Africa Surveyors September-October issue 2022 digital

Africa Surveyors is Africa’s premier source of Surveying, Mapping and Geospatial news and an envoy of surveying products/service for the Construction, Maritime, Onshore & Offshore energy and exploration, Engineering, Oil and Gas, Agricultural and Mining sectors on new solution based trends and technology for the African market.

Africa Surveyors is Africa’s premier source of Surveying, Mapping and Geospatial news and an envoy of surveying products/service for the Construction, Maritime, Onshore & Offshore energy and exploration, Engineering, Oil and Gas, Agricultural and Mining sectors on new solution based trends and technology for the African market.


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September-October issue 2022 Volume 4 issue no. 23

Africa Surveyors

Wildfires in Africa

Causes and effects of wildfires

Drone technology in water risk applications

Defense diplomacy in Africa

Terestrial Surveying

In this issue......

Steel plant power line

topographic survey commence

in Zimbabwe....pg 32

African Liquefied Natural Gas

(LNG) Makes Sense for Europe,

Now and Going Forward....pg 14

Weaponised drones the

latest tech threat to

reach Africa....pg 34


September-October issue l 2022 1

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2 September-October issue l 2022 www.africasurveyorsonline.com



Current Issue


In this issue we look at

Wildfires in Africa, their

causes and effects on earth

and many more....enjoy the




News Briefs 4

Events 8

Innovation 10

Opinion 14

Project review 36


Augustine M. Rang'ondi

Managing Editor

Monica R. Kemunto

Senior Editor &

Marketing Lead

Dorcas Kang’ereha


Violet Ambale

Harriet Mkhaye

Irene Joseph

Innocent Momanyi



Wildfires in Africa: Causes and effects


Engineering: Excellence award and international


Drones: Drone technology elevates innovation in water risk



Sales Executives

East Africa

Jimmy Mudasia

Lydia Kamonya

Caiser Momanyi

Vincent Murono

Sheila Ing’ayitsa

Mining: Exploration rights and production

Offshore: Drilling and inspections

Project Review: Topographic Surveys begins on the

Africa's largest steel plant power line


South Africa

Paul Nyakeri

Sean Masangwanyi

Lisa Brown

Thembisa Ndlovu


Emelda Njomboro

Uche Maxwel

Designed and

Published by:

P.O. Box 52248-00100,

Nairobi, Kenya.



Diversified Communication.................................................IBC

Position Partners....................................................................OBC

Diversified Communication................................................pg 8

Forssea Robotics...................................................................pg 23

Applanix...................................................................................pg 31

Saab..........................................................................................pg 25

4D Global.................................................................................pg 26

Saab..........................................................................................pg 27

IGI...............................................................................................pg 30

EnergyNet.................................................................................pg 33

MacArtney...............................................................................pg 38


Contact us

Tel: 0774288100

Emaii: info@africasurveyorsonline.com

Web: https://africasurveyorsonline.com

The Editor accepts letter and manuscripts for publication from readers all over the world. Include your name and address as a sign of good faith although you may

request your name to be withheld from publication. We can reserve the right to edit any material submitted. Send your letters to: info@africasurveyorsonline.com


Nailex Africa Publishing makes every effort to ensure the accuracy of the contents of its publications, but no warranty is made to such accuracy and

no responsibility will be borne by the publisher for the consequences of actions based on information so published. Further, opinions expressed on

interviews are not necessarily shared by Nailex Africa Publisher.


September-October issue l 2022 3


Veld fires cause loss of Zesa


The Zimbabwe Electricity

Transmission and Distribution

Company (Zetdc) has warned

of recurring veld fires in the country

that have been damaging electricity


Zimbabwe currently experiences

electricity blackouts due to the aging

plant at its Kariba hydro power station

and the main coal-driven power

generators at Hwange. In a statement,

Zetdc said some areas in Zimbabwe,

mostly in the Western region, have

been affected by veld fires which are

destroying electrical equipment leaving

hundreds of homes in darkness.

"The Zimbabwe Electricity Transmission

and Distribution Company (Zetdc) would

Norwegian offshore vessel operator

and subsea services firm DOF Subsea

on Friday announced several new

project awards and a contract extension

across the North Sea, Mediterranean, and


The projects combined total more than 500

vessel days, excluding optional work, and

have a combined revenue of more than $80


Skandi Acergy, Skandi Constructor, Skandi

Seven, Skandi Skansen, Skandi Hera and

selected third-party vessels will be used for

the offshore execution phases.

DOF Subsea said that one of the awards

was a SURF contract with a major oil & gas

operator. The company did not say who the

client was.

According to DOF, the SURF project

includes design & fabrication of spools and

installation of umbilical, lying leads, spools

and various subsea equipment.

Main installation phase is scheduled

for the second quarter of 2023, in the

Mediterranean and shall be executed on

Veld fire. image courtesy

like to apologize to its valued customers

in the Western Region for power outages

due to burnt poles caused by veld fires,"

read the Zetdc statement.

Zesa says veld fires have been posing

threats to electricity infrastructure.

This has resulted in businesses and

industries being affected by power

outages. A recent Environmental

Management Agency (EMA) report

states that 3 948 fire incidents burnt 1

033 722.86 hectares of land during the

2021 fire season.

DOF Subsea Bags Multiple Deals in North Sea,

Mediterranean, and Africa

DOF`s construction vessel Skandi Acergy.

Project management, engineering and

procurement are managed by DOF`s project

teams in Aberdeen and Houston.

FPSO Mooring Rectification

Another award is an FPSO mooring

rectification project in West Africa. The scope

includes project management, engineering,

and fabrication, using the Skandi Skansen as

the main installation vessel.

Also, DOF Subsea said it had secured an

early phase study from an unnamed "major

oil & gas operator" for the purpose of

detailing cessation plans for one of its fields

in the North Sea, based on utilizing the DOF


Mons Aase, CEO DOF Subsea AS, said,

“I am pleased with the series of awards

in the Atlantic region, securing projects

across North Sea, Mediterranean and

Africa. Together with previous announced

contracts, our latest SURF award confirms

full utilization of Skandi Acergy within

the SURF segment across the North Sea,

Mediterranean, and Australia from fall 2022

to summer 2023."

NNPC Limited acquires OVH

Energy Downstream Assets

CEO of OVH Energy Marketing (OVHEM) Limited,

Mr. Huub Stokman | image NNPC

The Nigerian National Petroleum

Company (NNPC) Limited has acquired

OVH Energy Marketing (OVHEM), owner

and operator of the Oando downstream

assets. The acquisition is in line with its

vision to maintain leading position in the

Nigerian petroleum downstream sector.

Speaking at the ceremony in Abuja, the Board

Chairman of NNPC Limited, Senator Margery

Okadigbo, said the acquisition, brings over

380 additional filling stations under the

NNPC Retail brand in Nigeria and Togo, on

our journey to attaining 1,500 stations. We

will be the largest petroleum products retail

network in Africa,” Okadigbo stated.

The Chairman explained that the acquisition

came under an Accelerated Network

Expansion (ANEX) Initiative, aimed at

strengthening the Company’s downstream

business portfolio, enhancing profitability

and guaranteeing national energy security.

Among the downstream assets acquired by

NNPC Limited are a reception jetty with a

monthly capacity of 240,000MT, eight LPG

plants, three lube blending plants, three

aviation depots, and twelve warehouses.

In his remarks, the Group Chief Executive

Officer of the NNPC Ltd, Mallam Mele Kyari,

said the acquisition has further strengthened

the company as a vehicle for ensuring that

NNPC Ltd company delivers on the energy

transition goals of the country.

“Our acquisition of OVH, brings more NNPC

branded fuel stations under the NNPC Retail

Ltd umbrella, providing wider access to

our customers, enriched supply chain and

product availability across our different

locations. Our goal as NNPC Ltd is to become

a catalyst for massive improvement within

the downstream oil and gas industry”, the

GCEO further added.

4 September-October issue l 2022 www.africasurveyorsonline.com


SHELT launches SOC

extension in Nigeria

SHELT launches SOC extension in Nigeria|Image

courtesy SHELT

SHELT is proud to announce the opening

of its very own SOC in Nigeria, where

it will serve as a local extension to its

overseas and already established 24/7 SOC


This launch comes amidst the growing

need of SHELT’s Nigeria branch to step into

serving the local clientele through a team

that is locally present and becoming closer

to our customers. The SOC extension will

serve to raise the cybersecurity readiness of

the clients through implementing cuttingedge

technology to monitor cyber-attacks

and address possible cybersecurity threats in

real time and on a local platform.

On his visit to Nigeria to be present at the

launch, SHELT’s Managing Director, Youssef

Abillama commented saying: “It gives me so

much pleasure to be here for this wonderful

occasion and I know our SOC will play a

pivotal role in the cyber security readiness

of our clients to assist them in safeguarding

their systems and increasing their resilience

from a locally available support system.”

SHELT’s Nigeria Business Development

Manager, Walid Bou Abssi, said: “The risks of

cyberattacks are always on the increase in

Nigeria and I am so proud we are part of the

solution where we can monitor cybersecurity

threats and respond in real time to address

and resolve any possible threats that may

target our clients.”

Mr. Abillama added “I would like to recognise

our team members who led the project

and completed it so successfully and I

am glad that we are also contributing to

the job market in Nigeria in the field of



Shelter Afrique extends Corporate Loan to MSD for housing

projects in DRC

Pan-African housing development

financier Shelter Afrique Board

has approved a USD18.5 million

commercial loan to Katanga-based real

estate development company, Maison Super

Development (MSD).

The projects earmarked for the facility include

Jumbo Office Building in Kolwezi; Alilac Office

in Lubumbashi; and Munua Housing project

in Lubumbashi, expected to be completed in

the year 2022, 2023 and 2024 respectively.

The three projects are expected to contribute

considerably to the commercial and

residential real estate in the areas.

“The facility is part of shelter Afrique financial

solutions targeted at Urban Regeneration.

Ghana sign RLSF MOU to promote access to reliable, clean,

and affordable electricity in the country

In line with its mission to promote access

to reliable, clean, and affordable electricity,

the Government of Ghana has signed a

Memorandum of Understanding (MoU) with

the African Trade Insurance Agency (ATI) for

the roll out of the Regional Liquidity Support

Facility (RLSF) within the country. RLSF, a

joint initiative of ATI, the KfW Development

Bank and the Norwegian Agency for

Development Cooperation (Norad), is

a financial product that is designed to

address the short term liquidity risks faced

by small and medium sized Independent

Power Producers (IPPs) that sell electricity

to state owned power utilities – improving

bankability and helping such projects reach

financial close.

The signing of the MoU has come at an

opportune time when the demand for

energy in Ghana is increasing by 10% per

year, coupled with the country’s focus on

expanding the contribution of renewable

energy sources towards the country’s energy

mix. Thanks to the MoU, IPPs in Ghana

will benefit from RLSF which was not only

created to help tackle climate change and

attract investments by supporting renewable

energy projects in ATI’s member countries,

but also to protect the IPPs against the risk

of delayed payments by public offtakers.

Ghana has one of Africa’s highest rates of

access to electricity at 86.63 percent with 74

Shelter Afrique AG. MD Kingsley Muwowo | Image

courtesy Shelter Afrique

Lubumbashi and Kolwezi are two cities

gradually being transformed into major cities

in the DRC and Shelter Afrique is happy to

support the process by ensuring we provide

financial solution that makes it easy to create

a mix where both affordable housing would

exist with commercial spaces to spur business

activities and employment,” Shelter Afrique

Ag. Managing Director Kingsley Muwowo said.

ATI Chief Executive Officer Manuel Moses (seated)

with Ghana's Vice President Mahamudu Bawumia at

the Company's AGM held June 2022 in Accra, Ghana.

|Image courtesy

percent of rural residents and 95 percent of

urban residents connected to the electricity

grid. Ghana also exports excess power

to the neighboring countries of Benin,

Burkina Faso and Togo. Additionally, the

country, which currently has a total installed

capacity of over 5,300 MW – aspires to

industrialize, modernize its agriculture,

and provide economic opportunities for its

growing population. However, one of the key

constraints to this vision is access to reliable

and cost-efficient electric power, and the

sector’s current financial deficit. RLSF

will therefore be available to relieve the

financial burden of the national utility, the

Electricity Company of Ghana (ECG), which is

often asked to provide collateral for similar

liquidity instruments under power purchase


September-October issue l 2022 5


Slam and UAV

Technology Combine

to Improve Safety

and Accuracy for

Aggregates Industry

With onsite safety an increasingly

important consideration, UAV

combined with simultaneous

localisation and mapping (SLAM) LiDAR

technology has been put to use by a major

cement plant in France in order to improve its

stockpiling measures.

