2024_05_Sustainable Truck&Van

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www.vadoetorno.com<br />

www.vadoetornoweb.com<br />

www.sustainabletruckvan.com<br />


Inspirational<br />

RIDE<br />

10 Interview<br />

Volvo Trucks president<br />

Roger Alm on e-truck<br />

strategy, and more<br />

16 Focus<br />

Newcomers between<br />

hopes and troubles<br />

in e-vehicle production<br />

22 Trends<br />

ZE trucks&vans in<br />

Europe, the U.S. and<br />

China: the latest data<br />

May<br />



TRANSPOTEC LOGITEC <strong>2024</strong><br />

MAY 8-11 • MILAN, ITALY<br />

HALL 24P STAND E01 F08<br />

MAY <strong>2024</strong><br />

sustainabletruckvan.com<br />


Awards<br />


The winning vehicles of the <strong>2024</strong> edition<br />

E–SERIES<br />

THE<br />


EDGE<br />

IN URBAN<br />



16<br />


Face-to-face<br />


Roger Alm, President of Volvo Trucks<br />


Organizing ACT Expo: Lawren Markle<br />

14 NO TIME TO LOSE<br />

Anja van Niersen, CEO of the JV Milence<br />

Focus<br />

16 IT’S A TOUGH GAME<br />

ZE truck&van manufacturers at a crossroads<br />

Trends<br />


Analysing ZE registrations in three key areas<br />

Preview<br />


The newly introduced Volvo FH Aero range<br />


The launch of the new Mercedes eSprinter<br />

36<br />

Insight<br />


Inside Forsee Power’s gigafactory in Poitiers<br />

Smart Tests<br />


Behind the wheel of a Mercedes eActros 400<br />

With E-Series, Thermo King hits the town with a new,<br />

all-electric refrigeration unit for electric light<br />

commercial vehicles. With energy efficiency at the heart<br />

of the new design, it’s built to bring out the best in electric<br />

performance, and deliver it straight to the city center.<br />


Nissan Townstar EV, right for the city<br />

Columns<br />

6 At a glance 48 Techno 49 Infrastructure<br />





40<br />

A growing editorial platform<br />

In addition to our STV newsletter, out on Wednesdays,<br />

we’ve launched a new weekly initiative, shared with<br />

our sister platforms. Find out more and join us! p.4<br />




Energy transition has its thorns<br />


Here we are, again.<br />

Following the pleasant<br />

appetizer of our first issue,<br />

we sit down at the table and<br />

really begin a journey that<br />

we look forward to tackling<br />

together with you readers.<br />

This year, our plan is made of<br />

two publications. In addition<br />

to this one, which you will<br />

find being distributed at ACT<br />

Expo, Las Vegas, we will have<br />

a fall issue distributed, among<br />

others, at IAA Transportation,<br />

Hanover.<br />

In this issue, we try to<br />

take stock of the obstacles,<br />

sometimes impossible to<br />

overcome, that may face those<br />

who want to be players in<br />

the new mobility in freight<br />

transport. Especially when<br />

it comes to newcomers or<br />

young start-ups, often struggling with starting series production,<br />

establishing a suitable supply chain or, more simply, with a lack of<br />

liquidity. Then again, a true revolution like energy transition needs<br />

to be gradual. As numbers do not lie, we have tried to put things in<br />

order by analyzing market trends in Europe, the U.S. and China.<br />

Without neglecting the heart of our magazine, the vehicles. Like the<br />

Volvo that stands out on our cover, or the ones we tested in our smart<br />

tests. Besides, three interviews with leading players in the transition,<br />

well distributed among vehicle manufacturers, infrastructure<br />

specialists and event organizers.<br />

We close with a new feature that we introduced just a few weeks ago,<br />

the Movin’ Ahead newsletter released each week in collaboration<br />

with our sister platforms <strong>Sustainable</strong> Bus and Powertrain<br />

International. Movin’ Ahead (on the right the QR code to subscribe<br />

for free) aims to provide an up-to-date perspective on the evolution<br />

of the commercial transportation, power and energy sectors.<br />





20,000 PROFESSIONALS<br />


Charging<br />

forward<br />

to accelerate the world’s<br />

transition to eMobility<br />

One drives all.<br />

Our Integrated Drive Module<br />

simplifies the electrification<br />

of all kinds of vehicles.<br />




Hydrogen ICE truck in small series<br />



That's how ZE trucks will look like<br />


MAN is about to develop small truck series with hydrogen<br />

internal combustion engine by 2025. The so-called<br />

hTGX will be initially produced in about 200 units<br />

for special applications and distributed in selected<br />

customers in Germany, the Netherlands, Norway,<br />

Iceland and some more non-European countries. Indeed,<br />

the German manufacturer is the first one to come up<br />

with the news of a small series truck equipped with<br />

hydrogen-powered ICE. The MAN hTGX is conceived to<br />

be an alternative zero-emission drive variant for special<br />

applications, for example for transporting heavy goods<br />

– such as construction work, tank transport or timber<br />

transport.<br />

In fact, according to MAN, the hydrogen drive is<br />

particularly suitable for special transport tasks that require<br />

a special axle configuration or where there is no space for<br />

the battery on the frame due to the need for truck body<br />

work.<br />

The MAN hTGX offers high payloads and maximum ranges<br />

of up to 600 km in its initially offered 6×2 and 6×4 axle<br />

variants. The H45 hydrogen combustion engine used has an<br />

output of 383 kW (520 hp) and a torque of 2500 Nm at 900-<br />

1300 rpm. The direct injection of hydrogen into the engine<br />

ensures particularly fast power delivery. With hydrogen<br />

compressed to 700 bar (CG H2) and a tank capacity of 56<br />

kg, the vehicle can be refuelled in less than 15 minutes. “The<br />

hydrogen combustion engine H45 is based on the proven<br />

D38 diesel engine and is produced at the engine and battery plant in<br />

Nuremberg. The use of familiar technology enables us to enter the<br />

market at an early stage and thus provides a decisive impetus for the<br />

ramp-up of the hydrogen infrastructure. With the hTGX, we have<br />

now added an attractive product to our zero-emission portfolio,”<br />

commented Friedrich Baumann, Executive Board Member of MAN<br />

Truck & Bus and responsible for Sales & Customer Solution.<br />


Following an extensive road<br />

testing pilot phase in Germany<br />

and the USA, Volkswagen ADMT,<br />

a Volkswagen AG organization,<br />

is announcing a cooperation<br />

agreement with the Israeli<br />

technology company Mobileye<br />

Global Inc. The latter will develop<br />

and supply software, hardware<br />

components and digital maps for<br />

the self-driving ID. Buzz.<br />

Volkswagen aims to develop<br />

an autonomous Level 4<br />

service vehicle for large-scale<br />

production. The target is to use<br />

this vehicle in the commercial<br />

sector, for mobility and transport<br />

services in Europe and the<br />

USA. Volkswagen ADMT aims<br />

to develop the fully electric<br />

autonomous ID. Buzz by 2026.<br />

.A preview of the hTGX developed by MAN.<br />

Assets for sale<br />

U.S.-based electric truck manufacturer Canoo<br />

announced the acquisition of valuable and<br />

advanced manufacturing assets belonged to no<br />

longer existing e-van manufacturer Arrival “at<br />

deep discount”, as written in the official press<br />

note. As stated by Canoo itself, the company’s<br />

strategy “in acquiring new and unused equipment<br />

at pennies on the dollar (80%+ discount),<br />

reduces capital expenditures by tens of millions<br />

of dollars, enhancing equity value”.<br />

The purchased assets will be collected into<br />

more than 20 containers and shipped by sea to<br />

Canoo’s manufacturing facilities in Oklahoma.<br />

“Our current strategy will save our shareholders<br />

tens of millions of dollars, which today, is not<br />

properly reflected in the value of our company.<br />

We remain focused on capital discipline and the<br />

smartest way to invest and create value,” said<br />

Tony Aquila, Investor, Executive Chairman, and<br />

CEO of Canoo.<br />

With a successful online ceremony, German ZE truck specialist<br />

Quantron celebrated in March the first edition of its Design Award.<br />

With the goal of attracting young talents with fresh perspectives,<br />

the event served as a platform to challenge the status quo of the<br />

European transportation and logistics sector with forward-thinking yet<br />

practical ideas. The competition managed to attracted 35 applications,<br />

representing more than 10 different countries and 20 prestigious<br />

universities and design schools.<br />

After a thorough selection process, the panel selected three top<br />

winners and awarded one honourable mention award. The first place<br />

went to Siddhartha Dutt from CCS (College for Creative Studies),<br />

Detroit, USA. Ana Alvarez Maestro (University of Navarra, Spain)<br />

finished second, and Lorenzo Benzoni from IED (Istituto Europeo di<br />

Design), Turin, Italy, was third. Moreover, a special mention went to<br />

George (Siu Fung Lau), also from IED, Turin.<br />

“The design briefing was creating a modular concept for a future<br />

heavy hydrogen fuel cell powered truck and its ecosystem. You<br />

can clearly see the result of the evaluations in the winning projects,<br />

based on the 4 main criteria, which are: Reflecting The Design Brief,<br />

Innovation & Creativity, Presentation & Visualisation, Feasibility<br />

& Compatibility with QaaS”, told us Quantron Design & Strategy<br />

Manager, Koorosh Shojaei the president of the Jury. “Designing<br />

a zero-emission truck differs mainly due to the need to integrate<br />

alternative powertrain solutions like hydrogen fuel cells or electric<br />

batteries, necessitating reimagined vehicle architecture and advanced<br />

energy and cooling management systems. This entails optimizing<br />

aerodynamics and weight to maximize efficiency and range while<br />

addressing refueling or charging infrastructure needs. The primary<br />

goal is to minimize environmental impact by reducing greenhouse<br />

emissions and pollutants associated with traditional diesel trucks”.<br />

There’s more about the idea behind the projects: “The other main<br />

focus of the QUANTRON Design Award <strong>2024</strong> has been the<br />

possibility of considering a tractor unit with and without a cabin”,<br />

added Koorosh Shojaei.<br />


It’s called Renault Trucks E-Tech<br />

Diamond Echo (pictured below)<br />

the special version of a Renault<br />

Trucks electric heavy vehicle<br />

that is touring Europe for the<br />

first time. The truck, featuring<br />

a unique electroluminescent<br />

design, started its journey on<br />

11 April <strong>2024</strong>, from the Bourgen-Bresse<br />

plant, where it was<br />

manufactured. The electric<br />

truck is travelling<br />

more than 10,000<br />

kilometres across<br />

seven countries<br />

(France, Switzerland, Germany,<br />

Belgium, the Netherlands, Spain,<br />

United Kingdom), making over<br />

60 stops to meet the transport<br />

community and demonstrate<br />

the operational reality of electric<br />

mobility. The Diamond Echo<br />

is painted with light, and is the<br />

result of a collaboration with<br />

drivers and design specialists.<br />

Based on Lumilor technology,<br />

the paint glows<br />

when subjected<br />

to an electrical<br />

stimulus.<br />

The ZE truck project presented by Siddharta<br />

Dutt from CCS, Detroit, awarded for its<br />

“comprehensive approach, reflecting the full<br />

potential of design brief”.<br />

Welcome, Flexis SAS!<br />

Renault Group, Volvo and logistics operator CMA<br />

CGM have officially unveiled Flexis SAS, the new<br />

joint venture created with the aim of developing<br />

an innovative, software-based platform for a line<br />

of native electric vans. The partners have given<br />

themselves two years to define and strengthen<br />

the structure before moving on to mass<br />

production of the vans.<br />

Renault and Volvo share 45 percent ownership,<br />

with CMA CGM<br />

holding the remaining<br />

10 percent. Also<br />

announced at the<br />

official launch, held<br />

at the beginning of<br />

April, was the new<br />

CEO of Flexis, who<br />

will be Philippe<br />

Divry, while Krishnan<br />

Sundararajan will take over as COO. The<br />

electric LCVs will be assembled on a new<br />

skateboard-type platform, which will offer great<br />

modularity to fit various different body types at a<br />

competitive cost, and will introduce major safety<br />

improvements. One of the vehicles produced by<br />

Flexis at Renault’s Sandouville plant will be a<br />

stepvan, presumably modeled after those popular<br />

in the U.S. market.<br />

6<br />


AWARDS<br />

STY <strong>2024</strong>: THE WINNING VEHICLES<br />

IT'S GREAT<br />

TO BE<br />


Once again, two vehicles awarded out of three are electric. The path<br />

to sustainability seems quite clear among the LCVs, as well as in<br />

the distribution truck segment. As for heavy-duty trucks, some issues<br />

still need to be solved. However, the signals coming from OEMs<br />

make us think that the turning point may be close.<br />

Let’s start by saying that energy transition<br />

will certainly happen, although probably<br />

not quite on schedule. At least not for<br />

everyone. As the figures say, above 3.5 tons<br />

it’s more difficult to have a boost, right now.<br />

One of the reasons is that, as soon as you get<br />

out of the cities, the range is often insufficient,<br />

the charging times long and the transportation<br />

costs prohibitive. Nevertheless, the the vehicles<br />

awarded at the <strong>Sustainable</strong> Truck of the<br />

Year in the latest editions show that the trend<br />

is quite clear, at least in two categories out of<br />

three. The Tractor category still awaits for the<br />

first electric winner. This year, the MAN TGX<br />

18.520 achieved a stunning result in terms of<br />

efficiency in the Supertest conducted by our<br />

sister platform Vado e Torno, breaking the 4<br />

km per liter threshold. With a wide choice in<br />

terms of configurations and 5 power ratings<br />

available up to 480 hp, the DAF XD Electric<br />

picks up the DNA of the now famous New<br />

Generation.<br />

Finally, the IVECO eDaily is the heir of a true<br />

urban freight icon, featuring significant advancements<br />

in terms of available range, connectivity<br />

options ans ADAS.<br />

Watch the awarding<br />

ceremony<br />

Awarded vehicles<br />

The latest MAN<br />

TGX 18.520 won<br />

the <strong>Sustainable</strong><br />

Truck of the<br />

Year award<br />

in the Tractor<br />

category. The<br />

most sustainable<br />

distribution truck<br />

was the DAF XD<br />

Electric. IVECO<br />

won the STY in the<br />

<strong>Van</strong> category with<br />

the new eDaily.<br />

tractor <strong>2024</strong> distribution <strong>2024</strong> van <strong>2024</strong><br />





