assurance and Quality control procedures,<br />

5. Expertise of trained professionals who can accurately interpret and<br />

analyse the collected data.<br />

Image: courtesy<br />

22 <strong>May</strong>-<strong>June</strong> <strong>issue</strong> l <strong>2023</strong> www.africasurveyorsonline.com


www.africasurveyorsonline.com<br />

<strong>May</strong>-<strong>June</strong> <strong>issue</strong> l <strong>2023</strong> 23

ENERGY<br />

Regional Collaboration<br />

Consolidates Angola’s<br />

Position as an Oil and<br />

Gas Hub<br />

One of <strong>Africa</strong>’s major oil and gas producers,<br />

Angola is demonstrating commendable<br />

efforts in prioritizing regional collaboration<br />

to ensure energy security and stimulate growth across<br />

the regional energy sector. By leveraging its position,<br />

resources and experience, Angola is forging strategic partnerships with<br />

neighboring countries, signing significant agreements, and initiating<br />

cross-border collaborations. These endeavors serve as an inspiring<br />

example for other <strong>Africa</strong>n nations to enhance cooperation and foster<br />

sustainable development.<br />

Angola-DRC Ink Landmark Agreement<br />

In a notable development, Angola’s signing of a Memorandum of<br />

Understanding (MoU) with the Democratic Republic of the Congo<br />

(DRC) on July 13 for the joint development of offshore Block 14<br />

marks a significant milestone in the country’s pursuit of energy<br />

security. Angola, for its part, has demonstrated its commitment to<br />

strengthening cooperation and promoting sustainable development<br />

and growth within the energy sector. This strategic alliance will not<br />

only boost the energy sectors of both countries but also promote<br />

economic growth and stability across the continent.<br />

Zambia-Angola Pipeline Enhances Connectivity<br />

In 2021, Angola inked an MoU with Zambia for the construction of<br />

the $5 billion Zambia-Angola pipeline. The pipeline will transport<br />

petrol, kerosene, diesel and gas from Angola's Lobito Refinery to<br />

Zambia. Spanning approximately 1,400 km, it will have a capacity of<br />

200,000 barrels per day. The pipeline aims to reduce fuel prices in<br />

Zambia, benefiting the economy and population while also generating<br />

significant revenue for Angola. The project underscores Angola's<br />

commitment to fostering economic integration and job creation while<br />

supporting the development of neighboring nations through an<br />

interconnected energy network.<br />

24 <strong>May</strong>-<strong>June</strong> <strong>issue</strong> l <strong>2023</strong> www.africasurveyorsonline.com

ENERGY<br />

H.E. Diamantino Pedro Azevedo, Minister of Mineral Resources, Petroleum and Gas of Angola<br />

CAPS Strengthens Regional Integration<br />

In pursuit of advanced intra-<strong>Africa</strong>n trade, Angola signed an MoU with<br />

a coalition of other <strong>Africa</strong>n countries to establish the Central <strong>Africa</strong>n<br />

Pipeline System (CAPS). Under the terms of the MoU, the coalition<br />

will construct a regional oil and gas pipeline network, consisting of<br />

three multinational pipeline systems, including the Central Southern<br />

Pipeline System connecting Angola with the DRC, Rwanda and Burundi.<br />

This project aims to alleviate energy poverty, promote economic<br />

integration, and enhance energy security in <strong>Africa</strong>. By linking the oilproducing<br />

regions of these countries, CAPS will enable the efficient<br />

transportation of petroleum resources across borders, fostering<br />

stability and boosting economic progress in the region.<br />

Angola Advances Bilateral Energy Agreements<br />

Angola has strengthened its bilateral cooperation with several<br />

regional countries, leveraging its economic stronghold to spur<br />

development across the regional landscape. In their Joint Permanent<br />

Commission on Cooperation, Angola and Rwanda explored new areas<br />

of collaboration in education, finance, defense and security, vocational<br />

training, infrastructure and tourism, complementing existing<br />

agreements in health, justice and agriculture. Additionally, Angola<br />

showcased its commitment to regional collaboration by partnering<br />

with Namibia's Ministry of Mines and Energy to support emerging<br />

energy markets in <strong>Africa</strong>. This agreement solidifies their dedication<br />

to cooperation in areas such as information exchange, industry data<br />

management, geological studies, and joint petroleum and gas projects.<br />

These partnerships highlight Angola's proactive approach to regional<br />

engagement and its commitment to enhancing cooperation and<br />

development in various sectors across <strong>Africa</strong>.<br />

Angola Amplifies Support for SADC Integration<br />

Angola, being one of the founding members of the Southern <strong>Africa</strong>n<br />