Using Flyability’s Elios 3 drone and LiDAR

capabilities, alongside GeoSLAM’s leading

software GeoSLAM Connect, plant operators

were able to create a 3D digital replica of

cement material containers, offering a unique

look into storage management and stockpile

measurement systems, and providing greater

accuracy and safety for those working onsite.

Stored in huge silos measuring up to 25

metres in height, clinker, a binding agent

commonly used in the manufacturing of

cement, is an important commodity for

cement plants and stock levels, and must be

accurately calculated for effective production


At most cement plants, operators continue to

use a manual approach for tracking clinker

inventory levels – a routine that requires

employees to stand on a platform inside the

silo, and, using a long pole, poke around the

clinker to feel and estimate how much clinker

is currently available. These estimations are

reported back to the plant production teams

for forward planning.

Rather than exposing workers to dusty, dark

and potentially dangerous environments, not

to mention producing inaccurate inventory

data, one cement plant has embraced

technological enhancements, deploying

Flyability’s Elios 3 drone to take a deeper look

into the clinker silos.

Using a LiDAR sensor to collect highly precise

data while in flight, the Elios 3 was able to

collect measurements from all areas of the

silo. Using GeoSLAM Connect to accurately

process the point cloud, a fully comprehensive

3D digital replica of the container and clinker

levels was created.

EAASI joins the UNGGIM-PSN to reinforce

global partnerships

The European Association of Aerial

Surveying Industries (EAASI) has

recently become a member of the

Private Sector Network of the United

Nations Committee of Experts on Global

Geospatial Information Management

(UNGGIM-PSN). One of EAASI´s objectives

is to serve as a platform for communication

and cooperation to enact positive change

in the aerial surveying industry. With this

new partnership, the non-profit association

aims to reinforce the global geospatial

infrastructure, providing its specific expertise

in aerial imagery.

“EAASI is delighted with this new alliance.

Our members are the more significant actors

in the generation of geodata from airborne

platforms in Europe. Our datasets provide all

users with actionable spatial intelligence for

solving burning societal problems. We would

like to collaborate with United Nations and

private companies to share our knowledge

and work together towards the achievement

of the 2030 Agenda”, says Dr. Simon Musäus,

President of EAASI. “The aerial surveying

industry can certainly assist with monitoring

key indicators of the UN Sustainable

Development Goals.”

EOI Space, a company deploying lowflying

small satellites that provides

intelligence to government and

commercial customers, has announced its

deal with SpaceX to launch EOI’s first satellite

using the SpaceX rideshare program. SpaceX,

which designs, manufactures, and launches

advanced rockets and spacecraft, has a unique

service that allows small satellite owners to

share space on its missions.

EOI’s first satellite, a technology demonstrator,

is manifested to launch in 2023 on a

SpaceX Falcon 9 rocket. This demonstration

mission will allow EOI to test and validate

its technology, ensuring the satellite’s

configuration and operational parameters

meet the desired mission applications.

Providing imagery at a 15 cm (6-inch)

ground sample distance will enable EOI to

Image credit: EAASI

“The geospatial industry is making huge

strides in technology advancement,

application development, and implementation

across varied economic sectors. UNGGIM–PSN

represents an important component of the

broad geospatial ecosystem and is committed

to representing and supporting sustainable

development goals (SDGs) and aligning itself

with the values and purpose of commonality

and cohesiveness of UNGGIM”, explained

Mr. Sanjay Kumar, Chair UN-GGIM PSN (CEO,

Geospatial World).

The United Nations Committee of Experts on

Global Geospatial Information Management

(UNGGIM) was established in July 2011

by the Economic and Social Council of the

UN (ECOSOC), to strengthen international

cooperation in the area of global geospatial

information management.

Earth Observant Inc. (EOI Space) inks deal with


deliver worldwide high-resolution imagery

and location data in a timely manner, never

previously seen from commercial satellites.

“This is an exciting time for us as EOI will

be the first private company to operate in

VLEO. Our first satellite launch is just the

beginning of EOI’s mission to provide the

highest resolution commercially available

imagery and near real-time data delivery to

our government and commercial customers,”

said Christopher Thein, CEO of EOI. “We look

forward to working with SpaceX on additional

rideshares as we complete manufacturing a

series of satellite rollouts in the near future.”

6 September-October issue l 2022 www.africasurveyorsonline.com


LiDAR and Digital Surface Models from Bluesky Aid Wind Farm Planning

An Irish hydrological consultancy firm

is saving significant time and expense

by using LiDAR datasets from Bluesky

International, the aerial survey and mapping

company. Hydro-Environmental Services (HES)

carries out essential analysis for public and

private clients to determine optimal layouts

(from a drainage and environmental impact

perspective) for wind farm sites that are often

planned in remote upland forested areas.

Mapping prevailing drainage patterns is a key

part of the assessment stage in addition to

ensuring that existing areas of environmental

importance, like peatlands which store carbon,

are not significantly disturbed. Michael Gill is

a Director at HES and he explains: “To analyse

the drainage patterns for proposed wind

farm sites we need a clear picture of where

the existing streams and drainage channels

are located. Available national river mapping

only goes so far in providing the information

we need, so for a more detailed site-specific

picture of current drainage

patterns we are now using

LiDAR imagery from Bluesky.

The LiDAR data means we can

generate a comprehensive

and accurate definition of

site drainage in advance of

site surveys when groundtruthing

and environmental

monitoring are undertaken.

Importantly, the enhanced

drainage definition we can

extract from the LiDAR data

is used in our constraints studies to identify

areas of proposed sites that are not suitable

for development.”

HES is using Bluesky’s Digital Terrain Models

(DTM) specifically to analyse areas under

tree canopies to assess what is happening

in terms of forestry drainage. Mr Gill added:

“Using the DTM data we can digitise forestry

Image credit: Bluesky

drainage to supplement and enhance our

drainage mapping datasets. We can then

export the enhanced drainage mapping to

engineering drawings and integrate into

proposed drainage plans for wind farm site

planning applications. Without these data, we

would have to physically survey the undertree

canopy areas and this would prove near

impossible given the scale and topography of

many of the sites.”

Groupe Gorgé completes the acquisition of iXblue, paving the way to

bringing ECA Group and iXblue together

Groupe Gorgé has announced having

reached a major milestone with

the acquisition of iXblue. This

operation, that will bring ECA Group and

iXblue together, will lead to the rise of a

European high-tech industrial champion

in the fields of robotics, maritime,

navigation, aerospace and photonics.

The two companies will benefit from a

global workforce of 1,500 people and

will achieve an annual turnover of €250

million. Together, iXblue and ECA Group

will provide customers with a unique offer

ranging from components to complex

systems to support critical missions in

severe environments.

“In addition to our complementary activities,

both our companies share a common

DNA centered around innovation and

entrepreneurship. This acquisition by Groupe

Gorgé, that puts iXblue and ECA Group under

the same roof, will enable us to create new

synergies and strengthen our capacity to

invest in research and development to offer

Image credit: iXblue and ECA Group

solutions that are always at the cutting edge

of technology,” rejoices Fabien Napolitano,

President & CEO of iXblue.

Dominique Giannoni, CEO of ECA Group, adds:

“With the combination of the technological

expertise and global footprint of the two

companies, we will provide unmatched value

to our customers through our comprehensive

portfolio of products and solutions. This

operation consolidates our leadership in

our markets and offers excellent growth

prospects. The teams of our two companies

have already started working closely together.

We see great development opportunities that

we are eager to share with our customers.”


September-October issue l 2022 7

FEBRUARY 13-15,2023



The intersection of


the built world

Accomplish a year’s worth of

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8 September-October issue l 2022 www.africasurveyorsonline.com


Offshore Technology Africa 2022

With 18,950 miles of coastline, shared by 38 Countries,

newly discovered offshore gas reserves, extensive

offshore wind potential, technological advancements

in tidal power, ocean current power, OTEC, and marine floating

PV. Africa’s offshore energy potential is perhaps the most

underdeveloped resource across the continent.

Offshore Technology Africa (OTA) launches in Cape Town, South

Africa, in November 2022 to enable Governments, Financiers,

Developers, Solution and Technology providers to come together

to expedite the unlocking of Africa’s vast and transformative

offshore energy potential.

Offshore Technology Africa will take the form of interactive

boardrooms, allowing all participants to get involved in

collaborative and productive discussions. All attendees should

come prepared to participate in a collaborative environment and

leave with productive outcomes.

Geo Week 2023

Geo Week is the intersection of geospatial + the built world.

The event brings together AEC Next Expo & Conference, SPAR

3D Expo & Conference and the International Lidar Mapping

Forum into a single powerhouse event. Co-located partner events

include USIBD, ASPRS, MAPPS Annual Meeting. Industries covered

include Architecture, Engineering & Construction; Asset & Facility

Management; Disaster & Emergency Response; Earth Observation

& Satellite Applications; Energy & Utilities, Infrastructure &

Transportation; Land & Natural Resource Management, Mining

& Aggregates, Surveying & Mapping, and Urban Planning/Smart

Cities. The combined conference program and tradeshow floor


will feature commercial applications of 3D technologies, innovations

and case studies in the built environment, advanced airborne and

terrestrial remote sensing solutions, smart products for a full project

team and much more! Professionals from a range of disciplines will

network and gain insight into the increasing confluence of their worlds,

providing even more opportunities to support the next generation of

digital technology. It is presented by Geo Week News and organized by

Diversified Communications, a global event producer that also organizes

Commercial UAV Expo Americas, Commercial UAV Expo Europe

(Amsterdam, The Netherlands), Digital Construction Week and GEO

Business Show (London, UK).

September-October issue l 2022 9


Leica Geosystems

announces new Leica

DMC-4 airborne

imaging sensor

delivering superior

image fidelity

Leica Geosystems, part of Hexagon,

has announced the introduction

of the Leica DMC-4, a highly

efficient airborne imaging sensor providing

unsurpassed image quality for various

applications and complex mapping


The new system continues Leica Geosystems’

tradition of combining industry-leading

optics with precision mechanics to deliver

the highest mapping performance. The sensor

provides superior image fidelity by leveraging

the CMOS-based Leica MFC150 camera

module with Leica Geosystems’ unique

mechanical forward-motion-compensation

(FMC). The production-proven technology

extensively used in Hexagon’s Content

Program has already surveyed 1.2 million

square kilometres and delivers crisp, full

radiometry at faster aircraft speeds across

various operating conditions.

With over 31,500 pixels across swath, the

Image Leica Geosystems

DMC-4 maximises acquisition efficiency and

improves performance by 20% to cover larger

areas with fewer flight lines. Standard (S) and

high (H) focal length configurations enable

maximum airspace flexibility, providing a

comprehensive solution for demanding

applications and use cases. The DMC-4 was

designed with application versatility in mind,

supporting photogrammetry, remote sensing,

terrain extraction and vector mapping.

Image GeoSLAM

GeoSLAM’s software package is set to

become even more feature-rich with

three new key additions in the latest

update. The launch of Connect 2.2 offers users

of GeoSLAM software new import & export

options and the ability to merge multiple


The Connect 2.2 software package comes

after positive feedback from GeoSLAM’s

2.1 update back in April 2022. Connect

2.1 included automatic data cleaning, RGB

colourisation with the ZEB Vision, and an

integrated measuring tool.

GeoSLAM’s aim is to frequently release

software updates that further develop

workflows and create a user-friendly

environment for processing and reviewing

point cloud data.

Customers with a GeoSLAM Care subscription




alignment and

new export

options in their

latest software


will be able to freely upgrade to Connect 2.2

today, via the GeoSLAM website. The sale of

new hardware products from the ZEB family

of scanners comes with a 1-year GeoSLAM

Care package, with the chance to upgrade to

3 years, and Connect 2.2 as standard.

