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Gryphon Trio: Messiaen Quartet with James Campbell, Clarinet | House Program | April 10, 2024

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CLASSICAL / ARTIST SPOTLIGHT CONCERT<br />

GRYPHON TRIO<br />

<strong>with</strong> <strong>James</strong> <strong>Campbell</strong>, clarinet<br />

APRIL <strong>10</strong> AT 7:30 PM<br />

CLASSICAL / ARTIST SPOTLIGHT CONCERT<br />

GRYPHON TRIO<br />

<strong>with</strong> <strong>James</strong> <strong>Campbell</strong>, clarinet<br />

APRIL <strong>10</strong> AT 7:30 PM<br />

THIS PERFORMANCE IS SUPPORTED BY<br />

THE SHELAGH AND DAVID WILLIAMS<br />

MUSIC PROGRAMMING FUND


GRYPHON TRIO<br />

<strong>with</strong> <strong>James</strong> <strong>Campbell</strong>, clarinet<br />

MESSIAEN:<br />

QUARTET FOR<br />

THE END OF TIME<br />

<strong>James</strong> <strong>Campbell</strong>, clarinet<br />

Annalee Patipatanakoon, violin<br />

Roman Borys, cello<br />

Jamie Parker, piano<br />

PROGRAM<br />

BEETHOVEN<br />

BERNSTEIN<br />

<strong>Trio</strong> in B-Flat Major, Op. 11, for clarinet, cello and piano<br />

Allegro con brio<br />

Adagio<br />

Tema con variazioni — Allegretto<br />

Sonata for <strong>Clarinet</strong> and Piano<br />

Grazioso<br />

Andantino — Vivace e leggiero<br />

INTERMISSION<br />

MESSIAEN<br />

<strong>Quartet</strong> for the End of Time<br />

1. Crystal liturgy [quartet]<br />

2. Vocalise, for the Angel who announces the end of time [quartet]<br />

3. Abyss of birds [solo clarinet]<br />

4. Interlude [trio <strong>with</strong>out piano]<br />

5. Praise to the eternity of Jesus [cello and piano]<br />

6. Dance of fury, for the seven trumpets [quartet in unison]<br />

7. Tangle of rainbows, for the Angel who announces the end of time [quartet]<br />

8. Praise to the immortality of Jesus [violin and piano]


ABOUT TONIGHT’S PERFORMANCE<br />

The Opus 11 <strong>Trio</strong> by Ludwig van Beethoven<br />

(1770-1827) is scored <strong>with</strong> a clarinet replacing<br />

the violin, imbuing the work <strong>with</strong> a more lyrical<br />

and lighter character than the three Piano <strong>Trio</strong>s<br />

of Beethoven’s Opus 1. This lyrical quality is<br />

particularly noticeable in the last movement’s<br />

set of nine variations on a song from an opera<br />

buffa by Joseph Weigl. You will know when the<br />

final variation arrives, as the piano presents this<br />

earworm-like theme in loud canonic octaves<br />

between the two hands, <strong>with</strong> this passage then<br />

echoed in the clarinet and cello. Rather humorously<br />

at this point, the piano gets stuck on a trill before<br />

sliding unexpectedly to G major. The quick return<br />

to B-flat major arrives <strong>with</strong> a syncopated 6/8<br />

meter reworking of the theme that dances to<br />

the double bar line.<br />

Leonard Bernstein (1918-1990) had an impressive<br />

career as both a composer and a conductor, being<br />

equally successful at writing concert music and<br />

Broadway musicals and leading the New York<br />

Philharmonic from 1958-72. His only <strong>Clarinet</strong> Sonata<br />

was written at the age of twenty-four, just a year<br />

after the première of <strong>Messiaen</strong>’s <strong>Quartet</strong> for the<br />

