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UNIVERSITY OF CALIFORNIA Santa Barbara and CALIFORNIA ...

UNIVERSITY OF CALIFORNIA Santa Barbara and CALIFORNIA ...

UNIVERSITY OF CALIFORNIA Santa Barbara and CALIFORNIA

UNIVERSITY OF CALIFORNIA Santa Barbara and CALIFORNIA STATE UNIVERSITY Sacramento Seizing Victory from the Jaws of Deterrence: Preservation and Public Memory of America’s Nike Air Defense Missile System A Dissertation submitted in partial satisfaction of the requirements for the degree Doctor of Philosophy in History by John Knute Smoley Committee in charge: Professor Lee Simpson, Chair Professor Randolph Bergstrom Professor Laura Kalman Professor Mary Hancock December 2008

  • Page 2 and 3: The dissertation of John Knute Smol
  • Page 4 and 5: ACKNOWLEDGEMENTS In the absence of
  • Page 6 and 7: ABSTRACT Seizing Victory from the J
  • Page 8 and 9: TABLE OF CONTENTS Introduction…
  • Page 10 and 11: LIST OF FIGURES 1. A memorial to tw
  • Page 12 and 13: 20. From the very top came strict o
  • Page 14 and 15: 42. Excerpt of a 1954 San Francisco
  • Page 16 and 17: Introduction Community Veteran's Me
  • Page 18 and 19: system: a crucial component of the
  • Page 20 and 21: station, or a Ground Observer Corps
  • Page 22 and 23: Despite its significance and relati
  • Page 24 and 25: the development of history. She see
  • Page 26 and 27: insights into public memory of this
  • Page 28 and 29: these sites do not provide substant
  • Page 30 and 31: used psychic numbing to create a
  • Page 32 and 33: International Airport property prom
  • Page 34 and 35: experiences. Chapter five describes
  • Page 36 and 37: symptom of and a vector of a commun
  • Page 38 and 39: the Cold War. Scholars studying pub
  • Page 40 and 41: equipment has limited preservation
  • Page 42 and 43: from veterans of these sites or eng
  • Page 44 and 45: Limited public memory of a particul
  • Page 46 and 47: Preserving a community’s sense of
  • Page 48 and 49: during his administration. “Massi
  • Page 50 and 51: 1 Assessing the Significance of the
  • Page 52 and 53:

    II. Prior to World War II, the Unit

  • Page 54 and 55:

    White Sands was the nation’s prin

  • Page 56 and 57:

    compare to America’s air defense

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    four hour alert status. 13 Voluntee

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    as the Bazooka to long-range resear

  • Page 62 and 63:

    into specific directions to the mis

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    average rate of fire of one missile

  • Page 66 and 67:

    twenty five to thirty feet of its t

  • Page 68 and 69:

    the Nike Hercules until August 15,

  • Page 70 and 71:

    system. 41 Yet even at ARADCOM’s

  • Page 72 and 73:

    National Guard personnel commanding

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    Ajax sites. 50 Recognizing the domi

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    part-time compatriots to duty. 55 T

  • Page 78 and 79:

    atteries. ARADCOM had fewer problem

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    states guarded sixteen cities. This

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    oriented sectors of the United Stat

  • Page 84 and 85:

    the first to permit women in its ra

  • Page 86 and 87:

    acknowledge the contributions of fe

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    United States history, thanks to an

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    experimentation, the military activ

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    public memory and historic preserva

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    during any other period of peace in

  • Page 96 and 97:

    Each Nike installation possessed at

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    The widespread unpopularity of land

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    this requirement dramatically by de

  • Page 102 and 103:

    static. 23 The willingness of the A

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    Teamster officials. 29 In the sprin

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    phase. Unfortunately, engineers nev

  • Page 108 and 109:

    plans for Nike integrated fire cont

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    conditions for personnel servicing

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    this distinctly different equipment

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    fire within five seconds of initiat

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    simply running a drill. 61 This unc

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    far beyond the capabilities of the

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    depending upon civilian supply, rec

  • Page 122 and 123:

    Figure 15 Captain Jack Gerber, 30th

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    permission to photograph sites, but

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    50th Artillery Group (MSP); Miss Ze

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    Elaborate precautions have been tak

  • Page 130 and 131:

    opening of the first Hercules site,

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    Figure 17 1970 aerial photograph of