10 September-October issue l 2022 www.africasurveyorsonline.com


Acecore and Phase One teams up to offer

turnkey inspection solutions

Acecore Technologies the developer

and manufacturer of professional

grade UAVs for data collection and

surveillance markets, announces a new

product collaboration with Phase One, the

world-leading developer and manufacturer of

medium and large format aerial photography

systems. This marks the next step in the

collaboration to offer customers a full turnkey


“It has been two years since we first

announced a full integration with Phase

One iXM-range cameras” said Jorrit Linders,

Founder and CEO of Acecore. “We used to

build our own camera control hardware and

made it communicate to the pilot on the

ground – with the introduction of the P3

we immediately knew our workload would

decrease and the integration would become

seamless to the end user. We’re excited to see

our product mature and offer an improved

user experience together with Phase One.”

“We’re very excited to intensify our

established partnership with Acecore

technologies. said Michael Messerschmidt,

Unmanned Portfolio Director at Phase One.

“Our new turnkey bundle with Acecore

Technologies’s Zeo drone and the Phase One

P3 payload, will deliver superior efficiency

and enable customers to capture the smallest

details, from the furthest distance, in any

weather conditions. Allowing us to provide

the very best inspection and mapping

solution for those looking at state-of-the-art

surveillance technologies and solutions.”

Teledyne DALSA extends its Falcon area scan

camera series with new 37M and 67M models

Teledyne DALSA is pleased to announce

its new Falcon4-CLHS M6200 and

M8200 cameras, based on Teledyne

e2v’s Emerald 37M and 67M monochrome


The new Falcon4-CLHS models deliver higher

resolution, added functionality and ease

of use with a CLHS interface that has been

engineered for industrial imaging applications

requiring high-speed data transfer. These

models can reach multiple thousands of

frames per second in either partial scan mode,

or when using the Multi-ROI mode, with up to

32 distinct region of interest. Additionally, the

updated firmware enables appending detailed

meta data to each ROI linked to different light

sources, while new multi-ROI or moving ROI

in sequencer or cycling modes deliver higher

frame rates and added functionality.

“The Teledyne e2v Emerald 37M & 67M

CMOS image sensors provide excellent


performance and image quality for any

machine vision applications that requires

true high-performance imaging,” said Manny

Romero, Senior Product Manager at Teledyne

DALSA. “With the addition of these latest

Falcon4-CLHS models, we are now pleased

to offer a variety of cameras ranging from the

high-speed 11.2M camera with frame rates

up to 609 fps in full resolution and these new

high-resolution 37 MP and 67 MP cameras

with frame rates of 120 fps and 90 fps

respectively in full resolution," he continued.

New Falcon4-CLHS

models deliver higher

resolution, added

functionality and

ease of use with a

CLHS interface |

Image Teledyne

Falcon4-CLHS cameras leverage standard

cabling technology such as CX4 and fiber

optic (AOC) cables to maximize length and

speed. Falcon4-CLHS cameras are engineered

to deliver high-speed, dependable results for

applications such as industrial automation,

flat panel display inspection, semiconductor

inspection, PCB-AOI (Automated Optical

Inspection), aerial imaging, and general

machine vision applications that require true

high-performance imaging.

September-October issue l 2022 11


Osmotic Engineering Group celebrates

international recognition and expansion

in Africa

Africa, especially in terms of water, energy

and telecommunications. “We leverage our

experience to address Africa’s problems, as

such an award is recognition of the local and

regional expertise available to us.”

Business Development Director Ronnie Khoza

adds that FIDIC provides a global platform for

consulting engineers to showcase challenges

and solutions. “This recognition means that

people sit up and take notice of us. Here is

a company we can talk to and consult and

partner with.”

L-R: Andrew Johnson, Dr Tony Igboamalu, Aldecia Johnson, Dr Frank Igboamalu and Ronnie

Khoza, Osmotic Engineering Group

Energy Director Andrew Johnson says the

award immediately places OEG on a global

level. “It is important to note we received this

recognition over other international entrants.

In terms of an African context, it really means

we have the right people here.”

Established only in 2020, Osmotic

Engineering Group (OEG) is already

making an impact on the local

consulting engineering industry. Water and

Wastewater Infrastructure Director Dr. Tony

Igboamalu was announced the winner of

the International Federation of Consulting

Engineers (FIDIC) 2022 Future Leaders Award

at a high-profile gala dinner on 12 September

2022 in Geneva.

The awards acknowledge and promote the

outstanding achievements of future leaders in

the consulting engineering industry globally.

Adam Bialachowski, chair of the judging panel

and also chair of the FIDIC Future Leaders

Advisory Council, says the judges were

unanimous in their decision.

“Dr. Tony Igboamalu has shown a high level

of achievement and a keen appreciation of

the social impact of his work, which perfectly

reflects FIDIC’s key values and the positive

difference that engineering seeks to make in

society,” says Bialachowski.

Dr. Tony Igboamalu is a professional chemical

engineer who obtained a Global Excellence

Stature (GES) 4.0 Research Fellowship in

2022 at the University of Johannesburg

looking at the application of 4IR in solving

water challenges.

With 15 years’ experience in the water

industry, he implements and manages

multidisciplinary rural and urban

development and poverty alleviation projects,

including team, technical, financial (3P) and

contracts management. His main focus is on

socioeconomic development, maintenance

management and privatisation, training,

application and transfer of appropriate

technology and skills.

“Emerging market problems are not just

about engineering but have a socioeconomic

basis as well. Solving these myriad problems

requires a multidisciplinary approach

combining finance, economics and politics.

Engineers need to be open-minded. OEG

represents the future of Africa in that we

are driving the development of our future

engineers,” comments Dr. Tony Igboamalu.

CEO Dr. Frank Igboamalu highlights that this

international validation from FIDIC means

OEG is well-placed to serve in an advisory

role with regard to infrastructure issues in

Commenting on the progress made by OEG

since its initial foray into South Africa and

Nigeria, Ronnie Khoza reveals it has opened

new offices in Ghana to focus on West Africa

and in Uganda and Kenya to serve East Africa.

The local office meanwhile covers the entire

Southern African region, including Botswana

and Namibia.

“One of our biggest achievements to date

have been our initiatives in other countries.

We approach this with due consideration and

care as we always aim to partner with local

companies. Our focus on technical advisory as

the main service offering of the future at OEG

has improved our portfolio of the type and

size of advisory projects with government and

the private sector, adding respected clients

like Rand Water, MTN and others to our list of


Another key differentiator for OEG is its

capability to partner with financiers and

investors to drive infrastructure development

on the continent. “While the client is the

main anchor, we offer complete solutions.

This means bringing in external services that

fall outside our scope if need be, such as

environmental and legal,” he concludes.

12 September-October issue l 2022 www.africasurveyorsonline.com


Clintonel Innovation Centre wins Autodesk

Learning Partner Excellence Award

Clintonel Innovation Centre (CIC) Aba

recently won the latest Autodesk

Learning Partners (ALP) Excellence

Award in the EMEAR region for its Nigerian

Genius Engineering Competition 2022.

Awarded on a quarterly basis, the Excellence

Awards recognize learning partners in Europe,

the Middle East, Africa, and Russia (EMEAR)

region for high performance, innovation and

learner satisfaction.

"We are grateful to all our partners,

especially Aspire Coronation Trust

Foundation, The Royal Academy

of Engineering, Advanced

Engineering Centre and Autodesk.”

For Autodesk – a leading global brand in

engineering software and products, the

Nigerian Genius Engineering Competition was

amazing, and the judges were particularly

impressed with Clintonel’s effort to engage

with Nigeria’s future manufacturing workforce.

The Nigerian Genius Engineering Competition

2022 brought together Nigeria’s brightest

minds in tertiary institutions to solve Nigeria’s

toughest engineering and manufacturing


The participants learnt Advanced Engineering

Skills from industry experts and were given

access to Precision Manufacturing Equipment

at CLINTONEL Advanced Engineering Centre

Aba to build engineering and manufacturing

solutions for Nigeria.


They went further to deploy the skills

acquired to design and build different

engineering products and solutions and were

ultimately given the challenge to design and

build solutions for Nigeria’s power (energy)

problems using renewable energy sources.

University of Nigeria Nsukka (UNN) was

ranked no.1 in engineering education for

the Year 2022, after emerging as the winner

in the competition. Learn more about the

Nigerian Genius Engineering Competition


Speaking on the award, Tochukwu Chukwueke,

Founder of Clintonel Innovation Centre (CIC)

said, “This international Award of Excellence

is a great honour for our organization. It is

an appreciation to all who contributed to the

success of the Nigerian Genius Engineering

Competition 2022.

We are grateful to all our partners, especially

Aspire Coronation Trust Foundation, The

Royal Academy of Engineering, Advanced

Engineering Centre and Autodesk.”

“As an organization, CLINTONEL will continue

to push and break boundaries in engineering,

innovation and capacity building till Nigeria

becomes a technology producer.”, Tochukwu


September-October issue l 2022 13


African Liquefied Natural Gas (LNG)

Makes Sense for Europe, Now and

Going Forward

Image Source: abode.com

By NJ Ayuk

In the months since the European Union declared it

would reduce its reliance on Russian oil following

that country’s invasion of Ukraine, there’s been a

lot of talk about the new opportunities this moment is

creating for Africa’s natural gas industry. I myself have

been part of that conversation, and I stand by my past


Africa’s capabilities are considerable, as the African

Energy Chamber (AEC) makes clear in our State of

African Energy Q2 2022 Report.

What’s more, certain developments within Europe are

putting African natural gas producers in a stronger

position than they have been in before with respect

to being able to fight for— and win — a larger market

share. Quite simply, there are gaps in the European

gas market that weren’t there in the past — gaps that

urgently need to be filled. The existence of those gaps

means that there’s more room for African gas now

than there used to be, particularly liquified natural

gas, which is easy to store and transport. As our report

notes, 50% of the 2022-25 cumulative gas flows from

Africa’s top-10 producers are expected to be exported

as LNG.

And, the interest in African LNG is not likely to be a

momentary blip. Going forward, new technologies and

shifting geopolitical conditions should make it easier for

African producers to maintain market share in Europe.

In short, things are changing.

More Room in The Market Right Now

For decades, Russia was the EU’s single largest provider

of gas, delivering at least a quarter to a third of its

total consumption. According to International Energy

Agency (IEA) data, the figure was even higher in 2021,

when it supplied 155 billion cubic meters (bcm) of gas,

equivalent to 45% of total imports and 40% of total


The numbers for 2022 are bound to be different. The

volume of Russian gas flowing into European markets

started going down significantly not long after the start

of the war in Ukraine. In April 2022, the share of Russian

gas in total EU imports was reported to be 31%, down

from 45% in April 2021. There’s no reason to believe the

number has gone back up since then, since April was the

last month that Russia was willing to accept payment

from most EU customers in U.S. dollars or euros instead

14 September-October issue l 2022 www.africasurveyorsonline.com

of using special ruble-denominated accounts

that are subject to sanctions. Indeed, ever

since Russia’s new payment requirement has

taken effect, European customers have had to

learn to live with abrupt cut-offs or reductions

in pipeline gas deliveries, with their Russian

supplier Gazprom citing payment difficulties

or failure to resolve technical problems as

reasons for the disruptions.

Since the end of April, these kinds of cut-offs

have happened to Poland and Bulgaria,

they’ve happened to Finland, and they’ve

happened to Germany and all the other

countries served by the Nord Stream I

network. More cut-offs are likely before the

end of the year, and no one knows exactly

how much they’re going to affect the total

volume of Russian gas shipments to Europe.

The upshot, though, is that in 2022 the

volume of delivered gasis sure to be quite a

bit lower than the 2021 figure of 155 bcm.

And that’s where African gas starts to come

into the picture.

If the EU doesn’t have enough Russian gas

this year, it will have to make up the deficit

somewhere else in order to endure the

next heating season. And in part, it’s been

trying to do so by importing more LNG from

established large-scale producers such as the

U.S. and Qatar. The EU has also been buying

more LNG from smaller-scale producers such

as Peru. But it’s also reached out to gasproducing

states in Africa. Italy, for instance,

has negotiated the purchase of additional gas

from Algeria in 2022 and is also looking to

buy more gas from Egypt and Angola in the

short term.