Development Community (SADC), is committed to cooperation,<br />

integration and development. Through this network, the country<br />

proactively engages with its regional neighbors, with recent<br />

plans underway to increase refining capacity for crude oil and<br />

petrochemicals within Angola to meet the growing demand in the<br />

SADC market. This initiative is expected to create value for Angola,<br />

enhance supply security for the country and the region, and support<br />

sectors like agriculture and power generation that rely on by-products<br />

such as fertilizer and gas.<br />

Angola: An Inspiring Model for <strong>Africa</strong>n Producers<br />

Angola's commitment to regional collaboration in pursuit of energy<br />

security sets an exemplary model for other <strong>Africa</strong>n oil producers.<br />

By prioritizing cross-border partnerships and resource-sharing<br />

agreements, Angola showcases the potential for collective progress<br />

and stability within the energy sector. This strategy not only promotes<br />

economic growth but also enhances regional integration, therefore<br />

strengthening <strong>Africa</strong>'s position on the global energy stage.<br />

"The Chamber believes that regional collaboration is the key to<br />

unlocking the immense potential of the <strong>Africa</strong>n energy sector.<br />

By working together, we can overcome challenges and create a<br />

sustainable future for all. Angola is proudly leading the way, using its<br />

position as a major oil producer to drive growth, promote stability, and<br />

foster meaningful partnerships across the region," says NJ Ayuk, the<br />

Executive Chairman of the <strong>Africa</strong>n Energy Chamber (AEC).<br />

Angola's participation in <strong>Africa</strong>n Energy Week (AEW) – taking place<br />

October 16-20 in Cape Town - further reinforces the country’s<br />

dedication to collaboration, as it serves as a platform for fostering<br />

partnerships, driving investment, and sharing expertise across the<br />

<strong>Africa</strong>n energy landscape. H.E. Diamantino Pedro Azevedo, Minister of<br />

Mineral Resources, Petroleum and Gas of Angola, will participate at<br />

AEW <strong>2023</strong> as a keynote speaker, providing insights into the country’s<br />

energy agenda while providing other <strong>Africa</strong>n nations with the<br />

opportunity to learn from Angola’s experiences.<br />

www.africasurveyorsonline.com<br />

<strong>May</strong>-<strong>June</strong> <strong>issue</strong> l <strong>2023</strong> 25

3D MAPPING<br />

Aetos taps<br />

3D-mapping tool to<br />

conduct virtual<br />

patrols<br />

By Zaihan Mohamed Yusof<br />

Building owners and security companies are tapping<br />

3D-mapping technology and artificial intelligence (AI) to<br />

create <strong>digital</strong> twins of facilities, in a move they say will help<br />

ease the manpower crunch in the security sector.<br />

The tools allow security personnel working out of a command centre<br />

to monitor a building using a combination of its <strong>digital</strong> twin and live<br />

footage from cameras and sensors inside the facility.<br />

The AI tool processes the data and sends out alerts about crowd sizes<br />

as well as security <strong>issue</strong>s such as intrusions and weapon detection.<br />

Dr Jon Lee, chief executive and founder of Singapore-based Vizzio<br />

Technologies, said the technology is able to help companies reduce<br />

manpower costs while providing real-time situational awareness.<br />

“We used to see four security guards deployed at a transport facility –<br />

Vizzio Technologies staff mapping out a part of Medina in Saudi Arabia by walking 16km with a 360-degree video camera. Vizzio’s AI software<br />

then cleans up and enhances the image before coming up with a 3D <strong>digital</strong> twin of the area. PHOTO: VIZZIO TECHNOLOGIES<br />

26 <strong>May</strong>-<strong>June</strong> <strong>issue</strong> l <strong>2023</strong> www.africasurveyorsonline.com