End of Time. The Sonata’s compact two-movement<br />

design displays many of the characteristics of<br />

Bernstein’s compositional voice, <strong>with</strong> the first<br />

movement having a somewhat serious neoclassical<br />

quality, while the syncopated meters of the second<br />

movement’s Vivace produce a jazz-like energy<br />

and sparkle. The brief slow introduction to<br />

the second movement is reintroduced in the<br />

middle of the Vivace <strong>with</strong> a more florid and<br />

expressive treatment.<br />

French composer Olivier <strong>Messiaen</strong> (1908-1992)<br />

is recognized as one of the 20th century’s major<br />

composers, creating a distinctive style that<br />

embraces novel approaches to rhythm, pitch,<br />

harmony and birdsong, all of which can be heard<br />

in his seminal work, <strong>Quartet</strong> for the End of Time.<br />

A proficient organist, <strong>Messiaen</strong>’s large body<br />

of music for that instrument often draws upon<br />

biblical influences. In a similar fashion, the Book of<br />

Revelation’s description of the Apocalypse became<br />

the springboard for the very descriptive movement<br />

titles of the <strong>Quartet</strong> for the End of Time. Given the<br />

work’s rather complex treatment of musical ideas<br />

and texture, perhaps the best preparation for an<br />

audience member unfamiliar <strong>with</strong> the piece, is to<br />

simply summarize the historical background behind<br />

the work’s genesis and premiere. At the start of<br />

World War II, while serving in the medical service<br />

of the French Army, <strong>Messiaen</strong> was captured by the<br />

Germans and interned in a prisoner-of-war camp.<br />

Meeting a violinist and cellist, he started working<br />

on a piano trio which eventually became this<br />

quartet, which helps explain why only four of the<br />

eight movements are scored for the full ensemble.<br />

Knowing that this work was first performed in<br />

January 1941 to an audience of prisoners and<br />

prison guards, <strong>with</strong> the composer playing a<br />

poorly maintained upright piano and the other<br />

performers using similarly salvaged instruments,<br />

is to appreciate the profound spirituality of the<br />

music and to recognize the human need to create<br />

art and something of lasting beauty even under<br />

circumstances of confinement and duress.<br />

©<strong>2024</strong> by John Burge for the Isabel<br />

ABOUT THE GRYPHON TRIO<br />

The <strong>Gryphon</strong> <strong>Trio</strong> is firmly established as one of<br />

the world’s preeminent piano trios. For more than<br />

25 years, it has earned acclaim for and impressed<br />

international audiences <strong>with</strong> its highly refined,<br />

dynamic, and memorable performances. The <strong>Trio</strong>’s<br />

repertoire ranges from traditional to contemporary,<br />

and from European classicism to modern-day<br />

multimedia. It is committed to redefining chamber<br />

music for the 21st century.<br />

Violinist Annalee Patipatanakoon, cellist Roman<br />

Borys, and pianist Jamie Parker are creative<br />

innovators <strong>with</strong> an appetite for discovery and<br />

new ideas. They have commissioned over 85 new<br />

works, and they frequently collaborate <strong>with</strong> other<br />

artists on projects that push the boundaries of<br />

Classical music.<br />

The <strong>Trio</strong> tours regularly throughout North America<br />

and Europe. It enjoys longstanding relationships<br />

<strong>with</strong> prominent festivals and arts incubators like<br />

Banff Centre for Arts and Creativity, Orford Music<br />

Academy, Music Toronto, Ottawa Chamberfest,<br />

and Festival del Lago International Academy of<br />

Music in Ajijic, Mexico. <strong>Gryphon</strong> <strong>Trio</strong> often performs<br />

triple concerti <strong>with</strong> the world’s major symphony<br />

orchestras and smaller chamber orchestras.<br />

The <strong>Gryphon</strong> <strong>Trio</strong>’s prolific recording catalogue<br />

includes 22 releases on Analekta, Naxos, and other


labels; it is an encyclopaedia of works for the genre.<br />

Honours include 11 nominations and three Juno<br />

Awards for Classical Album of the Year in 2004,<br />

2011, and most recently in 2019. In 2013, Canada<br />

Council for the Arts presented <strong>Gryphon</strong> <strong>Trio</strong> <strong>with</strong><br />

the prestigious Walter Carsen Prize for Excellence<br />

in the Performing Arts.<br />

The <strong>Gryphon</strong>s are deeply committed to community<br />

engagement, education, and the development<br />

of next-generation audiences and performers.<br />

They conduct masterclasses and workshops<br />

at universities and conservatories. They are<br />

ensemble-in-residence at the Isabel Bader Centre<br />

for the Performing Arts in Kingston, Ontario, and<br />

artists-in-residence at Trinity College, University<br />

of Toronto. Since 20<strong>10</strong>, the <strong>Trio</strong>’s ground-breaking<br />