More Room in The Market for The

Years to Come

And European buyers aren’t just treating

African gas as a quick fix — as something to

cover the gap for the time being. Italy expects

Algeria to keep supplying extra volumes

beyond 2022, and it’s also talking to Angola,

Egypt, and the Republic of Congo about

more extensive deals. Germany is looking

to cement ties with Senegal in light of that

country’s future gas production, which is on

track to start next year. The EU has signed

a trilateral memorandum of understanding

(MoU) with Israel and Egypt in the hope of

boosting future gas imports from the Eastern

Mediterranean region.

What’s more, the EU has sent Matthew

NJ Ayuk, is the Executive Chairman

of African Energy Chamber

Baldwin, the European Commission’s deputy

director-general for energy, to Nigeria to

discuss the possibility of increased gas

supplies. Baldwin, who leads the EU’s Energy

Platform Task Force (EPTF) — set up in May

2022 to help cut Europe’s dependence on

Russian oil and gas — waxed enthusiastic

about Nigeria’s contribution to the EU’s

gas supply in an exclusive interview with

Premium Times. He noted that the West

African country already accounted for 14%

of the EU’s LNG imports, suggested that the

figure might rise to 30% or more in the long

term, and described Nigeria as a supplier that

European gas buyers could count on.

“We need more gas from Nigeria as a result

of the terrible war of aggression Russia has

mounted on Ukraine,” Baldwin declared. “We

can no longer count on gas coming from

the Russian Federation, and we want to

build a new partnership with countries like

Nigeria with whom we have an already wellestablished

partnership to obtain more gas

and LNG from you on good commercial terms.”

The Window of Opportunity Will

Remain Open

It is somewhat tempting to meet these

statements with skepticism, given that the EU

has talked about gas supply diversification for


more than 20 years and has done relatively

little to make that diversification a reality.

Yes, Brussels has supported initiatives such

as the Southern Gas Corridor (SGC), which

began delivering gas from Azerbaijan to Italy

in 2020. However, in the time it took to bring

that project to fruition, Gazprom managed to

plan one larger pipeline across the Black Sea

(South Stream), scrap that plan, draw up a

plan for another larger pipeline (TurkStream),

and then execute that plan, all while working

on an even bigger subsea pipeline to

Germany, Nord Stream 2.

I believe, however, that such skepticism would

be misplaced at this time. The EU is no longer

working in a context where the benefits of

supply diversification are theoretical and

abstract; it’s now a concrete and immediate

matter. For policy reasons, the EU wants to

deny Russia access to revenue from gas sales

and strip its status as a normal commercial

partner. For practical reasons, European gas

buyers need to find a way to make up for the

supplies missing from Russia. And for both

policy and practical reasons, Brussels wants

to deny Moscow the opportunity to continue

using gas supplies as a blunt instrument with

which to threaten Europe in the future.

The change isn’t going to be immediate. It

will take time to reduce Russia’s profile in the

EU’s energy mix. But the process of supply

reduction is underway, and it has already

opened up new opportunities for African gas

producers to acquire market share in Europe. I

expect those opportunities to last beyond the

near term, as the EU attempts to establish a

new combination of gas suppliers to replace

Russia over the next few years.

I also hope Africa’s emerging gas producers

take advantage of new LNG technologies such

as the modular Fast LNG solutions offered

by New Fortress Energy (NFE), a U.S.-based

company, to meet European demand for gas.

With these technologies, they won’t have

to wait as long or spend as much money

to begin producing the LNG that European

consumers are clamoring to buy. They can

start in two years or less, rather than waiting

five years or more, as is common with more

conventional onshore projects.

Between these new technologies and the EU’s

new policy stance, the African gas sector is

likely to look very different within just a few

years. I encourage you to read the State of

African Energy Q2 2022 Report and find out

more for yourself.


September-October issue l 2022 15


COP27 provides a once-in-a-generation

opportunity to lay foundations for

Africa’s clean energy future – finds

Wär tsilä repor t

The climate change conference COP27 offers a unique

opportunity to increase energy access and lay the foundations

for decarbonisation across Africa, but wealthy nations must

deliver on their climate finance pledges to unlock the continent’s

potential, according to a new report.

‘Pathways for Africa’s Energy Future,’ a report from the technology

group Wärtsilä, provides power system modelling of three African

countries, Nigeria, South Africa and Mozambique. It finds that they

can leapfrog some developed nations by not embedding inflexible

fossil fuel-based systems. To enable such a massive transformation

a combination of climate finance, effective planning and system

reforms will be essential.

The report demonstrates that replacing coal with renewable energy

combined with flexibility from engines and energy storage is the

most effective way to reduce energy costs, increase energy access

and improve reliability. The modelling found that renewable energy

and flexibility can generate enough energy to provide power for

close to 100 million people in South Africa, Mozambique and Nigeria

who currently do not have energy access, if it were matched with

the required grid infrastructure. These systems will require a total

investment of around USD 119 billion over the next decade, which

will not be possible unless wealthy nations deliver on the promise

made in 2009 to deliver USD 100 billion annually in climate finance

from 2020.

Håkan Agnevall, President and CEO, Wärtsilä Corporation said:

“Despite contributing less than 3% of the world’s energy-related

carbon emissions, African countries are among the hardest hit by

climate change. COP27, hosted in Egypt, is the perfect opportunity

to deliver on global climate finance pledges so that, as a global

community, we can seize this moment to act and unlock Africa’s

renewable potential. That investment must be combined with

effective planning and system reforms to increase energy access and

create the renewable energy systems of the future.”

Wärtsilä modelled power system decarbonisation pathways for three

countries in Africa, each with different starting points and facing

differing challenges. Key findings:

• Nigeria can cut electricity costs by 74% on its path to net

zero by 2060. Wärtsilä’s modelling shows that Nigeria can build

a 100% renewable net zero power system by 2060, comprising

around 1,200 GW of clean capacity, in line with its ’30-30-30’ and

Image: Africa can leapfrog to a renewable and reliable energy future and

increase energy access © Wärtsilä Corporation

net zero targets. The impact is significant, with the cost of electricity

generation predicted to drop by 74% by 2060 compared to 2022

levels and emissions dropping to zero.

• South Africa can solve its load-shedding dilemma and save

USD 26 billion by 2032. By adding 40 GW of wind and solar PV, South

Africa can build a power system that would meet current and future

energy demand. This can deliver a 17% reduction in power system

emissions and reduce energy system costs by USD 10 billion per year

by 2032.

• Mozambique can reduce emissions and save USD 84

million. By adding 200 MW of low-cost renewable energy annually,

Mozambique can build 3 GW of clean capacity by 2032, supported by

205 MW of new energy storage capacity and 1 GW of grid balancing

engine capacity. This would cut 5.6 million tonnes of carbon

emissions between 2022-2032 and save USD 84 million on the cost

of electricity production.

Wärtsilä produced this modelling using independent market

simulation software PLEXOS to support African countries that wish

to shape multi-year plans to build their optimal power systems for

the future. Across the continent, countries can help to stimulate

investment by setting out clear strategies to build well-functioning

flexible renewable grids, showcasing the new opportunities those

conditions create, such as green hydrogen production. Regulatory

reform is also needed to place a value on flexibility and encourage

the market. Doing so will help to lay the foundations for more flexible

and reliable grids able to support high levels of renewable energy,

while increasing energy access

16 September-October issue l 2022 www.africasurveyorsonline.com


Terrestrial Surveying

Terrestrial surveying involves the collection of accurate measurements of heights

and distances. It is often used to plan and construct construction projects and can

supplement existing data from satellite remote sensing and aerial surveys. These

surveys are used to record the relative location of features such as buildings and roads. Several

types of surveying equipment are used.

Terrestrial Surveying|Image: Fugro

In addition to using

GPS, terrestrial

laser scanning is

a useful tool in

measuring land

mass. This method

records a dense

array of distance

returns over a

large area. The

resulting data can

be used to create a

detailed digital 3-D

landscape model.

The data generated

can also be merged

with digital

photographs to

create photorealistic

3-D landscape



In geomorphology, the use of Terrestrial Laser Scanning (TLS) is driven by the need for accurate

and rapid topographic data. The data obtained from repeat surveys allows researchers to

unravel complex space-time variations in landforms and landscapes. It also helps establish

strong links between processes and forms. In geomorphology, repeat surveys have been used

to understand and model processes such as hillslope-channel coupling, a phenomenon that

involves hydrological and topographical changes in alpine drainages.

The use of GPS has reduced the human resources required for surveying in the field. The use

of total stations and laser scanners has also simplified the execution process. The most recent

technologies include 3D laser scanners and terrestrial lasergrammetry. These technologies are

fast, reliable, and accurate. In addition, they can be integrated into a variety of applications.

Besides using GPS and satellite imaging, surveyors also use ancillary equipment to complete

their work. Surveyors use instruments such as leveling instruments to level the surface of the

land. They also use beacons to locate landmarks and landforms. They also wear protective

equipment to avoid exposure to dangerous environments. Before Electronic Distance Measuring

(EDM), the primary method of determining a position on earth's surface was triangulation. With

this method, the surveyors could measure a distance between objects by using their existing

position on a map or plan. They could then use this information to calculate the heights and

distances of other objects.

In addition to using GPS, terrestrial laser scanning is a useful tool in measuring land mass. This

method records a dense array of distance returns over a large area. The resulting data can be

used to create a detailed digital 3-D landscape model. The data generated can also be merged

with digital photographs to create photorealistic 3-D landscape models.

With its numerous applications, drones are fast becoming a valuable addition to the land

surveyor's toolkit. Drone mapping has a number of advantages, including reduced costs, time,

and risk. The use of drones is increasingly common in oil and gas exploration, and the energy

industry has adopted this technology in many projects.

Early surveys were performed using primitive instruments, but modern surveying techniques

were first developed during the 18th century. The first precision theodolite, invented by Jesse

Ramsden, was introduced to the public in 1787. It was originally used for testing new military

aircraft instruments, but it was later modified to be a commercial aerial photogrammetry

system. Then, Vladimir Zworykin invented the kinescope. This instrument was widely used for

land surveying.

Another important aspect of Terrestrial Surveying is the definition of station positions. This is

critical for the success of the project, and must be based on material characteristics and terrain

constraints. The position of each station must be determined accurately, and the parameters

must be grouped to ensure the best coverage of the surface. Since the scanners lift everything

they "see", a clean cloud of points must be created, which helps eliminate the noise.

September-October issue l 2022 17


Ivanhoe awarded new

exploration rights in South


Ivanhoe Mines (TSX: IVN) has been

granted three new highly prospective

exploration rights covering total surface

area of 80 square kilometres adjacent to

the company’s Platreef project in Limpopo

province, South Africa.

Platreef is a palladium, rhodium, nickel,

platinum, copper and gold development

project that is 64% owned by Ivanhoe. A

26% interest is held by Ivanhoe’s broadbased,

black economic empowerment

(B-BBEE) partners, which include 20 local

host communities with approximately

150,000 people, project employees and local

entrepreneurs. A Japanese consortium owns

the remaining 10% interest.

The project hosts a thick, underground

deposit known as Flatreef, containing

approximately 58.8 million oz. of precious

metals (palladium, rhodium, platinum and

gold), as well as 6.2 billion lb. of copper

and nickel in indicated resources, plus 94.3

million oz. of precious metals and 11.9 billion

lb. of copper and nickel in inferred resources.

It is located on the northern limb of South

Africa’s Bushveld Complex, where platinum

group metals mineralization is primarily

hosted within the Platreef, a mineralized

sequence that is traced more than 30 km

along strike.

Ivanhoe’s project, within the Platreef’s

southern sector, comprises two contiguous

properties: Turfspruit and Macalacaskop.

Turfspruit, the northernmost property, is

contiguous to Anglo Platinum’s Mogalakwena

group of properties. The Flatreef deposit lies

entirely on the Turfspruit and Macalacaskop


Phase 1 average annual production is

expected to be 113,000 oz. of precious

metals, plus 5 million lb. of nickel and 3

million lb. of copper. The average annual

production of the Phase 2 expansion is

expected to increase to 591,000 oz., plus

26 million lb. of nickel and 16 million lb. of


Platreef is projected to become Africa’s

lowest-cost producer of platinum group

metals, nickel, copper and gold.

