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POWERTRAIN International 2024-2

Among the topics… AUTOMOTIVE SHIPPING: emissions according to the Big Five FOCUS FPT INDUSTRIAL: Andrea Abbà tells us about the XC13 13-LITER ENGINES FOR TRUCKS: who are the nine challengers? PREVIEWS INTERMAT PARIS: digitalisation and energy will be the keywords COMPARISONS 5L INDUSTRIAL ENGINES: AGCO, Deutz, Isuzu, Kubota, mtu, Volvo REPORTS HUNGARY: it is becoming Europe’s battery hub ELECTRIFICATION TELESCOPIC HANDLERS: Claas, Dieci, Faresin, JCB, Kramer, Manitou, Merlo SHOWS AGRITECHNICA, COMPONENTS: Comer Industries, MTA, Bosch Rexroth, UFI OFF-HIGHWAY ABB to electrify heavy-duty applications COLUMNS Editorial; Newsroom; Sustainable Techno

Among the topics…
AUTOMOTIVE
SHIPPING: emissions according to the Big Five
FOCUS
FPT INDUSTRIAL: Andrea Abbà tells us about the XC13
13-LITER ENGINES FOR TRUCKS: who are the nine challengers?
PREVIEWS
INTERMAT PARIS: digitalisation and energy will be the keywords
COMPARISONS
5L INDUSTRIAL ENGINES: AGCO, Deutz, Isuzu, Kubota, mtu, Volvo
REPORTS
HUNGARY: it is becoming Europe’s battery hub
ELECTRIFICATION
TELESCOPIC HANDLERS: Claas, Dieci, Faresin, JCB, Kramer, Manitou, Merlo
SHOWS
AGRITECHNICA, COMPONENTS: Comer Industries, MTA, Bosch Rexroth, UFI
OFF-HIGHWAY
ABB to electrify heavy-duty applications
COLUMNS
Editorial; Newsroom; Sustainable Techno

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Powertrain<br />

INTERNATIONAL<br />

On the<br />

e-WAY<br />

Hungary is going to be the European battery hub - FPT XC13<br />

and 13L truck engines comparison - 5L offroad engines -<br />

Preview from Intermat Paris - Electric telescopic handlers<br />

VADO E TORNO EDIZIONI<br />

www.vadoetorno.com<br />

www.powertraininternationalweb.com<br />

www.dieseloftheyear.com<br />

ISSN 0042<br />

Press Register n. 4596 – April 20th 1994<br />

Poste Italiane Inc. – Mail subscription<br />

D.L. 353/2003 (mod. in L. 27/02/2004 n° 46)<br />

Art. 1, subsection 1, LO/MI<br />

<strong>POWERTRAIN</strong>-Diesel SUPPLEMENT<br />

March <strong>2024</strong><br />

1


MARCH <strong>2024</strong><br />

powertraininternationalweb.com<br />

CONTENTS<br />

READY TO<br />

POWER<br />

GENERIC<br />

ICE<br />

H2 HYDROGEN<br />

kWe ELECTRIC<br />

GAS<br />

10<br />

AUTOMOTIVE<br />

8. SHIPPING<br />

Emissions according to the Big Five<br />

FOCUS<br />

10. FPT INDUSTRIAL<br />

Andrea Abbà tells us about the XC13<br />

14. 13-LITER ENGINES FOR TRUCKS<br />

Who are the nine challengers?<br />

PREVIEWS<br />

16. INTERMAT PARIS<br />

Digitalisation and energy will be the keywords<br />

FOLLOW <strong>POWERTRAIN</strong> INTERNATIONAL ON:<br />

COMPARISONS<br />

20. 5L INDUSTRIAL ENGINES<br />

AGCO, Deutz, Isuzu, Kubota, mtu, Volvo<br />

REPORTS<br />

24. HUNGARY<br />

It is becoming Europe’s battery hub<br />

ELECTRIFICATION<br />

32. TELESCOPIC HANDLERS<br />

Claas, Dieci, Faresin, JCB, Kramer, Manitou, Merlo<br />

ENERKIT<br />

SHOWS<br />

36. AGRITECHNICA: COMPONENTS<br />

Comer Industries, MTA, Bosch Rexroth, UFI<br />

RELIABLE, SUSTAINABLE, PRE-ASSEMBLED POWER SOLUTIONS<br />

ENERKIT DIESEL FROM 1500 kVA – 4000 kVA<br />

UPTIME INSTITUTE COMPLIANCE | HVO TESTED | BEST IN CLASS LEAD TIME<br />

GLOBAL SUPPORT NETWORK | TAILORMADE OPTIONS<br />

32<br />

44<br />

OFF-HIGHWAY<br />

44. ABB<br />

To electrify heavy-duty applications<br />

COLUMNS<br />

4. Editorial 6. Newsroom 48. Sustainable Techno<br />

Editorial: Tom ‘Stage VI’ and Jerry ‘Euro 7’<br />

“The shadow of phase out has fallen on the NRMM<br />

ecosystem players. Thus, the prospect of applying<br />

Stage VI appears ethereal and intangible”<br />

DURABLE. ROBUST. BUILT TO LAST.<br />

BAUDOUIN.COM<br />

VISIT US AND EXPERIENCE OUR EXCITING<br />

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3


EDITORIAL<br />

by Fabio Butturi<br />

TOM ‘STAGE VI’ & JERRY ‘EURO 7’<br />

POWER TO<br />

MAXIMIZE<br />

PRODUCTIVITY<br />

More power with less complexity and less weight. The Cummins<br />

B6.7 engine delivers the productivity you need to keep your<br />

equipment running. The power increases up to 326 hp / 243 kW<br />

and peak torque up to 1014 lb-ft / 1375 Nm, enabling<br />

replacement of engines with higher displacement<br />

with no impact on productivity.<br />

Stage V is now in full swing. Recall that the<br />

approval dates back to 2016. Therefore, the time<br />

for some OEMs, some applications and some<br />

markets to digest it is not so snapshot-like. In the<br />

meantime, the shadow of phase out has fallen<br />

on the NRMM ecosystem players. Thus, the prospect<br />

of applying Stage VI appears ethereal and intangible.<br />

Yet, the European Union has this “antidote” in store<br />

to mitigate the impact of exhaust emissions. Reducing<br />

CO 2<br />

means reducing fuel consumption. Will hybrid<br />

powertrains and BEVs be the vectors of Stage VI? David<br />

Phillips, Engineering Director, Eminox, commented: “Our<br />

teams are driving forward new exhaust aftertreatment<br />

system (EATS) technologies to support anticipated Stage<br />

VI requirements and have been conducting extensive<br />

research and concurrent projects for some time now to<br />

fully understand the integration of a range of alternative<br />

fuels as power options.” Will aftertreatment be a lever to<br />

reconcile upcoming European regulations for off-highway<br />

applications? In the meanwhile, the EU Council and<br />

Parliament have found agreement on the CO 2<br />

emissions<br />

reduction roadmap for heavy-duty vehicles. The aim is<br />

to further reduce CO 2<br />

emissions in the road transport<br />

sector and to introduce new targets for 2030, 2035 and<br />

2040. The proposal also aims to encourage an increasing<br />

share of zero-emission vehicles in the EU-wide heavyduty<br />

vehicle fleet. Truck and bus manufacturers fully<br />

support an ambitious decarbonisation agenda. However,<br />

the agreed implementation timeline remains extremely<br />

challenging in the absence of vital enabling conditions,<br />

stated the European Automobile Manufacturers’<br />

Association (ACEA). “Electric charging and hydrogen<br />

refilling infrastructure, comprehensive carbon pricing<br />

schemes, and meaningful support measures for transport<br />

operators to invest quickly: these are the key ingredients<br />

for rapidly decarbonising the heavy-duty transport sector,<br />

in addition to zero-emission vehicles,” emphasised<br />

Sigrid de Vries, Director General of the ACEA.<br />

“We cannot continue boldly setting ambitious targets<br />

for vehicle manufacturers and expect swift and smooth<br />

implementation to follow. Without an enabling framework<br />

to shore up demand for the zero-emission models,<br />

achieving targets will be impossible, especially with<br />

the envisaged timeline.”<br />

4<br />

©<strong>2024</strong> Cummins Inc.