With quite impressive<br />

e-truck market<br />

shares in both<br />

Europe and North America,<br />

Volvo Trucks is a benchmark<br />

in medium- and heavy-duty<br />

vehicle electrification. Nevertheless,<br />

the Swedish brand’s<br />

overall strategy does not neglect<br />

renewable fuels or biogas,<br />

with hydrogen on the<br />

background. Starting from the<br />

market figures, Volvo Trucks<br />

President Roger Alm takes<br />

stock of the current situation<br />

and future development.<br />

Almost half of the electric<br />

trucks sold last year in Europe<br />

are Volvo trucks, with<br />

about 40 percent share in<br />

North America, as well.<br />

Can we say that Volvo is almost<br />

the only ones building<br />

and delivering them, or is it<br />

due to the company’s particularly<br />

aggressive business<br />

strategy?<br />

“Of course, I won’t talk about<br />

our competitors or what they<br />

are doing. We are focused on<br />

“We have to take the legislation for<br />

what it is and then adapt accordingly.<br />

Let’s think of what’s been done with<br />

the different emissions standards for<br />

ICEs. As manufacturers, we have<br />

invested a lot in new technologies to<br />

meet the standards”.<br />

the Paris agreement and Science-based<br />

targets and that is<br />

one thing, but we also believe<br />

in the philosophy of sustainability<br />

and zero emissions, in<br />

order to reduce the pollution<br />

and hand over the situation<br />

to the next generations in a<br />

better shape than we have<br />

today. In 2019 we started the<br />

serial production of our first<br />

electrical trucks, and then<br />

we had the development of<br />

other models coming out. Today<br />

we’ve got six models into<br />

serial production and in the<br />

month of May we will go up<br />

to 8 models”.<br />

What about the vehicle<br />

availability, then?<br />

“Thousands of Volvo trucks<br />

are out in customer operations<br />

driving down and delivering<br />

goods every day. If we<br />

sum up the number of kilometers<br />

that all our e-trucks have<br />

been doing, it’s around 35<br />

Born in 1962,<br />

Roger Alm<br />

is currently<br />

Executive<br />

Vice President<br />

of Volvo<br />

Group, and<br />

President of<br />

Volvo Trucks.<br />

Employed<br />

since 1989,<br />

he boasts<br />

quite a long<br />

experience<br />

within the<br />

Volvo Group.<br />

millions of kilometers, more<br />

or less 900 laps around the<br />

world”.<br />

Volvo will participate in the<br />

ACT Expo in May. Can you<br />

tell us how the North American<br />

market is different<br />

compared to the European<br />

market?<br />

“We’re talking about different<br />

items and different<br />

things, however at the end of<br />

the day, it’s up to customers<br />

and to legislators to make<br />

the transformation happen, in<br />

both cases. Moreover, several<br />

customers, so transporters or<br />

transport buyers, are global<br />

and operate both in Europe<br />

and in North America. As for<br />

ACT Expo, I’m glad I’ll be<br />

there as a keynote speaker,<br />

and I believe the exhibition is<br />

quite strong nowadays”.<br />

Volvo Trucks has focused<br />

very strongly on electric<br />

mobility, although an open<br />

door has been left open on<br />

gas. With the Green Deal on<br />

the brakes, given the high<br />

costs as well, and with the<br />

next European Parliament<br />

most likely less skewed toward<br />

decarbonization, what<br />

will be the company’s priorities?<br />

“I do hope that everybody is<br />

focused on a more sustainable<br />

future and then legislations<br />

will come accordingly. I refer<br />

for example to CO 2<br />

taxes,<br />

which will help accelerate the<br />

transformation and promote<br />

the shift to battery electric or<br />

fuel cell trucks, or even go towards<br />

the adoption of renewable<br />

fuels, for instance. About<br />

the legislation, we cannot do<br />

so much, but we need to take<br />

the legislation for what it is<br />

and then adapt accordingly,<br />

which we have been doing<br />

so far. Let’s think of what’s<br />

been done with the different<br />

emissions standards for combustion<br />

engines. As manufacturers,<br />

we have invested into<br />

new technology to meet the<br />

emissions legislations in a<br />

very successful way and that<br />

is what we are doing as well”.<br />

With the new FH Aero<br />

range, Volvo has definitely<br />

taken a step forward. Offering<br />

a new ICE on the FH<br />

16 might be considered as a<br />

confirmation that diesel will<br />

still have a long life. Is that<br />

the case?<br />

“I think it is a natural move<br />

in the current transformation.<br />

We’re not changing our<br />

strategy, but rather following<br />

it. To get to net zero we must<br />

rely on different solutions. Although<br />

we believe that most<br />

of the volumes will be made<br />

by battery electric trucks, this<br />

is not the only viable solution.<br />

We’ll have the fuel cells, then<br />

hydrogen, or combustion engines<br />

running on biogas, or<br />

something else like renewable<br />

fuels. We can say it’s a multi-technology<br />

approach. Back<br />

to the Aero truck range, we’re<br />

very proud of the truck design,<br />

but also in terms of safety features<br />

and fuel consumption. I<br />

have big hopes regarding this<br />

new model range”.<br />

The Euro 7 standard is expected<br />

to come into force<br />

with significant changes<br />

compared to the very first<br />

proposal. As a manufacturer,<br />

is Volvo happy with the<br />

current proposal? Why?<br />

“With the Aero range, we’re not<br />

changing our strategy. To get to<br />

net zero, we must rely on different<br />

solutions: electric trucks, fuel cells,<br />

combustion engines running on<br />

biogas or renewable fuels. It’s a<br />

multi-technology approach”.<br />

“First, I’d say it’s positive<br />

that all the manufacturers<br />

are working on reducing CO 2<br />

emissions. That’s the main<br />

target, and there are several<br />

ways to do that. Euro 7 is one<br />

of these. At the end of the day,<br />

we want to reduce CO 2<br />

emissions<br />

in the fastest possible<br />

way. We’re positive that this<br />

is happening. Also, it needs<br />

to be clear what we need to<br />

do as manufacturers to meet<br />

the legislation of the Euro 7<br />

standard”.<br />

Together with Daimler and<br />

Traton, Volvo has launched<br />

the Milence charging infrastructure<br />

project. Some are<br />

skeptical about the projects,<br />

and someone recently said<br />

‘stop dreaming’ when talking<br />

of megawatt charging.<br />

What is your response to<br />

that?<br />

“Let me put the thing in this<br />

way. We all know that there is<br />

limited charging capacity in<br />

Europe. Of course, we need<br />

to build a density of charging<br />

points that should be similar<br />

to the one we have today<br />

when it comes to fuel stations.<br />

Milence is one way to improve<br />

this charging point density.<br />

The availability of charging<br />

stations is the one of the main<br />

requirements for the customers<br />

to consider working with<br />

electric trucks”.<br />

10<br />





With a remarkable<br />

conference programme<br />

and hundreds<br />

of exhibitors, ACT Expo<br />

<strong>2024</strong> is probably the most<br />

awaited sustainable transportation<br />

event in North America.<br />

Lawren Markle, director<br />

of media relations at GNA, a<br />

TRC Company, helps us understand<br />

the secret behind the<br />

success of this exhibition.<br />

We’re just ahead of this<br />

year’s edition. In terms of<br />

booked space, exhibitor<br />

involvement, and visitors,<br />

what are your expectations<br />

regarding ACT Expo <strong>2024</strong>?<br />

I can tell you it’s going to be<br />

the largest expo floor ever. We<br />

have 350 exhibitors and sponsors,<br />

with about 200 vehicles<br />

on display. Until a few years<br />

ago, ACT Expo was a tiny<br />

corner at Long Beach convention<br />

center. It grew about 50%<br />

every year and finally we had<br />

to move to Anaheim last year,<br />

and now Las Vegas, where we<br />

have much more space, be-<br />

“The show is in its mainstream, with<br />

fleets talking to other fleets about<br />

what they’re doing when it comes to<br />

electrification. We moved it to Vegas<br />

because we needed more space,<br />

so I’d suggest the visitors to wear<br />

comfortable shoes this year!”.<br />

cause we are growing so fast.<br />

Last year we had over 12,000<br />

visitors, this year we might<br />

get closer to 18,000, so a<br />

steady and consistent growth<br />

over the years. At ACT Expo<br />

we’ll see a very good mix of<br />

technology.<br />

Last year, the exhibition was<br />

held in Anaheim, while this<br />

year Las Vegas is the chosen<br />

venue. Why have you decided<br />

such change?<br />

We needed to have more<br />

space for vehicles, exhibitors<br />

and attendees. This was the<br />

main reason why we moved<br />

the exhibition to Las Vegas.<br />

Las Vegas convention center<br />

is quite big, though, so I’d<br />

suggest wearing comfortable<br />

shoes this year! Jokes aside, I<br />

think the show is in its mainstream,<br />

with fleets talking to<br />

other fleets about what they’re<br />

doing when it comes to electrification.<br />

Lawren Markle<br />

is director<br />

of media<br />

relations at<br />

GNA, a TRC<br />

Company, the<br />

organizers of<br />

ACT Expo, to<br />

be held in Las<br />

Vegas from<br />

20 to 23 May,<br />

<strong>2024</strong>.<br />

What are the major trends<br />

and topics to be discussed<br />

this year as for clean transportation<br />

advancements at<br />

ACT Expo?<br />

Funding is a big part of the<br />

program. Professionals often<br />

don’t know how to deal with<br />

incentives, tax credits and<br />

so on, and coming to ACT<br />

Expo can be a good way to<br />

be aware.<br />

Another trending topic is hydrogen,<br />

now seen as a viable<br />

solution mainly for fleets.<br />

We’re seeing some companies<br />

focusing their attention<br />

on building up hydrogen<br />

refueling infrastructure<br />

in strategic locations along<br />

the main freight corridors in<br />

North America for heavy-duty<br />

trucks. It’s exciting to see<br />

it coming.<br />

The last edition placed emphasis<br />

on component manufacturers.<br />

Will this be the<br />

case again this year?<br />

As the market matures, we<br />

are seeing more and more<br />

finished, commercial vehicles<br />

and ready-to-use fueling<br />

and charging products, which<br />

are both of great interest to<br />

fleets. There are still a fair<br />

amount of components being<br />

displayed, such as fuel cells,<br />

e-axles, engines and other<br />

components. Furthermore, the<br />

conference is becoming more<br />

“The big OEMs will be there, such as<br />

Volvo Trucks, Navistar, Daimler Truck<br />

North America, Mack Trucks, Peterbilt,<br />

Kenworth. Even Tesla will have a<br />

speaker at ACT Expo, and some more<br />

companies like Nikola will participate<br />

with a dedicated booth”.<br />

and more international, with<br />

numerous exhibitors coming<br />

from Europe and Asia, too.<br />

Can you please name some<br />

of the major OEMs that<br />

confirmed their participation<br />

in this year’s edition?<br />

The big companies will be<br />

there, such as Volvo Trucks,<br />

Navistar, Daimler Truck North<br />

America, Mack Trucks, Peterbilt,<br />

Kenworth, and I’m sure<br />

I’m forgetting some of them.<br />

All the big names will be<br />

there. On stage we’ve assembled<br />

all the big truck makers<br />

together talking on the same<br />

panel about electrification,<br />

strategies, reducing emissions,<br />

and more. Even Tesla<br />

will have a speaker at ACT<br />

Expo. Some more companies,<br />

like Nikola for instance, will<br />

be there with their own booth.<br />

In terms of products, we do<br />

expect new truck reveals.<br />

What effect is the Inflation<br />

Reduction Act having on the<br />

industry?<br />

The bigger picture is that a lot<br />

of activities are happening at<br />

the State level now. You have<br />

some great federal incentives<br />

too, such as the Inflation Reduction<br />

Act, which allow for<br />

big investments. Moreover, a<br />

dozen states have adopted the<br />

Advanced Clear Trucks rule.<br />

That rule requires manufacturers<br />

to sell an increasing<br />

percentage of zero emission<br />

trucks.<br />

Also, the Advanced Clean<br />

Fleets rule is a sort of sister<br />

rule implemented in January,<br />

requiring many fleets to<br />

buy zero emission vehicles.<br />

Fleets are starting to realize<br />

that change is coming, and<br />

“Funding is a big part of the ehibition<br />

program, as professionals often don’t<br />

