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IMS Radar Width Measuring System

In the rolling process of steel and other metals, knowledge and control of the rolling stock width is crucial for the product quality and efficiency of the entire rolling process: IMS Messsysteme presents market-ready radar width measuring system for hot rolling mills and heavy plate mills. In order to enable reliable width measurement with real measurement data under the harsh environmental conditions in hot rolling mills, IMS Messsysteme GmbH, in cooperation with Fraunhofer FHR, has developed a radar-based width measurement system. developed a radar-based width measurement system in cooperation with Fraunhofer FHR. When rolling steel and other metals, knowing and controlling the width of the rolled material is crucial for the product quality and efficiency of the entire rolling process. In hot strip mills, for example, the width of the rolled stock is largely set at the roughing stand. However, the descaling that is essential at the roughing stand leads to a high volume of steam and spray water as well as falling scale, which means that optical measuring systems can only measure with a great deal of mechanical effort and require intensive maintenance. The system developed is low-maintenance and, thanks to its compact design, can be integrated into existing production lines without major structural changes, even in confined spaces. The frequency range of the radar sensors is in a free frequency band and can therefore be operated without any approval requirements or additional safety measures. Radar width measurement has also proven itself for use in heavy plate rolling mills, as the two separate, easy-to-place radar units eliminate the need for a complex superstructure. The measurement itself is independent of the composition of the metal being measured and its temperature. The radar width measurement system also offers real advantages for other applications, such as in the aluminum industry.

In the rolling process of steel and other metals, knowledge and control of the rolling stock width is crucial for the product quality and efficiency of the entire rolling process: IMS Messsysteme presents market-ready radar width measuring system for hot rolling mills and heavy plate mills.

In order to enable reliable width measurement with real measurement data under the harsh environmental conditions in hot rolling mills, IMS Messsysteme GmbH, in cooperation with Fraunhofer FHR, has developed a radar-based width measurement system.
developed a radar-based width measurement system in cooperation with Fraunhofer FHR.

When rolling steel and other metals, knowing and controlling the width of the rolled material is crucial for the product quality and efficiency of the entire rolling process. In hot strip mills, for example, the width of the rolled stock is largely set at the roughing stand.

However, the descaling that is essential at the roughing stand leads to a high volume of steam and spray water as well as falling scale, which means that optical measuring systems can only measure with a great deal of mechanical effort and require intensive maintenance.

The system developed is low-maintenance and, thanks to its compact design, can be integrated into existing production lines without major structural changes, even in confined spaces.

The frequency range of the radar sensors is in a free frequency band and can therefore be operated without any approval requirements or additional safety measures.

Radar width measurement has also proven itself for use in heavy plate rolling mills, as the two separate, easy-to-place radar units eliminate the need for a complex superstructure.

The measurement itself is independent of the composition of the metal being measured and its temperature. The radar width measurement system also offers real advantages for other applications, such as in the aluminum industry.

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Whitepaper<br />

<strong>Radar</strong><br />

<strong>Width</strong> <strong>Measuring</strong> <strong>System</strong><br />

Online radar width measurement in<br />

hot mills and plate mills


CONTENTS<br />

01<br />

Introduction<br />

02<br />

Task<br />

02<br />

03<br />

04<br />

Development of a<br />

<strong>Radar</strong> <strong>Width</strong> <strong>Measuring</strong> <strong>System</strong><br />