  • Page 134 and 135:

    equipment for use with Hercules mis

  • Page 136 and 137:

    much heavier Hercules missile, rein

  • Page 138 and 139:

    miles. 114 An enhanced Target Track

  • Page 140 and 141:

    of each other at all times around n

  • Page 142 and 143:

    males. One delegation consisted ent

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    Public relations were equally as pr

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    Nike bases also appeared in motion

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    Majors (the bionic man) stage a bre

  • Page 150 and 151:

    Range mention that the range served

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    and is effected by new events that

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    Scholars are just beginning to cons

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    Popular and academic media generate

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    Similarly, full text electronic sea

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    war films in general rarely take a

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    in air defense related speeches sin

  • Page 164 and 165:

    arms race, yet he did not. 19 When

  • Page 166 and 167:

    history, and the nuclear air defens

  • Page 168 and 169:

    same way SF-88 was dedicated as a h

  • Page 170 and 171:

    thunderstorm on August 10, 1979 ble

  • Page 172 and 173:

    transferred to the National Park Se

  • Page 174 and 175:

    are supposed to radiate permanence

  • Page 176 and 177:

    nowhere, not even in a detailed aud

  • Page 178 and 179:

    Nike air defense missile system est

  • Page 180 and 181:

    that supplied Ajax components. 43 G

  • Page 182 and 183:

    the founding members of the organiz

  • Page 184 and 185:

    Yet the very presence of these Nike

  • Page 186 and 187:

    forms for all but two of these Nike

  • Page 188 and 189:

    conform to the U.S. Army’s evalua

  • Page 190 and 191:

    characteristics are directly correl

  • Page 192 and 193:

    Part II Context “The significance

  • Page 194 and 195:

    Less than one year later the Soviet

  • Page 196 and 197:

    These were not the only technical c

  • Page 198 and 199:

    intercontinental ballistic missiles

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    system, an air defense missile syst

  • Page 202 and 203:

    atteries that had once been active

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    Figure 34 A 1969 New York Times adv

  • Page 206 and 207:

    ases caused the Army to transfer 5,

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    missiles continued to exist in Flor

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    strong resistance from the same peo

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    Four other Nike air defense missile

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    were four Nike bases that defended

  • Page 216 and 217:

    certainly did not help convince the

  • Page 218 and 219:

    overwhelming offensive forces could

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    5 The Nike Network and Cold War Nar

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    initiated by owner-investors with a

  • Page 224 and 225:

    American communities. 7 Historians

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    photograph of the base’s signpost

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    despite the fact that Nike sites of

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    A May 1954 Department of the Army m

  • Page 232 and 233:

    display of the Hercules in the San

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    in their midst, regardless of whate

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    cover of the magazine! A large, ill

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    Figure 39 Defense contractors joine

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    which repeatedly criticized the Air

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    American Air Defense Command (NORAD

  • Page 244 and 245:

    Fourth of July fireworks seem small

  • Page 246 and 247:

    the Soviet Union. In one of those c

  • Page 248 and 249:

    While generally supportive of air d

  • Page 250 and 251:

    installation being constructed in P

  • Page 252 and 253:

    essentially a taking of the entire

  • Page 254 and 255:

    e cut down to the ground. This farm

  • Page 256 and 257:

    government did, however, let defend

  • Page 258 and 259:

    designed to heft heavy payloads. 66

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    But a focus on the space race does

  • Page 262 and 263:

    Figure 44 Two images from ARADCOM

  • Page 264 and 265:

    sendoffs or parades ever plagued th

  • Page 266 and 267:

    conventional artillery, anticipatin

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    academies, and various smaller area

  • Page 270 and 271:

    infantrymen like John Kerry in the

  • Page 272 and 273:

    Hercules missiles could be equipped

  • Page 274 and 275:

    personnel had to be buried in a com

  • Page 276 and 277:

    missiles in the area. On June 7, 19

  • Page 278 and 279:

    warhead safety, the Army received a

  • Page 280 and 281:

    discussion regarding how to prevent

  • Page 282 and 283:

    million dollars in damage, and sent

  • Page 284 and 285:

    exposure was 1/1000 th of the Ameri

  • Page 286 and 287:

    style of an early deep-sea diving s

  • Page 288 and 289:

    nuclear fallout from testing, the B

  • Page 290 and 291:

    weapons. “The war started when pe

  • Page 292 and 293:

    the United States and the Soviet Un

  • Page 294 and 295:

    suppression. By excluding feelings

  • Page 296 and 297:

    to kill them repeatedly. 55 Being p

  • Page 298 and 299:

    protect the nation from large numbe

  • Page 300 and 301:

    sacrifices of average foot soldiers

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    America’s Cold War air defenses r