know how to deal with incentives, tax<br />

credits and so on. Another trending<br />

topic is hydrogen, now seen as a<br />

viable solution for many fleets. It’s<br />

exciting to see it coming”.<br />

investments are needed, now.<br />

Regardless of what happens<br />

with the national elections at<br />

the White House or the Senate,<br />

this transition is under<br />

way.<br />

So, you don’t foresee a<br />

change of direction after the<br />

next election in the U.S.<br />

I think that what will happen<br />

at the national elections<br />

does not imply a big change<br />

because you have these long<br />

investment cycles like the Inflation<br />

Reduction Act or the<br />

Infrastructure Investment and<br />

Jobs Act with tons of money<br />

targeted towards to the transportation<br />

sector in order to<br />

promote zero- or ultra-low<br />

emissions. And in terms of<br />

fleets, they have an increasing<br />

number of options in both<br />

equipment and funding options<br />

to make these transition<br />

projects happen.<br />

What are your plans to keep<br />

the exhibition lively?<br />

We created a market here<br />

with ACT Expo for all the<br />

professionals involved in zero-emission<br />

vehicles. The<br />

show almost makes the market.<br />

Naturally, the exhibition<br />

is going to attract companies<br />

from all over the world. The<br />

percentage of foreign exhibitors<br />

is steadily growing and<br />

it’s exciting to see.<br />

12<br />





The ultimate target is<br />

quite ambitious, as<br />

well as crucial for<br />

the future of zero emission<br />

long-haul transportation in<br />

Europe. Milence, the joint<br />

venture shared by Volvo,<br />

Daimler Truck and Traton,<br />

gathering nearly all the European<br />

truck manufacturers,<br />

seems to be the only viable<br />

option to get a charging corridor<br />

along the main road<br />

commercial routes.<br />

Anja van Niersen is the CEO<br />

of the young company. The<br />

one holding quite a big responsibility.<br />

Nevertheless,<br />

the road ahead is clear, and<br />

the very first stage was set<br />

some years ago, with the official<br />

inauguration of the truck<br />

charging hub in Venlo, in the<br />

Netherlands, open to the vehicles<br />

of all brands.<br />

The newly inaugurated hub<br />

in Venlo was huge news, at<br />

the end of last year. How’s<br />

the hub doing, some months<br />

later?<br />

“In addition to cooperation between all<br />

stakeholders, we need bold decisions<br />

from the European administration.<br />

Over-regulation is slowing down the<br />

transition and the market needs a<br />

system of notification, planning and<br />

anticipation”.<br />

At the heart of Milence’s<br />

mission is a commitment to<br />

a fossil-free future for road<br />

transport.<br />

To achieve this, Milence is<br />

developing its network with<br />

a focus on creating green<br />

corridors for road transport<br />

connecting key logistics hubs.<br />

The opening of the Venlo<br />

charging hub is the first step<br />

towards realising this vision,<br />

and we are pleased to see that<br />

since its launch in December<br />

last year, it is already ahead<br />

of plan in terms of utilisation.<br />

We have already announced<br />

the development of the second<br />

phase, which should be operational<br />

in the coming weeks.<br />

This expansion will double<br />

the number of loading bays,<br />

allowing more trucks to use<br />

our hub on a daily basis.<br />

Looking at the following<br />

months, what are the next<br />

steps of the Milence project?<br />

After serving<br />

as CEO and<br />

Chairman of<br />

the Board<br />

of a major<br />

EV charging<br />

network<br />

provider, Anja<br />

van Niersen<br />

was appointed<br />

CEO of the<br />

newborn<br />

Milence in<br />

July 2022.<br />

Is there any new hub inauguration<br />

ahead?<br />

As our target is to deploy at<br />

least 1,700 charging points by<br />

2027, we need to move at full<br />

speed which is what we currently<br />

do. There are a number<br />

of hubs in development and<br />

construction phase with two<br />

major openings planned in<br />

Q2: in France, near Rouen<br />

and in Belgium at the Port of<br />

Antwerp-Bruges. This last one<br />

will be the biggest hub we will<br />

open this year with the separate<br />

sites and a total of 30<br />

charging bays.<br />

What are the main challenges<br />

when it comes to designing<br />

new public charging<br />

hubs in Europe? Finding<br />

the right location, ensuring<br />

the necessary power supply,<br />

getting all the red tape done,<br />

finding the money, or else?<br />

The transition to electrification<br />

still faces some challenges,<br />

but these can be overcome<br />

with the right strategies and<br />

policies. One of the most<br />

important is future-proofing<br />

electricity grids to support the<br />

increased demand for electric<br />

vehicles. This, together with<br />

the complexities of sharing<br />

data between different systems<br />

and ensuring full interoperability,<br />

are key elements in the<br />

new ecosystem that needs to<br />

be designed. Increasing the<br />

“Our partnerships to develop<br />

megawatt charging systems marks<br />

a significant leap forward in the field<br />

of EV charging. This technology isn’t<br />

just about faster charging: it’s about<br />

enabling long-haul electric trucks to<br />

operate seamlessly across Europe”.<br />

number of parking spaces that<br />

can accommodate both rest<br />

areas and charging facilities,<br />

as well as the deployment of<br />

the megawatt charging system,<br />

will ensure the acceleration<br />

of EV charging.<br />

We know Milence is working<br />

with valuable partners<br />

(Hitachi Energy, for instance)<br />

to develop megawatt<br />

charging systems for the<br />

coming years. Would this be<br />

the actual breakthrough for<br />

long-haul electric truck development<br />

and penetration<br />

in the market? Or even lower<br />

power systems are suitable,<br />

in your opinion?<br />

Our partnership with Hitachi<br />

Energy and others to<br />

develop megawatt charging<br />

systems marks a significant<br />

leap forward in the field of<br />

EV charging. This technology<br />

isn’t just about faster charging;<br />

it’s about enabling longhaul<br />

electric trucks to operate<br />

seamlessly across Europe.<br />

While megawatt charging is<br />

at the forefront, we recognise<br />

that the Combined Charging<br />

System (CCS) technology<br />

will continue to be used and<br />

have a key role in providing<br />

versatile charging solutions.<br />

Together, these technologies<br />

meet a wide range of needs,<br />

facilitating both quick stops<br />

and overnight charging in<br />

different locations.<br />

As said, Milence has communicated<br />

the ambitious<br />

target of building over 1,700<br />

high power charging points<br />

in Europe by 2027. Do you<br />

believe this is still an achievable<br />

target? Why?<br />

Yes, we are still very confident<br />

“The transition to electrification still<br />

faces some challenges, which can<br />

be overcome with the right strategies<br />

and policies. One of the most<br />

important is future-proofing electricity<br />

grids to support the increased<br />

demand for electric vehicles”.<br />

that we can meet this target,<br />

given the pace we are on and<br />

the number of sites we have<br />

already contacted and are<br />

developing. There is still a<br />

lot of work to be done and<br />

we are using all the learning<br />

from the first hubs we open<br />

to make sure we improve and<br />

move faster for the others.<br />

But working with the market<br />

is key. In addition to cooperation<br />

between all stakeholders,<br />

we need strong commitment<br />

and bold decisions from the<br />

European administration.<br />

Over-regulation is slowing<br />

down the transition and the<br />

market needs a system of notification,<br />

planning and anticipation.<br />

From your perspective, are<br />

the manufacturers involved<br />

in the joint venture showing<br />

the right commitment and<br />

support to reach the initial<br />

targets?<br />

The joint venture is a clear<br />

commitment by our shareholders<br />

to electrification. By<br />

working closely together, we<br />

can leverage each other’s<br />

strengths and accelerate this<br />

transition. This joint effort<br />

will not only ensure the realisation<br />

of our project goals,<br />

but will also give the market<br />

confidence and enable the introduction<br />

of electric vehicles<br />

in road transport.<br />

14<br />


FOCUS<br />


IT'S A TOUGH<br />

Volta Trucks<br />

Tesla<br />

Arrival<br />

GAME<br />

Nikola Motors<br />

Challenges ahead.<br />

Nikola Motors,<br />

Tesla, Volta<br />

Trucks, Arrival,<br />

Hyzon Motors,<br />

Rivian, Canoo,<br />

Tevva. Eight<br />

companies, eight<br />

different stories,<br />

each of them with<br />

interesting meaning<br />

and consequences.<br />

The life of<br />

newcomers is not<br />

that easy.<br />

Energy transition in the truck world brings<br />

with it a change that it is no exaggeration<br />

to call radical. From the production<br />

of vehicles to their marketing; from after-sales<br />

service to the overall management of trucks<br />

and vans, a new world is opening up. A world<br />

that has inevitably attracted the attention of<br />

entrepreneurs and investors, who are eager to<br />

test their skills in the design and manufacturing<br />

of innovative vehicles, flanking and, therefore,<br />

challenging traditional manufacturers.<br />

However, the transition from the initial phase<br />

of vehicle design and prototyping to the crucial<br />

phase of vehicle marketing and production is<br />

a quantum leap.<br />

It is not enough to collect an electric motor<br />

and various components to assemble a vehicle<br />

to be then launched on the market; much<br />

more is needed in order to be successful. Not<br />

to mention that sales of electric trucks are not<br />

taking off, at least not as fast as hoped, as we<br />

mention elsewhere. Here are eight stories of<br />

failure, hope and resilience.<br />

Tevva<br />

Exploiting the wave of electrification, several newcomers have tried<br />

to approach the challenging and competitive scenario of commercial<br />

and industrial vehicles. Some have succeeded, others continue to<br />

struggle for survival and some have thrown in the towel. Let’s try to<br />

take stock of the current, although ever changing situation.<br />

16<br />

Rivian<br />

Canoo<br />

Hyzon Motors<br />


The end of the partnership with Iveco, inaugurated<br />

in 2019, has decisively reshaped Nikola’s business:<br />

no more expansion plans in Europe, but focus on<br />

the North American market. At the same time, the<br />

Arizona-based manufacturer has decisively focused<br />

on hydrogen, creating the Hyla brand and aiming<br />

to promote a dedicated ecosystem. In 2023, Nikola<br />

manufactured 42 hydrogen-powered trucks and sold<br />

35 of them, according to a report earlier this year.<br />

And it was not a long ago that the first Hyla-branded<br />

hydrogen filling station opened in California.<br />

The stock market, however, is suffering: for the<br />

second time in less than a year, Nikola is facing<br />

the risk of ‘delisting’ from the Nasdaq index of the<br />

American stock exchange, due to the low price of<br />

the company’s shares. And the reputation damage<br />

generated by the Trevor Milton affair - the company<br />

founder sentenced to four years in prison and now<br />

no longer involved in the business - continues to<br />

weigh on the brand’s development.<br />


THE END OF<br />

A DREAM<br />







The failure of the Volta Trucks project took<br />

everyone a little by surprise. The Swedish<br />

manufacturer’s adventure seemed to be<br />

well underway, with many expressions of<br />

interest and pre-orders collected (suffice it<br />

to mention the now famous 1,500 vehicles<br />

booked by DB Schenker). However, issues<br />

related to Proterra, a battery supplier that<br />

was itself affected by liquidity problems,<br />

scuppered (almost) everything. The<br />

investment fund Luxor Capital Group took<br />

over the brand and promised a second<br />

life. However, a (major) downsizing of the<br />

initial plans seems inevitable, since most of<br />

the almost one thousand employees have<br />

found new jobs and even founder Carl-<br />

Magnus Norden has announced via social<br />

media that he is starting a new business,<br />

which is also linked to sustainable mobility.<br />

Lately, the ‘new’ Volta Trucks announced<br />

the signing of a further agreement with<br />

Steyr Automotive to restart vehicle<br />

production.<br />

Manufacturing electric vans, but also buses and cars, in agile microfactories<br />