4.1 <strong>Measuring</strong> principle<br />

4.2 Design and properties<br />

of the radar sensors<br />

06 - 07<br />

08 - 09<br />

4.3 Design of the overall system<br />

10 - 11<br />

06<br />

<strong>Measuring</strong> results<br />

6.1 Test bay measurements<br />

07<br />

Summary<br />

16 - 17<br />

6.2 Operating measurements<br />

18 - 21<br />

22 - 23<br />

03<br />

User benefits<br />

05<br />

Integration into<br />

production<br />

08<br />

References<br />

04 - 05<br />

12 - 15<br />

24 - 25


01<br />

02<br />

Introduction<br />

Task<br />

When rolling steel and other metals, knowing<br />

and controlling the width of the rolling<br />

stock is crucial for the product quality and<br />

efficiency of the entire rolling process. In<br />

some of the process steps, however, the<br />

conditions of the production environment<br />

and of the installation can make it difficult<br />

to use conventional measuring systems –<br />

and therefore also to effectively control the<br />

width.<br />

In hot strip mills, for example, the width of<br />

the rolling stock is largely set at the roughing<br />

stand. Correction of the width in the<br />

subsequent process steps is hardly possible.<br />

However, descaling, which is essential<br />

on the roughing stand, leads to a high<br />

volume of vapour and spray water as well<br />

as falling scale.<br />

As a result, stable use of measuring systems<br />

based on optical measuring principles<br />

or requiring components below the roller<br />

table is usually only possible with a great<br />

deal of mechanical effort and involves<br />

intensive maintenance. The often very limited<br />

space available in the production lines as<br />

well as the heavy vibrations at the roll stand<br />

make the integration of suitable measuring<br />

hardware even more difficult.<br />

In rolling mills, insufficient knowledge of<br />

the actual width of the material being<br />

measured means that control processes<br />

are based solely on model-based calculations<br />

of the width, which significantly<br />

reduces their effectiveness.<br />

<strong>Width</strong> control based on real measurement<br />

data, on the other hand, offers the<br />

possibility of optimising width performance<br />

and, as a result, increasing resource<br />

efficiency and stabilising the rolling<br />

process.<br />

In order to enable reliable width measurement<br />

with real measurement data under<br />

the harsh environmental conditions in hot<br />

mills, a radar-based <strong>Width</strong> <strong>Measuring</strong><br />

<strong>System</strong> was developed by <strong>IMS</strong> Messsysteme<br />

GmbH in cooperation with Fraunhofer<br />

FHR.<br />

<strong>Radar</strong> technology is particularly suitable as<br />

a measuring method in this area of application,<br />

as it is insensitive to vapour and spray<br />

water. Another advantage is the compact<br />

design of the components, which can be<br />

integrated into existing mill lines without<br />

major conversion work, even where space<br />

is limited.<br />

The measuring principle of the newly developed<br />

<strong>Radar</strong> <strong>Width</strong> <strong>Measuring</strong> <strong>System</strong> is<br />

based on the use of two radar units, which<br />

are installed on both sides of the roller<br />

table and measure the exact distance to<br />

the edge of the material. The actual width<br />

of the measured stock is determined from<br />

the two distance values on the basis of a<br />

suitable calibration.<br />

The objective for this development was a<br />

radar-based online measuring system that<br />

is suitable for the challenging conditions<br />

on the roughing stand of hot mills and<br />

enables stable and precise width measurement<br />

in the long term. In addition to the<br />

mechanical design and easy integration of<br />

the measuring system into existing production<br />

lines, the optimisation of the sensor<br />

and data processing technology to achieve<br />

high measuring accuracy were also of crucial<br />

importance.<br />

02 INTRODUCTION TASK 03


03<br />

User benefits<br />

Several years of experience of use in hot<br />

mills in the metal industry have now proven<br />

that the <strong>Radar</strong> <strong>Width</strong> <strong>Measuring</strong> <strong>System</strong><br />

from <strong>IMS</strong> Messsysteme GmbH guarantees<br />

reliable and accurate width measurement<br />

even under the most adverse ambient<br />

conditions.<br />

The <strong>Radar</strong> <strong>Width</strong> <strong>Measuring</strong> <strong>System</strong> is<br />