NEWSROOM #INTERACTANALYSIS #BATTERY<br />

BY INTERACT ANALYSIS<br />

MAGIC YEAR<br />

2035<br />

THE POWER<br />

TO PERFORM<br />

The 09 Series Engine<br />

The compact high output, 4 cylinder engine<br />

delivers the power you need with less emissions.<br />

According to the latest<br />

research by Interact<br />

Analysis, battery electric<br />

vehicle powertrains<br />

will become the<br />

favored powertrain<br />

for commercial vehicles<br />

by 2035<br />

Battery electric is expected to<br />

replace ICE as the leading<br />

powertrain type for commercial<br />

vehicles by 2035, according<br />

to global market intelligence<br />

firm, Interact Analysis. It is expected<br />

that almost 2.5 million battery electric<br />

commercial vehicles will be sold<br />

in 2035 compared with fewer than<br />

500,000 forecast to be sold in 2025.<br />

Currently, the battery pack accounts<br />

for more than half (55%) of battery<br />

electric vehicle powertrain revenues,<br />

with price erosion forecast over the<br />

coming years, driving growth and<br />

increasing the appeal of battery electric<br />

commercial vehicles. Taking a<br />

look at the commercial vehicle market<br />

as a whole, fuel cell vehicles are<br />

expected to represent a small share<br />

because they are best suited to vehicles<br />

that travel long distances. Hybrid<br />

vehicles will also comprise a small<br />

share of the market due to a lack of<br />

focus on the technology from manufacturers<br />

and a shortage of regulatory<br />

support, which provides no compelling<br />

argument for adoption. Battery<br />

electric appears to be the clear winner<br />

for commercial vehicle powertrains.<br />

This is largely due to low operating<br />

costs (which make up for the high<br />

upfront cost), alongside regulations<br />

and subsidies which appeal to customers.<br />

For battery electric vehicles,<br />

the battery pack accounts for most<br />

of the powertrain revenue – around<br />

55% in fact. This component has the<br />

greatest impact on the overall cost of<br />

a commercial vehicle, while motors,<br />

inverters and the transmission have<br />

little influence on the overall vehicle<br />

price. In contrast, for fuel cell vehicles,<br />

the fuel cell system accounts for<br />

a much higher proportion of the total<br />

cost, while the transmission accounts<br />

for a higher proportion of the overall<br />

cost of hybrid vehicles. The use of e-<br />

axles is a growing trend but one that is<br />

currently an expensive alternative to a<br />

separate motor, transmission and axle.<br />

Interact Analysis expects this to change<br />

over time as volumes increase. One<br />

of the key advantages that e-axles offer<br />

is space saving, making it possible<br />

to add battery capacity and range to<br />

the vehicle, or have a smaller vehicle<br />

with the same battery capacity, reducing<br />

production costs. Depending<br />

on the customer’s viewpoint, e-axles<br />

may pay for themselves through the<br />

advantages they offer, despite having<br />

a higher initial upfront cost.<br />

Jamie Fox, Principal Analyst at Interact<br />

Analysis, comments, “Currently,<br />

the upfront cost of a battery electric<br />

vehicle is high, and this is mainly due<br />

to the cost of a full electric powertrain.<br />

For a heavy-duty battery electric<br />

truck, the complete battery electric<br />

powertrain can cost as much as<br />

$100,000, but this can be as low as<br />

$2,000-$3,000 for a mild hybrid light<br />

duty truck. Despite this, we expect to<br />

see price erosion over time due to production<br />

innovation and economies of<br />

scale.”<br />

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6


AUTOMOTIVE<br />

#COP28 #EMISSIONS #ECA<br />

SHIPPING VS ONROAD<br />

IS LNG<br />

THE ONLY<br />

WAY?<br />

In fact, the Green<br />

Shipping Challenge<br />

at COP28, held in the<br />

presence of the CEOs<br />

of the five largest<br />

shipping companies,<br />

ended in a dead heat.<br />

The comparison with<br />

the four-wheeled world<br />

is ruthless. Large<br />

commercial marine<br />

applications work on<br />

almost a continuous<br />

cycle, and have a very<br />

exorbitant CO 2<br />

balance<br />

Five shipping companies control<br />

the world’s 2,300 largest<br />

container ships. This fleet<br />

is the backbone of planetary<br />

logistics, transporting around 80% of<br />

the world’s goods. Greenpeace’s cry<br />

of alarm goes back to 2020: “The contribution<br />

of international shipping is<br />

about one billion tonnes of CO 2<br />

equivalent<br />

per year, more than double the<br />

UK’s emissions or almost half those of<br />

Brazil”. At COP28 in Dubai, Maersk<br />

CEO Vincent Clerk announced a<br />

methanol container ship. However,<br />

LNG is still very much in vogue,<br />

despite the many adverse opinions.<br />

Most recently, UMAS, associated<br />

with UCL (University College of London),<br />

pointed out that methane-related<br />

emissions – 80 times more potent than<br />

CO 2<br />

itself in terms of greenhouse effect<br />

– have risen by 150% in the past<br />

two years as a result of the expanding<br />

fleet of dual-fuelled (Bunker Oil/<br />

LNG) ships. “The only realistic way<br />

to achieve zero emission targets by<br />

2050 for a sector that accounts for<br />

2-3% of global greenhouse gas emissions<br />

is to switch from fossil fuels to<br />

green fuels quickly and on a large<br />

scale” is the final statement of the<br />

shipping industry, which highlights<br />

the gap to the automotive industry. By<br />

2027-28, Toyota will market models<br />

with solid-state batteries that will provide<br />

a thousand kilometres of range<br />

and recharge times in the order of 10<br />

minutes. China’s CATL, the world’s<br />

largest automotive battery manufacturer,<br />

responded by announcing the<br />

conclusion of tests for its new CIIC<br />

(CATL Integrated Intelligent Chas-<br />

sis) for A/B-segment models with fuel<br />

consumption of 10.5 kWh/100 km, a<br />

range of a thousand kilometers and a<br />

recharge time of five minutes for 300<br />

km of extra mileage. A few days before<br />

New Year’s, the Sino-German<br />

JAC group (50% VW) started pre-series<br />

deliveries of the Yiwei E10X, a<br />

four-door city car that makes its debut<br />

with sodium-ion batteries. These<br />

are less expensive than batteries with<br />

lithium-ion cells, albeit at the expense<br />

of energy density, limited to 120 Wk/<br />

kg, but with decidedly higher performance<br />

both in terms of charging<br />

at low temperatures and number of<br />

life cycles. Instead, shipping remains<br />

bogged down in evoking multi-fuel<br />

strategies and calling for green fuels.<br />

Even the Clean Shipping Coalition’s<br />

proposal to make the Mediterranean<br />

an ECA area, despite being approved<br />

at the end of 2022, will not see the<br />

light before May 2025. And this is not<br />

to dramatise the situation gratuitously.<br />

As Greenpeace points out, the emission<br />

load of large container ships is almost<br />

perpetual: ships operate 24 hours<br />

a day every day of the year; even if in<br />

port the main engine remains “idle”,<br />

there are dozens of generating sets that<br />

have to guarantee service operation<br />

without cold ironing services going<br />

beyond experimentation. On the occasion<br />

of the launch of a recent cruise<br />

super-ship, the online group of motoring<br />

enthusiasts Rollingsteel.it had fun<br />

“prying” into Royal Caribbean’s Wonder<br />

of the Seas’ affairs. It is one of the<br />

top five leisure vessels in the world:<br />

362 meters in length, capable of accommodating<br />

just under 7,000 pas-<br />

sengers and 2,300 crew members. The<br />

six Wärtsilä engines at its disposal,<br />

totalling over 93 thousand kW, would<br />

consume something like 19 thousand<br />

litres of bunker oil per hour if fully<br />

utilised. Without going into too many<br />

technical details, research conducted<br />

in 2015 by the German environmental<br />

association Nabu, Naturschutzbund<br />

Deutschland, estimated the daily emissions<br />

of an average cruise ship using<br />

those of a petrol-powered Golf Euro6<br />

as a unit of measurement. The result is<br />

striking: reasoning with the equivalent<br />

number of cars, we are talking about<br />

CO 2<br />

equivalent to 83,678 Euro6 Golfs,<br />

NOx in the order of 421,153, particulate<br />

matter in excess of one million<br />

and sulphur oxides amounting to 376<br />

million (the entire car fleet of the EU<br />

27 is estimated at 250 million).<br />

8<br />

9


AUTOMOTIVE<br />

#FPTINDUSTRIAL #XC13<br />

FPT INDUSTRIAL<br />

LET'S GO,<br />

XC13<br />

In the picture, the XC13 and Andrea Abbà, product marketing<br />

manager at FPT Industrial: “We expect ICEs to remain the<br />

benchmark for a long time.”<br />

The XC13 is the quintessential<br />

expression of FPT Industrial’s<br />

soul: common rail and thermodynamic<br />

parameters that<br />

are Diesel cycle-optimized, with the<br />

HVO option; a significant upgrade of<br />

the natural gas unit, historically rooted<br />

back to Turin; a hydrogen version<br />

that looks forward to the (not-so-distant)<br />

future. It turns its gaze to the onroad<br />

with this version, that is, however,<br />

naturally inclined towards mobile<br />

industrial applications.<br />

After all – as Andrea Abbà will tell<br />

us – field tests are being carried out<br />

on a Prinoth snow groomer, right in<br />

a hydrogen incarnation. Introduced in<br />

Barcelona, where Iveco said it would<br />

be investing a billion into renewing<br />

their entire range, the XC13 reaffirms<br />

internal combustion engines’<br />

The XC13 surely<br />

sounds agnostic<br />

in FPT Industrial’s<br />

unofficial<br />

nomenclature;<br />

it comes, indeed,<br />

with a tripartite<br />

certification: Euro<br />

6E (winking an eye<br />

at the upcoming<br />

Euro 7), methane<br />

gas and also<br />

biofuel, with a link<br />

to hydrogen<br />

prominence in the heavy range. At<br />

the headquarters in Turin they firmly<br />

believe BEVs are not an option for<br />

long-haulage.<br />

Speaking of which Luca Sra, heading<br />

Iveco Group’s Truck Business unit –<br />

was absolutely unequivocal. “Let’s<br />

think of a carrier working on international<br />

routes: it simply can’t work<br />

without the fuel autonomy it needs to<br />

ensure its business stays productive.<br />

It comes just naturally, then, to think<br />

that we need time, we need the transition<br />

to be guided. Ours is neither a<br />

critical nor an opportunistic stance,<br />

but rather the affirmation of a strong<br />

sense of practicality.”<br />

Andrea Abbà, FPT’s product marketing<br />

manager, told us about dialoguing<br />

with Iveco upon conceiving the XC13<br />

for the Model Year <strong>2024</strong>.<br />

Could you tell us about Iveco’s demands?<br />

In other words, about the<br />

genesis of the XC13?<br />

“Reducing fuel consumption was our<br />

North Star. To stick to this input, we<br />

revolutionized the engine starting<br />

from the very engine block, whose<br />

material changed from cast iron to<br />

compacted graphite iron. Displacement<br />

per cylinder was our cornerstone,<br />

given that bore and stroke had<br />

remained unchanged, compared to<br />

the Cursor 13. We also implemented<br />

a new valve actuation system to maximize<br />

braking power, which allows<br />

vehicle engineers to avoid fitting a<br />

retarder on many applications. That’s<br />

an expedient that enables end customers<br />

to get a pretty considerable saving.<br />

This project enabled us to shed over<br />

100 kg. I know we’re talking about a<br />

44-ton truck, but this means the carrier<br />

will have a 100kg of extra payload.<br />

We resized the crankshaft and used<br />

connecting rod journals and crankpin<br />

journals of a smaller diameter; plus,<br />

we added an electronically controlled<br />

dual flow ball bearing turbo, which<br />

optimizes air flow and thus also fuel<br />

consumption. We modified the common<br />

rail: pressure gets from 2,200 to<br />

2,500 bar. We also made variations to<br />

the Peak Cylinder Pressure, raising it<br />

to 250 bar. We were asked to provide<br />

a base engine that could work with a<br />

variety of fuels – diesel, natural gas,<br />

bio, and also hydrogen, in the future.<br />

Another key demand was about fuel<br />

consumption, that has a direct impact<br />

on CO 2<br />

emissions. We have to comply<br />

with the goals set for 2025 for truck<br />

drivers. XC13 will be one of the pri-<br />

mary contributors to the Iveco Group<br />

mission. The engine consumes 7%<br />

less diesel compared to Model Year<br />

2022 and as much as 9% less compared<br />

to the Model Year 2019, which<br />

is the baseline against which the impact<br />

set for 2025 is measured. The<br />

natural gas/biomethane version uses<br />

8% less fuel compared to Model Year<br />

2022 and 10% less compared to MY<br />

2019. We were clearly asked to align<br />

with competitors’ performance. So<br />

in particular, we worked to close the<br />

torque gap at low revs, so hard we can<br />

now say we’re the best in class, both<br />

in terms of max torque and of downspeed,<br />

hence at low revs.”<br />

Could you expand a little on performance,<br />

ending with a note on MEP?<br />

“In terms of performance, we equalled<br />

10<br />

11


AUTOMOTIVE<br />

#IVECO #DIESEL #NATURALGAS<br />

Iveco announced a historic partnership with Rock & Roll Hall of Famers Metallica<br />

during the launch event of its full range renewal in Barcelona. The brand will<br />

support the band during the European leg of the M72 World Tour, from May<br />

to July <strong>2024</strong>.<br />

the top of the range. The max engine<br />

capability is 600 hp/2850 Nm, but to<br />

date we have certified the 580 hp/2800<br />

Nm version. If we compare the 500 hp<br />

XC13 with the 480 C11 and the 490<br />

C13, thanks to downspeeding, in addition<br />

to achieving a remarkable increase<br />

in max torque up to 2600 Nm<br />

(versus 2300-2400) max torque is<br />

reached already at 840 rpm, versus<br />

the 930/970 rpm of the previous versions.<br />

The mean effective pressure<br />

gives us an idea of the amount of useful<br />

work achieved with the same displacement.<br />

The MEP went from 24.4<br />

to 27.8 bar, meaning a 14% increase.”<br />

114 kg lighter than the Cursor 13. Is<br />

this only explained with the use of<br />

compacted graphite iron?<br />

“That’s certainly one of the key improvements,<br />

as we changed the engine’s<br />

core – that is, the cylinder head<br />

and the block. In addition, we downsized<br />

a few components, namely the<br />

crankshaft, the conrods and the piston,<br />

to reduce both size and friction.<br />

We halved the number of counterweights<br />

– we went from 8 to 4. That<br />

laid the groundwork for the 114-kilogram<br />

weight reduction.”<br />

When discussing with Iveco, what<br />

inputs were you given as to performance,<br />

considering that internal<br />

combustion engines are steadily<br />

under the spotlight? Specific curve<br />

increase or fuel reduction?<br />

“No doubt reducing consumption. To<br />

achieve which, downspeeding is a key<br />

step. And this brings us back to what<br />

we were able to reap: 300Nm more<br />

and 150 rpm less, as I mentioned earlier.”<br />

Will these same parameters be applicable<br />

to the hydrogen version,<br />

too?<br />

“Hydrogen is less efficient, after all is<br />

the Otto cycle we’re talking about, so<br />

we can draw a comparison with natural<br />

gas technology. We have to think<br />

of efficiency and performance similar<br />

to those in the gas and biomethane<br />

versions. The NG version’s max capability<br />

is 500 hp at 2200 Nm. Torque<br />

and power curves meet the needs of<br />

this segment’s core – long-haul applications.<br />

As you know, we launched a<br />

prototype jointly with Prinoth, fitted<br />

on a snow groomer, tested last winter.<br />

We’re setting ourselves the target of<br />

achieving start-up production of the<br />

hydrogen-fuelled XC13 by the end of<br />

the decade. This is not a very shortterm<br />

project, but we do have a few<br />

engines being field-tested so that’s<br />

a realistic option. We have changed<br />

all components on the NG version,<br />

too, in addition to introducing the<br />

new valve actuation system to maximize<br />

braking power, the same applied<br />

to diesel, with the differences<br />

in performance that are inherent to<br />

the individual technologies. The main<br />

changes, compared to the diesel version,<br />

are the turbocharger, an electronically<br />

controlled wastegate – no<br />

longer a VGT – and the addition of<br />

EGR. Recirculation suits more powerful<br />

engines in that it enhances performance:<br />

natural gas entails temperatures<br />

that are much higher than<br />

with diesel engines, which the EGR<br />

can lower, thus improving efficiency.”<br />

Are the axles by FPT, too?<br />

“In Turin we’ve been producing axles<br />

and transmissions since the Seventies,<br />

we manufacture about 260,000<br />

a year for commercial medium and<br />

heavy vehicles. To the MY24 we provide<br />

the front and rear axles. On the<br />

rear axle, the rear axle ratio was sped<br />

up to 2:06 to optimize downspeeding.”<br />

What about friction reduction?<br />

“It helps mitigating CO 2<br />

emissions as<br />

well as fuel consumption. To achieve<br />

it, we used smart auxiliaries, such as<br />

variable water and oil pumps, and<br />

also donwnsized the components.”<br />

One of the take-home messages<br />

from Barcelona is that Iveco was<br />

brave enough to state that for the<br />

time being electric vehicles are no<br />

solution for long haulage. How did<br />

you come to this conclusion?<br />

“Being very practical. Currently, legal<br />

requirements are clear, and so<br />

are thresholds, and the penalties applied<br />

in case the goals are not met.<br />

Everything else is still a chapter left<br />

unfinished: for example, where’s the<br />

fuelling infrastructure for hydrogen,<br />

a carrier that holds promise for long<br />

haul transportation? And what’s the<br />

rationale, considering that the circulating<br />

fleet in Italy is more than 10<br />

years old?”<br />

Vehicle registration data for 2023<br />

have just been issued and the percentage<br />

share of diesel vehicles is growing.<br />

FPT Industrial too expects ICEs<br />

to remain the benchmark for a long<br />

time.<br />

12<br />

13


COMPARISONS PREVIEWS<br />

#TRUCK #CUMMINS #FORD #COMMONRAIL #FPT #MAN #HVO #MERCEDES #POWERPACK #RENAULT #OFFROAD #SCANIA #CHECKAPP #VOLVO<br />

12L TO 12.9L TRUCK ENGINES<br />

FOR THE<br />

NOMINAL<br />

SPEED<br />

This table is taken from a comparison<br />

made two years ago.<br />

Preceded by the interview with<br />

FPT Industrial, it provides an<br />

intuitive mirror on the evolution initialed<br />

XC13, which appears in place<br />

of the Cursor 13. Scania’s Super engine<br />

is leader in efficiency and Diesel<br />

of the Year 2023, in the industrial version.<br />

What’s more, it is also confirmed<br />

as top in the Diesel Index, just one<br />

decimal point behind Cummins’ X12,<br />

which makes its way mainly because<br />

of its “slim” mass, and the XC13’s<br />

own. Scania’s engine management<br />

system is the tried-and-true EMS,<br />

which oversees the XPI’s nozzle, and<br />

interacts with the VGT. Timing is<br />

handled by the double overhead camshaft.<br />

Compared with the Cursor 13,<br />

it has made a significant leap forward<br />

especially in maximum torque and<br />

related values. The key to the climb<br />

to the Diesel Index can be attributed<br />

to weight reduction and that efficiency-functional<br />

goal of reducing rpm. In<br />

short, reaching the apex torque value<br />

at less than 900 rpm is certainly a significant<br />

milestone. The other 6-cylinder<br />

at the top is the Cummins, which<br />

in Europe we will see on harvesters<br />

more than on trucks. Of course, when<br />

we’re talking about ICE.<br />

Hyundai is present in Switzerland<br />

with the Xcient fuel cell truck and<br />

other manufacturers from Far East<br />

are probably set to land in Europe.<br />

Other familiar faces of industrial<br />

comparisons, with turbocharging,<br />

injection and revs tuned to heavy-duty<br />

performance are Man’s D26 and<br />

Mercedes’ OM 471, as the 6R 1300<br />

from Rolls-Royce Power Systems.<br />

The 12.77L from Volvo Trucks and<br />

Renault, too, hides the familiar looks<br />

of Penta’s Tad13VE. More unusual is<br />

Ford’s Ecotorq, a typically long-haulage<br />

application.<br />

BRAND<br />

MODEL<br />

CUMMINS<br />

X12<br />

DAF<br />

MX 13-530<br />

FORD<br />

ECOTORQ 12.7L<br />

FPT INDUSTRIAL<br />

CURSOR 13<br />

MAN<br />

D2676 - 500<br />

MERCEDES<br />

OM 471 - 530<br />

RENAULT<br />

DTI 13 - 520<br />

SCANIA DC13 173 VOLVO D 13 K-540<br />

I. D.<br />

B x S mm - S/B 134 x 142 - 1,06 130 x 162 - 1,25 130 x 160 - 1,23 135 x 150 - 1,11 126 x 166 - 1,32 132 x 156 - 1,18 131 x 158 - 1,21 130 x 160 - 1,23 131 x 158 - 1,21<br />

N. cil. - dm 3 6 - 12,01 6 - 12,90 6 - 12,74 6 - 12,88 6 - 12,41 6 - 12,80 6 - 12,77 6 - 12,74 6 - 12,77<br />

Maximum power kW - rpm 373 - 2.000 390 - 1.800 368 - 1.800 419 - 1.900 368 - 1.800 390 - 1.850 390 - 1.900 412 - 1.800 397 - 1.800<br />

Mep at max power bar 19,0 20,6 19,6 21 20,1 20,1 19,7 22,0 21,1<br />

Piston speed m/s 9,5 9,7 9,6 9,5 10 9,6 10 9,6 9,5<br />

Maximum torque Nm - rpm 2.305 - 1.000 2597 - 1.000 2499 - 1.000 2400 - 950 2499 - 930 2597 - 1.100 2548 - 1.050 2.803 - 900 2597 - 1.000<br />

Mep at max torque bar 24,6 25,8 25,2 23,9 25,8 26 25,6 28,2 26,1<br />

% power at max torque (kW) 51,8 56,6 58 47,3 58 56,6 55,4 58,1 55,4<br />

Torque at max power Nm 1.784 2.068 1.950 2.107 1.950 2.009 1.960 2.185 2.107<br />

DETAILS<br />

Specific power kW/dm 3 31 30,2 28,8 32,5 29,6 30,4 30,5 32,3 31<br />

Specific torque Nm/dm 3 191,8 201,2 196,1 186,3 201,2 202,7 199,4 219,9 203,2<br />

Areal spec. power kW/dm 2 44,09 48,99 46,23 48,78 49,20 47,50 48,21 51,76 49,07<br />