  • Page 304 and 305:

    importance. The presence or absence

  • Page 306 and 307:

    7 Evaluating the Integrity of Nike

  • Page 308 and 309:

    would be one way to symbolically at

  • Page 310 and 311:

    occurred or where a resource was bu

  • Page 312 and 313:

    criteria and is exceptionally impor

  • Page 314 and 315:

    principally designed for Hercules m

  • Page 316 and 317:

    The design of Nike sites was not co

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    adapting SF-88’s site for Hercule

  • Page 320 and 321:

    Figure 52 Nike site SF-88A is a tel

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    Figure 53 An open personnel entranc

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    portion of one, smaller than averag

  • Page 326 and 327:

    Integrity of association is somewha

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    education course, paintball complex

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    demolished and deeded to the City o

  • Page 332 and 333:

    memory of this air defense system.

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    thereby providing one less cue for

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    launch, integrated fire control, an

  • Page 338 and 339:

    While the architect who prepared SF

  • Page 340 and 341:

    Yet the designation of the administ

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    system training. 9 In autumn 1974,

  • Page 344 and 345:

    in declassified documents. 16 This

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    employed by the federal government.

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    catalog number, voltage, horsepower

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    Nike air defense missiles were no l

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    against far more powerful forces, N

  • Page 354 and 355:

    Radioactive leaks pose the most sig

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    original fuel (1946 version) contai

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    their political and financial suppo

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    ecame unfeasible. 1 Even if these u

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    less recognizable. Increasing secre

  • Page 364 and 365:

    to the Nike and America’s other C

  • Page 366 and 367:

    their communities. Planners told th

  • Page 368 and 369:

    school at Fort Bliss, Texas. 8 By t

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    the press, regardless of the politi

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    ocket body. 12 The Nike missile sys

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    museum personnel link Nike bases wi

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    Nike bases are truly quintessential

  • Page 378 and 379:

    The condition of C-47’s integrate

  • Page 380 and 381:

    officials will not return e-mail an

  • Page 382 and 383:

    elow in the valley. 21 While SF-88

  • Page 384 and 385:

    ARADCOM and closing of these sites

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    changes as times change because soc

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    veterans have found in national mon

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    effort, but funding, organization,

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    generally need to be elevated to gr

  • Page 394 and 395:

    a route that has been changed so dr

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    was fluid, in favor of lieux de mem

  • Page 398 and 399:

    Despite America’s current preoccu

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    ARNG - Army National Guard ASP - An

  • Page 402 and 403:

    USAF - United States Air Force USAR

  • Page 404 and 405:

    STATE NAME DEFENSE AREA LOCATION 26

  • Page 406 and 407:

    STATE NAME DEFENSE AREA LOCATION 91

  • Page 408 and 409:

    STATE NAME DEFENSE AREA LOCATION 16

  • Page 410 and 411:

    STATE NAME DEFENSE AREA LOCATION 21

  • Page 412 and 413:

    Sources For more information, see M

  • Page 414 and 415:

    Publications often include letters

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    Figure 4. An Army officer explainin

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    Figure 20. From the very top came s

  • Page 420 and 421:

    Chapter 5 Figure 36. As tough as it

  • Page 422 and 423:

    Figure 52. Nike site SF-88A is a te

  • Page 424 and 425:

    Butowsky, Harry. National Register

  • Page 426 and 427:

    Ending July 31, 1958." Air Force Hi

  • Page 428 and 429:

    Record Group 338. National Archives

  • Page 430 and 431:

    Tasaki, Susan, ed., Nike Missile Si

  • Page 432 and 433:

    Civil No. 89-55, Judgment on Stipul

  • Page 434 and 435:

    Defense Nuclear Agency. Operation D

  • Page 436 and 437:

    Johnson, William Gray. “Archaeolo

  • Page 438 and 439:

    National Park Service. General Mana

  • Page 440 and 441:

    Whitfield, Stephen J. The Culture o

  • Page 442 and 443:

    February 1956, 21 May 1956, 29 May

  • Page 444 and 445:

    Lewis, Darrell. E-mail to Author. 9

  • Page 446 and 447:

    Fort MacArthur Museum Association.

  • Page 448 and 449:

    “Remarks by the President to Stud

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