therefore stable and precise even in the<br />

presence of high levels of vapour and spray<br />

water, as several successful installations<br />

have confirmed. Since the measurement is<br />

performed on metallic surfaces in reflection,<br />

the temperature of the measured stock,<br />

whether red-hot or cold, has no effect on the<br />

measuring accuracy.<br />

The two compact radar units can be integrated<br />

into existing plants without major effort,<br />

even where space is limited. As the two<br />

measuring units do not need to be mechanically<br />

connected to one another and can<br />

therefore be positioned at a greater distance<br />

from each other, the system has also<br />

proven to be effective for use in plate mills.<br />

By installing the two radar units to the side<br />

of the roller table, the measurement is not<br />

impaired by the vibrations occurring on the<br />

roll stand or any falling scale. The maintenance<br />

effort is correspondingly low – in<br />

most cases, cleaning the measuring windows<br />

during the usual maintenance downtime<br />

is sufficient.<br />

Another advantage of radar measurement<br />

is that no further safety precautions are<br />

necessary due to the low transmission<br />

power. The radiation frequencies lie entirely<br />

in the free frequency band between 57 and<br />

64 GHz, meaning that the system can be<br />

used safely in most countries without the<br />

need for authorisation. At the same time,<br />

the high bandwidth of 7 GHz enables a<br />

high resolution and a width measurement<br />

accuracy of < 1 mm.<br />

04 USER BENEFITS USER BENEFITS 05


04<br />

Development of a<br />

<strong>Radar</strong> <strong>Width</strong> <strong>Measuring</strong> <strong>System</strong><br />

4.1. <strong>Measuring</strong> principle<br />

<strong>Radar</strong> sensors generate electromagnetic<br />

waves that are emitted by an antenna.<br />

During radar width measurement, these<br />

waves are focussed in the direction of<br />

the roller table and hit the edge of the<br />

material. From there, they are reflected<br />

and received by two receiving antennas of<br />

the same system unit. Based on the distance<br />

travelled, there is a delay between<br />

the signal being transmitted and it being<br />

received.<br />

The radar sensors used here transmit signals<br />

that are linearly modulated in time (FMCW<br />

radar), which means that the time delay can<br />

be precisely determined by analysing the difference<br />

frequency between the signal being<br />

transmitted and received.<br />

Since the waves travel at the speed of light,<br />

the distance to the edge of the material can<br />

be precisely calculated from this in correlation<br />

with the time delay. In addition, the additional<br />

use of a signal processing<br />

algorithm increases the accuracy of the<br />

distance measurement.<br />

To determine the width, two radar units<br />

are installed opposite each other on both<br />

sides of the roller table (Figure 1). Each unit<br />

measures the distance to the respective<br />

edge of the material. After calibrating the<br />

measuring range, the exact width of the<br />

passing material can be determined from<br />

the two independently determined distance<br />

values.<br />

Figure 1: Schematic representation<br />

of the measuring principle<br />

06 DEVELOPMENT OF A RADAR WIDTH MEASURING SYSTEM DEVELOPMENT OF A RADAR WIDTH MEASURING SYSTEM 07


04<br />

Measured<br />

Simulated<br />

Development of a<br />

<strong>Radar</strong> <strong>Width</strong> <strong>Measuring</strong> <strong>System</strong><br />

Amplitude (dBm)<br />

Figure 3: Antenna emission characteristics<br />

4.2. Design and properties<br />

of the radar sensors<br />

Angle (degrees)<br />

The design of the radar sensors used in<br />

the <strong>Width</strong> <strong>Measuring</strong> <strong>System</strong> is shown<br />