spread across several European countries. Moreover, replacing<br />

the (now many) disused factories scattered across Europe. An absolutely<br />

revolutionary project, to say the least, which foundered in the face of<br />

harsh reality and the difficulty of ‘becoming’ manufacturers. The first<br />

bad signs came with the step back of the first CEO, Denis Sverdlov,<br />

which was followed by news of workforce downsizing in Great Britain.<br />

Then, Arrival announced that the company was leaving the bus and car<br />

business to focus on manufacturing electric vans for the North American<br />

market only. This is little, in truth, to think of a rosy future, and not even<br />

cash injections from investors managed to save the day. Thus, February<br />

brought the news of the opening of bankruptcy proceedings. Too bad.<br />

TESLA<br />



When it comes to Tesla and its fatherin-chief,<br />

Elon Musk, the verbal clashes<br />

between enthusiasts and detractors<br />

become heated. It applies to cars, a<br />

business in which Tesla is undoubtedly<br />

reaping commercial success, and even<br />

more so to trucks. The American electric<br />

vehicle manufacturer’s famous Semi<br />

was announced back in 2017, with a<br />

promise to go on sale two years later<br />

and to guarantee 800 kilometres on one<br />

charge. Things didn’t exactly turn out<br />

that way and since then the first official<br />

news of the truck came in late 2022,<br />

with the delivery of the first vehicle<br />

to PepsiCo and the start of some road<br />

tests. At the beginning of last year, Tesla<br />

announced its intention to invest $3.6<br />

billion in its own production facility<br />

for the Semi’s mass production. Since<br />

then, little else has happened, with the<br />

exception of the ever-present ‘deep<br />

throats’ ready to wreck the project and<br />

Musk’s plans to start series production<br />

in <strong>2024</strong>. The mystery deepens.<br />

18<br />


TEVVA<br />


MADE-IN-UK<br />

First of all: the Tevva project is alive and kicking, although<br />

it seems to be proceeding in slow motion compared to<br />

initial proclamations. Tevva is a British start-up that has<br />

been able to design electric trucks that can be fitted with<br />

fuel cells capable of acting as range extenders and thus<br />

increase the vehicle range. An idea applicable, according to<br />

initial plans, to truck models of different class and overall<br />

weight. In fact, also due to a relatively long development<br />

process and approval times, the only model actually on<br />

the market is a 7.5 tonne truck intended for mainly urban<br />

distribution, which has been approved for Great Britain<br />

and Europe. With the ‘mystery’, as far as the company<br />

structure is concerned, of the merger agreement with<br />

ElectraMeccanica, which was first announced and then<br />

withdrawn. An agreement that would have guaranteed a<br />

calmer future for Tevva and for which there are still legal<br />

consequences.<br />

RIVIAN<br />



Uniquely shaped electric vans, available for both freight and passenger<br />

transport. Quite a simple idea, in theory, that of the American start-up<br />

founded in 2017, which has lived these first years always on the razor’s<br />

edge. Numerous budgets in the red threatened to undermine the<br />

confidence of investors who had allowed the entire industrial project<br />

to get off the ground. What allowed Canoo to stay on the market were<br />

the orders it received from a number of US retail giants, from Walmart<br />

(4,500 vehicles) to Zeeba (3,000), to Kingbee, a vehicle rental company<br />

that pre-ordered as many as 9,300 vans. Canoo has started delivering<br />

the vans this year and announced other important agreements,<br />

including one with the U.S. Postal Service and one with NASA for the<br />

supply of some passenger vans. These agreements are breathing life<br />

into the whole project.<br />

CANOO<br />



Amazon’s firepower makes anything, or almost<br />

anything, possible. Even making an electric van<br />

tailored to one’s needs. It was 2019 when the<br />

e-commerce giant struck a deal with Rivian, a<br />

manufacturer based in Irvine, California, for<br />

the exclusive supply of electric commercial<br />

vehicles. The deal was fueled by Amazon<br />

with an investment of around 700 million,<br />

with the stated goal of purchasing as many as<br />

100,000 electric vehicles by 2030 as part of<br />

the overall plan to reduce emissions generated<br />

by transport and logistics activities. Lately,<br />

the partnership has continued, but last year<br />

Rivian began trying to dissolve the exclusive<br />

agreement that bound it to Amazon. The reason<br />

is quickly stated: orders have so far fallen far<br />

short of the admirable intentions, generating<br />

losses in the manufacturer’s balance sheet.<br />

Thus, Rivian’s Electric commercial van (ECV) has<br />

been available on the market since last autumn.<br />

Amazon remains an important partner, but not<br />

the only one for the Californian manufacturer.<br />



Since its foundation, Hyzon Motors has rhymed<br />

with hydrogen. Founded at the end of the last<br />

decade with the specific aim of facilitating the<br />

decarbonisation of heavy transport, Hyzon<br />

manufactures and supplies fuel cell-powered<br />

trucks. Based in upstate New York, the company<br />

has branches in Europe (HQs are in the<br />

Netherlands), Asia and Australia. A number of<br />

Hyzon trucks are currently operating in the US,<br />

Europe and Australia: in 2023, Hyzon claimed<br />

to have delivered 19 hydrogen-powered trucks<br />

to three continents in a year described by CEO<br />

Parker Meeks as complex. It is no mystery<br />

that the whole hydrogen-powered transport<br />

ecosystem is struggling to take off for various<br />

reasons, from the cost of fuel to technology<br />

development to the limited availability of<br />

refueling stations. For Hyzon, as well as for Nikola,<br />

the fear of ‘delisting’ from the Nasdaq index for<br />

the company’s excessively low share price has<br />

been raised in recent weeks. Parallel to vehicles,<br />

Hyzon is working on the production of fuel<br />

cells that promise high performance. Business<br />

diversification may benefit the company’s health.<br />

20<br />


TRENDS<br />



FOR THE<br />

SPARK<br />

22<br />

Let’s clear up any doubts right away: 2023<br />

was not the ‘boom’ year for zero-emission<br />

commercial vehicles, which continue<br />

to represent, almost everywhere globally,<br />

rather low percentages of the total number of<br />

vehicles registered. As always, however, carefully<br />

analysing market figures helps us to better<br />

understand the trends at work, and imagine<br />

what the near future might look like.<br />

We are aware that regulatory developments,<br />

especially but not only in the area of incentive<br />

policies, may tip the balance one way or the<br />

other. Similarly, any upheavals in the roadmaps<br />

that have so far been mapped out by political<br />

decision-makers (more specifically, the composition<br />

of the new European Parliament that will<br />

emerge from the June elections or the ‘colour’<br />

of the next US administration) can undoubtedly<br />

alter the picture.<br />

Comforted by registration statistics, we try to analyse the evolution<br />

of the zero-emission commercial vehicle market in Europe, the<br />

USA and China, which are perhaps the three most significant<br />

areas globally. With quite different dynamics and one point in<br />

common between the three markets. Growth.<br />

Being unable to predict the future, we have<br />

preferred to play it safe and analyse what happened<br />

last year in what can be considered the<br />

three most significant areas of the world in<br />

terms of the spread of electric vehicles, namely<br />

Europe, the United States and China. An analysis<br />

supported by some of the most authoritative<br />

international associations or research bodies<br />

(ACEA and ICCT for Europe; CALSTART<br />

for the United States, and Interact Analysis for<br />

China) who provided us with data, graphs and<br />

even opinions. A note before we dive into the<br />

statistics: the data for the EU and China refer<br />

to the end of 2023, so they look at the entire<br />

calendar year. As for the United States, the latest<br />

available data are as of June 2023.<br />


TRENDS<br />


New EU commercial<br />

vehicle registrations<br />

1.0%<br />

Trends and insights on light and heavy vehicle registrations<br />

in the European market come from ACEA, the association<br />

that brings together the major vehicle manufacturers. It is<br />

currently chaired by Renault Group’s CEO, Luca De Meo.<br />

On the ohter hand, ICCT, the International Council on Clean<br />

Transportation, which operates on a global scale, is also<br />

very active in monitoring the market, especially for zeroemission<br />

vehicles.<br />

The U.S. zero-emission truck market figures are provided<br />

by CALSTART, a mission-driven, industry organization<br />

focused on transportation decarbonization and clean air<br />

for all, with its periodic report ‘Zeroing in Zero Emission<br />

Trucks’. A close and competent look at the Chinese market<br />

is provided by the international research institute Interact<br />

Analysis, which operates in various markets, including the<br />

commercial mobility market, with regular reports on the<br />

Chinese context provided by senior specialists like Yvonne<br />

Zhang or Shirly Zhu.<br />

Europe: growth at slow speed<br />

Let’s start with the big picture: in Europe, registrations<br />

of vans (up to 3.5 tonnes) and trucks<br />

(over 3.5 tonnes) increased last year. According<br />

to ACEA, almost 347,000 trucks (+16.3%)<br />

and about 1.5 million LCVs (+56.8%) were<br />

registered in the 27 countries of the Union.<br />

EU: ZE sales share by vehlcle type<br />

and reglon of manufacturer<br />

Heavy trucks<br />

Zero-emission sales share<br />

0.8%<br />

0.6%<br />

0.4%<br />

0.2%<br />

0%<br />

0.9%<br />

2015 2017 2019 2021 2023<br />

Light and medium trucks<br />

10%<br />

8%<br />

6%<br />

4%<br />

2%<br />

0%<br />

Source: ICCT<br />

4.8%<br />

2015 2017 2019 2021 2023<br />

1,600,000<br />

1,400,000<br />

1,200,000<br />

1,000,000<br />

800,000<br />

600,000<br />

400,000<br />

200,000<br />

0<br />

Source: ACEA<br />

2022 2023<br />

The European market of commercial<br />

vehicles was quite positive in 2023, with<br />

remarkable growth both in the light and<br />

heavy-duty segments. The share of ZE<br />

vehicles is growing in both segments,<br />

although remaining quite small.<br />

So, it is an overall healthy market, certainly recovering<br />

from the somewhat stuttering last few<br />

years. Again according to ACEA data, there<br />

were 5,279 ‘electrically chargeable’ trucks,<br />

i.e. electric or plug-in hybrid, over 3.5 tons in<br />

2023. They are almost equally divided between<br />

medium-duty and heavy-duty, a 234% increase<br />

U.S. ZET Deployments by<br />

Vehicle Model Year (2017-June 2023)<br />

18.000<br />

16.000<br />

14.000<br />

12.000<br />

10.000<br />

8.000<br />

6.000<br />

4.000<br />

2.000<br />

Deployments by Model Year<br />

Cumulative Total<br />

0<br />

2017 2018 2019 2020 2021 2022 H1 2023<br />

Model Year<br />

ZETs are defined as Class 2b-8 commercial vehicles, including<br />

cargo vans, MD step vans, MD trucks, HD trucks, refuse trucks,<br />

and yard tractors.<br />

Data source: CALSTART research<br />

<strong>Van</strong>s<br />

Trucks<br />

year-on-year, with the Dutch and German markets<br />

characterised by the highest increase and<br />

accounting for about 60% of the overall market.<br />

Seemingly large numbers, but the share<br />

of electric trucks in the total is only 1.5%, still<br />

up from 0.8% in 2022. Electric vans, on the<br />

other hand, gained two percentage points of the<br />

total, rising from 5.4% to 7.4%, an increase of<br />

56.8% year-on-year thanks mainly to countries<br />

such as the Netherlands, Spain and France.<br />

A slightly different picture is offered by ICCT,<br />