RULES AND BALANCE<br />

Dry weight kg 930 1.000 - 1.197 1.114 1.126 1.115 1.100 1.134<br />

L x W x H mm 1.294x931x1.002 1.375x825x1.150 - 1.360x1.008x1.171 1.630x893x1.046 1.375x980x1.260 1.285x1.100x1.301 1.710x780x1.430 1.285x1.100x1.301<br />

Volume m 3 1,21 1,30 - 1,61 1,52 1,70 1,84 1,91 1,84<br />

Weight/power kg/kW 2,5 2,6 - 2,9 3 2,9 2,9 2,7 2,9<br />

Weight/displacement kg/dm 3 77,4 77,5 - 92,9 89,7 87,9 87,3 86,3 88,8<br />

Power density kW/m 3 308,3 300 - 260,3 242,1 229,4 212 215,7 215,8<br />

Total density t/m 3 0,77 0,77 - 0,74 0,73 0,66 0,61 0,58 0,62<br />

Displacement/volume dm 3 /m 3 9,93 9,92 - 8 8,17 7,53 6,94 6,67 6,94<br />

INDEX<br />

Torque 13,1 11,3 - 12,5 11,9 10,9 11,8 12,4 11,3<br />

Performance 6,9 7,2 7,1 6,9 7,3 7,3 7,2 7,7 7,3<br />

Stress 11,4 11,8 11,6 11,1 11,9 11,9 11,9 12,6 11,9<br />

Lightness 10,2 10,2 - 12,8 11,9 11,6 11,5 11,5 11,7<br />

Density 10,5 10,2 0,0 8 8,6 7,9 7,2 7,6 7,3<br />

DIESEL INDEX 8,0 7,8 - 7,7 7,7 7,7 7,8 7,9 7,7<br />

14<br />

15


EVENTS<br />

#INTERMAT #WORDLOFCONCRETE<br />

INTERMAT PRESS DAYS<br />

DIGITALIZATION<br />

AND<br />

ENERGY<br />

On August 31, 2023, Christophe Lecarpentier (left), has been<br />

appointed head of the Comexposium group’s Agro Equipment<br />

and Construction division, which includes SIMA, SITEVI and<br />

Intermat.<br />

Digitalisation and energy will<br />

be the key words at Intermat<br />

<strong>2024</strong>, which will take place<br />

from April 24 to 27 in Paris<br />

Nord Villepinte. France leads the<br />

continent in fission energy. In 2023,<br />

the French parliament approved the<br />

construction of six more nuclear power<br />

plants by 2025. The construction<br />

sites in urban areas are one of the<br />

most testing grounds for electrification<br />

in the industrial segment. A lot<br />

of energy is needed to accomplish<br />

this mission. Intermat has the systemic<br />

credentials to restructure itself<br />

as the hub of electrification in the<br />

construction industry. And, guess<br />

what?, electric technology will be the<br />

widespread protagonist on the OEM<br />

stands. Some examples? Liebherr’s<br />

T33-10 telescopic handler, Amman’s<br />

It’s going to be an<br />

“electric” event,<br />

at least from the<br />

point of view of the<br />

OEMs. Certainly<br />

stimulated by<br />

the drivers of<br />

digitalization<br />

and energy,<br />

as Christophe<br />

Lecarpentier, the<br />

event’s director,<br />

confirmed to us<br />

eAMX-15 mini-excavator, and Develon’s<br />

DL250-FCEV wheel loader.<br />

Liugong will even exhibit only<br />

BEVs.<br />

Who better to talk to than Christophe<br />

Lecarpentier, director of the<br />

agricultural and construction equipment<br />

division at Comexposium?<br />

“First of all, I would like to focus on<br />

the name Intermat, which is known<br />

in the French-speaking world and<br />

beyond. This event is industry-oriented<br />

from the very beginning, so<br />

we have emphasised the issue of<br />

decarbonisation. In this production<br />

ecosystem, it is a truly epochal transition.<br />

It was and remains crucial,<br />

now more than ever, that the organisation<br />

of this event follows industry<br />

trends. The first way involves endothermic<br />

systems. Digital tools can<br />

help improve the fuel consumption<br />

of diesel engines. Biofuels are the<br />

second step, which however calls<br />

into question the availability of these<br />

fuels. Let me say that, with due proportion,<br />

it is easier to electrify cars.<br />

The earthmoving sector cannot rely<br />

on a single solution. There are small<br />

machines as well as extremely large<br />

ones (key factors such as work cycle,<br />

peak load and energy absorption,<br />

possible transit on the road, use of<br />

tools, etc. come into play). Intermat’s<br />

role is to work hand in hand with the<br />

French and European federations<br />

of the industrial machinery sector,<br />

whether they represent OEMs, hirers<br />

or end users. They are able to intercept<br />

the industry’s most authentic<br />

challenges and understand how to<br />

bring supply and demand together<br />

during the event and how to meet<br />

visitors’ needs”. A strategy game<br />

called energy transition? “We represent<br />

the different solutions of decarbonisation,<br />

coming from the implementation<br />

of endothermic efficiency,<br />

for some applications from electric<br />

motors or alternative fuels, with hydrogen<br />

more in perspective. This is<br />

why we created the Energy sector.<br />

We don’t just deal with machines,<br />

we analyse infrastructure, storage,<br />

regulations governing new energies,<br />

and the operators’ training. The<br />

<strong>2024</strong> edition intends to take up the<br />

challenges of our industry, not only<br />

through the traditional exhibition<br />

formula, but also through seminars<br />

and meetings, television popularisation,<br />

and networking. Visitors must<br />

leave the show ‘enlightened’ about<br />

new technologies. The show evolves<br />

both in terms of exhibitors and solutions,<br />

organisations involved, topics<br />

on the table. Digitalisation is a<br />

truly crucial factor, which concerns<br />

the huge amount of data collected<br />

and its use in reducing the carbon<br />

footprint. Stakeholders wonder how<br />

best to use machines to increase<br />

productivity, reduce consumption,<br />

etc. This is the first real step in decarbonisation.<br />

There is the World of<br />

Concrete, which massively involves<br />

electric machines and the use of materials<br />

with a low carbon footprint.<br />

In short, we take a holistic view,<br />

which does not only embrace propulsion<br />

systems. There is legislation<br />

to comply with, which requires us to<br />

speed up the roadmap. How can we<br />

take action to reduce emissions from<br />

16<br />

17


EVENTS<br />

#CUMMINS #NPROXX<br />

New for <strong>2024</strong>, the Industry Forum’s BFM Business TV set, featuring a series<br />

of round tables, will provide an opportunity to take a broad look at societal,<br />

energy and economic issues, the challenges of decarbonisation and digitalisation,<br />

and also raise public authority awareness of the fundamental role of our sector<br />

in achieving net zero.<br />

ICE-equipped machines, which will<br />

be such a large part of the circulating<br />

fleet in the coming years. At the<br />

same time, the demand for electric<br />

machines is increasing and, consequently,<br />

so are the problems with<br />

recharging. To us, as well as to the<br />

Ministry, it seems that there is no<br />

single solution; efforts must be made<br />

on several fronts: reducing emissions<br />

on diesel machines, spreading biofuels,<br />

and electrifying part of the fleets.<br />

Intermat remains a construction and<br />

building event, as well as demolition<br />

and what goes around this sector. We<br />

are definitely not mining-oriented.”<br />

Finally, a look at Intermat’s target<br />

markets. “Our trade show remains<br />

international in scope and strongly<br />

oriented towards European countries.<br />

We clearly have a strong link<br />

with French-speaking visitors, such<br />

as Canadians and Africans. We have<br />

a special top buyer programme from<br />

Africa and the Middle East. Intermat<br />

India will be held in April <strong>2024</strong> and<br />

is going to be tailor-made for that<br />

specific market. Finally, we have<br />

Chinese exhibitors, who are gaining<br />

increasing market shares in Europe.”<br />

Laurent Di Vito is Manager Engines<br />

Sales, Application and Production,<br />

New Power Leader, at Cummins<br />

France. “Our strategy up to now has<br />

been focused on engines,” De Vito<br />

confirms, also for the French side.<br />

“Currently we have differentiated<br />

ourselves with a range of proposals,<br />

for example electrified axles, after<br />

the acquisition of Meritor. When we<br />

offer a complete package, we do not<br />

limit ourselves to the propulsion part,<br />

we also provide support for storage.<br />

There are indeed those who demand<br />

a complete ecosystem from us. In<br />

France, for example in Champagne<br />

and Bordeaux, we have some interesting<br />

projects: some wind turbines<br />

are connected to an electrolyser for<br />

the production of hydrogen. This will<br />

power the fuel cells of grape harvesting<br />

machines.” What about the market?<br />

we ask. This is almost a naive<br />

question... “We record a strong push<br />

for hydrogen from decision makers,<br />

at least from the Covid-19 pandemic<br />

onwards. Throughout the last two<br />

decades, the main topic of discussion<br />

has been ‘what is the next emission<br />

level for my endothermic engine?’.<br />

Today, while waiting for Euro 7,<br />

Stage VI, what do we need? In the<br />

truck industry there is a need for ap-<br />

plications with electric recharging,<br />

but if there is a lack of electricity...<br />

In the off-highway sector, on the other<br />

hand, we are seeing a strong push<br />

towards hydrogen. You know our<br />

agnostic, diesel, gas and hydrogen<br />

engine. We have developed a common<br />

platform with a strong focus on<br />

each specific technology. Hydrogen<br />

requires spark ignition, albeit with<br />

different energy requirements than<br />

gas, with which it shares a head and<br />

spark plug. From the supercharging<br />

point of view, more air is needed than<br />

the diesel cycle. Cummins presents<br />

itself as a flexible and comprehensive<br />

supplier of propulsion solutions.<br />

You, the OEM, manufacture your<br />

machine, Cummins supports you<br />

with the Stage VI solution, since 80-<br />

90% of the market will remain diesel.<br />

We assist you in integrating hydrogen<br />

solutions, with specific 700 bar<br />

tanks, derived from our collaboration<br />

with NPROXX. Cummins allows<br />

OEMs to design a diesel machine<br />

with a hydrogen engine or fuel cell<br />

option at hand, should the availability<br />

of hydrogen increase. Cummins is<br />

already producing fuel cells, thanks<br />

to the acquisition of Hydrogenics”.<br />

When will fuel cell technology be<br />

mature for construction sites? “The<br />

fuel cell is very sensitive to air. Not<br />

only to environmental impurities, but<br />

also to chemical factors. In addition,<br />

it needs low vibrations. At present,<br />

excavators are not a congenial application<br />

for this technology. In the<br />

future, diesel machines will continue<br />

to perform their function outside the<br />

urban perimeter, in quarries, con-<br />

struction sites and mines. The city<br />

will be the preserve of electric and<br />

hydrogen technology, at this stage<br />

possibly applied to the combustion<br />

engine, which reduces design costs.”<br />

How to overcome the insuperable<br />

limits of Stage VI? “The question is<br />

how to reduce CO 2<br />

and thus reduce<br />

consumption? There are basically<br />

two ways: redesigning the engine,<br />

strengthening after-treatment. Without<br />

EGR, AdBlue consumption is<br />

higher, although with Stage V, Cummins<br />

has managed to reduce fuel<br />

consumption. Or, we can resort to<br />

hybrid solutions. At the trade show<br />

we will have the opportunity to see<br />

Deutz and Volvo Penta’s vision for<br />

this market. We will see who will enter<br />

the list of suppliers of propulsion<br />

solutions.”<br />

18<br />

19


COMPARISONS PREVIEWS<br />

#COMMONRAIL #OFFHIGHWAY #HVO #POWERPACK #4CYLINDERS#OFFROAD #AGCOPOWER #CHECKAPP #DEUTZ<br />

5 TO 5.2 LITERS<br />

CORE IS<br />

50<br />

TOO<br />

ter. We can’t, then, rule out that the<br />

5 litre will be available in a wider<br />

range of cylinder number options<br />

depending on captive needs and its<br />

impact on the free market. Cylinder<br />

displacement is modular and the engine<br />

block was designed with the<br />

same engineering features; we will,<br />

therefore, repeat what we already<br />

said in May’s comparison, with all<br />

due exceptions. Under the lens, the<br />

1.25L cylinder displacement in the<br />

6-cylinder configuration; an engine<br />

block – as we said back then<br />

– that does not make it to the podium<br />

based on the comparison’s indices,<br />

and yet stands out for torque,<br />

reaching second place behind mtu<br />

and climbing the ranking thanks<br />

to torque at max power. Compared<br />

to the three top positions, it pays<br />

a toll in power curve comparison<br />

– 20% less, precisely, compared<br />

to Friedrichshafen’s fastest horse,<br />

the 6R1000. A conservative choice<br />

embodied in piston speed, stuck<br />

at only 7.5 metres per second. Af-<br />

It was 2019, at Bauma Munich.<br />

Kubota was crowned Diesel of<br />

the Year with its V5009; a 5 litre<br />

that gained a following. Indeed,<br />

there are six 4 cylinders all<br />

lined up for a comparison on these<br />

pages. So, let’s start with the newest<br />

entry, the Core50 by AGCO<br />

Power. It completes the bottom section<br />

of the newly introduced Core<br />

range that’s recoded the language<br />

of AGCO Power Group’s engine department.<br />

A network that got a fresh<br />

boost from TAFE (Tractors and<br />

Farm Equipment limited) becoming<br />

a significant shareholder in the<br />

Corporation. The Indian group is<br />

the third largest agricultural OEM<br />

in the world. There is no shortage<br />

of synergies, then, as confirmed to<br />

us by Massimo Ribaldone, TAFE’s<br />

CTO and Business Development<br />

President. “Today, India’s industrial<br />

base provides for manufacturing<br />

at a reasonable cost with proven<br />

technologies; yet, quality comes at<br />

a price and costs also stem from the<br />

need to provide a centralized European<br />

sales and marketing structure<br />

to support importers across<br />

different countries. Ours is, therefore,<br />

a global range with a shared<br />

platform for all markets and scalable<br />

upgrades based on the relevant<br />

region. 75hp Stage V engines<br />

are manufactured in India based on<br />

the Tier 4 Final units equipping the<br />

Massey Fergusons”.<br />

Spearheading the Finnish renewal is<br />

Core75. Announced in a low-speed<br />

mode embodiment, it was followed<br />

by a medium speed one shortly af-<br />

AGCO Power’s Core<br />

family expands. The<br />

1.25-liter cylinder<br />

displacement also<br />

applies to 4-cylinder<br />

Diesel engine and<br />

throws down the<br />

gauntlet in this<br />

micro-segment.<br />

Veterans mtu and<br />

Volvo Penta are<br />

joined by the Finns,<br />

Deutz, Kubota and<br />

Isuzu<br />

BRAND<br />

MODEL<br />

AGCO POWER<br />

POWER CORE50<br />

DEUTZ<br />

TCD 5.2<br />

ISUZU<br />

4HK1<br />

KUBOTA<br />

V5009<br />

MTU<br />

R4 1000<br />

VOLVO PENTA<br />

TAD572VE<br />

I. D.<br />

B x S mm - S/B 110 x 132 - 1,20 110 x 136 - 1,24 115 x 125 - 1,09 110 x 132 - 1,20 110 x 135 - 1,23 110 x 135 - 1,23<br />

N. cil. - dm 3 4 - 5,01 4 - 5,17 4 - 5,19 4 - 5,01 4 - 5,13 4 - 5,13<br />

Maximum power kW - rpm 165 - 1.700 170 - 2.300 145 - 2.100 157 - 2.200 170 - 2.200 160 - 2.200<br />

Mep at max power bar 23,7 17,5 16,3 17,4 18,4 17,3<br />

Piston speed m/s 7,5 10,4 8,8 9,7 9,9 9,9<br />

Maximum torque Nm - rpm 950 - 1.200 951 - 1.300 686 - 1.200 882 - 1.500 951 - 1.400 902 - 1.200<br />