in Figure 2. The generation of the radar<br />

waves and the determination of the distance<br />

take place in the electronics of the<br />

respective radar sensor, which is integrated<br />

into a protective housing (protection class<br />

IP67). The connections for the power supply<br />

(24 V) and data transmission are located<br />

on the back of the housing.<br />

Three Teflon antennas are attached to<br />

the front of the housing. The antenna in<br />

the centre emits the radar waves outwards<br />

towards the edge of the material and focuses<br />

them like a lens. The waves reflected<br />

by the strip edge are in turn received by<br />

the identical antennas above and below<br />

the transmitting antenna. The separated<br />

arrangement of the transmitting and receiving<br />

antennas increases the usable dynamic<br />

range of the system. Furthermore, the use<br />

of two receiving antennas enables the<br />

measurement of two distance values at<br />

different heights, which is advantageous in<br />

the case of large variations in the thickness<br />

of the measured stock (e.g. heavy plate).<br />

Figure 2: <strong>Radar</strong> sensor with<br />

three Teflon antennas<br />

In addition, this enables measurements with<br />

low angular error even with vertical strip<br />

roaming or a ski-shaped bend in the strip.<br />

The emission characteristics of the radar<br />

antennas are shown in Figure 3.<br />

The majority of the power is emitted or<br />

received within the radar beam, which has<br />

an aperture angle 1 of approx. 4°. The radar<br />

beam is rotationally symmetrical and has a<br />

Gaussian radiation profile.<br />

Following the laws of geometry, the size<br />

of the beam on the strip edge depends on<br />

the aperture angle and the distance to the<br />

measured stock.<br />

In this way, the measuring signal is averaged<br />

over a certain range, making it less<br />

sensitive to slight unevenness or edge<br />

cracks.<br />

As already mentioned, the frequency of<br />

the emitted waves is linearly modulated<br />

between 57 GHz and 64 GHz. The radiant<br />

power is below 10 mW, so that no further<br />

safety measures 2 are required for ongoing<br />

operation.<br />

1 Drop in output of 3 dB at approx. ± 2°.<br />

2 Individuals with active implants should not stand directly<br />

in front of the antennas.<br />

08 DEVELOPMENT OF A RADAR WIDTH MEASURING SYSTEM DEVELOPMENT OF A RADAR WIDTH MEASURING SYSTEM 09


04<br />

Development of a<br />

<strong>Radar</strong> <strong>Width</strong> <strong>Measuring</strong> <strong>System</strong><br />