3D MAPPING<br />

A Vizzio Technologies staff member holding a 360-degree video camera. In the background is a laser scanner with a video camera mounted on top<br />


patrolling the grounds every four hours.<br />

“With 3D-mapping technology, which allows virtual patrols, the facility<br />

was able to reduce manpower needs by more than half, which means<br />

cost savings,” added Dr Lee.<br />

Estimates vary, but reports suggest that up to 15,000 security officers<br />

are needed to supplement the 49,000 already working in the sector.<br />

Security firm Aetos is using Vizzio’s 3D-mapping tool to manage<br />

multiple facilities under its charge.<br />

Aetos Holdings CEO Alfred Fox said: “Vizzio had been integral in<br />

helping us implement the nation’s largest 3D <strong>digital</strong> twin within<br />

Aetos’ next-generation 5G Integrated Command Centre (ICC) – an AI<br />

cloud-based platform that visualises unified operations islandwide and<br />

beyond borders onto a single dashboard – based on aggregated data<br />

from numerous subsystems.”<br />

A video wall measuring 2.7m by 9.6m sits on a wall inside the ICC,<br />

which is located within the Aetos headquarters in Corporation Drive. It<br />

displays all of Aetos’ operations and resources in Singapore.<br />

Personnel at the centre can focus on an area on the map, then narrow<br />

the search to a specific building, and even zoom in to go inside a<br />

facility by tapping cameras at the building.<br />

Mr Fox said that with the <strong>digital</strong>-twin tool, the ICC is able to work with<br />

building owners and operators to respond to security breaches and<br />

other safety and management-related incidents.<br />

Stellar Lifestyle, the business arm of SMRT Corporation, has adopted<br />

Vizzio’s 3D-mapping technology to extend its physical retail and<br />

advertising spaces to virtual spaces.<br />

Commuters can access 3D maps on their devices to scan services and<br />

shops which are en route to their destinations. The tool also allows<br />

www.africasurveyorsonline.com<br />

potential tenants to attend virtual viewings of retail units prior to a<br />

physical visit.<br />

Mr Tony Heng, president of Stellar Lifestyle, said: “Beyond physical<br />

spaces, Stellar Lifestyle and Vizzio are bringing our ecosystem of small<br />

and medium-sized enterprises to virtual realms, enabling immersive<br />

shopping, wayfinding, gamification and more.”<br />

Vizzio has also been engaged to map districts in Saudi Arabia and<br />

Hong Kong for tourists.<br />

Dr Lee said the firm captures video footage of an area to be digitised<br />

into a 3D model by having staff walk, cycle or drive along the intended<br />

route.<br />

A selfie stick-mounted video camera, which is capable of generating<br />

a 360-degree image, is good enough to generate accurate 3D models.<br />

But he added that the firm also uses commercially available cameras<br />

to scan buildings.<br />

The data collected is then uploaded into Vizzio’s proprietary AI and<br />

behavioural analytics software.<br />

“Traditionally, people mapped indoor and outdoor areas using bulky<br />

(laser scanners). How many can carry these for kilometres?<br />

“These devices are also mounted on top of a car, which are not able to<br />

cover walkways or areas not passable by cars,” said Dr Lee.<br />

Some companies also use drones for mapping, but he said Vizzio buys<br />

satellite images for its 3D maps.<br />

Dr Lee said live 3D-mapping technology is not just for national or<br />

public security purposes.<br />

“It can be used for many other applications, such as tourism, facilities<br />

management and live street maps,” he added.<br />

<strong>May</strong>-<strong>June</strong> <strong>issue</strong> l <strong>2023</strong> 27


UK’s first electric remote-control<br />

survey vessel launched by Port of<br />

London<br />

The purchase of the electric vessel comes after a £236,000 grant from the Engineering and Physical Sciences Research Council. Credit: Port of<br />