New exploration


The new exploration rights form a continuous

block situated on the southwest border of

Ivanhoe’s existing Platreef mining rights at

Turfspruit and Macalacaskop, which together

cover 78 square kilometres in area.

The exploration rights overlap a significant

geophysical gravity anomaly known as the

“Mokopane Feeder”, the centre of which is

located approximately 10 km from Platreef’s

Shaft 1.

“The Bushveld Complex sits among the most

unique and valuable mineral endowments

on our planet. These exploration rights are

postulated to be geologically significant

by our leading geoscientists. The new

exploration rights are located at the

intersection of a highly significant gravity

geophysical anomaly and major regional

geological structures,” said Robert Friedland,

Ivanhoe’s executive co-chairman.

“Therefore, the ‘Mokopane Feeder’ may be

related to the actual source of the giant

mineralizing system feeding the entire

northern limb of the Bushveld Complex,” he


The Bushveld Complex is currently the largest

known, layered igneous complex in the world

and is host to the largest known reserves

of platinum group metals, chromium and

vanadium, as well as gold and base metals

including nickel and copper.

According to the geological team at Ivanhoe,

the “Mokopane Feeder” anomaly is the most

significant gravity feature in the entire

Bushveld Complex. Academic studies based

on historical data hypothesized that the

anomaly represents a primary feeder zone to

the Rustenburg layered suite of the northern


To better understand the conceptual

“Mokopane Feeder” target, Ivanhoe said it will

begin a detailed high-resolution, airbornemagnetic

and gradiometer-gravity survey over

the project area. The surveys are expected to

be completed in early 2023.

The initial scope of the development plan is

to fast-track Platreef into production, starting

with an initial 700,000 t/y underground mine

using the existing Shaft 1 and a new on-site

concentrator. First concentrate production

from Phase 1 is planned for Q3 2024, with

the Phase 2 expansion expected following

the commissioning of Shaft 2 in 2027.

Aerial view of the Platreef project showcasing latest construction activities, with Shaft 1 on the

right and Shaft 2 hitch-to-collar construction in the center. Credit: Ivanhoe Mines

18 September-October issue l 2022 www.africasurveyorsonline.com


South Africa's mining sector

contracts in August as gold

production down 17.4%

Miners work deep underground at Sibanye Gold's Masimthembe shaft in Westonaria, South

Africa, April 3, 2017. Image Credit: Reuters

By Vladimir Basov

According to Statistics South Africa

(StatsSA), the domestic mining

production decreased by 5.9% yearon-year

in August 2022.

StatsSA said that largest negative contributors

were platinum group metals (a decline of

12.9%, contributing -3.1 percentage points);

gold (-17.4%, contributing -3.0 percentage

points); and iron ore (-15.2%, contributing

-2.0 percentage points). Manganese ore was a

significant positive contributor (an increase of

25.4%, contributing 1.5 percentage points).

The agency added that seasonally adjusted

mining production in South Africa was flat in

August 2022 compared with July 2022. This

followed month-on-month changes of 3.1% in

July 2022 and -1.0% in June 2022.

According to the report, the country’s

seasonally adjusted mining production

increased by 0.6% in the three months

ended August 2022 compared with the

previous three months, mainly due to the

higher production of manganese ore, which

was partially offset by lower production of

platinum group metals.


September-October issue l 2022 19


Wildfires in Africa

Causes and effects of wildfires

Image: SWT

By Dorcas Kang’ereha

Using satellite images, NASA has found

that there are more wildfires in Africa

than in the Amazon. According to NASA,

70 percent of the total area burned by fire

around the world is Africa and 90 percent

of these fires are human-caused. While fires

are a natural part of the ecosystem, they

Image courtesy

NCC Type 1 firefighters working the line on a wildfire

can also pose a serious threat to human life.

Fires in Africa are often sparked by lightning

strikes, and most of them occur during the

wet season. According to ICPAC June 2020

report Zooming into the Eastern Africa

region, wildfires in the region are a regular

occurrence especially after the rainy season,

when the environment is conducive for fire.

They are a natural cycle in many ecosystems,

especially the savanna, but also in the forest

ecosystems. The region experiences two

fire seasons in a year’s circle that is, April to

August in the areas south of the Equator and

September to March in the areas north of the


“It all depends on context, time of the

year, frequency, etc. Some of the negative

impacts can range from air pollution,

excessive erosion, loss of species; damage

to infrastructure, negative impacts on the

economy and livelihoods, loss of life is also

possible,” asserts Dean Ferreira, Managing

Director at NCC Environmental Services (Pty)

LTD. “In some ecosystems, if wildfires occur

at the incorrect frequency or season, if the

fire intensity is too high (or too low), the

ecosystem can be damaged due to a loss

of species and even affecting ecosystem

services such as water retention or carbon

sequestration,” he adds.

Conferring to Global Forest Watch (GFW),

South Africa’s peak fire season typically

begins in late June and lasts around 20 weeks.

There were 6,883 VIIRS fire alerts reported

between 11th of October 2021 and 3rd of

October 2022 considering high confidence

alerts only. This is high compared to previous

years going back to 2012, says GFW. The

online monitoring platform further discloses

that, From 2001 to 2021, South Africa lost

116kha of tree cover from fires and 1.41Mha

from all other drivers of loss. The year with

the most tree cover loss due to fires during

this period was 2017 with 20.5kha lost to

fires — 22% of all tree cover loss for that year.

In Western Africa, UNISDR Regional Subsahara

Wildland Fire Network indicates that, fire

is a regular feature in the landscape of

most West African countries especially in

areas dominated by savanna and woodland

vegetation. More recently wildfires have

become annual events in the forest and

forest transition zones of some countries (e.g.

Ghana). The causes of wildfire occurrence are

quite similar in most member countries in the

West African region and are mostly humancaused.

In spite of these negative impacts,

most countries lack a holistic and efficient

system for preventing and controlling

wildfires. Consequently, the problem of

rampant wildfires continues to persist.

Since early August, 106 fires have broken out

in Algeria, destroying 800 hectares of forest

and 1,800 hectares of woodlands, this is

according to Interior Minister Kamel Beldjoud,

who said some had been caused by arson.

20 September-October issue l 2022 www.africasurveyorsonline.com


A counter fire in the Fynbos Biome | image NCC Environmental Services (Pty) LTD

The recent wildfires in eastern Algeria have

killed at least 43 people and 200 people

were injured. Officials have not confirmed

the numbers but local media has said that

the death toll may be higher. This is due to

scorching air temperatures and dry conditions

as well the lack of fire-fighting aircraft by the


In Central African Republic the peak fire

season typically begins in late November and

lasts around 14 weeks. There were 11,706

VIIRS fire alerts reported between 11th of

October 2021 and 3rd of October 2022, this is

according to Global Forest Watch.

While the numbers of fires are significantly

higher than those in the Amazon, forest fires

in Africa are an ongoing concern due to the

rainforests. People ignite fires to open up new

areas for farming. Cattle farmers light fires in

the savannahs to stimulate nutritious grass

for animals and to control parasitic ticks.

These fires often get out of hand and become

difficult to put out. As a result, up to half of

the Serengeti grasslands burn every year.

This region is renowned for the migration of

wildebeest and other safari animals. In order

to prevent future fires, education campaigns

are mandatory.

“Each year more and more areas of Kenya’s

precious water towers are being lost to wild

fires. If this is to continue, where will Kenyans

get their water from in the future?” Questions

Toby Dunn, Director at Farmland Aviation Ltd.

Fires are a common problem throughout

Africa, and their extent is becoming much

greater in some parts of the continent. Some

of the fires are caused by farmers performing

prescribed burns. These burns are often

conducted during the dry season. However,

it is important to note that the number of

fires does not necessarily mean that there is

ecological damage.

“It is also very important to understand that


wildfires are part of the African landscape and

not all wildfires are bad. Certain ecosystems

are not only fire prone, but also fire driven.

The Fynbos Biome, the most diverse biome

on the planet, requires fire to maintain this

unique diversity, as long as they occur during

the right season and at the appropriate

frequency. African landscapes are burnt to

ensure grazing, reduction in fuel, for localized

agriculture and this indigenous practice has

occurred for 100’s, if not 1000’s of years. The

landscape has adapted to this. Africa is the

fire continent and wildfires will be part of it

for 100’s of years to come,” states Dean.

“Broadly speaking, veld fires are a very

necessary in rejuvenating the veld, getting

rid of bush, parasites, and of course, the

ash provides much needed fertilizer to the

new growth,” says Mark Jackson, Owner at

Leading Edge Aviation. “It is when the veld

is not allowed to burn, normally around a 15

year cycle, that disastrous fires take place.

Our task is to help extinguish the fires that

threaten the urban interface. We protect

people’s homes, farms and of course their

lives in extreme cases. During an initial

attack concept last Cape fire season, we saved

property worth an estimated R94m and no

one fell into harm’s way,” he articulates.

Researchers have found that wildfires are

caused by several factors, including climate

change. Climate variability is one cause,

although widespread management practices

has reduced flammable materials in forests.

Nevertheless, wildfires are responsible for

3 to 8 percent of terrestrial net primary

productivity each year. These fires release

between 1.7 and 4.1 gigatonnes of carbon

into the atmosphere.

Even so, the fire frequency in tropical Africa

is expected to decrease, it will remain high

in certain regions. The Sahel and southern

Africa are particularly vulnerable to fire.

This is because grasslands burn more easily

and prevent the forest from regrowing.

Additionally, recent El Nino events may have

increased the frequency of fires in these

areas. However, there are a number of ways to

mitigate the risk of wildfires in Africa.

Ways to mitigate the blazes

In his opinion, Toby recommends to rapidly

attack wildfires while they are still small to

contain their spread. “Aircraft can respond

to a fire in the wilderness a lot quicker than

teams on the ground. Farmland Aviation Ltd

uses purpose built Air tractors to contain the

wild fires giving the ground crews time to get

on sight and mop up the remaining embers.

It’s a proven strategy for preventing greater

wildfire damage while substantially reducing

firefighting costs,” he affirms.

“The cheapest fire is the one that is

extinguished immediately. Every fire starts

small, and only time allows it to grow. The

bigger the fire, the more dangerous and costly

it becomes. Our company hopes to continue

with our QRF, bringing a new dimension to

aerial fire-fighting in the Cape,” acclaims Mark.

According to Dean, integrated wildfire

management is one of the tools to mitigate

the risk of devastating wildfires. Dean further

elaborates on wildfire management and the

components of mitigating the risk. “There

are 5 components of integrated wildfire

management and to mitigate the risk, land

managers, policy makers, politicians and

those that control the purse strings need to

recognize this and devise strategies for their

own context.”

The 5 R’s are:

1. Reduction – community education,

awareness and advocacy, fire (fuel) break,

alien clearing, risk reduction burns, prescribed


2. Readiness – preparedness to

respond in the event of a wildfire –

September-October issue l 2022 21


Leading Edge Aviation’s Black Hawk refuelling

at a fire

ongoing training and fitness, equipment

preparedness, practicing and checking

3. Response – mobilizing, in a safe

manner, to suppress the fire within the

objectives of the landscape e.g. initial and

direct attack or allow for indirect in areas

that ecologically require to be burnt and

the conditions permit that.

4. Restoration – post the event,

replacing/acquiring lost or damaged

equipment, fixing of roads, fence, potential

erosion sites, etc

5. Research – undertaking

applicable research into IWFM, equipment,

fire regimes, crew safety, nutrition, etc.

“Education and community wildfire resilience is critical (the first

R). Too much time and resources are dedicated to readiness and

response. Not enough effort is put into the final two R’s – Restoration

and Research,” says Dean.

“The context of the landscape in question needs to be understood and

the appropriate application of the 5 R’s then needs to be strategized

and implemented. One common theme from around the world is that

we (firefighters) have spent so much time stopping fires, which the

consequence is now a massive amount of fuel build up, that when

these unburnt areas burn, the outcomes can be devastating. Climate

changes is exacerbating this,” he adds.