4.3. Design of the overall system<br />

The distance values determined by the<br />

radar sensors are sent at a data rate of<br />

> 1 kHz via a UDP connection to an<br />

industrial computer, in which the width of<br />

the measured stock is calculated by applying<br />

the stored calibration data. The width<br />

values are determined in this way at a<br />

data rate of 1 kHz and forwarded to the<br />

customer via a suitable interface. The type<br />

of data transmission is always customised<br />

to the customer’s requirements.<br />

The industrial computer is also used to<br />

control the entire system and to visualise<br />

and store the measurement data. In addition<br />

to the distance and width measurement<br />

values, the time and frequency spectra are<br />

also displayed in the visualisation, allowing<br />

suitable parameters and threshold values to<br />

be set in order to suppress interference signals<br />

(e.g. from other reflections in the roller<br />

table) and control the measuring cycle.<br />

This computer is also used to control the<br />

calibration unit and record the calibration<br />

parameters with the aid of the visualisation.<br />

For this purpose, a calibration body<br />

is moved through the linear unit and the<br />

distances measured by the radar sensors<br />

at each position of the body are recorded.<br />

The calibration parameters are determined<br />

from this data, which in turn are used to<br />

optimise the distance accuracies and relate<br />

the distance values to each other for width<br />

determination.<br />

Calibration is carried out both in the<br />

<strong>IMS</strong> Messsysteme GmbH test bay before<br />

delivery of the system and during commissioning<br />

in the factory itself.<br />

Recalibration is usually only necessary if<br />

changes are made to the system, e.g. in<br />

the case of realignment, replacement of<br />

components or changes to the measuring<br />

range.<br />

10 DEVELOPMENT OF A RADAR WIDTH MEASURING SYSTEM DEVELOPMENT OF A RADAR WIDTH MEASURING SYSTEM 11


05<br />

Integration into production<br />

For use in rolling mills, each individual<br />

radar sensor is integrated into a compact<br />

metal housing with a Teflon measuring<br />

window to protect it from the harsh environmental<br />

conditions prevailing there (Figure 4).<br />

The housing can be double-walled and<br />

cooled with water if required to protect it<br />

from the high ambient temperatures at the<br />

roughing stand. Depending on the installation<br />

situation, the housings are mounted<br />

on suitable stands in order to set and<br />

guarantee the ideal height of the radar sensors<br />

in relation to the measured stock.<br />

Product data<br />

Strip thickness:<br />

Distance from<br />

antennas to material<br />

edge:<br />

≥ 5 mm<br />

750 mm–3,000 mm<br />

Performance data<br />

<strong>Width</strong> accuracy (2σ):<br />

Measurement rate:<br />

≤ ± 1.0 mm<br />

1 kHz<br />

Figure 4: Protective hood with Teflon window<br />

12 INTEGRATION INTO PRODUCTION INTEGRATION INTO PRODUCTION 13


The sensors are themselves attached to a<br />

specially designed bracket with corresponding<br />

adjustment options for fine adjustment<br />

of the height, antenna alignment and to<br />

compensate for eventual unevenness.<br />

The supplied calibration unit also serves as<br />

an alignment aid, which is fixed to the roller<br />

table in the measuring area and enables<br />

the sensors to be aligned with each other<br />

and with the roller table.<br />

To ensure optimum measurement performance,<br />

the calibration unit is usually<br />

equipped with a linear unit and a motor as<br />

standard, so that the calibration body can<br />

be moved automatically within the measuring<br />

range (Figure 5). In principle, however,<br />

simplified calibration is also possible without<br />

a travelling device.<br />

The prerequisite for successful integration<br />

and optimum performance of the <strong>Radar</strong><br />

<strong>Width</strong> <strong>Measuring</strong> <strong>System</strong> is a sufficiently<br />

large, unrestricted line of sight on both<br />

sides of the roller table through which the<br />

radar waves can reach the respective edge<br />

of the material.<br />

Depending on the installation situation,<br />

suitable measuring openings may have to<br />

be provided on the sides of the roller table<br />

(e.g. in the case of existing protective walls<br />

or side guards). The optimum size of this<br />

measuring opening depends on the sensor<br />

spacing, which is adapted to the specific<br />

conditions at the factory.<br />

As described above, the radar sensors<br />

used in this <strong>Width</strong> <strong>Measuring</strong> <strong>System</strong><br />

provide stable, precise measurements even<br />

with a high volume of vapour and spray<br />

water. A closed film of water, on the other<br />

hand, cannot be penetrated by the radar<br />

waves. Flowing water at the edges of the<br />

strip or a strong flow of water in the measuring<br />

area should therefore be avoided or<br />

eliminated, e.g. by blowing off.<br />

Figure 5: <strong>Radar</strong> sensor with adjustment unit<br />

14 INTEGRATION INTO PRODUCTION<br />

INTEGRATION INTO PRODUCTION<br />

15


06<br />

<strong>Measuring</strong> results<br />

6.1. Test bay measurements<br />

In order to be able to test the performance<br />

of the <strong>Radar</strong> <strong>Width</strong> <strong>Measuring</strong> <strong>System</strong><br />