Mep at max torque bar 24,3 23,6 16,9 22,5 23,8 22,5<br />

% power at max torque (kW) 47,7 46 37,3 46 46 46,3<br />

Torque at max power Nm 921 706 657 686 735 696<br />

% power at max torque (kW) 72,4 (119) 76,20 (130) 59,50 (86) 88,30 (139) 82,10 (140) 70,90 (113)<br />

Work range rpm 500 1.000 900 700 800 1.000<br />

DETAILS<br />

Specific power kW/dm 3 32,8 32,8 27,9 31,3 33,1 31,2<br />

Specific torque Nm/dm 3 189,3 183,9 132,1 175,7 185,3 175,7<br />

Areal spec. power kW/dm 2 43,42 44,74 34,94 41,32 44,74 42,11<br />

RULES AND BALANCE<br />

Dry weight kg 590 530 470 620 540 560<br />

L x W x H mm 923x664x1.171 921x695x902 1.019x776x1.034 898x656x972 818x755x1.033 772x859x995<br />

Volume m 3 0,72 0,58 0,82 0,57 0,64 0,66<br />

Weight/power kg/kW 3,6 3,1 3,2 3,9 3,2 3,5<br />

Weight/displacement kg/dm 3 117,6 102,5 90,5 123,6 105,2 109,1<br />

Power density kW/m 3 229,2 293,1 176,8 275,4 265,6 242,4<br />

Total density t/m 3 0,82 0,91 0,57 1,09 0,84 0,85<br />

Displacement/volume dm 3 /m 3 6,97 8,91 6,33 8,80 8,02 7,78<br />

20<br />

21


COMPARISONS PREVIEWS<br />

#ISUZU #KUBOTA #ROLLSROYCEPOWERSYSTEMS #VOLVO<br />

BRAND<br />

MODEL<br />

AGCO POWER<br />

POWER CORE50<br />

DEUTZ<br />

TCD 5.2<br />

ISUZU<br />

4HK1<br />

KUBOTA<br />

V5009<br />

MTU<br />

R4 1000<br />

VOLVO PENTA<br />

TAD572VE<br />

INDEX<br />

Torque 7,9 12,9 11,2 9,9 11 12,8<br />

Performance 6,8 6,8 5,4 6,5 6,8 6,5<br />

Stress 10,6 11,3 8,6 10,7 11,2 10,8<br />

Lightness 14,4 12,6 11,2 15,4 12,7 13,5<br />

Density 16 19,5 10,3 18,9 17,8 16,3<br />

DIESEL INDEX 7,1 7,7 7,1 7,2 7,6 7,5<br />

ter all, the first application of this<br />

1.25 dm 3 single cylinder was Fendt<br />

728 Vario, winner of Tractor of the<br />

Year 2023. But there’s more to this<br />

engine’s architecture than just thermodynamic<br />

performance. Quoting<br />

AGCO Power Marketing Manager<br />

Tommi Puomisto we approached<br />

at Bauma Munich: “It’s a fact that<br />

the technology on the market is not<br />

100% ready for carbon neutrality,<br />

but we need to take all steps to get<br />

it closer to it. Specific consumption<br />

is 188 g/kwh – we’ll be happy<br />

to compare it to that of any other<br />

competitor with publicly accessible<br />

technical datasheets. Specific consumption<br />

values are often higher<br />

than 200 g/kwh”.<br />

Are these similarities also found in<br />

performance? Specific power moves<br />

from 29.6 kW per litre to 32.8. Specific<br />

torque is slightly lower and yet<br />

it becomes best in class when com-<br />

pared to the five equally sized competitors.<br />

Head-to-head with its big<br />

brother, the Core50 dashes forward<br />

tanks to torque reserve and it knocks<br />

out the contenders in the max power<br />

curves comparison. Out of 950 Nm<br />

recorded at peak power – an asset<br />

that allows AGCO to flank Deutz at<br />

the top – no less than 921 are still<br />

available as power reaches the peak<br />

value, right when one would expect<br />

the curve to start declining; instead,<br />

it stays basically stable from 1200<br />

to 1900 rpm.<br />

AGCO Power too has chosen to remove<br />

the recirculation valve so as<br />

to minimize heat, make the radiator<br />

more compact and avoid a negative<br />

impact on specific fuel consumption.<br />

The Diesel Index is instead rewarding<br />

for Deutz’s 5.2L, the most muscular<br />

of the group. Size-wise the<br />

AGCO gets close to the approach<br />

of the 5.2; since the Cologne engine<br />

gained a millimetre in bore – from<br />

109 to 110 – and two in stroke (from<br />

134 to 136), the 5.2 litre was among<br />

the first to give up on the EGR, one<br />

of the German mechanical engineering<br />

dogmas. That’s an engine that<br />

has a lot to say to the market of mobile<br />

working machinery, including<br />

when considering mean effective<br />

pressure, leaving room for action<br />

on the piston to achieve overall efficiency.<br />

We were speaking about<br />

Kubota, that went past the 110kW<br />

pillars of Hercules right with its 5<br />

litre. Looking at the Japanese 4 cylinder<br />

one gets impressed with its<br />

extremely compact size. The Osaka-based<br />

engine maker pushed hard<br />

on MEP – contrary to what’s customary<br />

for Kubota, for which the<br />

monobloc’s robustness comes prior<br />

to any excess within the combustion<br />

chamber. With 17.4 bar, the 1.250<br />

DEUTZ MTU VOLVO PENTA<br />

litre cylinder displacement can support<br />

performance and boost specific<br />

curves without “pressuring” the piston<br />

too much. As mentioned, rpms<br />

are in line with those of its talented<br />

contenders and piston linear speed<br />

well set below the fatidic value of<br />

10 metres per second.<br />

As pointed out during the V5009<br />

awarding ceremony at Bauma Munich,<br />

“since the middle of the last<br />

decade, and increasingly more often<br />

as of III B, the true driving force of<br />

internal combustion engines have<br />

been emissions standards. No manufacturer<br />

was able to find an alternative<br />

to the DPF – SCR combo. EGR<br />

was the only distinctive element.<br />

Kubota’s strategy – improving on<br />

the after-treatment system and combustion<br />

parameters – was a winning<br />

one”. Isuzu now moved this unit<br />

into the Tier 4 Final/Stage V territory,<br />

but without altering its mood.<br />

Low stress, no gambling with performance<br />

characterizes this engine<br />

that’s basically designed to work at<br />

construction sites.<br />

Rolls-Royce Power Systems and<br />

Volvo Penta are placing their bets<br />

on two thoroughbreds, widely tested<br />

and reliable. The mtu 1000 Series<br />

confirms its sophisticated architecture<br />

that shows painstaking care for<br />

boosting as well as fuel supply. The<br />

4R becomes a party of four: 115,<br />

129, 150 and 170 kW at 2200 rpm.<br />

This series, up to series 1500, will<br />

be marketed by Deutz, while waiting<br />

for 2028 when the agreement<br />

with Daimler Truck is set to enter<br />

into force. The heavy-duty engines<br />

will keep being built by Daimler<br />

Truck at the Mercedes-Benz plant<br />

in Mannheim and sent to Deutz for<br />

the final assembly, while the medium<br />

speed range will be manufactured<br />

entirely in Cologne.<br />

The Swedes, too, are taking sophisticated<br />

solutions pretty seriously.<br />

The variable geometry turbo is a<br />

legacy of research into the on road<br />

heavy duty domain; the EMS – Engine<br />

Management System – control<br />

unit governs the system and can be<br />

controlled remotely.<br />

Fine particles are taken care of<br />

through the high temperature within<br />

the chamber. The unavoidable<br />

nitrous oxides trade-off is handled<br />

by the EGR-SCR duo, upstream<br />

and downstream of the combustion<br />

stage, respectively. The aftertreatment<br />

system then gets shorter and<br />

freed from the burden of regeneration.<br />

22<br />

23


AUTOMOTIVE<br />

#AUDI #BMW #MERCEDES #OPEL #STELLANTIS #SUZUKI<br />

HUNGARY FOR BATTERY<br />

EUROPEAN<br />

ELECTRIC<br />

HUB<br />

EV BATTERY CELL, MODULE AND PACK MANUFACTURERS IN HUNGARY<br />

NAME<br />

ORIGIN<br />

TOTAL ANNUAL<br />

PRODUCTION<br />

OUTPUT<br />

LOCATION<br />

STARTING YEAR<br />

OF OPERATION<br />

Samsung SDI South Korea 40 GWh+ Göd 2017<br />

SK Innovation South Korea 47,3 GWh* Komárom, Iváncsa 2019<br />

CATL China 100 GWh Debrecen 2025<br />

BYD China t.b.a. Fót t.b.a.<br />

EVE Power China 28 GWh Debrecen 2026<br />

Sunwoda China t.b.a. Nyíregyháza 2025<br />

*possibility to be increased to 53,5 GWh<br />

One of the key products of the future<br />

are traction batteries, essential<br />

components of any electric – or<br />

even fuel cell powered – vehicles.<br />

Within the European Union, Hungary<br />

puts a particularly high stake on EV battery<br />

plants. As automotive industry gradually<br />

turns to more sustainable – practically<br />

electric – drivelines, fear of change<br />

(and the loss of the combustion engine<br />

market) also increases in Hungary, whose<br />

economy is currently highly dependent<br />

on automotive industry. Today, according<br />

to the estimations of the government,<br />

the conventional automotive sector is responsible<br />

for nearly 20% of the country’s<br />

total GDP, which comes not only from<br />

the large OEMs present at the country –<br />

namely Suzuki, Audi, Mercedes-Benz,<br />

Stellantis (Opel), with a new BMW assembly<br />

plant being under construction –,<br />

but also the many local and multinational<br />

industry suppliers settled in Hungary during<br />

the last decades. However, producing<br />

traction batteries in large amounts seems<br />

to be a good card to remain part of the<br />

game in the future as well.<br />

For the above reasons, the establishment<br />

of factories related to the EV battery<br />

industry (including supplier products)<br />

enjoys huge financial and political support<br />

from the Hungarian government - a<br />

reason often mentioned by the battery<br />

manufacturers themselves when they are<br />

asked about their reasons why choosing<br />

Hungary as the location of their newest<br />

plants. The central position of the country<br />

within the region, the local big car factories<br />

and the relative proximity of others<br />

in the neighbouring countries – such as<br />

Slovakia, Romania or even the Czech<br />

Republic – also contributes to making<br />

Hungary a considerable place for such<br />

investments. Márton Nagy, Minister for<br />

National Economy minister of Hungary,<br />

stated at a press event in September that<br />

the government has plans to build up an<br />

annual battery production capacity of 250<br />

GWh in the next few years, which, according<br />

to him, would cover 35% of the<br />

European needs and would put the country<br />

to the fourth place worldwide in this<br />

comparison, right after China, the United<br />

States and Germany. Indeed, by November<br />

2023, battery production capacity in<br />

Hungary reportedly already reached 87<br />

GWh/year, not including the newest SK<br />

Innovation plant, which is expected to<br />

begin production soon and to provide an<br />

additional output of 30 GWh/year alone<br />

when operating on full throttle. It is also<br />

worth mentioning that not only battery<br />

cell and module producers, but also all<br />

concerns include the tremendous energy<br />

and water consumption of the manufacturing<br />

process, and the significant use of<br />

foreign labor. A frequently heard criticism<br />

of the investments is that the newly<br />

built plants of foreign-owned companies<br />

only bring health-risky work processes to<br />

Hungary with low added value, instead of<br />

R&D activities from which the country<br />

itself would benefit in the long run. Some<br />

analysts also note that the country does<br />

not really have the necessary raw material<br />

resources, neither accessible cheap energy<br />

to support the needs of the factories.<br />

Similar to the practice observable worldwide,<br />

EV battery cell and module manufacturers<br />

currently present at Hungary<br />

come from the Far East – namely South<br />

Korea, Japan, and, first of all, China. The<br />

supplier segment is also dominated by<br />

these countries, for whom setting up a loparticipants<br />

of the whole supply chain,<br />

such as electrolyte, anode, cathode, aluminum/copper<br />

foil, separator foil and battery<br />

part manufacturers, as well as industrial<br />

waste recycling firms are welcomed<br />

by the Hungarian government, which is<br />

well demonstrated by the various recent<br />

local investments of these companies.<br />

Moreover, there are even plans for local<br />

lithium extraction, by exploiting geothermic<br />

deposits. However, the construction<br />

of more and more battery plants is also a<br />

quite sensitive topic in the Hungarian political<br />

field, due to the many arising technical<br />

and environmental issues. Demonstrations<br />

and protests against the planned<br />

battery plants are common by the locals,<br />

who are afraid of health issues, airborne<br />

pollution, contamination of groundwater<br />

and noise emission the factories may<br />

cause in their neighbourhood. Further<br />

cal production base in a relatively cheap<br />

but well-located EU-member state provides<br />

an entrance to the European market.<br />