London Authority<br />

By Noah Bovenizer<br />

The Port of London Authority (PLA) has<br />

revealed its new fully electric remotely<br />

operated survey vessel with the<br />

University College of London (UCL).<br />

The first to be used at a UK port, the small<br />

vessel will form part of an MSc Hydrographic<br />

Surveying course that the two organisations<br />

have run in a partnership since 1999 and<br />

comes after a £236,000 grant from the<br />

Engineering and Physical Sciences Research<br />

Council.<br />

Alongside being fully electric, the Maritime<br />

Robotics survey vessel includes an advanced<br />

Winghead sonar and scanning system from<br />

tech manufacturer Norbit, allowing for a<br />

significant collection of data to ensure<br />

accurate information for safety, navigation<br />

and maintenance.<br />

John Dillon-Leetch, the PLA’s port<br />

hydrographer, was delighted to be leading<br />

the way with the launch of the vessel: “Not<br />

only does it feature the latest in innovation,<br />

thanks to Norbit’s multibeam technology but<br />

it also enables our hydrographers to survey<br />

in previously inaccessible areas, safely and<br />

sustainably.”<br />

As a small remotely controlled vehicle,<br />

the vessel can be used in situations where<br />

traditional survey vessels would not be<br />

appropriate, including shallow waters and<br />

locations under marine structures.<br />

It has been launched by the PLA after trials<br />

carried out by the PLA Hydrographic Service<br />

Team and UCL’s international MSc students in<br />

London’s Royal Docks and at the Richmond<br />

Lock and Weir.<br />

Dr Cassandra Nanlal, UCL civil, environmental<br />

and geomatics engineering’s marine<br />

geospatial science lecturer, said: “Our<br />

international students will be able to take<br />

their experience and knowledge to all parts<br />

of the world, to help elevate the standards<br />

within the industry.”<br />

The unique electric vessel is part of the PLA’s<br />

continuing push for decarbonisation in the<br />

marine industry following the announcement<br />

that it had halved its carbon emissions in<br />

2022, three years ahead of its 2025 target<br />

under the Thames Vision 2050 project to<br />

create “a clean river, free of pollution and<br />

rubbish.”<br />

28 <strong>May</strong>-<strong>June</strong> <strong>issue</strong> l <strong>2023</strong> www.africasurveyorsonline.com


Afreximbank and UTM Offshore to<br />

develop Floating LNG project in Nigeria<br />

The global rating agency, Fitch Ratings,<br />

on 20 <strong>June</strong> <strong>2023</strong> affirmed the <strong>Africa</strong>n<br />