during the development phase, a specially<br />

equipped test rig was installed in the<br />

<strong>IMS</strong> Messsysteme GmbH test bay. This<br />

consists of a support device with a linear<br />

unit, which is driven by a step motor. The<br />

two radar units are each positioned at the<br />

ends of the support, on which the test and<br />

calibration bodies can be moved along<br />

the axis between the two radar sensors.<br />

Three certified test pieces with flat edges,<br />

a thickness of 50 mm each and widths<br />

of 800 mm, 1,300 mm and 1,800 mm are<br />

used to check the measuring accuracy and<br />

cover typical width values in hot strip mills.<br />

For the test measurements shown below,<br />

the test pieces described were aligned in<br />

the centre between the radar units, which<br />

were placed opposite each other at a<br />

distance of approx. 6 m.<br />

The radar beams were aligned at right<br />

angles to the test piece on both sides<br />

and the height of the measuring spot was<br />

aligned with the centre of the test piece<br />

edge to avoid angular errors. The test<br />

pieces were moved step by step 3 by<br />

± 200 mm from the centre in order to simulate<br />

the horizontal strip roaming that is<br />

common in factory conditions.<br />

<strong>Width</strong>: 800 mm<br />

<strong>Width</strong>: 1,300 mm<br />

<strong>Width</strong>: 1,800 mm<br />

Centreline displacement (mm)<br />

Figure 6: <strong>Measuring</strong> results with certified test pieces<br />

Figure 6 shows the deviations between the ation is less than ± 0.5 mm. The low<br />

measured and certified width values for all standard deviation (error bar) shows the<br />

three test pieces, each averaged over three high reproducibility of the measurement.<br />

measurement repetitions. For all widths and<br />

over the entire travel range, the width devi-<br />

16 MEASURING RESULTS<br />

MEASURING RESULTS<br />

17


06<br />

<strong>Measuring</strong> results<br />

6.2. Operating measurements<br />

The measurement results shown below<br />

were obtained in the hot strip mill at<br />

Salzgitter Flachstahl GmbH. There, the<br />

measurement performance was initially<br />

tested with a first prototype at the exit<br />

of the roughing stand by means of a concrete<br />

comparison with an optical width<br />

measurement, whereby the desired accuracy<br />

of approx. 1 mm and a high degree of<br />

stability were achieved [1].<br />

The <strong>Radar</strong> <strong>Width</strong> <strong>Measuring</strong> <strong>System</strong> was<br />

then moved to its final location at the<br />

entry of the roughing stand and has been<br />

successfully in use in this configuration<br />

since 2017 (Figure 7). In this specific application,<br />

the radar units are set up at a<br />

distance of ~ 5 m on the sides of the roller<br />

table and measure the strips, which are up<br />

to around 2 m wide.<br />

On both side guards, which align the strips<br />

so that they are straight and centre them<br />

on the roller table, there is an opening<br />

through which the radar beams are<br />

projected and hit the edges of the material<br />

to be measured. The flowing water falling<br />

from the strip surface when descaling is<br />

switched off is blown off at both measuring<br />

windows using an air nozzle.<br />

For some strips that were no longer<br />

processed in the last pass through the<br />

roughing stand, it was possible to make a<br />

concrete comparison between the finalised<br />

<strong>Radar</strong> <strong>Width</strong> <strong>Measuring</strong> <strong>System</strong> and an<br />

optical measurement.<br />

Figure 8 shows an example of the width<br />

profile of such a strip, measured with the<br />

<strong>Radar</strong> <strong>Width</strong> <strong>Measuring</strong> <strong>System</strong> in direct<br />

comparison with an optical system.<br />

The slight shifts in the length scale result<br />

from inaccuracies in the measurement of<br />

the strip speed.<br />

The actual width profiles of both measuring<br />

methods and their characteristics are<br />

therefore almost identical.<br />

<strong>Measuring</strong><br />

opening<br />

<strong>Radar</strong><br />

Figure 7: <strong>Radar</strong> width measurement at the roughing<br />

stand entry at Salzgitter-Flachstahl GmbH.<br />

18 MEASURING RESULTS<br />

MEASURING RESULTS<br />

19


In the lower image of Figure 8, you can see<br />

the results of a test in which an approx.<br />

7 m long piece was cut out of a cooled<br />

pre-strip, placed on the roller table and run<br />

through the <strong>Radar</strong> <strong>Measuring</strong> <strong>System</strong> several<br />

times [2].<br />

The measuring results are shown in comparison<br />

to the results of a manual sliding<br />

gauge measurement of the test piece. Here,<br />

too, there is very good agreement between<br />

the radar measurement and the manual<br />

reference measurement as well as between<br />

the individual measurement repetitions.<br />

Extensive long-term analyses [3] also demonstrated<br />

that the <strong>Radar</strong> <strong>Width</strong> <strong>Measuring</strong><br />

