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81. Sport and Globalisation - International Platform on Sport and ...

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people's acti<strong>on</strong>s – there are ‘winners’ <str<strong>on</strong>g>and</str<strong>on</strong>g> ‘losers’ in this global game. Societies are no<br />

l<strong>on</strong>ger - <str<strong>on</strong>g>and</str<strong>on</strong>g> except in very rare cases - were never sealed off from other societies.<br />

Ties of trade, warfare, migrati<strong>on</strong> <str<strong>on</strong>g>and</str<strong>on</strong>g> culture are of l<strong>on</strong>g st<str<strong>on</strong>g>and</str<strong>on</strong>g>ing in human history.<br />

Witness, for instance the c<strong>on</strong>necti<strong>on</strong>s made throughout Renaissance Europe. More<br />

recent globalisati<strong>on</strong> processes have unleashed new sets of ‘interdependency chains’,<br />

the networks that have (inter) c<strong>on</strong>nected people from distant parts of the globe. It is in<br />

this c<strong>on</strong>text of global power networks, that the practice <str<strong>on</strong>g>and</str<strong>on</strong>g> c<strong>on</strong>sumpti<strong>on</strong> of elite<br />

modern sport can be best understood. Sec<strong>on</strong>dly, in order to trace, describe <str<strong>on</strong>g>and</str<strong>on</strong>g> analyse<br />

the global sports process it is wise to adopt a l<strong>on</strong>g-term perspective. An historical <str<strong>on</strong>g>and</str<strong>on</strong>g><br />

comparative approach can help us explain how the present pattern of global sport has<br />

emerged out of the past <str<strong>on</strong>g>and</str<strong>on</strong>g> is c<strong>on</strong>nected with a range of ‘civilisati<strong>on</strong>al struggles’.<br />

The third point of significance c<strong>on</strong>cerns the c<strong>on</strong>cept of globalisati<strong>on</strong> itself.<br />

The c<strong>on</strong>cept refers to the growing network of interdependencies, political, ec<strong>on</strong>omic,<br />

cultural <str<strong>on</strong>g>and</str<strong>on</strong>g> social, which bind human beings together - for better <str<strong>on</strong>g>and</str<strong>on</strong>g> for worse. We<br />

can also note that globalisati<strong>on</strong> processes are not of recent origin <str<strong>on</strong>g>and</str<strong>on</strong>g> nor do they<br />

occur evenly across all areas of the globe. These processes involving an increasing<br />

intensificati<strong>on</strong> of global interc<strong>on</strong>nectedness are very l<strong>on</strong>g-term in nature but during<br />

the twentieth century the rate of change gathered momentum. Despite the 'unevenness'<br />

of these processes, it is more difficult to underst<str<strong>on</strong>g>and</str<strong>on</strong>g> local or nati<strong>on</strong>al experiences<br />

without reference to these global flows. In fact, our living c<strong>on</strong>diti<strong>on</strong>s, beliefs,<br />

knowledge <str<strong>on</strong>g>and</str<strong>on</strong>g> acti<strong>on</strong>s are intertwined with unfolding globalisati<strong>on</strong> processes. These<br />

processes include the emergence of a global ec<strong>on</strong>omy, a transnati<strong>on</strong>al cosmopolitan<br />

culture <str<strong>on</strong>g>and</str<strong>on</strong>g> a range of internati<strong>on</strong>al social movements. A multitude of transnati<strong>on</strong>al or<br />

global ec<strong>on</strong>omic <str<strong>on</strong>g>and</str<strong>on</strong>g> technological exchanges, communicati<strong>on</strong> networks <str<strong>on</strong>g>and</str<strong>on</strong>g><br />

migratory patterns characterise this interc<strong>on</strong>nected world pattern. As a result people<br />

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