Export-Import Bank’s (Afreximbank)<br />

Long-Term Issuer Default Rating (IDR) at ‘BBB’,<br />

with a Stable Outlook. Fitch also affirmed<br />

Afreximbank’s Short-Term Issuer Default<br />

Rating at ‘F2’ and the Long-Term ratings<br />

on the Bank’s Global Medium Term Note<br />

Programme and Debt Issuances at ‘BBB’.<br />

The rating affirmation is a strong testament<br />

of the Bank’s systemic relevance to <strong>Africa</strong> and<br />

captures the increasing number of the key<br />

mandates given to the Bank by the <strong>Africa</strong>n<br />

Union (AU), such as the implementation of the<br />

health response to the COVID-19 pandemic<br />

and the support for access to grains and<br />

fertilizers in the context of the Russia-Ukraine<br />

conflict.<br />

Fitch acknowledged Afreximbank’s strong<br />

capital and liquidity position. In addition to<br />

the ‘excellent’ internal capital generation, the<br />

Bank had raised US$1.4 billion paid-in capital,<br />

as of 2022, out of the planned raise of US$2.6<br />

billion by 2026. The agency noted that<br />

Afreximbank had a strong liquidity profile, as<br />

its share of treasury assets rated ‘AA’ to ‘AAA’<br />

remained above the ‘strong’ threshold of 40<br />

per cent. It added that the Bank’s liquidity<br />

profile was further enhanced by its access to<br />

capital markets and other alternative liquidity<br />

sources even during challenging times.<br />

The Bank has continuously demonstrated its<br />

ability to de-risk its lending portfolio, noted<br />

Fitch. With a low concentration risk, coupled<br />

with a high collateralisation of the loan book,<br />

where 25 per cent of the loan book was cash<br />

collateralised and eight per cent was credit<br />

insured from ‘A’ to ‘AA’ rated insurers, “the<br />

‘moderate’ risk management policies primarily<br />

reflect the use of credit risk mitigants that<br />

have helped maintain a relatively low nonperforming<br />

loan ratio, despite the high-risk<br />

environment that the bank operates in.”<br />

Commenting on the development, Prof.<br />

Benedict Oramah, President and Chairman<br />

of the Board of Directors of Afreximbank,<br />

said that Fitch’s affirmation is a strong<br />

testament to the Bank’s strong developmental<br />

mandate and its increasing countercyclical<br />

role in helping its member countries during<br />

challenging times. The Bank has continued<br />

to contribute and define the path for <strong>Africa</strong>’s<br />

economic future through the creation of<br />

programmes and initiatives that support the<br />

emergence of integrated and well diversified<br />

<strong>Africa</strong>n economy that adapts and responds to<br />

global shocks.<br />

“The Bank’s consistent and prudent<br />

response to member countries’ needs<br />

during challenging times and its ability<br />

to manage exposures prudently have led<br />

to its recognition by member countries as<br />

a systemic institution as evidenced by its<br />

accreditation by the AU and its selection<br />

by the AU as a preferred partner in<br />

implementing some AU strategic initiatives,”<br />

noted the President.<br />

Afreximbank and UTM Offshore to develop Floating LNG project in Nigeria<br />

www.africasurveyorsonline.com<br />

<strong>May</strong>-<strong>June</strong> <strong>issue</strong> l <strong>2023</strong> 29

DRONES<br />

Utilizing Drone Technology To<br />

Advance Development In <strong>Africa</strong><br />

Image Credits: courtesy<br />

Adoption of drone technology in <strong>Africa</strong> has come a long way.<br />

What was once viewed as a foreign concept is now widely<br />

adopted across <strong>Africa</strong> for socio and economic purposes.<br />

Its diverse applications on the continent in different sectors and<br />

industries have eclipsed many other parts of the world. This proves<br />

that if harnessed for good, use of drones will make a difference in how<br />

we tackle existing <strong>issue</strong>s within <strong>Africa</strong>.<br />

A good example to begin with is an unlikely one that has had a<br />

huge impact. In East <strong>Africa</strong>, there has been a race to outsmart desert<br />

locusts with drones and data. According to the Kenya Agricultural and<br />

Livestock Research Organization (KALRO), one swarm of locusts can<br />

comprise of up to four million insects and is estimated to eat food that<br />

can be consumed by about 35,000 people a day.<br />

In an aim to mitigate such risks, KARLO, alongside FutureWater and<br />

HiView through the ThirdEye project, now provides farmers with<br />

important and relevant information on seeds, water, pesticides, and<br />

labor to increase efficiency and production. So far, six flying sensor<br />

operators have been trained and equipped with tools to analyze the<br />

obtained imagery and offer advice to farmers allowing them to scout<br />

farm fields quickly and efficiently rather than evaluate their farms<br />

manually on foot or by tractor.<br />

Thanks to technological advancements that have made them more<br />

nimble, adaptable, affordable, and simple to operate, drones are being<br />

used in ways that either directly or indirectly save the environment.<br />

Image courtesy<br />

In Zimbabwe, drones are now part of efforts to control infestation of<br />

tsetse flies and quelea birds. Further south, agriculture fields could be<br />

destroyed by little rainfall, very dry seasons, swarms of pests like the<br />

locust invasion in the summer of 2021/22, and outbreaks of disease<br />

– resulting in massive losses. The drone systems are developed to<br />

monitor pests and illnesses, anticipate yields, inform markets, and<br />

help decision-making in land-use planning in addition to making use<br />

of earth observation, climate change modelling, big data, and data<br />

analytics.<br />

While the potential of drones within the environment and agriculture<br />

space in <strong>Africa</strong> has not even scratched the surface, there is great<br />

progress so far as scientists, environmentalists, and engineers use<br />

unmanned aircrafts as land surveying tools; lower-resolution satellite<br />

photographs assist in mapping and environmental monitoring. Drones<br />

are suitable for faraway or hard-to-reach places since they can execute<br />

30 <strong>May</strong>-<strong>June</strong> <strong>issue</strong> l <strong>2023</strong> www.africasurveyorsonline.com