the International Council on Clean Transportation,<br />

which in its latest report offers a subdivision<br />

into heavy trucks (with a total mass above<br />

12 tonnes) and ‘light and medium trucks’ (from<br />

3.5 to 12 tonnes), with the first category going<br />

from 820 units registered in 2022 to 2,600 in<br />

2023 (0.9% of the total). Looking at individual<br />

EU countries, Germany and France dominate<br />

with around 30% of the total respectively,<br />

ahead of the Netherlands (11%) and Sweden<br />

(10%). Interestingly, Volvo Trucks has 42%<br />

of the market share, with Renault Trucks just<br />

above 30%; both of them are well above their<br />

share when looking at the conventional truck<br />

market. The only other manufacturer with a<br />

share above 10% is Mercedes-Benz.<br />

The second category, light and medium, grew<br />

by a good 28% compared to 2022 for a total<br />

of 3,100 registrations in Europe, about half of<br />

which were in Germany. In terms of vehicle<br />

types, almost 60% belong to 4x2 wagons and<br />

the remainder to 4x2 vans. Market leader in<br />

this segment is Ford E-Transit, with just under<br />

40% of total registrations, ahead of Fiat Professional<br />

and Maxus, respectively above 20%<br />

and above 10%. Then IVECO and Mercedes,<br />

whose market shares among conventional vehicles<br />

have ample room for growth.<br />

USA, the market is still young<br />

It is worth repeating that in this case, the data<br />

compiled by CALSTART refer to the first<br />

half of 2023. Considering all ZE vehicles of<br />

3.5 tons and up, just over six thousand units<br />

(6,088) were registered in the first half of last<br />

year, compared to an overall result in 2022 of<br />

just under 10 thousand. The US market is still<br />

a very young one, if we consider that the total<br />

number of ZE trucks registered up to June 2023<br />

is 17,734 units, with the vast majority consisting<br />

of the ‘cargo vans’ category, i.e. models<br />

with a mass between about 3.5 and 4.5 tonnes.<br />

It’s a trend that hasn’t changed in the first six<br />

months of 2023, with 5,297 cargo vans registered<br />

compared to, say, 441 heavy-duty trucks<br />

made available nationwide: different numbers<br />

for the two fastest-growing segments, albeit for<br />

very different reasons, as Jacob Richard, Technical<br />

Project Manager, Trucks at CALSTART,<br />

explains. “Cargo vans have limited market<br />

barriers with smaller batteries, lower upfront<br />

costs, high production volumes and ideal duty<br />

cycle capabilities, which makes them an ideal<br />

segment for electrification today. HD Trucks,<br />

on the other hand, are seeing greater incentives<br />

Top brands.<br />

In 2023, 42% of<br />

heavy-duty electric<br />

trucks sold in<br />

Europe were Volvo,<br />

and 30% were<br />

Renault Trucks<br />

models. Belonging<br />

to the same group,<br />

the overall share is<br />

quite high. The only<br />

other manufacturer<br />

with a share above<br />

10% is Mercedes-<br />

Benz. Things<br />

might change in<br />

the next years,<br />

when some more<br />

manufacturers<br />

enter the market<br />

and start delivery<br />

their vehicles.<br />

24<br />


TRENDS<br />

U.S. ZET Deployments and Market Share by Segment (As of June 2023)<br />

Vehicle Segment ZET Deployments Total Stock ZET Market Share<br />

Cargo <strong>Van</strong> 14,400 3.687.740 .39%<br />

MD Step <strong>Van</strong> 843 266.866 .32%<br />

MD Truck 442 3.573.915 .01%<br />

HD Truck 867 5,104.926 .02%<br />

Refuse 48 118,135 .04%<br />

Yard Tractor 1.134 23.437 4.84%<br />

Total 17,734 12,775,019 .14%<br />

Source: CALSTART<br />

Below one.<br />

According to<br />

the latest data<br />

released by<br />

CALSTART, the<br />

share of zeroemission<br />

vehicles<br />

in the overall<br />

market in the U.S.<br />

remains small,<br />

below 1%, as<br />

shown in the chart<br />

above. Below, a<br />

couple of trucks<br />

of the newlyintroduced<br />

Daimler<br />

Truck EV brand<br />

for LCVs in North<br />

America, Rizon.<br />

26<br />

and more push to decarbonize as a lot of those<br />

vehicles are domiciled in disadvantaged communities,<br />

particularly around ports”.<br />

Talking about incentives, in order to imagine<br />

future trends, it is crucial to assess the impact<br />

of the Advanced Clean Trucks (ACT) regulation,<br />

adopted by 11 federal states and requiring<br />

manufacturers to sell an increasing percentage<br />

of zero-emission vehicles over time. “California,<br />

being the first to adopt the regulation<br />

in 2022, has already surpassed its truck sales<br />

goal two years ahead of schedule and states<br />

that have passed the Advanced Clean Trucks<br />

(ACT) regulation account for 38 percent of all<br />

ZET deployments despite making up just 25<br />

percent of all truck registrations”, says Jacob<br />

Richard. Another hot issue is that of infrastructure,<br />

on which the investment plan envisioned<br />

by the Biden-Harris administration is focused<br />

with the promotion of several dedicated projects.<br />

“Access to charging is a prominent consideration<br />

for fleets interested in going electric”,<br />

says Richard. “There will be fleets for<br />

which it doesn’t make sense to purchase and<br />

install their own chargers or lease their depots,<br />

but they will need en-route charging facilities”.<br />

China. Towards a mature market<br />

The situation of zero-emission commercial<br />

vehicles in China is quite different from what<br />

has been described so far. There, the ‘boom’,<br />

at least in terms of numbers, has been expe-<br />

New energy truck sales in China in 2023: the top ten OEMs<br />

Ranking OEM Sales(Units) YoY Market Share<br />

1 Geely 30.396 95% 20.9%<br />

2 Seres 12.956 156% 8.9%<br />

3 Dongfeng 10.044 4% 6.9%<br />

4 Foton 9.846 24% 6.8%<br />

5 SAIC Motor 6.248 7% 4.3%<br />

6 XCMG 6,182 110% 4.2%<br />

7 Yutong 6.092 37% 4.2%<br />

8 Guanaxi Auto 5.429 10% 3.7%<br />

9 SANY 5.334 27% 3.7%<br />

10 Shineray 5.149 2% 3 5%<br />

Others 47.896 32 9%<br />

Source: Interact Analysis<br />

rienced in recent years, many more manufacturers<br />

are on the market with zero-emission<br />

vehicles, and government incentives have<br />

already been provided and have now been<br />

partially reduced. In 2023 (a figure that also<br />

includes buses), registrations of ‘new energy’<br />

commercial vehicles, as by the Chinese definition,<br />

exceeded 308 thousand, up about 30%. A<br />

large part of these, of course, relate to LCVs<br />

(242 thousand, up more than 46%), while registered<br />

new energy trucks are around 34,000,<br />

a 36% increase for a market share of 5.5%.<br />

Interestingly, more than 3,600 fuel cell trucks<br />

were registered in China in 2023: these figures<br />

are unimaginable elsewhere in the world, although<br />

according to Yvonne Zhang, Research<br />

Associate at Interact Analysis and an expert on<br />

the Chinese market, the performance of fuel<br />

cell vehicles has been “below expectations”<br />

due to “lack of infrastructure and delays in<br />

the provision of subsidies”. Hybrid trucks are<br />

also growing strongly, +270% and more than<br />

5,300 units registered last year. Also according<br />

to Yvonne Zhang, this increase is due to the<br />

advantages of this type of vehicle, i.e. “lower<br />

cost and flexible charging compared to battery<br />

electric vehicles, as the national subsidy for<br />

BEVs was withdrawn”. For the current year,<br />

the penetration of new energy trucks is expected<br />

to continue its growth, reaching “7 percent<br />

of the total market, with a total of over 200,000<br />

units registered this year”.<br />

Looking at manufacturers, last year more than<br />

190 companies sold new energy trucks in China,<br />

with 67% of the market in the hands of the<br />

top 10 brands. “Geely, Foton, Dongfeng and<br />

Series are leading players in the new energy<br />

light-duty truck market. SANY, XCMG and<br />

Geely are big players for heavy-duty trucks<br />

and Yutong Group and Infore Enviro are top<br />

two vendors in the medium-duty truck market”,<br />

confirms Yvonne Zhang. “Overall, these<br />

major suppliers who are also leading players in<br />

the ICE truck market, remain in lead in recent<br />

couple of years and we have not foreseen any<br />

emerging new players yet in the market”.<br />

Start-up.<br />

Young Chinese<br />

start-up Windrose<br />

Technology is<br />

working with the<br />

global retailer<br />

Decathlon on a<br />

hughly promising<br />

e-truck model, quite<br />

similar to the Tesla<br />

Semi.<br />






It has emerged from the starting blocks<br />

of <strong>2024</strong> with a sprint worthy of the best<br />

hundred-metre runner launched towards<br />

a prestigious goal, with all the strength and<br />

weight of its history, tradition and above all the<br />

technological know-how that has always characterised<br />

its actions. Over the years, Volvo has<br />

never renounced to innovation, not as an end<br />

in itself and less so flaunted as an easy slogan,<br />

but rather as an element capable of improving<br />

the level of efficiency and safety that are the<br />

hallmark of Volvo Trucks products.<br />

Extended cab, reduced fuel consumption<br />

In short, for the Gothenburg-based manufacturer,<br />

a sprint start that tastes like a breakaway,<br />

such as to force its competitors into hot<br />

pursuit. In order, and almost at the same time,<br />

to enrich the Swedish brand’s offerings came<br />

the FM Low entry, the first exclusively electric<br />

vehicle (see the dedicated box), the new 17-litre<br />

diesel engine with top power of 780 bhp<br />

and, of course, the FH Aero series.<br />

The FH Aero is the perfect synthesis of this.<br />

Starting, of course, from the basis of the iconic<br />

FH, the designers in Gothenburg have changed<br />

the cab size, lengthening it at the front by 240<br />

millimetres. A possibility granted by virtue of<br />

the amendment introduced by the European<br />

Commission regarding the limit gauge (and<br />

already exploited by DAF for its XG). In this<br />

way, the refined aerodynamics, achieved by<br />

improving the drag coefficient, combined with<br />

the digital camera monitor system (with automatic<br />

panoramic function following the trailer<br />

when turning), has resulted in a cut in energy<br />

consumption and emissions of up to 5 percent.<br />

FH Aero is also Electric and Gas<br />

The new Volvo Aero will be available, as early<br />

as <strong>2024</strong>, in four different versions: FH Aero,<br />

FH Aero Electric, FH Aero gas, FH16 Aero.<br />

So, not an exercise in style intended as a simple<br />

special edition, but a genuine line of heavy<br />

roadsters, within which, moreover, it is possible<br />

to choose between different powertrain<br />

technologies: diesel, gas, electric. And with all<br />

the safety and comfort features that, in the case<br />

With the unprecedented variant in the FH range, Volvo is setting the<br />

new benchmark for heavy-duty trucks. The cab is 24 cm longer, with<br />

refined aerodynamics and elegant lines, while fuel consumption is cut<br />

by up to 5 percent in the ICE trucks. All this is available in four<br />

versions, including full electric.<br />

28<br />




In its own way, the Volvo FM Low entry is a first. It is the<br />

first Volvo truck designed and built solely with electric<br />

drive. Based on the FM series, the Volvo FM Low entry is<br />

a vehicle whose characteristics make it perfectly suited to<br />

the wide variety of uses in urban areas of large and small<br />

cities: from waste collection to distribution to construction.<br />

The access and the correspondingly low driving position of<br />

the cab, which has been moved forward, provide the driver<br />

with an excellent view that translates into greater safety.<br />

Ergonomics, comfort and use of space on board are other<br />

hallmarks of the Volvo FM Low entry. The truck will be<br />

produced from the second quarter of <strong>2024</strong>, and will initially<br />