While these companies are strengthening<br />

their positions as key employers<br />

and become such important part of the<br />

country’s economy with the dedicated<br />

support of the Hungarian government,<br />

some political concerns raise at European<br />

level, especially in case of China. At the<br />

moment most customers of the battery industry<br />

products produced in Hungary are<br />

coming from the passenger car business.<br />

Some of the OEMs representing the main<br />

customer market also operate in Hungary,<br />

while the local Hungarian bus industry –<br />

which is currently a shadow of its former<br />

glory, although some developments have<br />

been done the last years – plays a negligible<br />

role for now. The only exception is<br />

BYD, which operates (among others) a<br />

24<br />

25


AUTOMOTIVE<br />

#SAMSUNGSDI #SKINNOVATION<br />

On the left, you can see a picture of the Samsung SDI plant,<br />

located in Göd, near the Hungarian Capital, Budapest.<br />

bus assembly plant in Hungary and uses<br />

its own batteries. In below, we provide<br />

a slight overview about the EV battery<br />

producer companies which already operate<br />

manufacturing plants in Hungary<br />

or announced to do so in the near future.<br />

We also take a look at their products and<br />

manufacturing capacity.<br />

SAMSUNG SDI<br />

The Korean company can be considered<br />

as a pioneer of the traction battery industry<br />

in Hungary, as it started to construct its<br />

first traction battery plant in the country<br />

as early as 2016, located in Göd (sometimes<br />

written as “Goed” in the international<br />

media), a town about 25 kilometers<br />

north of the capital, Budapest. In fact, it<br />

was a brownfield investment by converting<br />

Samsung’s own former cathode ray<br />

tube factory. The new battery plant’s inauguration<br />

ceremony was held in 2017,<br />

quickly followed by a further expansion<br />

investment of 1.2 billion euros in the<br />

same year. As a result, the second unit<br />

was completed in 2019 and reached full<br />

production capacity (more than 6 million<br />

cells/month) by January 2022. By now<br />

the total manufacturing output increased<br />

to 40 GWh/year. Prismatic battery cells<br />

produced here are used in electric cars of<br />

BMW, Volkswagen and Stellantis. The<br />

Hungarian plant will also supply sixth<br />

generation P6 prismatic NCA cells for<br />

Hyundai Motor’s electric vehicles dedicated<br />

for the European market, starting<br />

from 2026. However, the plant often appears<br />

in the Hungarian media in a negative<br />

sight due to the complaints of the<br />

people living around it. These complaints<br />

include safety issues, significant noise<br />

emission and assumed responsibility of<br />

an alleged groundwater poisoning.<br />

In January 2023, there were reports that<br />

Samsung SDI would expand its operations<br />

in Hungary with a new production<br />

plant, with a similar output as the previous<br />

two. According to the rumours, this facility<br />

would produce 46120-type cylindrical<br />

cells, to be used exclusively in BMW<br />

cars – more precisely, the planned new<br />

manufacturing unit is expected to supply<br />

the also recently announced BMW<br />

battery module assembly plant in Debrecen,<br />

Hungary. From an e-bus perspective,<br />

Samsung SDI cells are used in the traction<br />

battery packs of Akasol, which itself<br />

is a supplier of Mercedes-Benz, Van Hool<br />

and Industria Italiana Autobus. The current<br />

Hungarian market leader, Credobus<br />

will also use these packs in its all-new<br />

zero emission bus family, scheduled to be<br />

introduced in <strong>2024</strong>. Also, battery technology<br />

of Samsung SDI is used in Webasto<br />

batteries, which can be found in Otokar<br />

e-buses.<br />

SK INNOVATION<br />

Another major player from South Korea,<br />

battery industry giant SK Innovation operates<br />

three plants in Hungary by now.<br />

Two of them are located in Komárom –<br />

the same north-western Hungarian town<br />

which is the home of BYD’s now-only<br />

European bus assembly plant –, while<br />

the newest, third unit recently started operation<br />

at Iváncsa, with an almost twice<br />

higher production output than the former<br />

two combined. The original Komárom<br />

plant – which was the first European<br />

plant of the company, operating since the<br />

end of 2019 – produces third-generation<br />

pouch battery cells, with a manufacturing<br />

capacity of 7,5 GWh/year, on a total<br />

of five assembly lines. Capacity was<br />

increased by a further 9.8 GWh with the<br />

commission of the second manufacturing<br />

unit in 2022, which has a capability<br />

to be scaled up to even 16 GWh/year.<br />

The number of employees, originally<br />

475, was also boosted by another 1000.<br />

These two plants mainly supply battery<br />

cells for the electric vehicles of Daimler<br />

and Volkswagen. The company’s newest,<br />

third factory in Hungary will operate<br />

at Iváncsa, a small town 51 kilometers<br />

southwest of Budapest. At the time of<br />

its official announcement in early 2021,<br />

it was considered to be not only the largest<br />

green field investment in the history<br />

of Hungary up to that point (value: 1.9<br />

billion euros), but also the largest EV<br />

battery plant in Europe. Although the factory<br />

buildings are ready and production<br />

is expected to start soon, various works<br />

are still remaining around the plant, such<br />

as the construction of road and industrial<br />

railway connections, and setting up service<br />

infrastructure. When operating at<br />

full capacity (expected from mid-<strong>2024</strong>,<br />

although the plant’s full completion is<br />

only scheduled for 2028), the plant will<br />

provide an annual production output of<br />

30 GWh, with a workforce of 2500 people.<br />

SK Innovation has ambitious plans<br />

to increase its global annual production<br />

output to 125 GWh by 2025 and to 500<br />

GWh by 2030, in which they assign a<br />

large role to their Hungarian manufacturing<br />

capacities, along with their facilities<br />

in South Korea, China and the United<br />

States. SK Innovation’s Hungarian plants<br />

were also involved in some safety issues:<br />

in June 2023, dozens of workers experienced<br />

sickness during the construction<br />

of the Iváncsa plant after inhaling an unknown<br />

chemical. This incident was also<br />

widely reported in the local media.<br />

26<br />

27


AUTOMOTIVE<br />

#CATL #BYD # EVEPOWER #SUNWODA<br />

Left , the assembly of CATL batteries on some commercial vehicles.<br />

Above, SK Innovation’s current plant in Hungary. Another plant is<br />

under construction.<br />

CATL<br />

The largest EV battery maker of the<br />

world for six consecutive years by now<br />

(according to the 2022 report of the SNE<br />

Research market research and consultant<br />

company from South Korea), CATL is<br />

a well-known supplier of many electric<br />

cars and buses worldwide. The Chinese<br />

industry giant is also considered to be<br />

one of the most important companies in<br />

the Hungarian economy in the future.<br />

Although not operating yet, it is already<br />

decided and officially announced that<br />

CATL will establish a huge battery cell<br />

manufacturing plant in Debrecen, the<br />

second most populous city of Hungary.<br />

This will be the second battery manufacturing<br />

base of the company outside<br />

China, after commissioning the first such<br />

unit in Erfurt, Thuringia, Germany. The<br />

project, which is the biggest greenfield<br />

investment to date in Hungary with its<br />

total value of 7.34 billion euros, enjoys<br />

great support from the Hungarian government,<br />

in order to create an estimated<br />

9,000 jobs locally. According to the available<br />

industry news, CATL’s Debrecen<br />

plant will produce NMC cells in prismatic<br />

and cylindrical format. Production<br />

output in the first phase will be an impressive<br />

40 GWh/year, with plans already announced<br />

to increase it to even 100 GWh/<br />

year in the near future. Trial production<br />

is planned to start at the beginning of<br />

2025. Modules and cells produced at the<br />

Debrecen factory will appear in electric<br />

models of approximately 30 different car<br />

manufacturers, including BMW, Daimler,<br />

Volkswagen, Toyota, Volvo and Tesla.<br />

CATL traction batteries are also widely<br />

used by e-bus manufacturers, among<br />

others the world’s largest bus and coach<br />

manufacturer Yutong and the Hungarian<br />

brand Ikarus.<br />

BYD<br />

An internationally well-known and respected<br />

Chinese company, BYD has<br />

special connections in Hungary. Its already<br />

mentioned bus assembly plant in<br />

Komárom started operations in 2017,<br />

and now is the only foreign-owned bus<br />

factory in the country which has a huge<br />

heritage in bus and coach manufacturing.<br />

BYD is also the current leader of the<br />

local e-bus market, but buses will not be<br />

the only vehicles that roll off the production<br />

lines in Hungary with the company’s<br />

logo. On December 22, 2023 it was officially<br />

confirmed that BYD will build up<br />

its first European electric passenger car<br />

assembly plant in the city of Szeged, in<br />

the south-eastern corner of Hungary. Last<br />

but not least, BYD’s battery business<br />

branch also plans to establish a manufacturing<br />

unit in the country, namely at<br />

Fót, in the north-eastern agglomeration<br />

of Budapest. It is important to note that<br />

unlike the previously mentioned EV battery<br />

makers, BYD would not manufacture<br />

battery cells in Hungary, but would<br />

establish an assembly plant for battery<br />

packs, without the use of harmful chemicals.<br />

When officially announcing the<br />

new plant’s arrival in June 2023, Péter<br />

Szijjártó, Minister of Foreign Affairs<br />

and Trade of Hungary stated that the total<br />

value of the investment is 10 billion<br />

HUF (nearly 27 million euros), with a<br />

financial support of 1 billion HUF from<br />

the Hungarian government. The initial<br />

plans include a workforce of 100 people.<br />

The battery modules and packs would be<br />

assembled from cells based on LiFePO4<br />

chemistry, which themselves would<br />

come to Fót from other facilities of BYD.<br />

The Hungarian-assembled batteries are<br />

intended for use in various electric vehicles,<br />

including e-buses. However, neither<br />

the exact vehicle types, nor the factory’s<br />

planned production output has been confirmed<br />

yet.<br />

EVE POWER<br />

In May 2023, another major battery<br />

industry investment was officially announced<br />

in the Hungarian media: EVE<br />

Power, another powerful Chinese participant<br />

of the EV battery industry, will establish<br />

its first European production plant<br />

in Debrecen. It will supply 6 th -generation<br />

cylindrical lithium-ion battery cells, most<br />

probably in a 4695 format, for the future<br />

BMW battery module assembly plant located<br />

also in the same city, with a massive<br />

production capacity of 28 GWh/year. The<br />

total value of the investment exceeds 1<br />

billion euros (from which 37.5 million<br />

euros come from the Hungarian government<br />

as financial support). The factory is<br />

expected to start operating in 2026, with a<br />

workforce of more than 1000 people.<br />

SUNWODA<br />

At the end of July – confirming the rumours<br />

that surfaced a few months before<br />

– Sunwoda also officially announced that<br />

it would build a new battery plant in Hungary.<br />

The Chinese company’s first European<br />

manufacturing unit will be built up<br />

at Nyíregyháza, a city in the north-eastern<br />

region of the country, with an initial investment<br />

of 245 million euros. However,<br />

in medium to long term this may increase<br />

to even nearly 1.5 billion euros, creating<br />

more than 1,000 jobs locally. The size of<br />

the planned production capacity and the<br />

type of battery cells to be produced have<br />

not yet been announced. Construction of<br />

28<br />

29


AUTOMOTIVE<br />

#SUPPLIERS<br />

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According to Bloomberg (9 January <strong>2024</strong>): “Hungary will undertake<br />