DRONES<br />

these tasks much more quickly and affordably than traditional<br />

methods.<br />

The use of drones in the maritime and shipping industry is another<br />

great example of how they are revolutionizing the way safety is<br />

managed on ships. Nigeria for instance has procured maritime<br />

UAVs for its Deep Blue maritime security project, on the other<br />

hand, the Seychelles Fishing Authority recently purchased marine<br />

unmanned aerial vehicles (UAVs) with superior artificial intelligence<br />

capabilities. By monitoring isolated locations along the Seychelles<br />

coastline, these drones will enable real-time observation of ‘target<br />

boats and boost search-and-rescue efforts.<br />

By providing a bird’s eye view, drones can quickly survey the entire<br />

length of a bridge or port to identify any potential hazards or<br />

damages. Additionally, drones outfitted with infrared or thermal<br />

sensors, operators can quickly identify any vessels that are in<br />

distress, in need of assistance or conducting suspicious activity,<br />

allowing for faster response times and improved safety on the open<br />

sea.<br />

Drones are clearly a disruptive technology trend with immense<br />

potential when used correctly with expanding uses and real-world<br />

significance for the continent’s present and future.<br />

It is therefore critical that <strong>Africa</strong> works toward the same objective<br />

of sustainable development in the context of a global environment<br />

that relates to technical and <strong>digital</strong> innovation. The aviation<br />

industry must continue to make contributions to the ongoing<br />

commitment to dedicate resources and research to finding solutions<br />

for <strong>Africa</strong> to help the development process.<br />

To promote safe and secure use of drones, Kenya Airways’ Fahari<br />

Aviation, an aviation technology business subsidiary, has been in the<br />

forefront of delivering drone capabilities throughout East <strong>Africa</strong>. As<br />

part of the airline’s plan to promote new directions within the sector<br />

with the usage of drones and unmanned aircraft, Fahari Aviation has<br />

the responsibility of launching and implementing future aviation<br />

technology, train pilots of unmanned aerial vehicles and test drones<br />

and drone equipment. Last year, Fahari Aviation unveiled Kenya’s<br />

first drone cage. Today, Fahari Aviation sees drones used for a variety<br />

of purposes, including, vegetation and wildlife conservation, medical<br />

logistics, environmental impact assessment, crisis management and<br />

screening, and humanitarian relief across the region.<br />

Drones clearly provide several options for the <strong>Africa</strong>n continent<br />

and can play a key part in the future of <strong>Africa</strong> by achieving the<br />

<strong>Africa</strong>n Union’s Agenda 2063 goal of creating a unified, wealthy, and<br />

self-sufficient <strong>Africa</strong>. The future will undoubtedly come with more<br />

surprises, along with further use of the technology.<br />

www.africasurveyorsonline.com<br />

<strong>May</strong>-<strong>June</strong> <strong>issue</strong> l <strong>2023</strong> 31


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32 <strong>May</strong>-<strong>June</strong> <strong>issue</strong> l <strong>2023</strong> www.africasurveyorsonline.com