be available in Europe, Turkey, Australia, and South Korea.<br />

The Aero concept.<br />

Aero is a word that<br />

deliberately invokes<br />

the concept of<br />

aerodynamics, so<br />

the heavy-duty<br />

FH truck definitely<br />

changes its face.<br />

And there’s more,<br />

as the cab is made<br />

longer by 240 mm,<br />

further refining the<br />

lines and design<br />

in search of the<br />

best air penetration<br />

coefficient.<br />

of the FH Aero, are so many strong points:<br />

from the further improved I-See, to the dragfree<br />

disc brakes, i.e. without parasitic clutch<br />

for better braking capacity, from the intuitive<br />

infotainment to the microwave oven.<br />

“Our most efficient truck ever”<br />

A flagship vehicle, which Volvo Trucks president<br />

Roger Alm himself describes as “our most<br />

efficient truck ever, safe, with an attractive design<br />

and superior quality. A vehicle designed<br />

for the success of our customers”.<br />

Witht the big news of the camera monitor<br />

system, instead of the conventional mirrors,<br />

which ensures not only further vehicle effi-<br />

ciency and reduced consumption in case of<br />

ICE models, but also extremely good view in<br />

nearly all the conditions, from sunlight to rain,<br />

up to darkness of inside the tunnels.<br />

In its electric version, i.e. with zero emissions,<br />

it has all the credentials to be an extra weapon<br />

in the offensive that Volvo is launching in the<br />

field of electric trucks in Europe. In 2023, the<br />

Swedish manufacturer maintained its dominant<br />

position, in terms of sales, among electric<br />

vehicles, marking a +265 percent increase over<br />

2022 with almost two thousand e-trucks registered<br />

(1,977). Volvo’s market share in Europe<br />

is growing - and this is not a detail - from 32<br />

percent in 2022 to over 47 percent in 2023.<br />

30<br />





WORLDS<br />

It glided into Europe directly from the<br />

States, where it was unveiled, bringing<br />

with it what Mercedes describes as ‘a multitude<br />

of technical innovations’ that accentuate<br />

its versatility, comfort and efficiency. The new<br />

eSprinter, the 100 percent electric version of<br />

the large van with the three-pointed star symbol<br />

on the radiator grille, has not simply picked up<br />

the baton from the previous model in the wake<br />

of the ex-pected and anticipated handover. On<br />

the contrary, proceeding swiftly on the road to<br />

the complete elec-trification of the range, it has<br />

added a whole series of contents that, taken<br />

as a whole, make the German manufacturer’s<br />

best-seller in light vehicles capable of setting<br />

the pace in its market segment. This is certainly<br />

not a new role for the series launched<br />

almost thirty years ago, in 1995, which very<br />

quickly made its way into the hearts of drivers<br />

and fleets.<br />

The ability to meet customers needs, versatility,<br />

performance combined with the style, elegance<br />

and comfort that Mercedes would never<br />

Launched in the United States and now also available on the<br />

European market, the Star’s full-electric large van is distinguished<br />

by hi-tech solutions and contents that make it a versatile all-rounder,<br />

at the top in terms of efficiency and range. Let’s find out how<br />

Mercedes managed to improve the main vehicle features.<br />

32<br />




The efficiency of the new Mercedes eSprinter also includes<br />

energy recovery through regenerative braking. With the<br />

new generation of the Star’s full-electric van, four levels of<br />

manual regeneration are available, namely D-, D, D+, D++.<br />

But, in addition to this poker of possibilities, the eSprinter<br />

adds the more refined D Auto function. This is basically the<br />

function through which the rate of energy recovery occurs<br />

fully automatically, depending on traffic conditions. It is easy<br />

to use: the Eco Assist on the vehicle dashboard ‘alerts’ the<br />

driver when it is time to lift their foot off the accelerator.<br />

Once the pedal is released, the system can automatically<br />

calculate the right recovery force to be applied.<br />

Increased range.<br />

The lithium/<br />

iron phosphate<br />

battery technology<br />

allowed Mercedes<br />

to increase the<br />

range of the new<br />

eSprinter, capable<br />

to travel 475 km<br />

(from Stuttgart<br />

to Munich, and<br />

back) with a single<br />

battery charge<br />

during a preliminary<br />

test in Germany.<br />

be able to do without. These are the pluses that<br />

have always been distinctive of the Sprinter<br />

and are now characteristic, with even greater<br />

emphasis, of the zero emission version with<br />

rear-wheel drive.<br />

That three-module concept<br />

This version is based on the three-module<br />

concept, thus expanding the range of variants.<br />

The front module houses all the high-voltage<br />

components. The middle one is home to the<br />

battery, housed in the underbody for the benefit<br />

of a low centre of gravity, hence better handling<br />

and driveability. The third module, on the<br />

rear, houses the electric motor (synchronous,<br />

with permanent magnets) and the also electric<br />

rear axle, which are combined for the first time.<br />

The power unit, weighing around 130 kilos,<br />

is available in two power levels, 100 and<br />

150 kW (136 and 204 hp, respectively), with<br />

a torque of 400 Nm. It is powered by a lithium-iron-phosphate<br />

battery.<br />

In the launch programme, the eSprinter will<br />

initially be available in the United States and<br />

Canada with the 113 kWh battery version,<br />

while in Europe the Star’s rear-wheel-drive van<br />

will include the 56 kWh battery and, later this<br />

year, also the more muscular 81 kWh version.<br />

The declared driving range values are remarkable:<br />

up to 440 kilometres (WLTP cycle),<br />

rising to 530 calculated in the urban cycle.<br />

All this also takes into account the possibility<br />

of optimising vehicle efficiency and energy<br />

consumption by exploiting the various driving<br />

modes. There are three of them: Comfort, the<br />

most advantageous, Economical, with limited<br />

engine power, and Autonomy, which in addi-<br />

Highlights<br />

Model type Mercedes eSprinter<br />

Est. range<br />

440 km (WLTP)<br />

Battery type lithium/iron phosphate<br />

Battery capacity<br />

113 kWh<br />

AC charger<br />

up to 9.6 kW<br />

DC charger<br />

up to 115 kW<br />

Est. charging time (DC) 42 min (10-80%)<br />

E-motor max. power 100 or 150 kW<br />

E-motor max. torque<br />

400 Nm<br />

tion to limiting power limits the use of functions<br />

such as air conditioning, for example.<br />

The battery charging systems are the classic,<br />

either AC or DC with power up to 115 kW.<br />

Always connected to the latest on-board<br />

technology, including the MBUX system, the<br />

eSprinter does not forget on-board safety. The<br />

bouquet of systems is extensive. They range<br />

from Active brake assist (standard) to Blind<br />

spot assist, to Attention assist, up to the optional<br />

digital rear-view mirror that redirects the<br />

images captured by the High dynamic range<br />

camera installed at the rear, in the upper part<br />

of the windscreen, to the classic mirror in the<br />

centre of the windscreen.<br />

34<br />




FRENCH<br />

STYLE<br />


The year <strong>2024</strong> will be the one of balance<br />

in terms of Ebitda for Forsee Power, a<br />

manufacturer of battery modules ‘made<br />

in France’ whose core business is public transport<br />

(two thirds of sales can be attributed to<br />

the bus sector). At the end of February, we had<br />

the opportunity to visit the Poitiers production<br />

plant, where the company aims to double its<br />

production capacity to reach 4 GWh by 2028.<br />

The French factory, opened in 2022, is the pivot<br />

of a global network that includes a second<br />

European plant in Wroclaw (Poland), a plant in<br />

Ohio (USA), and two Asian factories: in Pune,<br />

India, and in Zhongshan, China.<br />

An intelligent brownfield operation<br />

The Poitiers plant stands on the ashes of an<br />

industrial complex where the American group<br />

Federal Mogul produced pistons for diesel ve-<br />

We had the opportunity to visit Forsee Power’s highly automated<br />

battery assembly factory in Poitiers, with an installed capacity<br />

of 2 GWh and the aim of expanding up to 4 GWh by 2028.<br />

What about the company’s profits? Ebitda is expected to balance<br />

this year. Here’s the chronicle of our plant tour.<br />

hicles before ceasing operations in 2014. Forsee<br />

Power, in short, made a brownfield operation<br />

with substantial help from the institutions<br />

(government, Grand Poitiers agglomeration,<br />

Nouvelle-Aquitaine region), which helped finance<br />

the renovation and redevelopment of the<br />

factory in order to attract new players in the<br />

tech sphere. Forsee Power is actually renting in<br />

Poitiers for a total of twelve years. On the other<br />

end, the technological equipment is entirely<br />

borne by the group (which in 2021 benefited<br />

from a 50 million euro loan from the EIB, the<br />

European Investment Bank). The equipment<br />

is distributed over the 10,000 square metres<br />

dedicated to production, to which are added<br />

2.5 square kilometres dedicated to components,<br />

Technology.<br />

The product<br />

portfolio is broad,<br />

with NMC and LTO<br />

battery types, now<br />

joined by lithiumiron-phosphate<br />

(LFP) battery<br />

modules.<br />

36<br />



Two shifts.<br />

The Poitiers factory<br />

currently operates<br />

in two shifts, with<br />

the possibility to<br />

increase up to<br />

three to reach<br />

2 GWh installed<br />

capacity. The<br />

French company’s<br />

target is to double<br />

production capacity<br />

before the end of<br />

the decade.<br />

ical components quickly. Between the buildings<br />

there is a pool of water where suspicious<br />

‘pieces’ can be thrown. A precaution, that of<br />

training workers to manage the fire risk, which<br />

the company assures us was adopted entirely<br />

voluntarily, without being required (incredible<br />

but true) by regulations.<br />

The production lines, five in all, feature a high<br />

level of automation. The technical check on the<br />

integrity and good condition of the cells, the<br />

first step in the production process, is the prehoused<br />

in a building constructed from scratch.<br />

To conclude our space overview, here is another<br />

2,000 square metres dedicated to shipping<br />

operations.<br />

How to manage the fire risk<br />

Our journey through the company’s production<br />

lines starts in the safety room. A squad of the<br />

company’s workers is trained to intervene in<br />

the event of a fire, including the qualification<br />

to drive a forklift in order to move any crit-<br />

rogative of a robot, as is the arrangement of the<br />

cells in ‘stacks’ (a kind of cell column), which<br />

are then arranged in modules and battery packs.<br />

Instead, the workforce of the French plant is<br />

responsible for the installation of the electrical<br />

and electronic components: from wires to the<br />

PDU (Power Distribution Unit), the electrical<br />

infrastructure is manually assembled and controlled.<br />

The same approach is implemented at<br />

Forsee Power’s plants in China and the United<br />

States.<br />

The factory employs around 200 workers and<br />

has enough installed capacity to reach 2 gigawatt-hour<br />

(GWh) per year at maximum operation<br />

(three shifts). At present, the factory works<br />

in two shifts.<br />

From first to second life applications<br />

Forsee Power’s focus is not only on the development<br />

and manufacturing of batteries for the<br />

so-called ‘first life’, i.e. use as traction accumulators<br />

for electric vehicles, but extends to<br />

the management of ‘second life’ applications.<br />

Outside the French company’s perimeter remain<br />

cell production (for which the company<br />

sources from a number of partners among<br />

which Lg, Toshiba and Calb have a prominent<br />

position, in addition to well-known names such<br />

as Samsung Sdi, Northvolt, Panasonic, Blue<br />

Solutions) and recycling management.<br />

The company’s strategy does not include the<br />

car segment and focuses on heavy vehicles<br />

(not only buses and trucks, but also construction<br />

and rail) and light vehicles (scooters and<br />

tuk-tuks for which the Far East markets are<br />

voracious). Commercial vehicles accounted for<br />

85 percent of sales in 2023, up from 79 percent<br />

in 2022.<br />

In terms of business performance, revenue<br />

growth in 2023 was 54 percent. The turnover<br />

is 171 million euros. As mentioned at the beginning,<br />

<strong>2024</strong> is expected to be the first year<br />

with positive Ebitda in the history of Forsee<br />

Power. The company’s ambitious target is to<br />

reach a 7 percent Ebitda margin in 2028.<br />

Plans for China, the U.S., India and Europe<br />

Looking at the company’s strategies globally,<br />

the Chinese factory, operational since 2003,<br />

has a similar production capacity target of 4<br />

GWh per year over a four-year period, also on<br />

five production lines spread over 10,000 sqm.<br />

What about India? Two lines on 2,000 square<br />

metres, focus on light vehicles (the electric<br />

tuk-tuk market is very promising), target of<br />

2 GWh in 2028, up significantly from 0.4 in<br />

2022. The U.S. plant, with the same extension<br />

as the French factory, started operations at the<br />

end of 2023 and is expected to ’give birth’ to<br />

1 GWh of modules this year, with a target of 3<br />

GWh in 2028. In Poland, Forsee Power maintains<br />

production of around one million small<br />

battery packs for various uses, including service<br />

centres.<br />

The product portfolio is broad: NMC and LTO<br />

(the latter is reserved mainly for fuel cell vehicles<br />

or pantograph electric vehicles) have been<br />

on the list for some time; the latest novelty is<br />

the foray into lithium-iron-phosphate (LFP),<br />