a 700 billion forint ($2 billion) infrastructure development project in<br />

Debrecen that will help transform the country’s second-largest city<br />

into one of Europe’s biggest battery production hubs.”<br />

FRENI A A CEPPI BD BD<br />

STEELFLEX<br />

the factory will start in <strong>2024</strong>, production<br />

is expected to begin at the end of 2025.<br />

Sunwoda is considered among the top 10<br />

EV battery manufacturers in the world<br />

based on market share, and is a supplier<br />

of Volkswagen, the Renault-Nissan<br />

group and Dongfeng, among others.<br />

However, customers of the products to<br />

be manufactured in Hungary have not yet<br />

been named, it was only communicated<br />

that the new plant will work for the “international<br />

market”.<br />

LOW-VOLTAGE BATTERY<br />

Apart from the industry-flagship traction<br />

batteries, producers of low-voltage<br />

starter batteries also enjoy considerable<br />

support from the Hungarian government.<br />

Japanese battery manufacturer GS Yuasa<br />

opened its first European factory in Miskolc,<br />

north-eastern Hungary in 2019,<br />

where 12V automotive lithium-ion batteries<br />

are produced. The initial production<br />

capacity of 500,000 units/year is planned<br />

to be increased soon, but the company’s<br />

future vision also includes installation of<br />

lithium-ion cell manufacturing process in<br />

the plant. Jász-Plasztik – which is an exception<br />

in the sea of the Far Eastern companies,<br />

since it is a Hungarian-owned<br />

firm – also received state financial support<br />

in recent years to increase its production<br />

capacity.<br />

SUPPLIERS<br />

As mentioned before, not only the main<br />

cell and battery manufacturers, but also<br />

many supplier companies are already<br />

present in Hungary with manufacturing<br />

capacities, producing vital components<br />

of EV batteries. Just to list a few: cathode<br />

material (EcoPro, Huayou Cobalt, Toyo<br />

Ink), electrolyte (Soulbrain), separator<br />

film (LG Toray, Semcorp, W-Scope),<br />

aluminium and copper foil (Lotte Aluminium<br />

and Volta Energy Solutions/<br />

Doosan, respectively), housing (NICE<br />

LMS, Sangsin) and various other battery<br />

parts (Bumchun Precision, HALMS,<br />

INZI Controls, Mektec, Sang-A Frontec,<br />

Shenzen Kedali, Shinheung SEC), while<br />

recycling industry is represented by companies<br />

like Dongwha Electrolyte, JWH<br />

and SungEel Hitech.<br />

To sum up, the building up of the new<br />

industry is well on its way in Hungary,<br />

ensuring that the country is committed to<br />

green mobility not only for environmental<br />

considerations, but also for economic<br />

reasons. The number of the settled companies<br />

is expected to increase even more<br />

in the near future, for example there are<br />

rumours about the possible arrival of<br />

Hangke Technology, another EV battery<br />

industry player from China.<br />

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OFF-HIGHWAY<br />

#CLAAS #DIECI #FARESIN #JCB<br />

TELESCOPIC HANDLERS<br />

PLUG AND<br />

PLAY<br />

Left, JCB. Above, Merlo and Dieci.<br />

This overview will tackle the<br />

state-of-art of electrically powered<br />

telescopic handlers. Some<br />

kind of vanguard of electrification<br />

in the agricultural and construction<br />

sectors.<br />

The CLAAS Scorpion range of telescopic<br />

handlers is manufactured by<br />

Liebherr. At Agritechnica Claas introduced<br />

its first battery-electric model,<br />

built based on the chassis of the smallest<br />

among Scorpion internal combustion<br />

models. The Scorpion 732e<br />

uses two independent 90kW electric<br />

motors, a 64kWh modular battery that<br />

can run up to 4 hours and a 22kW onboard<br />

battery charger to provide for<br />

a maximum traction power of 53 kN<br />

and a maximum speed of 30 km/h. It<br />

can reach a max lifting height of 6930<br />

mm and it can handle up to 3200 kg of<br />

100% electric<br />

models are<br />

carving their place<br />

among telescopic<br />

handlers. The major<br />

manufacturers’<br />

offers in a nutshell:<br />

the challenge is<br />

playing out in the<br />

compact models<br />

arena but technology<br />

is ready for higher<br />

classes. Claas,<br />

Dieci, Faresin, JCB,<br />

Kramer, Manitou,<br />

Merlo<br />

weight. The size is the same as its internal<br />

combustion counterpart, so not<br />

exactly compact, with a width of 2380<br />

mm and a height of 245 mm.<br />

After the launch of DIECI Agri Farmer<br />

Hybrid – powered by a Kubota<br />

hybrid engine – Dieci pulled out the<br />

Mini Agri-e, a compact-sized full<br />

electric telescopic handler equipped<br />

with a battery pack that can be expanded<br />

in the aftermarket, too, to adapt<br />

the unit to its operational requirements.<br />

Basically, the Mini Agri-e can<br />

be fitted with one or two lithium batteries<br />

that can also be inserted at the<br />

worksite, for a maximum output of<br />

up to 44kWh – enough power to complete<br />

a whole day’s work on a single<br />

charge. The maximum lifting height<br />

is 5680 mm, and the maximum load<br />

capacity is 2600 kg.<br />

In Hannover FARESIN introduced<br />

its FS Middle range featuring extendable<br />

booms ranging from 7 to 10 m<br />

in height with capacities from 3.5 to 4<br />

tons. There are four models available<br />

in 6 versions powered by a 4-cylinder<br />

Stage V Deutz with a 75, 102, 115 and<br />

136 hp power output. The Full Electric<br />

range has been including the compactsized<br />

6.26 model for a long time now,<br />

and as many as three Big Range models<br />

– 14.42, 17.40 and 17.45, whose<br />

lifting height can reach up to 17 m,<br />

designed with the construction sector<br />

in mind. Figures speak volumes: the<br />

6.26 can haul 2600 kg up to 6 metres,<br />

the other three can lift 4200, 4000 and<br />

4500 kg, respectively, up to a height of<br />

14 and 17 metres. The 6.26 (featuring a<br />

capacity of 2600 kg and a lifting height<br />

of 5.9 metres) was the first Full Electric<br />

telescopic handler to go into mass<br />

production. It works with an 80 V,<br />

24kWh battery but 32 or even 43kWh<br />

battery are also optionally available. It<br />

features 5 charging systems: integrated<br />

(standard), integrated rapid, external<br />

rapid, external three-phase, for charging<br />

in 3 hours with built-in rapid charger<br />

and autonomy up to 10 hours with<br />

a larger battery with interrupted cycle.<br />

The transmission with the 30kWh<br />

electric motor allows transfers as fast<br />

as 12 km/h, while the hydraulic system<br />

has an 80 l/min gear pump.<br />

JCB has long been engaged in developing<br />

carbon neutral solutions, so while<br />

designing a hydrogen powered engine<br />

for more powerful units it definitely<br />

aims at going electric with compact<br />

models. Alongside its 525-60E, a telescopic<br />

handler model featuring 2.5<br />

tons of capacity and a max lift height<br />

of 6 metres, JCB is making available a<br />

small forklift with telescopic arm – the<br />

Teletruk 30-19E that’s now joined by<br />

the 35-22E introduced at Agritechnica.<br />

Powered by a 24kWh lithium-ion<br />

battery – enough for a full day’s work<br />

– the 525-60E offers 110 V, 230 V and<br />

415 V charging capability and it’s also<br />

fast-charge ready. Moreover, it can be<br />

equipped with LiveLink telematics<br />

using satellite technology to provide<br />

real-time data on machines’ location,<br />

performance, utilization, security and<br />

need for maintenance; also, it features<br />

adaptive load control to automatically<br />

prevent the machine from tipping<br />

forwards. The Teletruks are powered<br />

by a heavy-duty lead-acid battery and<br />

can reach a max lift height of 4 metres.<br />

Their maximum lift capacity is 3000<br />

32<br />

33


OFF-HIGHWAY<br />

#KRAMER #MANITOU #MERLO<br />

Left to right, Claas, Faresin, Manitou.<br />

Above, Kramer.<br />

ELECTRIC TIMES FOR COMPACT TH<br />

and 3500 kg, respectively. To increase<br />

autonomy, the unit’s acceleration<br />

can be reduced by 10, 20 or even 30%<br />

pressing a specially provided “eco”<br />

button right from the cab.<br />

KRAMER – actually an “arm” of<br />

John Deere – took the opportunity<br />

of being at Agritechnica to add to<br />

their list the KT144e compact model<br />

equipped with a 96 volt 18 or<br />

28kWh lithium-ion battery; based on<br />

the unit’s setup, it allows for up to 4<br />

hours of work with no need to charge<br />

it halfway through the work session.<br />

The onboard 6kW battery charger<br />

allows for fast charging. Less than<br />

2 metres high and slightly less than<br />

1.60 m in width, this is one of the less<br />

bulky machines available, with a stacking<br />

payload of 1450 kg and a lift<br />

height of 4.3 m. Hydraulics feature a<br />

42l/min pump and the unit can move<br />

up to a speed of 25 km/h.<br />

MANITOU chose Agribex – held on 6<br />

to 10 December 2023 in Brussels – for<br />

a premiere of the group’s first electric<br />

telehandler designed for the agricul-<br />

tural market. It’s the MLT 625e, also<br />

included in the compact class, with a<br />

max capacity of 2.5 tons and a max<br />

lift height of 6 metres. The lithiumion<br />

battery is 25 kWh and thanks to<br />

an integrated 9kW charger it can be<br />

charged in as little as 3 hours from a<br />

380 V socket. The machine can adapt<br />

to fit existing electrical infrastructures<br />

BRAND<br />

MODEL<br />

CLAAS<br />

SCORPION 732E<br />

DIECI<br />

MINI AGRI E 26.6<br />

FERESIN<br />

6.26 FULL ELECTRIC<br />

JCB<br />

525-60E<br />

KRAMER<br />

KT 144E<br />

MANITOU<br />

MT 625E<br />

MERLO<br />

EW 25.5-90<br />

Max load kg 3200 2600 2600 2500 1450 2500 2500<br />

Max lifting height mm 6930 5680 5900 6000 4301 5850 4800<br />

Max reach mm 4100 3200 3200 3300 2289 3400 2600<br />

Battery kWh 64 22 - 44 24 - 32 - 43 24 18 - 28 25 74<br />

Lenght on the fork mm 4752 4125 4035 4000 2997 3830 3320<br />

Width mm 2380 1840 1890 1840 1564 1810 1540<br />

Height mm 2465 1915 1935 1890 1995 1920 1975<br />

Wheelbase mm 2750 2350 2525 2.390 1992 2300 2100<br />

Mass kg 7585 5100 4800 5.145 3050 4800 4950<br />

and it can be charged using a standard<br />

domestic socket. In standard mode, it<br />

provides for up to 4 hours of uninterrupted<br />

operation. A regeneration system<br />

gets engaged when the accelerator<br />

pedal is released to recover energy<br />

during deceleration so as to increase<br />

the unit’s autonomy. A boost mode is<br />

available in series that can be enabled<br />

from a dashboard-mounted button,<br />

speeding up the hydraulic movements<br />

and reaching the max transfer speed<br />

(26 km/h) in a very short time.<br />

MERLO, for now, it’s only working<br />

on a concept – a simple exercise in<br />

style, for the time being – created to<br />

explore and develop their future electric<br />

range at best. We’re talking about<br />

model TFe 43.7 – derived from the<br />

Turbofarmer range. As is clear from<br />

the model name, the lifting capacity<br />

is 4300 kg, while 7 metres is the max<br />

height that can be reached. The current<br />

Merlo product list already includes<br />

the e-Worker, two models fitted with a<br />

lead acid battery pack and 2- or 4-wheel<br />

drive. The 4-wheel drive 25.5-90 is<br />

the one made for agricultural applications,<br />

with a 2500 kg max capacity and<br />

a 4.8 m lifting height. The e-Worker<br />

only steers on the rear wheels, like lift<br />

carriers with forks, reaching a steering<br />

angle of 85 degrees, which offers an<br />

outstanding manoeuvrability. The machine<br />

is fitted with a 42l/min helical<br />

gear pump controlled by a capacitive<br />

electronic joystick that controls up to<br />

three simultaneous movements. Max<br />

transfer speed reaches 25 km/h; wheelmounted<br />

electric motors can recover<br />

and store braking energy to increase<br />

the machine’s efficiency.<br />

34<br />

35


OFF-HIGHWAY<br />

#COMERINDUSTRIES #AGRITECHNICA #CARDANSHAFT<br />

COMER INDUSTRIES<br />

ELECTRIFYING<br />

AGRICULTURE<br />

Above. The e-742 transmission is designed to equip hose reel<br />

irrigators with integrated motor pump or water turbine and<br />

it is engineered to optimize all irrigation phases.<br />

At Agritechnica 2023 Comer Industries<br />

presented a selection of<br />

its latest solutions for tractors,<br />

implements and harvesting machines<br />

developed to provide answers<br />

to its customers in the agricultural sector.<br />

We asked some questions to Paolo<br />

Negri, General Manager e-comer, and<br />

Jacopo Spaggiari, Business Development<br />

Manager, Sales & Marketing.<br />

How is the integration with Walterscheid<br />

proceeding, starting from the<br />

PWE480 cardan shaft?<br />

Negri: “The integration is progressing<br />

well, it hasn’t been easy, but now we<br />

have reached a good level of clarity on<br />

all points, also with regard to the cardan<br />

shaft that we present here, which is the<br />

first product created, and represents a<br />

mix of the best of the two brands.” The<br />

PWE480 shaft features an improved<br />

hexalobate profile of the tube, which<br />

guarantees perfect operation and higher<br />

performance for high-speed applications,<br />

satisfying the demanding market<br />

requirements typical of round balers.<br />

The new shaft also incorporates a new<br />

overrunning device embedded directly<br />

in the cut-out clutch: this innovation<br />

guarantees a more compact design.<br />

An overview of the updates relating<br />

to the cardan shafts that you are presenting<br />

at this fair.<br />

Spaggiari: “We decided to give some<br />

space to the world of tractors by presenting<br />

two innovations regarding the<br />

cardan shafts with the two different<br />

brands, Walterscheid and Mechanics<br />

Driveshafts. The first novelty is represented<br />

by the new size of the 7C family<br />

under the Mechanics Driveshafts<br />

brand, dedicated to high-power trac-<br />

tors (above 250 hp). It is a cardan shaft<br />

(the 7C) which has some characteristics<br />

that make it particularly interesting<br />

because we have equipped it with a service-free<br />

cross kit.” The new 7C-FS is a<br />

longitudinal shaft that transfers propulsive<br />

power from the main central transmission<br />

to the front axle, suitable for<br />

the most demanding applications for<br />

heavy tractors: this high-performance<br />

cardan shaft is capable of transmitting<br />

up to 10,500 Nm, is suitable for the size<br />

of category 4 machines, it can accommodate<br />

a maximum intermittent articulation<br />

angle of 25° and is equipped with<br />

the “Next Generation” cross kit.<br />

Spaggiari: “The second product that we<br />

are introducing is the new longitudinal<br />

cardan shafts series for the smaller<br />

tractor categories, below 100-150<br />

horsepower. The 687.18 Cardan Shaft<br />

perfect electric, waterproof and interchangeable<br />

alternative to hydraulically<br />

operated gearboxes.<br />

Regarding this new series, Negri comments:<br />

“Obviously integrating the electric<br />

motor inside the mechanical part<br />

is not always easy but it's beneficial<br />

for reducing overall dimensions and<br />

increasing the efficiency. The impact<br />

of this technology is naturally very<br />

high.” The spotlight in this edition was<br />

focused above all on the synergy and<br />

co-design between Comer Industries<br />

and the e-comer R&D department with<br />

the preview of the e-742 transmission<br />

dedicated to hose reel irrigators with<br />

motor pump or hydraulic turbine.<br />

Which types of pumps is the e-742<br />

transmission associated with exactly?<br />

You are talking about a 10% reduction<br />

in consumption due to greatis<br />

on exhibit, transmitting up to 3,500<br />

Nm, and representing most of the key<br />

features of this new range, like flanged<br />

version, service free length compensation,<br />

modular and flexible design.”<br />

The latest electric innovation from<br />

e-comer exhibited at Agritechnica, the<br />

new WD220 Series, is an “all-in-one”<br />

integrated electric transmission: ideal<br />

for the constantly growing sector<br />

of self-driving agricultural machines<br />

(also called AgBot) or for harvesting<br />

and multipurpose machines. This new<br />

product combines a two-stage planetary<br />

gearbox with an internal permanent<br />

magnet motor from the e-comer<br />

SMAC series, capable of delivering<br />

high torque and meeting the long-life<br />

performance expectations of the machine,<br />

as tested on some machines<br />

already operating in the field; it is the<br />

er efficiency. Technically, how did<br />

you achieve this result?<br />

Spaggiari: “The e-742 transmission is<br />

designed to equip hose reel irrigators<br />

with integrated motor pump or water<br />

turbine and it is engineered to optimize<br />

all irrigation phases, from hose-rewinding<br />

to remote speed management,<br />

as well as automatic decoupling of the<br />

power transmission, therefore it aims<br />

to combine the operator’s safety with<br />

a reduction in the operator’s engagement<br />

times because with the use of the<br />

electric motor we have eliminated the<br />

need of gear shifting, thus significantly<br />

reducing the direct intervention of the<br />

operator, in other words we have been<br />

working on the overall improvement<br />

of the transmission efficiency and consequently<br />

on the efficiency of all field<br />

operations.”<br />

36<br />

37


COMPONENTS<br />

#MTA #STMICROELECTRONICS #NEWHOLLAND #DEUTZFAHR<br />

MTA @AGRITECHNICA<br />

SMART<br />

UNITS<br />

MTA AND STMICROELECTRONICS<br />

MTA and STMicroelectronics are cooperating on the<br />

evolution of the electrical and electronic architecture<br />

of agricultural machinery. The first product of this<br />

collaboration is the Smart Fuse Box, an intelligent control<br />

unit using ST electronic fuses, the STi2Fuse. Developed for<br />

off-highway applications, it can be used to drive, protect,<br />

diagnose and monitor up to 30 electrical or electronic<br />

loads through the STi2Fuse and interface analogue/<br />

digital signals and loads via the vehicle’s CAN network.<br />

The STi2Fuse is ST’s new family of smart electronic fuses.<br />

Compared to conventional fuses, STi2Fuse are resettable<br />

and have 100 times faster intervention times. A feature<br />

of STi2Fuse is that the rated current and the tripping<br />

curve are programmable and the nominal current is<br />