Laser technology, the<br />

real revolution of the<br />

Aeolus mission<br />

Aeolus, a European Space Agency (ESA) satellite launched<br />

into Space in 2018, is now preparing to return to Earth after<br />

successfully acquiring profiles of the Earth’s wind across the<br />

Planet from an altitude of 30 km.<br />

The Aeolus satellite features ALADIN (Atmospheric LAser Doppler<br />

INstrument), a LIDAR (Light Detection and Ranging) comprising three<br />

parts: a telescope, a receiver, and a laser transmitter, made in Italy by<br />

Leonardo with the support of the Italian Space Agency (ASI).<br />

It is the most powerful transmitter in the ultraviolet (UV) range ever<br />

built for space missions. With over seven billion laser pulses emitted,<br />

it orbited the Earth 16 times a day, covering the entire globe once a<br />

week. It comprises over 80 optical elements aligned with micrometric<br />

accuracy, and its manufacture involves innovative technologies<br />

and materials never tested before. Prime examples are the laser’s<br />

internal oxygenation system, developed to ensure that the beam is<br />

not deformed and does not burn the internal components, and the<br />

material used to minimise light absorption, and at the same time,<br />

withstand the high power levels, thus avoiding energy dispersion or<br />

damage to the optics.<br />

Laser technology is Aeolus’ real revolution. By generating pulses of<br />

UV light sent into the atmosphere, LIDAR detects winds worldwide.<br />

This mission’s greatest added value was the measurement of winds in<br />

areas inaccessible to classic surveying equipment (weather balloons or<br />

aircraft), thereby offering a fuller and more comprehensive view of this<br />

phenomenon.<br />

In orbit for nearly five years, the mission positively impacted many<br />

areas: it has helped to enhance the accuracy of weather forecasts and<br />

improved knowledge of climate phenomena and of the consequences<br />

of global warming and air pollution. According to the mission data,<br />

scientists have hypothesised that, in the future, it could help improve<br />

hurricane forecasting, and track and predict the movement of dust<br />

emissions, e.g., from volcanic eruptions.<br />

Between the end of operations (on 30 April) and the shutdown<br />

of ALADIN (on 5 July), Leonardo, together with ESA and the space<br />

industries involved, carried out further tests on the laser transmitter’s<br />

emission capabilities, upgrading it from a power output of around 4<br />

million nominal watts, to around 10 million watts. A record for a space<br />

laser.<br />

www.africasurveyorsonline.com<br />

<strong>May</strong>-<strong>June</strong> <strong>issue</strong> l <strong>2023</strong> 33

34 <strong>May</strong>-<strong>June</strong> <strong>issue</strong> l <strong>2023</strong> www.africasurveyorsonline.com


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Geoscience in <strong>Africa</strong><br />

Geoscience in <strong>Africa</strong>:<br />

New survey to assess<br />

challenges and foster<br />

solutions<br />

36 <strong>May</strong>-<strong>June</strong> <strong>issue</strong> l <strong>2023</strong> www.africasurveyorsonline.com


Geoscientists are playing a vital<br />

role in advancing sustainable<br />

development globally. Their<br />

expertise is critical in understanding the<br />

Earth's processes, identifying mineral<br />

resources, and managing natural hazards.<br />

However, geoscientists in developing<br />

countries face many challenges, including<br />

limited access to funding, training, and<br />

technology. A new survey aims to assess the<br />

needs and priorities of <strong>Africa</strong>n geoscientists,<br />

in order to better understand and address<br />

these challenges.<br />

The survey is part of a new project of the<br />

UNESCO International Geoscience Programme<br />

(IGCP), entitled Fostering Researchers in the<br />

Geosciences (FoRGe, IGCP project 766). FoRGe<br />

aims to build research capacity in developing<br />

countries by responding to needs identified by<br />

researchers in those countries and by working<br />

in collaboration with third-level educational<br />

institutions.<br />

The survey aims to identify the nature of work<br />

and challenges faced by <strong>Africa</strong>n geoscientists,<br />

by gathering their views on the skills and<br />

knowledge required for effective practice. The<br />

survey will also provide insights into the state<br />

of geoscience professions in <strong>Africa</strong>, including<br />

the availability and use of technology and<br />

equipment, the impact of training and<br />

education quality on wider career, and the<br />

availability of funding for research and<br />

development. Its results will be presented<br />

at the 29th Colloquium of <strong>Africa</strong>n Geology<br />

(CAG29) in Namibia in September <strong>2023</strong>.<br />

The FoRGe survey is a critical step towards<br />

improving the status of geoscientists in <strong>Africa</strong>.<br />

By identifying the challenges and needs of<br />

the profession, the survey will enable FoRGe<br />

and UNESCO to develop tailored interventions<br />

to support the work of geoscientists.<br />

As the only United Nations agency with<br />

a specific mandate for science, UNESCO<br />

recognizes the critical role that scientific<br />

research and innovation play in addressing<br />

global challenges. In addition to its <strong>Africa</strong><br />

priority, which seeks to support sustainable<br />

development and preservation of natural<br />

and cultural heritage in <strong>Africa</strong>, UNESCO<br />

also promotes scientific cooperation and<br />

knowledge-sharing across borders. Through<br />

IGCP, UNESCO promotes and coordinates<br />

geoscientific research, and facilitates the<br />

exchange of knowledge across national<br />

boundaries.<br />

www.africasurveyorsonline.com<br />

<strong>May</strong>-<strong>June</strong> <strong>issue</strong> l <strong>2023</strong> 37

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