which will be introduced in the second half<br />

of 2023. This news is in response to a general<br />

trend whereby LFP is gaining significant<br />

ground (a similar move was recently made by<br />

BorgWarner). BloombergNef analysts wrote<br />

this in black and white two years ago (‘LFP<br />

batteries have significantly increased their market<br />

share over the past three years and are expected<br />

to account for 40 percent of EV sales in<br />

2022’). Among the company’s ‘jewels’ are the<br />

Zen Slim modules, which are characterised by<br />

their extra-slim design and intended for direct<br />

integration into the chassis.<br />

Multi-vehicle.<br />

According to<br />

the company’s<br />

own figures,<br />

135,000 vehicles<br />

are equipped<br />

worldwide, an<br />

overall figure<br />

‘drugged’ by<br />

large volumes<br />

of scooters and<br />

3-wheelers for<br />

the Asian market.<br />

Buses are the<br />

group’s core<br />

business.<br />

38<br />




BORN<br />


Electric technology applied to heavy vehicles<br />

over 16 tonnes is no longer new.<br />

Or, at least, it shouldn’t be. It has been<br />

talked about for some time now, and not only:<br />

there is practically no truck manufacturer today<br />

that does not have at least one model in its<br />

catalogue along these lines. With the eActros,<br />

however, Mercedes is fielding a truck that, under<br />

the familiar guise of its flagship model, is<br />

born electric, not ‘transformed’. Indeed, it was<br />

the first to offer the electrified axle and batteries<br />

located inside the chassis.<br />

The road is traced<br />

The battery-powered vehicle technology, in<br />

short, is certainly young but at the same time<br />

we can also define it as sufficiently mature.<br />

From the earliest tests to the present day, and<br />

we are speaking in general, not about a specific<br />

brand, the upgrade in efficiency has been remarkable,<br />

especially with regard to two aspects<br />

that make all the difference: driving range and<br />

charging time.<br />

Our test behind the steering wheel of the eActros 400 clears up<br />

many doubts about the efficien use of a full electric truck in<br />

regional distribution. It is equipped with four battery backs for<br />

a range of about 400 km. And the Star’s e-truck range now also<br />

includes the City Tractor version...<br />

40<br />




While we wait for the guest of honour to actually sit<br />

down at the table (read: for Mercedes to start production<br />

of the eActros 600 for the medium-to-long haul), the<br />

electric range of Mercedes-Benz Trucks has recently been<br />

bolstered with the City Tractor variant of the eActros,<br />

which is to all intents and purposes the Star’s first ‘born<br />

electric’ road tractor.<br />

In terms of the overall design for the vehicle and electrified<br />

powertrain, very little changes compared to the version<br />

we describe on these pages. There are more options for<br />

customers to choose from, especially in terms of vehicle<br />

equipment.<br />

Before it was put on the market, the eActros 300 City<br />

Tractor underwent stringent testing, during which<br />

Mercedes engineers focused in particular on the vehicle’s<br />

safety systems, performance and range.<br />

You can see it in action with your own eyes by scanning the<br />

QR code below.<br />

Watch the eActros<br />

300 City Tractor<br />

in action<br />

Yet, it still happens today that whenever a<br />

heavy electric vehicle is approached (and it<br />

is happening more and more often), people’s<br />

first feeling is mistrust, which is certainly the<br />

result of the cultural-historical habit of considering<br />

freight transport, at least mediumand<br />

long-haul transport, to be the exclusive<br />

The eActros in the City Tractor<br />

version, e.g. the one you see above, is<br />

compatible with all common European<br />

semitrailers, taking into account the<br />

maximum permitted tractor/trailer<br />

combination length.<br />

domain of the dear old internal combustion<br />

engine.<br />

Perhaps, the time has really come to review<br />

certain principles that are considered<br />

indispensable. The road to transition to fully<br />

decarbonised freight transport, however long<br />

the path may still be, is certainly marked out.<br />

And, sooner or later, electric technology will<br />

take the stage. With peace of mind not only<br />

for the most conservative, but more generally<br />

for an era that now seems to be marked.<br />

Mercedes, which is well aware of this,<br />

looks to electric technology with the conviction<br />

and strength of a brand that has always<br />

driven change in the maturation process that<br />

has affected the truck sector in its various<br />

areas, from safety to aerodynamics to comfort,<br />

and more generally from a technological<br />

point of view.<br />

Mercedes proves that it can be done<br />

The eActros, which we had the opportunity to<br />

drive during the Roadshow organised last year<br />

by Mercedes, fits perfectly into this perspective,<br />

while at the same time helping to clear<br />

certain clouds of doubt about the efficiency and<br />

use of an electric truck in heavy medium- to<br />

long-distance distribution. The few kilometres<br />

covered was enough to appreciate a couple of<br />

‘details’ that make the eActros a full electric<br />

truck in its own unique way. And our following<br />

approach with the eActros, this time in the road<br />

tractor version, Mercedes’ first zero-emission<br />

model, only confirmed our first impression.<br />

The video of our test with the eActros 300, in<br />

the City Tractor version, is available via the<br />

QR code in the article.<br />

The first of these details, which is immediately<br />

and pleasantly noticeable, is that of a<br />

truly remarkable, almost total operating (and<br />

Highlights<br />

Model type Mercedes eActros 400<br />

Gross Vehicle Weight<br />

27 ton<br />

Wheelbase (1 st to 2 nd axle) 4,900 mm<br />

Est. range<br />

up to 400 km<br />

Battery type<br />

lithium-ion<br />

Battery capacity 448 kWh (4 packs)<br />

Est. charging time (DC, 80 kW)<br />

3 h 15 m (up to 80%)<br />

Est. charging time (DC, 160 kW)<br />

1 h 40 min (up to 80%)<br />

E-motor max. power 400 kW (543 hp)<br />

driving) silence. Rather than attacking the road,<br />

our three-axle 6x2 (with liftable third steering<br />

axle) seems to caress it. On board, there are no<br />

hisses, vibrations or any even small annoying<br />

noises, as if the wheels were not even in contact<br />

with the asphalt. Comfort, and above all<br />

the driver, gives thanks.<br />

Electric axle with two integrated motors<br />

This is clearly due to the design and architecture<br />

of a vehicle which, and here we come to<br />

the second distinguishing feature, dispenses<br />

with the classic drive shaft to present the true<br />

technological heart of this truck: an electric<br />

rigid axle with two integrated electric motors<br />

combined with a two-speed gearbox. Liquid-cooled,<br />

the motors generate 330 kW of<br />

continuous power (and 400 kW peak). Energy<br />

is supplied to the eActros 400 by a module<br />

with four battery packs (three on the eActros<br />

300), each providing 112 kWh of capacity.<br />

Hi-tech equipment and mirror cams<br />

In this configuration, the heavyweight Mercedes<br />

claims a range of around 400 kilometres before<br />

recharging with the classic options (AC or DC).<br />

In terms of driving, the eActros is thoroughly<br />

enjoyable, even more so by adopting a shrewd<br />

driving style that allows energy recovery under<br />

braking. And to keep the driver company, there<br />

is top-level equipment, ranging from the mirror<br />

cam (second generation) to the digital cockpit<br />

to the ABA (fifth generation).<br />

In the article, we<br />

mentioned the<br />

awaited eActros<br />

600, the very<br />

first electric truck<br />

developed by<br />

Mercedes-Benz<br />

for medium- and<br />

lon-haul tasks. The<br />

truck was officially<br />

launched in<br />

Autumn 2023. Last<br />

winter, Mercedes<br />

conducted several<br />

tests in challenging<br />

conditions.<br />

Some European<br />

customers have<br />

already ordered<br />

the vehicle, with<br />

the first deliveries<br />

expected by the<br />

end of this year.<br />

42<br />




THAT<br />



44<br />

If the Nissan eNv200 was the pioneer of<br />

electric commercial vehicles, and for a<br />

long time the market leader in the segment,<br />

the Townstar can certainly be identified as the<br />

turning point vehicle. In the sense that the Japanese<br />

brand wanted to accompany its launch,<br />

in 2021, with the decision to definitively retire<br />

the diesel engine, relying solely on the 1.3-litre<br />

petrol engine and, precisely, on the electric<br />

motor.<br />

A change of pace, or rather, a change of strategy<br />

aimed, that much is clear, at increasingly<br />

sustainable freight mobility. But at the same<br />

time referring to the short term; certainly a<br />

risky strategy. Clearly, however, Nissan took a<br />

calculated risk. Or, if you like, it started a carefully<br />

planned path that the Japanese brand has<br />

pursued with tenacious conviction. Indeed, the<br />

results speak for themselves. Nissan’s sales of<br />

It moves with great ease in the city and in the tightest of spaces,<br />

but does not disdain the most brilliant gear on fast, flowing<br />

routes. Elegant and with a modern design, the Nissan city van<br />

also impresses with its functionality and practicality. We tested the<br />

vehicle in an urban environment.<br />

commercial vehicles increased by 81 percent<br />

in 2023 compared to 2022. And the Townstar<br />

contribution was decisive, as it was very well<br />

received by customers.<br />

That legacy to be secured<br />

This is enough to put the zero-emission,<br />

full-electric version of the compact Nissan on<br />

a strain. Heir to the eNv200 that ‘danced’ with<br />

great success on the market for a decade or so<br />

from 2009 onwards, at first arousing curiosity<br />

for its novel proportions that broke with established<br />

patterns, the Townstar is closely related<br />

to the Renault Kangoo E-Tech, with which it<br />

shares the Alliance’s CMF-CD platform, as<br />

well as the (Renault) production site located<br />



The silent city.<br />

The Townstar<br />

offers the full<br />

standard equipment<br />

with everything<br />

that should not<br />

be lacking on a<br />

modern city van.<br />

In driving it then<br />

shows itself to<br />

be docile and<br />

maneuverable<br />

as well as quiet.<br />

The quality of the<br />

interiors is higher<br />

than expected.<br />


Starting in September, the ‘big brother’ of the<br />

Townstar will also arrive. The Interstar is to all<br />

intents and purposes the heir to the NV-400.<br />

In addition to the diesel engine, the Interstar<br />

will naturally also be available in a full electric<br />

version with 87 kWh batteries promising a driving<br />

range of 460 km, in the wake of the new large<br />

electric vans that manufacturers are launching<br />

on the market in recent months. With DC fast<br />

charging, up to 252 km can be recharged in just<br />

30 minutes. Alternatively, there is a version with<br />

a 40 kWh battery, which offers a range of around<br />

200 km, suitable for those travelling shorter<br />

distances during the day. Nissan has also worked<br />

on the vehicle’s aerodynamics, with a 20 per cent<br />

reduction in drag (SCx). The result is less fuel or<br />

battery power consumption and therefore greater<br />

range and lower running costs for businesses.<br />

in the French city of Mauberge.<br />

Having said that, at first glance it seems like<br />

a vehicle with a modern, avant-garde design,<br />

whose stylistic features are reminiscent of the<br />

brand’s (electric) cars. It is also immediately<br />

clear that it is a vehicle designed and built<br />

for customers seeking practicality and space.<br />

The presence of the asymmetrical rear double<br />

doors, which open 180 degrees, and the sliding<br />

side door (as a standard) on the right side, hint<br />

at the remarkable ease of access to the compartment<br />

(with LED lighting) for loading and<br />

unloading operations.<br />

A payload of more than 600 kg<br />

This well-dimensioned compartment offers a<br />

volume of 3.3 cubic metres, but rises to 3.9 by<br />

adopting the Pack space, i.e. the option that<br />

includes the swivelling bulkhead, instead of the<br />

full bulkhead without windows, combined with<br />

the retractable passenger seat.<br />

The payload of 612 kilos is also good. These<br />

values change if the choice falls to the long<br />

wheelbase L2 variant, with a length of 4,910<br />

mm (as opposed to the 4,486 mm of the short<br />

wheelbase L1) and a load capacity of 4.3 cubic<br />

metres that rises to 4.9 by folding down the<br />

passenger seat.<br />

Inside the passenger compartment, the distinguishing<br />

feature, in addition to the quality of<br />

materials and the care taken in organising the<br />

various elements, are ergonomics and comfort.<br />

Qualities, moreover, that are not easy to ensure<br />

in a van that, with a 4,486 mm footprint (with a<br />

Highlights<br />

Model type Nissan Townstar EV L1<br />

Gross vehicle weight<br />

2.2 ton<br />

Wheelbase<br />

2,716 mm<br />

Est. range<br />

up to 301 km (WLTP)<br />

Battery type<br />

lithium-ion<br />

Battery capacity<br />

45 kWh<br />

Est. charging time (AC)<br />

1.5 hours (up to 80%, 22 kW)<br />

Est. charging time (DC)<br />

37 min (up to 80%, 80 kW)<br />

E-motor max. power 90 kW (122 hp)<br />

E-motor max. torque<br />

245 Nm<br />

wheelbase of 2,716 mm), dedicates 1,806 mm<br />

to the length of the load compartment.<br />

Leather-wrapped steering wheel, 8-inch touch<br />

screen in the centre of the dashboard with Apple<br />

and Android car play, navigation system, a<br />

roomy central tunnel between the seats, even<br />

a heat pump for the benefit of comfort and efficiency<br />

at low temperatures are all standard.<br />

Indeed, the Townstar EV <strong>Van</strong> does not compromise<br />