optimised according to the load and not the size of the<br />

fuse. This aspect leads to an optimisation of the wiring<br />

size. The STi2Fuse Smart Fuse Box combines both fuse<br />

and relay function in one unit. The system diagnostics<br />

allow “health monitoring” and “predictive maintenance”<br />

algorithms to be set up. The hardware and software<br />

architecture of the Smart Fuse Box is also designed to<br />

meet the most stringent Functional Safety and Cyber<br />

Security requirements.<br />

In Hannover, MTA focused on<br />

power electronics. The acquisition<br />

of all shares in EDN, specialised<br />

in the development of OBCs<br />

(On-board Battery Chargers) and DC/<br />

DC converters for electric and hybrid<br />

vehicles, enabled MTA to articulate<br />

and detail its strategy for the electrification<br />

of vehicle platforms. The<br />

synergetic work in terms of research<br />

and development, logistics and business<br />

relations between MTA and EDN<br />

made it possible to develop projects<br />

with off-highway machine manufacturers.<br />

The stand we saw at Agritechnica<br />

featured a display area, with dedicated<br />

graphics, of OBCs. The latest<br />

OBCs introduced to the market are<br />

the BHP22, designed for the European<br />

market, and the BHP19, aimed<br />

instead at the North American basin.<br />

MTA has placed<br />

emphasis on power<br />

electronics, also<br />

due to the synergy<br />

with EDN. With New<br />

Holland and with<br />

SAME Deutz-Fahr,<br />

among others, the<br />

Italian company is<br />

involved in the control<br />

panels business. With<br />

STMicroelectronics<br />

for electrical and<br />

electronic technology<br />

for agricultural<br />

machinery<br />

Common features are bi-directionality<br />

and high resistance even in difficult<br />

environmental conditions. Finally,<br />

they are designed with a conversion<br />

technology that improves power density<br />

and specific power. One of MTA’s<br />

winning features are the High Voltage<br />

and 48V architectures, as well as the<br />

availability of products such as fuses<br />

and fuse holders, power distribution<br />

units and connectors. The OBCs and<br />

DC/DC converters offered by the<br />

power electronics division are marketed<br />

under the EDN brand and manufactured<br />

in the production facility in<br />

Cinisello Balsamo (Italy). In the factory<br />

on the outskirts of Milan, production<br />

has been increased and research<br />

and development expanded to meet<br />

the rapidly growing curve of demands<br />

from the global market. In front of<br />

the audience of agricultural mechanisation<br />

professionals, there was also<br />

room for MEC 97, Maxi-MEC and<br />

C-MEC 138, electrical power distribution<br />

and utility protection units<br />

made specifically for agricultural applications,<br />

as well as earth-moving<br />

applications, which can be defined as<br />

“smart” thanks to a new CAN Plugin<br />

module. They are all plug & play<br />

modular control units, made with Pcb<br />

and press-fit technology, in order to<br />

customise the content of fuses and<br />

relays and the wiring diagram to the<br />

customer’s distinct specifications.<br />

MEC 97 and Maxi-MEC are designed<br />

for the engine compartment, while<br />

C-Mec 138 is designed for in-cab installation;<br />

they are compact in size and<br />

allow all functions to be integrated in<br />

a single unit, eliminating the need for<br />

several modules and associated wiring.<br />

The CAN Plug-in module, which<br />

is capable of driving the relays of the<br />

3 MEC ECUs, connects them to the<br />

vehicle’s CANbus network. Through<br />

this network, the module transmits<br />

commands to generate the necessary<br />

actuations, as well as conveying diagnostic<br />

information. Just like the<br />

customisable control panels, displays<br />

and electronic control units offered by<br />

MTA, the Can Plug-in module can be<br />

programmed thanks to MTA Studio, a<br />

proprietary software tool that allows<br />

even the less experienced ones to customise<br />

all products, both off-the-shelf<br />

and custom. There is also a lot at stake<br />

for tractor cabs. The switch control<br />

panel is aimed at New Holland specialists.<br />

It supervises certain functions<br />

via the CAN network. The 10 MTA<br />

buttons are used to manage headland<br />

manoeuvres, suspension or front and<br />

rear hitch control, and status LEDs to<br />

show the actual activation of controls.<br />

It is designed with an IP54 degree of<br />

protection to operate in the hostile environments<br />

typical of the agricultural<br />

sector, and it is characterised by its<br />

small size, which facilitates its placement<br />

in the cab next to the armrest. For<br />

SDF, there is the MLC control panel<br />

for some open field and specialised<br />

tractors. In the same shape and size as<br />

the previous version, also by MTA, it<br />

has been thoroughly revamped. At the<br />

centre of the MLC is the 3.5-inch colour<br />

TFT, the heart of the user interface,<br />

the layout of which can be configured<br />

at the SAME and Deutz-Fahr plants at<br />

the end of the assembly line by sending<br />

specific CAN messages.<br />

38<br />

39


OFF-HIGHWAY<br />

#BOSCHREXROTH #SAFETY<br />

REXROTH @ AGRITECHNICA<br />

WATCHFUL<br />

AND DISCRETE<br />

EYE<br />

Bosch Rexroth continues its<br />

authoritative presidency of<br />

hydraulic and mechanical solutions,<br />

simultaneously penetrating<br />

the electrical, electronic and IT<br />

domains. Let’s start with hydraulics.<br />

The eOC (electronic Open Circuit)<br />

platform is enhanced by the A10VO<br />

60 series medium pressure axial piston<br />

pump, which is equipped with an<br />

integrated pre-pressure volume. This<br />

solution claims a 50% reduction in<br />

pressure pulsations. Power density<br />

has increased by 49%. The increase<br />

in pressure to 280 bar, combined with<br />

an optimised pump design, results<br />

in an installation length that is up to<br />

10% shorter. The rotating assembly<br />

has been reworked to further raise the<br />

bar for efficiency levels, both at part<br />

and full load. The eOC version of<br />

Bosch Rexroth<br />

explores all “sensory”<br />

dimensions<br />

of agricultural<br />

mechanisation, from<br />

mobile hydraulics<br />

to digitisation,<br />

automation and<br />

electrification. From<br />

the eOC platform, to<br />

Bodas Connectivity’s<br />

over-the-air firmware<br />

system for radar-based<br />

collision protection<br />

the A10VO 60 was developed with a<br />

reduced variance. The different controller<br />

types and mechanical settings<br />

are transferred to the software. The<br />

reduced pump variance allows OEMs<br />

to reduce stock levels and simplify the<br />

management of spare parts and aftermarket<br />

components. In addition to the<br />

eOC version, Rexroth now also offers<br />

the Series 60 A10VO in a version with<br />

classical pressure and flow control<br />

(DRS). Function updates are available<br />

for maintenance: software can be<br />

managed via the Bodas Service interface.<br />

With the FOTA system, over-theair<br />

firmware, Rexroth has accelerated<br />

the standardisation of remote update.<br />

The universal flasher is available as<br />

part of the device management for the<br />

Bodas Connectivity telematics package.<br />

Over-the-air flashing is simple<br />

and safe thanks to the Rexroth RCU<br />

telematics unit and a pre-integrated<br />

software stack with related services<br />

based on the Unified Diagnostic Services<br />

(UDS) CAN bus protocol. All<br />

third-party devices connected to the<br />

RCU via the CAN bus, such as engine<br />

control units or displays, are automatically<br />

displayed together with the<br />

Rexroth units in the web-based frontend<br />

of the Bodas Connect Device Portal.<br />

Compliance with the UDS CAN<br />

bus protocol ensures that the sequences<br />

executed correspond to current<br />

safety mechanisms. The RCU acts as<br />

a secure gateway between the cloud<br />

and the vehicle. To ensure the continuous<br />

availability of the machine, the<br />

firmware is first transferred in its entirety<br />

to the robust RCU. After authorization,<br />

the target device is updated in<br />

the vehicle via the CAN bus through<br />

a wired connection. By connecting to<br />

the open telematics ecosystem, Bosch<br />

Rexroth is gradually extending the<br />

benefits of previous OTA services to<br />

third-party devices. The skills of German<br />

engineering do not include only<br />

the material and immaterial architecture<br />

of the vehicle. At Agritechnica,<br />

with the radar-based collision warning<br />

system, Bosch Rexroth revealed<br />

a complete solution for off-highway<br />

vehicle safety, from hardware to control<br />

system. The components include<br />

automotive radar sensors from Bosch<br />

adapted for the operating environment<br />

of industrial mobile applications, with<br />

its different surfaces such as grass,<br />

gravel and asphalt, to detect collision<br />

dangers at an early stage. Other elements<br />

include Bosch’s MM7.10 iner-<br />

tia sensor, a Rexroth controller (e.g.<br />

RC 40 small) and adaptable software<br />

modules. Using the steering angle<br />

and speed of the vehicle, it calculates<br />

the expected travel path and classifies<br />

the detected objects according to the<br />

probability of collision. If a collision<br />

is imminent, the system suppresses<br />

any acceleration by the operator and<br />

reduces vehicle speed via the hydrostatic<br />

travel control. With the Rexroth<br />

drive controller, the drives are already<br />

“radar ready”. The system can be used<br />

in both directions of travel or in one<br />

direction only. The “security package”<br />

is prepared for future integration with<br />

an ultrasound system or video camera.<br />

Environmental interference can be detected<br />

both at close range and at low<br />

speed, and at greater distances and higher<br />

speeds.<br />

40<br />

41


COMPONENTS<br />

#FPTINDUSTRIAL #NEWHOLLAND #SAMEDEUTZFAHR<br />

UFI FILTERS @AGRITECHNICA<br />

ALL<br />

TOGETHER<br />

NOW<br />

UFI Filters Hydraulics turned<br />

up at Agritechnica alongside<br />

the Aftermarket division.<br />

They provided FPT Industrial’s<br />

Cursor 16 TST – driving the Case<br />

IH Quadtrac 715 AFS Connect – with<br />

their blow-by filter, which is a rotary<br />

and self-cleaning filter, developed<br />

with a multi-layer filtering media<br />

made of synthetic fibres – FormulaU-<br />

FI.Micron – and a metallic mesh to<br />

ensure its full operation over time.<br />

As for their partnership with FPT, we’ll<br />

mention the F28 (Diesel of the Year<br />

2020). The filter and diesel pre-filter<br />

are assembled in a single aluminum<br />

die-cast support and combine the<br />

function of the priming pump, heater,<br />

temperature and water presence sensor.<br />

The engine is mainly intended for<br />

agricultural applications, such as the<br />

All time debut in<br />

Hannover for the<br />

Aftermarket division,<br />

hand in hand with UFI<br />

Filters Hydraulics.<br />

There was plenty of<br />

testimonials to UFI’s<br />

penetration into the<br />

agricultural sector,<br />

from New Holland to<br />

SAME Deutz-Fahr<br />

and Carraro Tractors.<br />

Most remarkable,<br />

its presence among<br />

specialized tractor’<br />

filtering systems<br />

Carraro Agricube Pro range of specialised<br />

tractors. These electrical sensors<br />

are therefore essential to guarantee the<br />

four-cylinder engine’s operation, even<br />

during the coldest months. The priming<br />

pump is useful when replacing the<br />

filtering element, to correctly refill the<br />

circuit with fuel.<br />

The pre-filter plays a central role in<br />

filtering the coarsest particles and performs<br />

the primary function of separating<br />

water from fuel. This is why it is<br />

equipped with a liquid presence sensor<br />

that tells when it is time to empty<br />

the separated water with a purge tap<br />

incorporated in the sensor. It also has<br />

a mixed cellulose and synthetic filter<br />

media, developed by UFI according<br />

to its FormulaUFI.H2O material specifications,<br />

with a water separation capacity<br />

of more than 95% according to<br />

ISO 16332 and a filtration capacity that<br />

allows to block more than 98% of particles<br />

larger than 20 microns. Thus, it<br />

provides for a replacement interval of<br />

up to 600 working hours. The filter relies<br />

on the same filtration formula, but<br />

has a fine filtration function, with a separation<br />

capacity of more than 95% for<br />

particles up to 4μm, according to ISO<br />

19438. Now switching to agricultural<br />

machinery manufacturers, UFI makes,<br />

amongst others, filters and pre-filters<br />

for New Holland, made with the<br />

FormulaUFI.H2O filtration material.<br />

There are also layered oil filters, such<br />

as FormulaUFI.Stratiflex, and synthetic<br />

fibre filters such as FormulaUFI.<br />

Micron. Lastly, the self-cleaning and<br />

panel rotary blow-by filter range. At<br />

Agritechnica UFI Filters Hydraulics<br />

also brought its new FRI series, a tank<br />

filtering solution for return lines; the<br />

FPO pressurized spin-on filter series<br />

with Fortimax element; the eco-friendly<br />

version of the UOW mobile filtration<br />

unit, with coreless element; and the differential<br />

clogging indicator with double<br />

calibration. The FRI series features a<br />

tank-integrated layout and is available<br />

in four sizes, with connection options<br />

from 1/2” to 1”1/4, for flow rates up<br />

to 150 l/min. The FPO series belongs<br />

to the big spin-on family that includes<br />

complete filters and screw-on elements<br />

for hydraulic systems on suction, return<br />

and pressure lines with filtration from<br />

90 microns up to 5 absolute microns<br />

and flow rates up to at 300 l/min. The<br />

main feature of spin-on filters is the<br />

easy and quick replacement of the used<br />

cartridge. They are typically mounted<br />

in-line on hydraulic circuits with maxi-<br />

mum working pressure up to 35 bar and<br />

flow rates up to 200 l/min. The UOW<br />

off-line mobile filtration unit is used<br />

for cleaning the fluid offline, as well<br />

as for the transfer, filling and topping<br />

up of the oil tank. The filter element is<br />

available with FormulaUFI. micron,<br />

from 5 to 21 μm(c) (ßx > 1.000) and<br />

FormulaUFI.H2O. The differential indicator<br />

with double setting and built-in<br />

connector allows to adjust the setting.<br />

Version 1 has a lower double setting –<br />

1.5 bar (75%) and 2 bar (100%) – while<br />

Version 2 features higher values, 3.75<br />

bar (75%) and 5 bar (100%). It can be<br />

mounted on all filters from the UFI Filters<br />

Hydraulics range, mainly pressure<br />

and return filters, up to a maximum<br />

operating pressure of 450 bar, with an<br />

IP67 protection class and a differential<br />

measuring range from 2 to 10 bar.<br />

42<br />

43


OFF-HIGHWAY<br />

#ABB #MINING #ELECTRIFICATION<br />

ABB AND ELECTRIFICATION<br />

FOR<br />

MINING<br />

TOO<br />

ENERGY EFFICIENCY MOVEMENT<br />

During his speech, Roberto Diana advocated joining the<br />

Energy efficiency movement, an initiative promoted by<br />

ABB. What is it about? The manifesto reads: In order to<br />

bring about change, all stakeholders must work together<br />

to adopt and promote available solutions and continue<br />

to innovate to achieve more. We need to invest in<br />

sectors that help mitigate climate change and we need<br />

governments to provide supportive regulations and incentives.<br />

To promote greater energy efficiency at scale,<br />

we need certain conditions to occur. Academia must<br />

intensify research and provide scientific data to inform<br />

decision-making. Technology companies must continuously<br />

innovate on new applications and case histories to<br />

accelerate energy efficiency improvements. Public decision<br />

makers and government regulators must incentivise<br />

the rapid adoption of the most energy efficient solutions<br />

and technologies. Companies, cities and countries must<br />

be aware of the environmental savings and benefits and<br />

be willing to make the necessary investments. Investors<br />

must reallocate capital towards companies that are<br />

better prepared to deal with climate risk. Other actors<br />

(NGOs, politicians, media, individuals) must use, support<br />

and amplify energy efficiency measures.<br />

Power density? It is no longer a<br />

“low intensity” input, a function<br />

of the downsizing of combustion<br />

engines and the lack<br />

of space in the engine compartments,<br />

which are vampirized by aftertreatment<br />

systems. It is a necessity arising<br />

from peak load calibration and battery<br />

pack configuration. The power ratings<br />

are also an even more thoughtful matter.<br />

The modularity of cells is then the<br />

constitutive dimension of the architecture.<br />

Far from the redundancy of ICEs<br />

for CHP, for example, with the partitioning<br />

of loads according to demand.<br />

From this one can understand ABB’s<br />

physiological projection to system integrator<br />

status. As pointed out during<br />

the webinar on the electrification of<br />

mobile applications: “We start with<br />

the battery, converter and traction<br />

In its mission and<br />

“sentiment”, ABB has<br />

the skills to assist<br />

off-highway OEMs in<br />

converting to electric<br />

technology. Including<br />

mining players.<br />

A challenging horizon<br />

that ABB is capable<br />

of embracing with<br />

all elements of the<br />

electric fraction. They<br />

told us about it at an<br />

event dedicated to the<br />

electrification of heavyduty<br />

applications<br />

motors. What happens downstream of<br />

the traction motors is the responsibility<br />

of our partners, who are typically<br />

competent in the mechanical part.”<br />

Let’s give the floor to the speakers,<br />

starting with Roberto Diana, ABB<br />

Local Sales Manager, who introduces<br />

us to the electrification of traction systems.<br />

“Electric motors, the number of<br />

which will double by 2040, use around<br />

45% of the world’s electricity. Increased<br />

efficiency allows savings of up to<br />

10%”. Commenting on ABB’s contribution,<br />

Diana emphasises that: “We<br />

are flexible in terms of technical solutions,<br />