outreach program, Listen Up!, has inspired 16<br />

Canadian communities to collaborate on large-scale<br />

multifaceted arts creation projects. The <strong>Trio</strong> leads<br />

Orford Music Academy’s Piano <strong>Trio</strong> Workshop and<br />

directs the Classical Music Summer <strong>Program</strong>s at<br />

Banff Centre for Arts and Creativity.<br />

From 2007 to 2020, Roman Borys was Artistic<br />

Director of the Ottawa Chamber Music Society;<br />

Annalee Patipatanakoon and Jamie Parker served<br />

as OCMS’ Artistic Advisors. Mr. Parker is the<br />

Rupert E. Edwards Chair in Piano Performance<br />

at the University of Toronto Faculty of Music. Ms.<br />

Patipatanakoon is Associate Professor of Violin<br />

and Performance Area Chair of Strings.<br />

ABOUT JAMES<br />

CAMPBELL, CLARINET<br />

<strong>James</strong> <strong>Campbell</strong> has<br />

followed his muse to five<br />

television specials, more<br />

than 40 recordings, over<br />

30 works commissioned, a<br />

Juno Award (Stolen Gems),<br />

a Roy Thomson Hall Award, Canada’s Artist of<br />

the Year, the Queen’s Golden Jubilee Medal and<br />

Canada’s highest honor, the Order of Canada.<br />

Called by the Toronto Star “Canada’s pre-eminent<br />

clarinetist and wind soloist,” <strong>James</strong> <strong>Campbell</strong> has<br />

performed solo and chamber music concerts in 30<br />

countries in many of the worlds great concert halls:<br />

London’s Wigmore and Queen Elizabeth Halls,<br />

Amsterdam’s Concertgebouw, Tokyo’s Suntory<br />

Hall, Paris’s Theatre Champs-Elysees, Washington’s<br />

Kennedy Centre and Symphony Hall, Boston. He<br />

has been soloist <strong>with</strong> over 60 orchestras, including<br />

the Boston Pops, the London Symphony, the<br />

London Philharmonic, the Russian Philharmonic,<br />

and the Montreal Symphony, and has performed<br />

Copland’s <strong>Clarinet</strong> Concerto four times <strong>with</strong> Aaron<br />

Copland conducting. He has appeared <strong>with</strong> over<br />

30 string quartets, including the Amadeus (when<br />

he replaced an ailing Benny Goodman on a tour of<br />

California), Guarneri, Vermeer, New Zealand, Fine<br />

Arts, Allegri and St Lawrence <strong>Quartet</strong>s.<br />

Of <strong>Campbell</strong>’s extensive discography many<br />

recordings have won international acclaim. His<br />

recording of the Brahms <strong>Clarinet</strong> Quintet <strong>with</strong><br />

the Allegri <strong>Quartet</strong> was voted “Top Choice” by<br />

BBC Radio 3 and the London Times, and “Stolen<br />

Gems,” a recording of lighter classics, won a Juno<br />

Award (Canada’s Grammy). <strong>James</strong> has recorded<br />

the world premiere recording of Brahms Sonata<br />

Op. 120 No. 1, orchestrated by Luciano Berio,<br />

and Weber Concerto No. 1, <strong>with</strong> the London<br />

Symphony, Debussy’s Premiere Rhapsody <strong>with</strong><br />

the Philharmonia, Saint-Saëns Tarantella <strong>with</strong> the<br />

London Philharmonic, and Mozart and Copland<br />

Concertos <strong>with</strong> the NACO. Sony Classical has<br />

recently re-released his recording of the Debussy<br />

Premier Rhapsody <strong>with</strong> Glenn Gould.<br />

Since 1985, <strong>James</strong> <strong>Campbell</strong> has been Artistic<br />

Director of the Festival of the Sound, the annual<br />

summer Canadian chamber music festival, and has<br />

programmed over 1300 concerts for the festival.<br />

Under his direction the Festival has traveled<br />

to England, Japan, and the Netherlands and it<br />

has been the subject of documentaries by BBC<br />

Television, CBC Television and TV Ontario.<br />

<strong>Campbell</strong> is the subject of numerous features<br />

and cover stories in <strong>Clarinet</strong> Magazine (USA),<br />

<strong>Clarinet</strong> and Sax (UK), Piper Magazine (Japan),<br />

Gramophone, and in the book <strong>Clarinet</strong> Virtuosi<br />

of Today, by British author and clarinet authority<br />

Pamela Weston.<br />

<strong>James</strong> continues to explore and expand musically,<br />

his most recent collaboration being Spirit ‘20,<br />

created at Festival of the Sound in, 20<strong>10</strong>. The<br />

six-member ensemble explores the music of the<br />

roaring 20’s in new and innovative ways.<br />

<strong>James</strong> <strong>Campbell</strong> has been Professor of Music at<br />

the prestigious Jacobs School of Music, Indiana<br />

University since 1988.

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