on safety and driver assistance either,<br />

in compliance with the latest requirements on<br />

the issue.<br />

Up to twenty safety systems<br />

The bouquet is extensive, with up to twenty<br />

systems, from emergency braking to active<br />

lane-keeping control.<br />

On the road, the Nissan compact van shows<br />

itself, even when loaded, to be easy-going<br />

and absolutely enjoyable in city driving. And<br />

needless to say, with the comfort of excellent<br />

soundproofing.<br />

With the 90 kW (122 hp) delivered by the<br />

electric motor powered by the battery (lithium-ion),<br />

the drive is brilliant. And Nissan<br />

claims a range of 300 kilometres. A figure that<br />

removes any concern (or anxiety, if you like)<br />

about recharging.<br />

46<br />


TECHNO<br />



Agnostic and integrated powertrain<br />



Megawatt charging available in Europe<br />


Let's get familiar with the loose acronym HELM, standing<br />

for Higher Efficiency Lower Emissions Multiple Fuels. Indeed,<br />

Columbus-based engine manufacturer Cummins<br />

renewed its fuel agnostic engine platform<br />

introduced for the very first time at IAA<br />

Transportation in 2022. The diesel X15,<br />

conceived for heavy-duty truck in North America<br />

and beyond, will be compliant with U.S. EPA<br />

and CARB 2027 aligned regulations at launch.<br />

Advanced diesel X15 will feature improved<br />

greenhouse gas and fuel efficiency benefits while<br />

retaining the same ratings of the current X15 (up<br />

to 6<strong>05</strong> horsepower). The X15N, the natural gas<br />

variant, is the first engine on the Cummins HELM<br />

platforms available to customers in North America.<br />

Technically speaking, the X15 architecture utilizes<br />

a belt-driven, high output 48-volt alternator and<br />

aftertreatment heater solution, optimized for<br />

increasingly stringent emission standards. Customers<br />

taking advantage of EX ratings (requires Eaton<br />

Cummins Endurant and GPS look-ahead data) with<br />

Cummins Meritor axles, brakes and drivelines will<br />

experience additional optimized fuel efficiency and<br />

drivability through features such as predictive gear<br />

shifting, on-ramp boost, and hill roll out.The very<br />

same engine platform can be used, in the future, with<br />

hydrogen as a fuel.<br />

“We have applied our decades of experience with<br />

the X15 engine to our next-generation product and believe these<br />

investments will serve our customers well into the future. The next<br />

generation X15 is the next evolution of technology, truly proving<br />

to the world that we never stop innovating,” said José Samperio,<br />

Vice President, North America On-Highway at Cummins, during the<br />

official presentation held at the end of February.<br />


ZF started to produce its<br />

innovative CeTrax lite drive units<br />

for electric commercial vehicles<br />

in April 2023. Less then one year<br />

later, the company managed to<br />

produce one thousand units,<br />

due to increased demand<br />

shortly after the start of series<br />

production. More into details, the<br />

ramp-up in volume production<br />

was steeper than planned<br />

because demand from the<br />

customer Isuzu increased.<br />

The electric central drive for light<br />

commercial vehicles continues<br />

the success story of its “big<br />

brother” CeTrax. A special<br />

feature of ZF’s CeTrax concept is<br />

that the all-electric central drive<br />

is suitable for electrifying existing<br />

commercial vehicle platforms.<br />

Cummins’<br />

new X15 engine platform.<br />

Hi-tech joint venture<br />

Westport Fuel Systems and Volvo Group<br />

have announced the intention to establish<br />

a joint venture aimed at accelerating the<br />

commercialization and global adoption of<br />

Westport’s HPDI fuel system technology for<br />

long-haul and off-road applications. The joint<br />

venture, subject to certain closing conditions, is<br />

set to become operational following the formal<br />

closing which is currently expected to occur<br />

in the second quarter of <strong>2024</strong>. Westport will<br />

contribute certain HPDI assets and opportunities,<br />

including related fixed assets, intellectual<br />

property, and business, into the JV. Volvo Group<br />

will acquire a 45% interest in the JV for the sum<br />

of approximately US $28 million.<br />

“We are motivated to keep innovating and<br />

investing in strong business relationships with<br />

leading organizations that share our goals, of<br />

which Volvo Group is certainly one,” said Dan<br />

Sceli, CEO of Westport Fuel Systems Inc.<br />

At Nordic EV Summits <strong>2024</strong>, held in Oslo last April,<br />

Kempower launched in Europe its Megawatt Charging System<br />

(MCS), company’s state-of-the-art electric truck charging solution<br />

for power ratings above 1 MW. Kempower’s MCS, now open for<br />

orders in Europe, seeks to be part of the solution to the challenges<br />

of electrification of heavy-duty vehicles to meet the EU’s<br />

decarbonization goals. According to the Finnish manufacturer, to<br />

bridge the market transition towards full megawatt charging adoption<br />

in the coming years, the current CCS2 power levels for heavy duty<br />

vehicles need to be increased in the short term. That’s why a dual<br />

strategy with MCS and High-Power CCS co-existing in the same<br />

truck charging ecosystem is a must to drive the zero-emission<br />

transition of road transport.<br />

The first version of the MCS comes with a peak power of 1500A,<br />

1.2 MW and a Kempower Mega Satellite ensuring maximum<br />

compatibility in the form of either high-power CCS plug or MCS<br />

plug. Additionally, the MCS and CCS outputs can be in the same<br />

system for maximal flexibility, and the unused power can be<br />

distributed among several outputs through dynamic power sharing.<br />

Through our workforce of more than 700 professionals, we have<br />

developed disruptive charging solutions that we have delivered to<br />

more than 50 countries,” said Tomi Ristimäki, CEO of Kempower.<br />

“Trucks and large vehicles are currently responsible for around 25%<br />

of the CO 2<br />

emissions generated by road transport in the EU. This<br />

is a challenge that all players in our ecosystem must face together,<br />

joining efforts and developing solutions to co-create a cleaner and<br />

quieter world. In this sense, our Megawatt Charging System provides<br />

a part of the answer to the EU’s decarbonization goals”.<br />


Siemens Smart Infrastructure<br />

has introduced an additional<br />

variant of its SICHARGE D<br />

electric vehicle fast charger,<br />

with a maximum output of 400<br />

kW for IEC markets. Thanks to<br />

the SICHARGE D dispenser,<br />

charging up to four vehicles<br />

at the same time is possible<br />

with only one grid connection,<br />

optimizing charging times<br />

and delivering financial and<br />

space savings for Charge<br />

Point Operators (CPOs). The<br />

new charging system is ideally<br />

suited for different use cases<br />

like destination<br />

charging, public<br />

fast-charging<br />

or highway<br />

charging and can offer<br />

continuous, stable power output<br />

of 400 kW at 40°C. It features<br />

a multi-language touchscreen<br />

with an intuitive user interface<br />

and cable management at both<br />

the charger and the dispenser<br />

for easy cable handling, making<br />

charging convenient for EV<br />

drivers. “Reduced charging<br />

times will play a pivotal role<br />

in increasing convenience<br />

and acceptance of this type of<br />

transportation. SICHARGE D is<br />

a great milestone in achieving<br />

this result”, said Markus<br />

Mildner, CEO<br />

eMobility at<br />

Siemens Smart<br />

Infrastructure.<br />

Charging in California<br />

At the end of February, North American operator<br />

NFI inaugurated state-of-the-art DC fast charging<br />

facility in Ontario, California. Supporting NFI’s<br />

fleet of 50 heavy-duty electric trucks, the<br />

project advances the electrification of drayage<br />

operations between the Ports of Los Angeles and<br />

Long Beach.<br />

The new charging facility will feature roughly 7<br />

megawatts of charging capacity shared across<br />

a total of 38 chargers,<br />

capable of speeds up to<br />

350 kW for capable trucks.<br />

According to Electrify<br />

America, later this year,<br />

the depot will be coupled<br />

with nearly four megawatts<br />

(nearly eight megawatthours)<br />

of onsite battery<br />

energy storage and<br />

approximately 1 megawatt of solar power, helping<br />

to promote vehicle-grid integration and reduce<br />

stress on the grid by shifting energy usage to offpeak<br />

times. The charging depot will also feature<br />

microgrid functionality.<br />

In addition to NFI and Electrify America’s<br />

investments, the project is funded by the Joint<br />

Electric Truck Scaling Initiative (JETSI), shared<br />

between several actors in California.<br />

48<br />




Plenty of hydrogen<br />


Through its dedicated brand HYLA, Nikola has recently opened the first<br />

hydrogen station in Southern California. The Ontario station, which opened for<br />

operation last February, will be capable of fueling up to 40 Nikola hydrogen<br />

fuel cell electric Class 8 trucks daily. This station is integral to Nikola’s strategic<br />

initiative to develop up to nine refueling solutions set to be completed by mid-<br />

<strong>2024</strong>. Such a significant event happens at the same time of quite a big debate<br />

started from some articles published by a few hydrogen-related web platforms.<br />

The news is that Nikola is apparently selling its hydrogen fuel cell trucks at a<br />

higher cost compared to production costs.<br />

As a matter of fact, Nikola declared it was able to produce 43 hydrogen fuel<br />

cell trucks in Q1, <strong>2024</strong>. Forty of them were wholesaled. At the same time, the<br />

Phoenix-based manufacturer stated that the company’s working on the revised (or<br />

‘2.0’) version of the battery electric vehicles, whose production and sales were<br />

stopped by several issues in the last period.<br />

“We are on<br />

track for a<br />

successful <strong>2024</strong><br />

by continuing<br />

the momentum<br />

set in 2023”,<br />

said Nikola<br />

CEO, Steve<br />

Girsky. “More<br />

than setting<br />

goals, it’s<br />

about following<br />

through our<br />

commitments”.<br />


Introduced between the end of 2023 and<br />

the beginning of <strong>2024</strong>, Ekoenergetyka’s<br />

Axon Easy 400 all-in-one DC charging<br />

stations has got maximum charging<br />

power of 400 kW, as well as options up to<br />

240 or 320 kW. The new charging system<br />

results from Ekoenergetyka’s experience<br />

and continuous work to improve the<br />

previous versions of the Axon chargers,<br />

now employed in at least 25 European<br />

countries.<br />

The new Axon Easy 400 relies on<br />

integrated 10 inches touch display with<br />

RFID for easy operation and full visibility<br />

also during the night. The charger is also<br />

equipped with an innovative, retractable<br />

Cable Management System (CMS), with<br />

the cables always at a safe distance<br />

from the ground. The system developed<br />

by the Polish manufacturer also offers a<br />

wide range of cable lengths, from 5.5 m<br />

to 9.5 m.<br />

Additionally, a 24″ advertising display<br />

allows for remote, independent<br />

management of advertising content,<br />

providing your company with space to<br />

promote both its image and products.<br />


Magazine dealing with culture, economics,<br />

technologyand market of freight transportation<br />

Established in 1962<br />

Editor in chief<br />

Maurizio Cervetto<br />

Managing editor<br />

Fabrizio Dalle Nogare<br />

Editorial staff<br />

Stefano Agnellini, Fabio Butturi,<br />

Ornella Cavalli, Alberto Gimmelli,<br />

Stefano Eliseo, Fabio Franchini,<br />

Riccardo Schiavo, Cristina Scuteri,<br />

Luca Vitali<br />

Contributors<br />

Mariagiulia Spettoli<br />

Layout & graphics<br />

Marco Zanusso (manager)<br />

Editorial management<br />

Fabio Zammaretti<br />

Printing<br />

Industrie Grafiche RGM srl,<br />

Rozzano (MI)<br />

Milano City Court Authorization<br />

n. 6041 – September 20th 1962 National<br />

Press Register n. 4596 – April 20th 1994<br />

Poste Italiane Inc. – Mail subscription<br />

D.L. 353/2003 (mod. in L. 27/02/2004 n°<br />

46) Art. 1, subsection 1, LO/MI<br />





via Brembo 27 - 20139 Milan.<br />

Tel. +39 02 55230950<br />

Website<br />

www.sustainabletruckvan.com<br />


Management<br />

via Brembo 27<br />

20139 Milan<br />

tel. +39 02 55230950<br />

e-mail: pubblicita@vadoetornoedizioni.it<br />

Head of Sales<br />

Luca Brusegani<br />

Sales agents<br />

Roberto Menchinelli (Rome)<br />

Maurizio Candia<br />

Angelo De Luca<br />

Emanuele Tramaglino<br />


Annual subscription<br />

Italy 30 euro, International 50 euro<br />

Air Mail Annual subscription<br />

60 euro<br />

Back issues<br />

7 euro<br />

Payments<br />

Current account 50292200<br />

Vado e Torno Edizioni srl,<br />

via Brembo 27, 20139 Milan.<br />

e-mail: abbonamenti@vadoetorno.com<br />

E-Mail<br />

info@sustainabletruckvan.com<br />

Copyright <strong>2024</strong> Vado e Torno Edizioni<br />

Notice to subscribers<br />

Vado e Torno Edizioni srl, within the framework of its<br />

commitment to transparency and in compliance with the<br />

new European Regulation on the protection of personal<br />

data, known as GDPR 2016/679, in force from 25<br />

May 2018, has updated the policy regarding personal<br />

data processing and has adapted the methods of data<br />

management in accordance with the new requirements.<br />

We invite you to take a look at the new policy, which<br />

you can consult (www.vadoetorno.com). It provides<br />

clearer and more specific information on the processing<br />

of your personal data and your rights in this regard.<br />

If you no longer wish to be contacted from Vado e<br />

Torno Edizioni srl click write an email to:<br />

privacy@vadoetorno.com.<br />

Copyright <strong>2024</strong> Vado e Torno Edizioni<br />


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