Leading Edge Aviation Huey’s

Nonetheless, as global temperatures continue to rise, wildfires will

become more frequent and more destructive. In fact, the UN has

issued a report warning that humans are contributing to the problem.

While most wildfires are caused by human activities, they are also a

major contributor to climate change. The nutrient-rich aerosol from

Africa contributes almost half of the phosphorus found in the Amazon

Basin. As a result, the African continent plays an important role in the

Amazonian ecosystem.

“Finally – we need to ensure that our responders are properly trained,

kitted out and competent to perform their tasks when they are called

on. Responding to wildfires is dangerous!” recommends Dean.

22 September-October issue l 2022 www.africasurveyorsonline.com

Inclination Monitoring

Has Never Been

So Easy

Ready-to-use & Service Free Technology

for Marine Construction

V-LOC calculates your assets real-time coordinates

thanks to open-source tags which are affixed to them.

Our technology is embedded inside a calibrated

camera which exists in both air and subsea versions

for highly accurate marine surveys.


SBG Systems new Inertial Navigation

System is the perfect tool for UAV

GEOxyz Presents surveying TerraSond to Support

New Hybrid Survey Vessel

SBG Systems announces the new

Quanta Micro product embedding,

in an extremely compact form factor,

a dual-frequency/quad constellations GNSS

receiver for centimetric position with a very

high performance IMU.

High-end Inertial Navigation

Technology in the Smallest Form


The company is proud to present its new

RTK capable, miniature inertial sensor called

Quanta Micro. With its incredibly reduced

size and weight (50 x 37 x 23 mm and 38g)

and The its Geo high-end Ocean VI offshore performance survey vessel. (centimetric

positioning, roll/pitch with less than 0.02°

error and heading with less than 0.06°

error) Quanta Micro is the perfect tool for all

geodata applications specialist. that require extreme SWaP-C

and has already been selected for the

development of LiDAR payloads for UAV and

mobile mapping systems.

The acquisition of the offshore survey vessel Geo Ocean VI marks the next step

in the expansion of the offshore survey capacities of GEOxyz, the Belgium-based

With a focus on delivering next-generation geodata acquisition solutions, the

GEOxyz Group is strategically investing in its offshore survey fleet. With the

acquisition of the hybrid propulsion vessel Geo Ocean VI, GEOxyz is further

specializing in providing greener, more sustainable and smarter solutions for

hydrographic, geophysical and geotechnical surveys.

To achieve such performance in even the

hardest conditions, Quanta Micro benefits

from SBG Systems unique experience in

designing and manufacturing inertial sensors,

including an individual calibration of each of

the manufactured sensor across the full range

of working temperature (-40°C to +85°C).

Equipped with a fully integrated launch and recovery system, the vessel is

also ready to act as mother vessel for hydrographic survey ASVs. This creates

a flexible all-round platform that is cost and operationally efficient and meets

today’s and tomorrow’s offshore survey requirements. The Geo Ocean VI is a

green and versatile multidisciplinary offshore survey vessel, fitted for geophysical

as well as geotechnical survey work. She will be permanently

equipped with specifically selected survey equipment and

ready to serve the offshore industry.

SBG SystemsCompact and

Powerful but easy to use and


Despite its compact form factor, Quanta micro

embeds all the features usually present in the

other state-of-the art SBG inertial sensors: a

built-in datalogger, Ethernet connectivity, a

PTP server, multiple serial ports, a CAN port,

etc. It is easy to configure with a user-friendly

built-in web configuration interface; but can

also be configured using SBG systems API or

ROS drivers.


Vineyard Wind 1 Project

TerraSond, a product and service line brand in Acteon’s geoservices segment,

plans to invest in a new base in Massachusetts as part of its commitment to

support the Vineyard Wind 1 project and wider U.S. offshore wind


The company, which already has facilities in Alaska and Texas, has been

confirmed as a preferred supplier for the subsea balance of plant inspection

and survey services for the Vineyard Wind 1 wind farm, a joint venture

between Avangrid Renewables and Copenhagen Infrastructure Partners. The

wind farm will be situated 15 miles south of Martha’s Vineyard and

Nantucket, and 35 miles from mainland Massachusetts. It will be the first

major commercial-scale offshore wind farm in U.S. waters. The new

TerraSond facility is likely to be located in the Bristol County area of

Massachusetts and will create local employment opportunities.

performances, the data acquired from the

Quanta Micro can easily be post-processed

using Qinertia: SBG own PPK tool (Post-

Processing Kinematic). This allows to process

the data with tight coupling of the GNSS and

Inertial data, and a merge of forward and

backward solutions allowing to maintain

centimetric precision even during multiple

seconds of GNSS outages; and improves

heading errors to less than 0.035° and roll/

pitch to less than 0.015°.

TerraSond is already committed to the U.S. East Coast offshore wind industry

through its site investigation surveys and operating and maintenance

inspections. The Vineyard Wind 1 balance of plant work, which will add to the

company’s solid experience and track record, covers turbine foundation

remotely operated vehicle inspections and export and array cable seabed

surveys, alongside a range of other subsea integrity and operational services

from across the Acteon group.

While the Quanta Micro supports dual GNSS

Antenna mode to improve heading accuracy Qinertia flavors range from the desktop

in low dynamic applications, it has been version with a user-friendly Graphical

designed maintain exceptional heading User Interface (GUI), but can also be easily

performances even in single antenna. This integrated into any processing pipelines with

makes it the right tool for UAV payloads that the various options available such as the

cannot embed two GNSS antennas.

Command Line Interface (CLI) to integrate

within workflows running on a desktop

Post processing with Qinertia

computer or the private or public cloud

TerraSond’s new facility solutions and the wider for services workflows offered running by on a server.

Acteon are set to deliver a world-class offshore wind farm

To further enhance its extreme real-time

for Massachusetts.


24 September-October issue l 2022 www.africasurveyorsonline.com

Hydro INTERNATIONAL | ISSUE 2 2022 | 9


Tesmec launches a high precision 3D Digital Twin

integrated system

Tesmec, leading group in the

market for infrastructure

technologies (overhead,

underground and railways) for the

transport of electricity, data and

materials (oil and derivates, gas and

water), as well as surface mining and

quarrying technologies, on the occasion

of Bauma 2022 launches its brand new

Mobile Mapping System (MMS), an

integrated radar mapping system of the

underground and high-precision digital

3D survey of the environment above.

The Mobile Mapping System is

equipped with a detection system

installed on the top and an Explorer

2.0 Georadar. The survey system is

designed to perform a georeferenced

3D reconstruction through the union

of two types of data: the 3D point

cloud obtained through the use of

LIDAR technology; the 3D point cloud

obtained through stereoscopy algorithms applied to the images

acquired by high resolution matrix cameras.

The resulting point cloud with the image superimposed is then

subjected to digital re-elaboration processing carried out by

sophisticated artificial intelligence networks in order to get a

georeferenced and accurate mapping. The MMS detection system

has an accuracy of about 2 cm and returns a cloud of points of

the surrounding environment that can be consulted on the cloud

platform, useful for proper planning of the construction site.

Explorer 2.0, è il modello Tesmec di georadar ad altissima precisione

dotato di 32 antenne che scansionano il suolo fino a una profondità

di 96 cm, e che è in grado di operare, trainato dal veicolo, ad una

velocità massima di 17 km/h. L'output generato da Explorer 2.0,

consiste nella mappatura delle infrastrutture interrate esistenti,

utile per le attività di indagini preliminari allo scavo. L'uso del

geroradar permette infatti di accorciare/ridurre i tempi di esecuzione

dei lavori, di garantire la sicurezza dei cantieri e di consentire una

maggiore precisione nei lavori di scavo evitando le possibilità di

danneggiamento delle utenze sotterranee esistenti.

Explorer 2.0 is the Tesmec very high precision georadar equipped with

32 antennas that scan the ground up to a depth of 96 cm, and which

is able to operate, towed by the vehicle, at a maximum speed of 17

km / h. The output generated by Explorer 2.0 consists of the mapping

of existing underground infrastructures, useful for preliminary

excavation investigations. In fact, the use of the geroradar allows to

reduce the execution times of the works, to guarantee the safety of


Tesmec remote control devices support|image Tesmec

construction sites and to allow greater precision in excavation work,

avoiding the possibility of damage to existing underground utilities.

The integration of the two surveys makes it possible to get a 3D digital

mapping on a cloud platform, on which the As-Built map generated by

"SmartTracker" Tesmec can be superimposed. An integrated dashboard

with a GIS engine is available through a web platform for displaying

the information from the surveys and processing, which allows

the georeferenced and simultaneous display of data. The specially

configured interfaces allow navigation within different types of data,

such as visible images and high-resolution videos, thermal images,

laser point clouds and three-dimensional BIM models.

With the presentation to the market of this high-tech solution,

Tesmec's participation in Bauma 2022 is confirmed under the banner of

Digital Transformation. "The Mobile Mapping System is a solution that

can be combined with excavation technology and is complementary

to it. The Digital Transformation has naturally pushed us towards the

creation of a new portfolio of technologies and business models."

affirms Marco Quarta, New Technology Manager. "This is a further

step towards the supply of integrated solutions for the underground

laying of high-techcables. The product is part of the Group's growth

strategy, under the banner of digitalization, sustainability and energy

transition, with the aim to bring the advanced image processing and

artificial intelligence skills acquired by the Group in different verticals

to markets that are still unexplored."

September-October issue l 2022 25





Tel. 03 9466 5255


our new generation of electric work robots

more powerful more intelligent more future-flexible

world leader in electric underwater robotics


Drone technology elevates innovation in water risk


© iStock/aerogondo

By Guy Schumann

Drone technology can provide

high-quality products or

services, and offer costeffective

and tailor-made

high-end solutions especially

as a low-cost non-contact

alternative to small aircrafts,

for acquiring high-precision

data over areas that are

typically too small for

satellites to detect any detail.

Moreover, they help to keep

manned aircrafts costeffective

While challenges remain in

incorporating the wide use of

drone technology, RSS-Hydro is

leading several innovative projects for

the use of drones in water-based risk


Many remote sensing technologies

are present in both industry and

academia – ranging from ground-based

sensors to airborne and space-based

platforms – measuring a very large

amount of important environmental

parameters for sustaining ecosystem

services, environmental management,

transportation, and weather, just to name

some of the major fields of application.

Market opportunities of


One of the leading sectors where remote

sensing, particularly ground-based

and airborne, has seen major advances

in the last few decades is agriculture.

More recently, it has become one of

the leading application sectors in the

drone market. Drone technology was

introduced into the sector more than two

decades ago.1 Nowadays, the second and

sixth biggest addressable markets for

drone-based solutions are, respectively,

agriculture (for crop monitoring), with

an estimated potential value of $32.4bn,

and the insurance industry (for risk

monitoring and assessment), with an

addressable market value of $6.8bn.2

Another application sector for

drone-based solutions is emergency

management, especially in the case of

natural disasters such as floods. On the

one hand, drones can be useful before

a flood occurs by collecting lots of data

on important infrastructure, and for

supporting flood risk assessment efforts.

On the other hand, drones can be useful

after a flood occurs, for flood extent and

damage assessment.3

Industry challenges

It is clear that drones are extremely

useful and have great market growth

potential; however, the use of drone

technology comes with several

challenges. These challenges are

mainly faced in Europe, where the new

regulations limit the use of drones,

especially for drones that remain

uncertified. The objective is to create a

controlled environment and to increase

safety while drones start to be used in a

wide range of sectors due to a ‘thriving

market’.4 As a consequence, flying

drones, be it as an individual for private

use or in a commercial setting, requires

a range of precautionary measures

in order to comply with regulations.

Unfortunately, this can turn out to be

much more complex than expected in

some cases, particularly when looking at

risk assessments or the specific category.

Therefore, national drone federations

exist in many European countries

and elsewhere, which aim to support

companies during these procedures. The

newest addition to this international

federation network, is the Luxembourg

Drone Federation (LDF), of which RSS-

Hydro is a founding member. A major

commitment of LDF is to help members

develop a simplified flight authorisation

procedure for operators. Therefore, LDF

also acts as an intermediary between

companies and the Luxembourg

Department of Civil Aviation (DAC), by

authorising flights in order to facilitate

exchange and compliance. LDF also

collaborates with the administrations of

bordering countries.