<strong>System</strong> at Salzgitter Flachstahl GmbH has<br />

an availability of more than 99% and is well<br />

suited for measures to improve the width<br />

performance. Thanks to more homogenous<br />

input conditions, the <strong>Radar</strong> <strong>Measuring</strong> <strong>System</strong><br />

enabled a more stable rolling process in<br />

the finishing mill.<br />

<strong>Width</strong> (m)<br />

<strong>Radar</strong> measurement<br />

Optical measurement<br />

Length (m)<br />

<strong>Width</strong> (m)<br />

Length (m)<br />

Figure 8: Top: Comparison of the radar measurement on the roughing stand with the optical measurement.<br />

Bottom: Comparison of the radar measurement with a manual measurement (red dots)<br />

20 MEASURING RESULTS<br />

MEASURING RESULTS<br />

21


07<br />

Summary<br />

With the development of the <strong>Radar</strong> <strong>Width</strong><br />

<strong>Measuring</strong> <strong>System</strong> presented here, stable<br />

and precise width measurement could be<br />

achieved even under the adverse ambient<br />

conditions that prevail on the roughing<br />

stand in hot strip mills.<br />

The measurement itself is not dependent<br />

on the composition of the metallic material<br />

being measured and its temperature. The<br />

<strong>Radar</strong> <strong>Width</strong> <strong>Measuring</strong> <strong>System</strong> also offers<br />

real advantages for other applications,<br />

such as in the aluminium industry.<br />

The system developed by <strong>IMS</strong> Messsysteme<br />

GmbH in cooperation with Fraunhofer<br />

FHR is low-maintenance and, thanks to<br />

its compact design, can be integrated into<br />

existing production lines even in confined<br />

spaces without major structural changes.<br />

The frequency range of the radar sensors is<br />

in a free frequency band and can therefore<br />

be operated without the need for authorisation<br />

or further safety measures.<br />

The high long-term stability and availability<br />

of the <strong>Radar</strong> <strong>Width</strong> <strong>Measuring</strong> <strong>System</strong><br />

were demonstrated in live operation at<br />

Salzgitter Flachstahl GmbH. To summarise,<br />

customers have confirmed that the system<br />

is suitable for improving width performance<br />

and contributes to a more stable rolling<br />

process.<br />

<strong>Radar</strong> width measurement has also proven<br />

its worth for use in plate mills , as the two<br />

separate, easy-to-place radar units eliminate<br />

the need for a complex superstructure.<br />

22 SUMMARY SUMMARY 23


08<br />

References<br />

[1] Fischer, B., Krauthäuser, H., Krebs, C., Gütgemann, S., Nüßler, D., Pohl, N., & Antoine, C. P.: <strong>Radar</strong><br />

width measurement system for hot rolling mills. In 10th International Rolling Conference<br />

and the 7th European Rolling Conference, (2016).<br />

[2] Fischer, B.; Krauthäuser, H.; Krebs, C.; Gütgemann, S., and Antoine, C. P.: <strong>Radar</strong> Solutions<br />

for Harsh Environmental Conditions; BHM Berg- und Hüttenmännische Monatshefte,<br />

163 (2018), P. 84–89.<br />

[3] Haschke, T.; Huge, Th.; Lipowski, M.; Mengel, Ch.; Fischer, B.; Krauthäuser, H.: Increased<br />

width performance due to use of a radar width measurement in the roughing mill; ESTAD proceedings.<br />

ESTAD 6th, (2023).<br />

24 REFERENCES REFERENCES 25


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