adapting to different systems<br />

and applications with limited effort,<br />

because our systems are modular. We<br />

are among the few in this field that can<br />

provide integrated systems, comprising<br />

converter, motor and batteries.<br />

On the traction system, we typically<br />

deal with power conversion. We have<br />

a family of inverters and DC/DC converters,<br />

traction motors, traction batteries,<br />

PLCs”.<br />

With Augusto Fusari, Application<br />

Manager, we dive into power conversion.<br />

“The HES880 is derived from an<br />

industrial inverter, on a chassis specifically<br />

designed for a vehicle application.<br />

IP67 protection, 4 Giga, shock<br />

up to 30 Giga, quadriface connectors.<br />

Liquid cooled (-40°C to +70°), it uses<br />

a CAN-bus and operates in a temperature<br />

range of -40° to +85°. With the<br />

same chassis, acting on software, we<br />

can have several functionalities. A<br />

DC/DC control on batteries or supercapacitors,<br />

motor control and a grid<br />

connection. We can also work offgrid,<br />

creating a grid with the desired<br />

frequency and voltage. This inverter<br />

is available in 3 sizes: 350A, 600A,<br />

900A peak, which are suitable for heavy<br />

vehicles. Here we present a typical<br />

configuration: on-board charger, an<br />

HSE880 with its own filter, which can<br />

be connected to a grid or have a DC/<br />

DC controlling battery charging and<br />

discharging. It is useful for batteries<br />

with a lower voltage than the DCBus.<br />

The inverter controls electric motors<br />

of all types, both permanent magnet,<br />

asynchronous and reluctance motors.<br />

A built-in chopper is available on this<br />

inverter. We are thinking of the new inverter<br />

generation, more compact and<br />

lighter, 300A current and 500A peak,<br />

high VdcBus voltage, 400 to 850 volts.<br />

AMXE motors are available in four sizes,<br />

132, 160, 200, 250, which do not<br />

differ in speed (the standard is 5,000<br />

rpm). They can range from 20 to 250<br />

kW and are segmented at 240, 500,<br />

900 and 1,500 Nm. The shock that is<br />

continuously withstood is 4G of vibration<br />

and for a shock we go up to 50G.<br />

As standard, the motors always have<br />

the resolver fitted, in order to have<br />

feedback and allow the inverter to<br />

work in closed loop, but with the ABB<br />

control we can also control the motor<br />

in open loop without any feedback”.<br />

Lorenzo Gambelli is Project Leader<br />

Engineer. He is in charge of narrating<br />

the energy storage systems. “ABB uses<br />

LTO technology. Inside the cell is an<br />

anode composed of lithium titanate<br />

oxide. It is not susceptible to thermal<br />

runaway, does not generate unstable<br />

phenomena, has a high power density<br />

and a higher number of loaddischarge<br />

cycles than other techno-<br />

44<br />

45


OFF-HIGHWAY<br />

#ENERGY #STORAGE #PROTECTION<br />

ABB CAPITAL MARKETS DAY 2023<br />

Volvo Group recently formed a new business area called Volvo<br />

Energy, which will focus on battery lifecycle and circularity. They<br />

are responsible for taking care of them in each step of their lifecycle<br />

and making sure the batteries are performing and recycled<br />

or remanufactured at the proper stage to recover the very<br />

valuable and rare raw materials. For example, Volvo Energy has<br />

a team involved in the development of charging and infrastructure<br />

solutions to help expand charging locations. They also have<br />

a team dedicated to monitoring and reporting on the state of<br />

charge (SoC) and state of health (SoH) of the batteries to determine<br />

how they’re performing and when they might need to<br />

be replaced — and if they do need to be replaced, where they<br />

go next. These two groups are focused on a battery’s “first life.”<br />

During a battery’s first life, Volvo’s intelligent battery management<br />

system protects the battery from excessive degradation.<br />

These systems ensure an optimal SoC, prevent extreme temperatures<br />

and optimize charging cycles. They continuously collect<br />

data and analyse it to further improve the battery’s performance<br />

throughout its life. This work helps EV owners and operators get<br />

optimal performance.<br />

Björn Rosengren, ABB CEO: “Our strong 2023 delivery was the result of both<br />

our leading market position in electrification and automation, as well as ABB<br />

being a more agile and efficient company in its execution. With our upgraded<br />

financial and sustainability targets we look to the future with confidence.”<br />

logies. It allows less degradation of<br />

the cell over time. Compared to LTO<br />

technology, Nmc has higher energy<br />

density, lower fast-charging and peak<br />

power handling performance, as well<br />

as fewer cycles. LTO batteries allow<br />

more charge and discharge cycles and<br />

less degradation of the cell’s intrinsic<br />

parameters”. Gambelli reiterates the<br />

concept of modularity and flexibility.<br />

“The single cell is our building block<br />

for all storage systems, which see integration<br />

at the sub-system level and<br />

increasingly complex integration at<br />

the high level”. We move on to BESS<br />

(Battery Energy Storage Systems).<br />

“The ABB 55V module integrates 48<br />

base cells and 2.5 kW of energy. These<br />

modules are made with the help of<br />

robots that organise the laser welding,<br />

in order to minimise human error and<br />

contamination from external agents.<br />

Then, there is the standard string,<br />

which integrates a certain number of<br />

variable modules, depending on the<br />

application. Finally, there is the possibility<br />

of integrating five strings, for<br />

customised designs. In the mechanical<br />

layout of a standard string, there are<br />

power interfaces. Power and signal<br />

interfaces interconnect the strings<br />

with other strings and also with external<br />

systems, to simplify high-level<br />

management and supervision of the<br />

entire ESS. Inside this string there are<br />

additional components: voltage sensors,<br />

power contactors, pre-charge<br />

contactors, protection fuses and the<br />

BMS unit, which monitors the status<br />

of the cells. With this type of data<br />

analysis, both in real time and postprocessing,<br />

it is possible to implement<br />

condition base maintenance activities<br />

on the entire fleet. To summarise: the<br />

chemistry used for the ABB cells guarantees<br />

a high level of intrinsic safety;<br />

high performance over an extended<br />

range of temperatures and extreme<br />

environmental conditions; the ability<br />

to charge and discharge the batteries<br />

at high power rates; and high durability”.<br />

With Giovanni Andrea Amodeo, Product<br />

Marketing Specialist, we move<br />

on to the cable protection system. “We<br />

have three families of risk factors: mechanical,<br />

environmental, and factors<br />

such as water, steam and other material<br />

or chemical agents that can enter the<br />

cable protection system. What does a<br />

cable protection system look like? There<br />

are four key elements. Corrugated<br />

conduits; joints or connectors; shells<br />

protecting the wiring interface, corrugated<br />

conduit and actual connector;<br />

modular supports that help us in the<br />

orderly distribution of wiring inside<br />

the machine. ABB’s Harnessflex Evo<br />

system is the only one on the market<br />

specifically dedicated to heavy-duty<br />

electrically-driven vehicles, protecting<br />

the complete system from connector<br />

to connector. The corrugated conduits<br />

are offered by ABB in the orange<br />

colour that distinguishes high-power<br />

connectors. We use two materials, copolyester,<br />

which is flame retardant, and<br />

polyamide 6, which is more resistant<br />

to abrasion and ageing. A proprietary<br />

feature of our corrugated conduits is<br />

the ‘vibration friendly profile’: when<br />

the conduit flexes at the bottom point,<br />

where there is the highest concentration<br />

of stresses, the design redistributes<br />

stresses around the circumference.<br />

Where there is a high fill factor in the<br />

corrugated conduit, there is no damage<br />

to the conductor insulation. The<br />

conduits are severely tested both in<br />

terms of hours and bending cycles, so<br />

that they follow the entire life cycle of<br />

the machinery”. Let’s proceed with fittings<br />

or joints. “Of different types and<br />

sizes, they are all orange. The opening<br />

of the fitting is in the horizontal plane<br />

and, as a result, the intersection of<br />

the conduit facilitates installation. The<br />

low-profile clips are integrated into<br />

the structure. They are made in such a<br />

way as to prevent accidental opening.<br />

They have an internal profile, from the<br />

point of view of the conduit intersection,<br />

which exerts a very strong resistance<br />

to tearing”. Let’s move on to<br />

the back-shells, or protective shells at<br />

the interface between the corrugated<br />

conduit and the connector. «Compared<br />

to heat-shrinkable conduits or other<br />

types of systems, they provide true<br />

protection of the interface and connector.<br />

When we install them, we create<br />

an integral connection between connector<br />

and corrugated conduit, which<br />

reduces the effect of vibrations and<br />

impacts. It protects the connector and<br />

the interface with the cable, the heart<br />

of the electrical system. Only ABB has<br />

dedicated shells for power connectors<br />

for electric traction heavy-duty applications.<br />

We cover single- and doubleposition,<br />

straight or 90° connectors<br />

with just 9 codes. Thanks to their flexible<br />

design, the PMA trust modular<br />

support systems allow us to distribute<br />

wiring and conduits neatly on the vehicle<br />

surface”.<br />

46<br />

47


SUSTAINABLE TECHNO<br />

#BOSCH #YANMAR #CATERPILLAR #BORGWARNER #BYD<br />

BOSCH: NEW INJECTION TECHNOLOGY FOR HYDROGEN ENGINES<br />

I NEED NO MORE<br />

LUBRICATION<br />

Bosch’s focus on hydrogen as a<br />

key element for achieving climate<br />

neutrality goals, particularly<br />

for heavy vehicles and<br />

specific applications in agriculture.<br />

At Agritechnica 2023, Bosch highlighted<br />

an injector for direct hydrogen<br />

injection that doesn’t need additional<br />

lubrication. This innovation could<br />

potentially enhance the efficiency<br />

and reliability of hydrogen-powered<br />

engines in agricultural machinery. In<br />

the course of a vehicle’s service life,<br />

the injector opens and closes roughly<br />

one billion times. To ensure that this<br />

always works reliably, the engineers<br />

developing the hydrogen engine had<br />

to overcome two challenges: one, the<br />

lubrication provided by the fuel in<br />

the diesel engine is absent; and two,<br />

the hydrogen may react with materials<br />

it comes into contact with. The<br />

engineers’ solution is a sophisticated<br />

design that keeps the media separate<br />

inside the injector, and uses various<br />

coating technologies. The systems<br />

for low-pressure direct and port injection<br />

have been developed for engines<br />

that can also be operated with heavy<br />

loads and in difficult environmental<br />

conditions. As a systems supplier,<br />

Bosch also offers electronic control<br />

units, products for storing and supplying<br />

hydrogen, and other powertrain<br />

components. “More than 90% of the<br />

development and manufacturing technologies<br />

needed for the hydrogen engine<br />

already exist,” says Jan-Oliver<br />

Röhrl, the executive vice president<br />

responsible for commercial vehicle<br />

powertrains in the Bosch Powertrain<br />

Solutions division. In addition, the<br />

hydrogen engine consists primarily<br />

of steel and aluminum, which reduces<br />

dependencies on critical raw materials<br />

and their supply chains. At the same<br />

time, Bosch is continuing to improve<br />

its conventional diesel-injection and<br />

exhaust-gas treatment systems for<br />

commercial vehicles and the off-highway<br />

sector. “We want our solutions to<br />

help automakers worldwide further<br />

reduce CO 2<br />

and other emissions,”<br />

Röhrl says.<br />

For example, the modular CRSN common-rail<br />

system for commercial vehicles<br />

and off-highway applications exhibited<br />

at Agritechnica 2023 ensures<br />

efficient fuel supply and injection in<br />

diesel engines. It is scalable for pressure<br />

levels between 1,800 bar and<br />

2,500 bar, and can be configured for<br />

engine sizes of up to eight cylinders.<br />

In addition, Bosch diesel technology<br />

can already run on renewable synthetic<br />

fuels. Such fuels can complement<br />

electromobility or hydrogen-based<br />

powertrains where these solutions face<br />

economic or physical challenges.<br />

YANMAR MODEL E-X1 FOR AGRICULTURE<br />

Following the<br />

prototype electric<br />

machine<br />

presented at<br />

the Construction<br />

DX Challenge 2023,<br />

Yanmar has revealed<br />

its e-X1 concept, an<br />

electric drive compact<br />

electric agricultural<br />

machine. The Yanmar<br />

e-X1 can accommodate<br />

various implements<br />

such as rotary<br />

tillers and grass cutters<br />

at the front and<br />

rear, enabling tasks<br />

like weeding, snow<br />

removal, and cultivating.<br />

Opting for<br />

crawlers instead of wheels ensures<br />

stable operation on slopes and uneven<br />

terrain. With no driver’s seat, the machine<br />

guarantees operator safety during<br />

agricultural tasks through remote<br />

control. The incorporation of autonomous<br />

driving features is also under<br />

consideration. Yanmar Agribusiness<br />

plans to initiate market monitoring<br />

in 2025 and actively progress toward<br />

mass-production through rigorous design<br />

and testing, with the goal of contributing<br />

to the decarbonization of the<br />

agricultural sector.<br />

BorgWarner enters deal with BYD’s FinDreams<br />

BorgWarner will be in charge of manufacturing LFP battery packs for<br />

commercial vehicles utilizing FinDreams Battery blade cells (presented<br />

in 2020) in Europe, the Americas, and select regions of Asia Pacific.<br />

The duration of the agreement is 8 years. At Busworld Europe 2023<br />

BYD presented the B2 electric bus platform, utilizing the Blade<br />

Battery. BorgWarner’s battery capabilities build back on the purchase<br />

of German battery module producer Akasol in 2021. In addition to<br />

receiving state-of-the-art blade cells for manufacturing LFP battery<br />

packs in the covered geographies, BorgWarner will receive a license<br />

from FinDreams Battery to use FinDreams Battery’s intellectual<br />

property related to its battery pack design and manufacturing process.<br />

Cat and CRH for electric off-highway trucks and charging solutions<br />

Cat has signed an electrification strategic agreement with CRH to advance the deployment of Caterpillar’s zero-exhaust<br />

emissions solutions. CRH is the number one aggregates producer in North America and the first company<br />

in that industry to sign such an agreement with Cat. The agreement is focused on accelerating the deployment of<br />

Caterpillar’s 70 to 100-ton-class battery electric off-highway trucks and charging solutions at a CRH site in North<br />

America. Through the agreement, CRH will participate in Caterpillar’s Early Learner program for battery electric<br />

off-highway trucks, testing and validating the units in real-world applications. CRH will also provide voice of customer<br />

feedback to address safety, performance, operational and compliance requirements for the aggregates industry.<br />

48<br />

49


TECHNO<br />

#KOMATSU #GM #FUELCELL #MINING<br />

SUPPLEMENT<br />

DUMPER TRUCK LIKES H2<br />

General Motors and Komatsu are<br />

collaborating to jointly develop<br />

a hydrogen fuel cell power<br />

module tailored for Komatsu’s<br />

930E electric drive mining truck. According<br />

to the OEM from Japan, hydrogen<br />

fuel cells are lightweight, quick<br />

to refuel, and suitable for electrifying<br />

applications traditionally powered by<br />

diesel engines. Hydrogen enables the<br />

storage of large amounts of energy<br />

in the vehicle without compromising<br />

its load capacity. Furthermore, fuel<br />

cells offer a zero-emission solution<br />

for demanding mission vehicles, like<br />

the Komatsu 930E dump truck with<br />

a rated payload of 320 tons. These<br />

vehicles typically operate in a single<br />

mine, which simplifies the challenges<br />

of sizing and implementing an effec-<br />

tive hydrogen refuelling infrastructure<br />

to serve the vehicle fleet. “At GM, we<br />

believe fuel cells can play an integral<br />

role in a zero-emissions future, helping<br />

to electrify heavier-duty applications,<br />

beyond passenger vehicles,” said<br />

Charlie Freese, executive director of<br />

GM’s Global Hydrotec business. “Mining<br />

trucks are among the largest, most<br />

capable vehicles used in any industry,<br />

and we believe hydrogen fuel cells are<br />

best suited to deliver zero emissions<br />

propulsion to these demanding applications.”<br />

In GM and Komatsu’s plans,<br />

the prototype Hydrotec-powered mining<br />

dump truck will be tested at Komatsu’s<br />

Arizona research and development<br />

proving grounds over a couple of years.<br />

This vehicle will be powered by over<br />

2 megawatts of Hydrotec power cubes.<br />

Engines and components for OEM<br />

Culture, technology, purposes<br />

and market of diesel engines<br />

Established in 1986<br />

Editor in chief<br />

Maurizio Cervetto<br />

Managing editor<br />

Fabio Butturi<br />

Editorial staff<br />

Stefano Agnellini, Ornella Cavalli,<br />

Fabrizio Dalle Nogare, Stefano Eliseo,<br />

Fabio Franchini, Riccardo Schiavo,<br />

Cristina Scuteri<br />

Contributors<br />

Carolina Gambino,<br />

Maria Grazia Gargioni,<br />

Erika Pasquini,<br />

Mariagiulia Spettoli<br />

Layout & graphics<br />

Marco Zanusso (manager)<br />

Editorial management<br />

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50


The real power of<br />

TOMORROW<br />

is how<br />

TODAY.<br />

we power<br />

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At Perkins, we are helping to create the sustainable jobsites<br />

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It’s not just the power of our engines.<br />

It’s about the power of tomorrow.<br />

Together, we power ahead.<br />

perkins.com

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