R&D opportunities

Due to the high flexibility and the easy

acquisition of drone technology, they

have become an asset in a wide range of

innovative R&D projects. RSS-Hydro is

28 September-October issue l 2022 www.africasurveyorsonline.com


photos from a drone and running them

through a big computer, a high-precision

flood hazard model has been created

to help predict and identify people at

risk more rapidly. This was tested for

a flood-prone area of interest around

Mocuba (Mozambique, Africa). The bigger

goal is to scale up this effort to other

flood-prone areas where WFP operates,

which will help communities be better

prepared and become more resilient.

Patrick McKay conducting an advanced drone training in Beira, Mozambique, 2019. Photo:

WFP/INGC/Antonio Jose Beleza

leading several innovative R&D projects,

combining computer modelling with

the latest advances in remote sensing

technologies, including satellite and

drone images.

In one of its projects, RSS-Hydro is

looking at drone technology to survey

the condition of plants and crops

impacted by droughts. Since the impact

of agricultural droughts depends on

several local factors, such as soil, crop,

and growing stages of crops, information

with very high spatial resolution is

needed to assess their localised impact.

For this, an objective of the project is

to develop and set up a drone-based

drought monitoring service which can

be activated when drought events are

forecasted to take place in a certain area.

More generally speaking, it is well

known that drones can be used to

monitor crop conditions from the very

beginning of the growing season, all the

way through to planning and harvest.

Advanced analytics allow for monitoring

soil moisture and deriving fertilising

requirements. To meet growing food

demand and improve current water

usage, new technologies such as the

Internet of Things (IoT), Big Data, and

Artificial Intelligence (AI) are now being

considered in this field of application by

many. It has been estimated5 that 80%

of all drones will be used in Precision

Agriculture Technologies (PAT) in the

future, also to detect damages from

droughts, floods, hailstorms, or wild

animals, and for smarter irrigation

management and proper crop protection.

The fact that drones can overcome

several limitations encountered with

satellites in terms of spatial resolution

and tasking flexibility makes them a

considerable asset in many applications.

Therefore, drones can be used to support

vulnerable communities that are severely

affected by climate change, for example

in Africa and Asia. Finally, the insurance

sector can also benefit from such

technologies for index-based solutions,

and develop their insurance products


RSS-Hydro is also employing drones to

monitor flooding and related processes.

That information is used to evaluate

their flood risk models, and to validate

satellite-derived products in some of

their R&D projects supported by the

European Space Agency (ESA).

Humanitarian and aid

development opportunities

Drones are widely used in emergency

management situations, particularly in a

humanitarian context. Mapping disaster

extents and damage after the event are

crucial for a fast humanitarian response.

The rapid deployment of drones makes

them a major asset, especially in remote

areas that cannot be accessed easily.

In the context of flood disaster response,

The United Nations World Food

Programme (UN WFP), and partners, have

been collaborating with the National

Institute for Disaster Management of

Mozambique (INGC) to improve flood

alerting and preparedness, using drone

technology. By taking thousands of aerial

Aid development projects are also

looking to introduce drone technology

as a complementary tool to acquire

important local data. Together

with regional and local public

and private partners, in Niger and

Europe, RSS-Hydro’s development aid

project SEMOR addresses the current

data challenge in the Niger River Basin,

by proposing a low-cost and sustainable

space-based ICT solution to develop

a flood prediction and alerting model

for the region. The system combines

flood modelling with industry-proven,

affordable, small water-level sensors,

open-access satellite Earth observation

data, and drone imagery. The project also

focuses on capacity building and training

workshops around topics of Earth

observation, drones, and model use for

water risks (floods and droughts) under

the impacts of climate change.

The future of drone


The benefits of drones are numerous.

Drone technology can provide highquality

products or services, and offer

cost-effective and tailor-made highend

solutions. Drones are especially

attractive as a low-cost non-contact

alternative to small aircrafts, for

acquiring high-precision data over areas

that are typically too small for satellites

to detect any detail. Moreover, they help

to keep manned aircrafts cost-effective.

Despite operating regulations for

drones becoming more stringent, the

commercial and R&D opportunities for

drones are extremely promising and fast

growing. The market projections for the

usage of drone technology are looking

very promising, with technological

innovations in drone manufacturing and

sensor development opening up many

new opportunities for growth.


September-October issue l 2022 29


Hyprops to use Saab Seaeye robot for

inspections offshore Nigeria

Hyprops Nigeria Ltd. has chosen the

400kHz RESON Saab Seaeye T50 multibeam Falcon and robotic did not vehicle wreck search in an unMapped

only reveal to individual increase munitions its long-term items, but footprint also in area

Nigeria. numerous, at first glance, piles of unidentifiable To make best use of the time, multibeam

objects. Owing to high beam density (600

Hyprops beams/120° provides swath) and a wide small range footprints of services to









and gas





scours around possible targets could be

adding the Falcon as its resource is in keeping

observed. Based on this data, a contact list was

with the federal government’s initiative to

created and once again the AUVs were

increase indigenous participation in the

deployed for mapping. After the trip, detailed


processing and interpretation of the data

revealed that the Pelzerhaken area alone




at least


1691 individual

range from


300 m to

1,000 objects m. and Falcon's 127 piles iCON of munitions. intelligent The control

system different allows distribution the patterns option originate of customization from two of

the very vehicle different and methods gives of the dumping. pilot One total way control.

The was vehicle to throw the provides munitions easy overboard, access to which spares

and led to a choice individual of objects tools sometimes and accessories, forming as

well lines as or other an open patterns, frame which construction now allow the allowing

ease course of of fitting a dumping various vessel sensors to be retraced. and tooling The to






of dumping was


to fill


barges with

has a

munitions and open them once a dedicated site

five-function manipulator arm, wire cutter and

had been reached. This resulted chaotic piles

brushes enabling light work intervention.

of both larger objects and boxes containing

smaller items. Figure 5 shows both types of

patterns in the Pelzerhaken area.

mapping was always conducted at night time.

Once the areas in Lübeck Bay had been fully

mapped, the researchers spontaneously decided

to visit yet another site that is located 6nm to the

east. Historic research indicates that the area

called Großklützhöved was used to scuttle entire

barges that were loaded with munitions. The

prospect of investigating a munitions-filled wreck

was exciting to everyone on board and when the

first wreck was visible in the data, the entire

group quickly gathered around the multibeam

station. During the course of the night, two

UXO remediation, it was essential to gain precise

knowledge about the number, location and types

of munitions.

During MineMoni-II, there was not enough time to

map the entire area of Großklützhöved, so the

researchers decided that they would come back in

2021 to finish the job. When ALKOR returned to

Kiel harbour, the team were able to look back at

two very successful weeks. More than 26km² had

been mapped to acquire high-resolution

multibeam data. Water samples were taken at 77

locations, which means that over 200 syringes

with exchanger resin are stored in the freezer,

waiting to be analysed with liquid chromatography-

additional wrecks (one of which appeared to be mass spectrometry. The AUVs ANTON and LUISE

Hyprops Nigeria Ltd. has chosen the Saab Seaeye Falcon robotic vehicle to increase its longterm

footprint in Nigeria|image courtesy

a sailing boat) were found. The next day, the two went on 36 missions to acquire tens of thousands

sunken barges were explored using towed of photographs and finally, 32 TV-CTD profiles

TV-CTD with real-time video stream. One of were filmed. It will take the researchers a year to

them Hyprops capsized and said lost the its hazardous Falcon will cargo give them evaluate the this massive amount of data. By then,

during ability sinking. to In meet the darkness the constant of the Baltic and Sea, vital need they will be ready to embark on MineMoni-III,

a pile to of grenade inspect cartridges pipelines, came flowlines, into view risers, of the vessels which is planned for October 2021.





spots. The






video footage

and deepwater

combined with high resolution MBES led to a Disclaimer: With the contribution of the European Maritime and


more qualified estimate of the amount of

Fisheries Fund of the European Union (Grant Agreement No:

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30 September-October issue l 2022 www.africasurveyorsonline.com

Hydro INTERNATIONAL | ISSUE 3 2021 | 17

6 | |

Gazania well starts drilling

offshore South Africa

The semisub Island Innovator has

spud the Gazania-1 exploration well

in Block 2B offshore South Africa for

operator Eco Atlantic and its partners.

This flowed 191 bbl/d of light, sweet crude

and optionally-crewed vessels and will augment the company’s existing AUVs, rated

to the surface and proved about 50 MMbbl of Image courtesy

to 6,000 metres depth.

contingent resources.


Ocean Infinity Expands Robotic

Fleet with Six Additional AUVs

Kongsberg Maritime has

announced that Ocean

Infinity has signed an order

for six HUGIN Autonomous

The drilling location is 25 km offshore the Underwater Vehicles (AUVs)

Northern Cape in the Orange Basin in 150



to 3,000 metres depth.

of water. Gazania-1 will be drilled to a depth

The vehicles are equipped with






order from

m through

Ocean Infinity

a multi-zone

takes a geophysical sensor suite and


their fleet of HUGIN AUVs to more than 20. the latest-generation Kongsberg

section 7 km updip of Soekor’s 1988 AJ-1

batteries. The new vehicles will

discovery well on the same acreage.

be mobilized for global operations, enabled by Ocean Infinity’s remote operations

infrastructure. The vehicles will integrate as part of the Armada fleet of uncrewed

Dan Hook, CTO of Ocean Infinity, said: “Lessening the environmental impact of

Gazania-1 is targeting more than 300 MMbbl

operations at sea is core to our business, and with an expanded

of light oil. Pending a discovery in the vertical

fleet of robotics we’ll have greater capacity to offer sustainable








have an





AUVs as part of



robotic fleet, we’ll



a second



the growing




sector the with main remote wellbore. data and inspection services.”

Both the vertical well and the mapping sidetrack projects

optional well will be logged and and whether plugged a

back to surface, with the casing hydrographic cut off below


vessel will be in

Block 2B is in a similar syn-rift basin to


NOAA Unveils 2022 Hydrographic

Survey Season Plans

NOAA hydrographic survey ships and contractors are preparing for the 2022

hydrographic survey season in U.S. coastal waters and beyond. The ships

collect bathymetric data (i.e. map the seafloor) to support nautical charting,

modelling and research, but also collect other environmental data to support

a variety of ecosystem sciences.

NOAA considers hydrographic survey requests from

stakeholders such as marine pilots, local port authorities,

the U.S. Coast Guard and the boating community, and

also considers other hydrographic and NOAA science

priorities in determining where to survey and when. It is

worth visiting

NOAA’s ‘living’

story map to find

out more about the

your area this year.

TotalEnergies and Shell’s oil and gas

discoveries earlier this year offshore Namibia.

The partners have identified prospectivity

over the entire A-J graben area from 686 sq

km of 3D seismic data acquired in 2013.



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September-October issue l 2022 31


Steel plant project survey in Zimbabwe

ZETDC commence topographic surveys

on power line for largest steel plant

Tsingshan Holdings steel mine |Image Tsingshan Holdings

The Zimbabwe Electricity Transmission

and Distribution Company (ZETDC)

has commence topographic survey to

determine the route along which the 100km

transmission line from sherwood sub-station

in Kwekwe to the new steel plant in Manhize

near Mvuma will be erected.

Dinson Iron and Steel Company (Disco), a

subsidiary of China's Tsingshan Holding Group

Company Limited, is constructing Africa’s

largest steel plant in Manhize at an estimate

capital outlay of US$1 billion. The plant is

scheduled for commissioning next year and

will have the capacity to produce 1,2 million

tonnes of steel per annum.

ZETDC, the distribution arm of State

power utility Zesa, intends to construct the

330-kilovolt transmission line at a cost of

US$66 million through a loan to be funded by

Disco. The loan will be recovered from ZETDC

through deductions from Disco's monthly bills

until it is fully paid over an estimated fiveyear


In an interview, ZETDC acting Managing

Director Engineer Howard Choga said the

32 September-October issue l 2022 www.africasurveyorsonline.com


topographic survey on where the electric

towers for the transmission line will be

constructed was 80% complete.

“After the environmental impact assessment

was done, (topographic) survey works

have started and equipment for wailing

(transmission equipment such as pylons)

has been acquired and we are now doing

a topographic survey which is critical as it

gives us guidance in determining where the

electric towers for the transmission line will

be erected,” he said.

At present, Manhize is connected to the

national grid but this cannot support the

huge steel works to be undertaken; hence

the need to connect the operations to the

trunk grid via Sherwood. It is hoped that the

planned 330kv connection will also reinforce

electricity supplies to other industries in

Manhize and the surrounding areas.

Recently, President Mnangagwa officiated

at the ground-breaking ceremony for the

Disco Steel project, which the government

has granted national projected status, and is

expected to have its first blast furnace up and

running by September next year.

“The topographic survey, which started

recently, could now be at 80%, there will

be a site meeting where we will get further

feedback before construction of the power

line begins soon,” said Eng Choga

Image courtesy

Under the first phase of the integrated steel

plant, thousands of jobs will be created while

on full completion at least 10,000 people

will be employed directly and 50,000 others

across the value chain.

Meanwhile, Disco and Zesa Enterprises

(Zent), a subsidiary of Zesa responsible for

engineering solutions to the electricity sector,

will establish a galvanizing plant around

the end of next year to produce steel towers

needed for transmission lines and many other

steel products. Galvanizing is the process of

coating iron or steel with zinc to protect them

from rusting.



survey, which


recently, could

now be at 80%,

there will be

a site meeting

where we will

get further



construction of

the power line

begins soon.”

Image courtesy


September-October issue l 2022 33



Weaponised drones

the latest tech threat to reach


By Karen Allen

Drones have for some time been used by regular

armed forces on Africa’s battlefields, such as in

Ethiopia and Mali. But now they’re increasingly

being deployed by terrorists – sparking a global sense of


At the end of October, the United Nations (UN) Security

Council Counter-Terrorism Committee will host a

special meeting in India on countering the use of new

technologies for terrorism. Drones or unmanned aerial

systems (UAS) have been identified as one of the key

terrorist threats by the meeting’s organisers. Other risks

are disinformation, the misuse of social media, and new

payment technologies used by violent extremists.

Drones are by and large a force for good, for example in

delivering medicines to hard-to-reach parts of Africa. But

their widespread availability, increased range and growing

sophistication in terms of payload (what they can carry)

have seen an expansion in their applications.

The hobbyist drone market has grown rapidly, with

global sales increasing from US$14 billion in 2018 to

a projected US$43 billion in 2024, according to Drone

Industry Insights. South Africa represents the biggest

market in Africa, particularly for aerial technology used in

the mining and agricultural sectors. This democratisation

of relatively affordable technology means that UAS can be

used for nefarious ends both in wartime and peace.

The Ukraine-Russian war has underscored the significance

of the new drone battlespace with an arms race in

production and acquisition underway. But drones can

also be bought, adapted and used to disrupt critical

infrastructure such as airports, energy plants and

communications networks.

As African governments assess the risks of cyber attacks

on critical infrastructure such as on Transnet in South

Africa in 2021, they should also consider the unintended

consequences of drone proliferation.

The continent has yet to witness a major installation

being targeted by a UAS. But there is growing evidence

of drones being weaponised by violent extremists and

transnational criminal networks, either as a surveillance

tool or as part of their intelligence and reconnaissance

operations. As ISS Today has previously reported, armed

groups such as al-Shabaab in Somalia and insurgents in

the Democratic Republic of the Congo and Mozambique

are applying the technology in combat.

UN Security Council Resolution 2617 recognises the

increasing misuse of UAS globally, including ‘the misuse

of unmanned aerial systems by terrorists to conduct

attacks against, and incursions into, restricted commercial

and government infrastructure and public places.’

Council members have been urged to ‘balance fostering

innovation’ while ‘preventing the misuse of UAS.’ But how

can this be achieved in practice?

For a start, research is being done to understand how

terrorists use drones. A joint UN Office of Counter-

Terrorism, and Conflict Armament Research project is

underway to assess global trends. The next steps will be

to classify types of UAS (hobbyist, commercial, military,

etc.) and establish a registration system so they can be


The UN Office of Counter-Terrorism has developed a

good practice guide on protecting vulnerable targets

from drone attacks, knowing that commercial or hobbyist

drones are being shaped into weapons. 3D printing

technology also opens up the prospect of spare parts

being rapidly manufactured by extremists.

34 July-August issue l 2022 www.africasurveyorsonline.com


Karen Allen, is a Consultant at ISS Pretoria

Image: © geospatialworld.net

While countries such as South Africa may not consider

themselves at risk of an imminent terrorist attack,

industry insiders worry about economic terrorism – the

destabilisation of essential utilities or other state services.

Kim James, an executive member of the Commercial

Unmanned Aircraft Association of Southern Africa,

confirms that crime syndicates use ‘narco drones’ in South

Africa for basic reconnaissance and to distribute drugs. A

similar tactic is seen in Colombia to evade border security

measures. The prospect of drones being used to target, for

example, cash-in-transit vehicles is a possibility.

While tighter regulations won’t necessarily prevent the

nefarious uses of drone technology, they can provide early

warning signs. They could, for example, locate suspect

drones or flag the delivery of bulk purchases of hobbyist

drones close to potential targets. This was seen in Iraq

and Syria in 2016 when large consignments of hobbyist

drones were delivered to Turkey and then driven across

the border.

As Audrey Kurth Cronin observed in her book Power to

the People: How Open Technological Innovation is Arming

Tomorrow’s Terrorists, ‘the most common type of drone

used by Islamic State was the DJI phantom, purchasable

on Amazon.com for as little as 450 USD.’ Export controls

for such dual use technologies may also be an avenue for

policymakers to consider.

Regulations require enforcement. Given the broad

applications of drones, it will need an approach in which

government departments coordinate their responses.

In South Africa, the Commercial Unmanned Aircraft

Association of Southern Africa is drawing up proposals

with the Department for Economic Development for a

registration and accreditation process that protects the

public but doesn’t harm business.

Technical fixes and alerts including how to identify

potentially dangerous drones, are also being developed by

the private sector with a focus on big installations such as

mines, pipelines, prisons, airports etc. This raises questions

of who is legally permitted to intercept a drone, and of

state sovereignty and international law.

This month’s UN Security Council Counter-Terrorism

Committee meeting will have to tread carefully so as

not to hamper the legitimate use of drones which is

transforming business, agriculture, humanitarian relief

and medicine in Africa. At the same time, the continent

presents a vulnerable environment where weaponised

drones may be tested and used by militaries and

insurgents alike.


July-August issue l 2022 35


Turkey deepens its


defense diplomacy in

By Kate Hairsine and Burak Ünveren

Sales of drones and other arms to African nations are

booming after Turkey signed military cooperation deals with

dozens of governments on the continent. DW examines why

so many countries are turning to Turkey for arms.

Turkey is stepping up its security footprint in Africa after over

a decade of strategically expanding its economic and cultural

influence on the continent. The government has recently inked a

number of security agreements, particularly in West Africa, and arms

exports to Africa have exploded.

Turkey's defense and aerospace exports to the continent grew more

than fivefold, to $460.6 million, in 2021 — up from $82.9 million in


Turkey's share of Africa's arms market is still tiny at 0.5%. But the

rapid growth of defense sales is "striking," according to a 2022 study

on Turkey's security diplomacy in Africa by the German Institute for

International and Security Affairs (SWP).

Against a backdrop of growing Islamist insurgencies in both

East and West Africa, as well as domestic conflicts, governments

are upping their defense spending. Turkey is proving a reliable

alternative to traditional arms exporters, such as Russia, China,

France and the United States.

For African governments, "Turkey provides a means of actually

purchasing military hardware," Abel Abate Demissie, an associate

fellow at the British think tank Chatham House, told DW.

Turkish arms are relatively cheap, have shorter delivery times and

come free of "bureaucratic hurdles" such as political or human

rights conditions, Abel said from Ethiopia's capital, Addis Ababa.

The media aide to Nigerian President Muhammadu Buhari praised

Image: Baykar/AA/picture alliance

36 July-August issue l 2022 www.africasurveyorsonline.com


Turkish defense technology in a statement in late 2021, saying it

would accelerate efforts to rid the country "of pockets of terrorists

and the menace of kidnappers and bandits."

African nations are most interested in buying Turkish-manufactured

armored vehicles, naval equipment, infantry weapons and drones,

according to the SWP study.

Why are Turkish-manufactured drones so


"In Africa, wherever we went, they asked us for unarmed and armed

drones," Turkish President Recep Tayyip Erdogan said after returning

from a 2021 trip to the continent.

African nations that have already taken delivery of Turkishmanufactured

drones include Somalia, Togo, Niger, Nigeria and

Ethiopia — although the drone sales to Ethiopia have attracted

Western criticism after the government used them to attack civilians

in the Tigray conflict.

Several others have reportedly placed orders, although Turkey's

popular Bayraktar drone currently has a three-year waiting list.

Turkey's drones are cheap compared to US or Israeli versions and

easy to operate. But a big selling point is that they are battle-proven,

said Yunus Turhan, an analyst of Turkey Africa relations at Haci

Bayram Veli University in Turkey.

Turkish unmanned aerial vehicles (UAVs) have been used "very

effectively" in Syria, Libya and in Azerbaijan's breakaway region of

Nagorno-Karabakh, he said. Most recently, the Bayraktar TB2 armed

drones have gained fame in Ukraine for destroying large numbers of

Russian tanks.

For Turkey, Africa is potentially huge market for Ankara's emerging

defense and aerospace industry, which boasted some 1,500

companies in 2020 compared to just 56 in 2002.

At least 15 African nations also operate armored vehicles, made by

several competing Turkish firms.

Last month a Turkish shipyard laid the keel for two new offshore

patrol vessels for Nigeria's navy while another Turkish aerospace

company will send six attack helicopters.

New security training deals

African nations aren't just interested in Turkey's arms, though. There's

also a "huge demand" for security assistance, said Ovigwe Eguegu,

a Nigerian-based political analyst for Development Reimagined, an

international consultancy

Turkey has signed military-related pacts with the majority of African

countries, mainly in West and East Africa (as shown in the map

below). While the deals vary in scope, they can include technical

visits to research centers, personnel exchanges between institutions

and companies, and training.

Its longest-standing involvement is in Somalia, where Turkey operates

its biggest foreign base, Camp TURKSOM, and where the Turkish

government has boasted of training a third of Somalia's 15,000-strong

army in the fight against al-Shabab.

Nigerian military personnel have also undergone combat drone

instruction in Turkey, while Ankara has been training Kenyan police

officers since 2020.

Turkey's experience fighting counterinsurgency is welcome, and, as

a Muslim-majority nation without colonial baggage, it enjoys a high

level of trust on the continent, Eguegu said. Plus, because of its NATO

membership, deepening ties with Turkey comes at "a low diplomatic

cost" for African countries.

Erdogan, who has visited more African countries than any non-African

leader, has even redefined Turkey as an "Afro-Eurasian state," Eguegu

pointed out. "By connecting its identity with Africa, it's a way to make

itself almost a neutral partner of African countries."

Sahel nations eager for support

But it's in the terrorist-hit Sahel countries in West Africa and Central

Africa where Turkey is making its latest push to extend its influence.

Turkey gave the G5 Sahel Joint Force (made up of Burkina Faso, Chad,

Mali, Mauritania and Niger) a $5 million contribution for the fight

against terrorism in 2018.

It has since signed military cooperation and defense agreements with

Niger, Nigeria, Togo and Senegal.

"We see these types of requests from West African countries, because

they have huge security challenges across the Sahel, where lots of

countries aren't in control of large swaths of their territories," Eguegu


Military cooperation not only solution

The 2021 Turkey-Africa summit attracted 16 African heads of state

and more than 100 ministers.

This shows that the continent is increasingly attaching strategic

importance to Turkey, said Senegal-based peace and security analyst

Aissatou Kante, a researcher at the Institute for Security Studies, an

African think tank

Though African nations are obviously interested in diversifying their

partnerships, including in the security field, Kante said there was

a danger in seeing defense agreements, such as those signed with

Turkey, as the only solution to Africa's security crises.

The revival of defense agreements raises concerns about "an

increasing militarization of states facing multiple threats," Kante said.

Edited by: Keith Walker


July-August issue l 2022 37


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