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81. Sport and Globalisation - International Platform on Sport and ...

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internati<strong>on</strong>al agencies; the growth of increasing global forms of communicati<strong>on</strong>; the<br />

development of global competiti<strong>on</strong>s <str<strong>on</strong>g>and</str<strong>on</strong>g> prizes; <str<strong>on</strong>g>and</str<strong>on</strong>g> the development of st<str<strong>on</strong>g>and</str<strong>on</strong>g>ard<br />

noti<strong>on</strong>s of 'rights' <str<strong>on</strong>g>and</str<strong>on</strong>g> citizenship that are increasingly st<str<strong>on</strong>g>and</str<strong>on</strong>g>ardised internati<strong>on</strong>ally.<br />

The emergence <str<strong>on</strong>g>and</str<strong>on</strong>g> diffusi<strong>on</strong> of sport in the 19 th century is clearly interwoven with<br />

this overall process. The development of nati<strong>on</strong>al <str<strong>on</strong>g>and</str<strong>on</strong>g> internati<strong>on</strong>al sports<br />

organisati<strong>on</strong>s, the growth of competiti<strong>on</strong> between nati<strong>on</strong>al teams, the world-wide<br />

acceptance of rules governing specific, that is 'Western', 'sport' forms, <str<strong>on</strong>g>and</str<strong>on</strong>g> the<br />

establishment of global competiti<strong>on</strong>s such as the Olympic Games <str<strong>on</strong>g>and</str<strong>on</strong>g> the men’s <str<strong>on</strong>g>and</str<strong>on</strong>g><br />

women’s soccer World Cup’s, are all indicative of the occurrence of globalisati<strong>on</strong> in<br />

the sports world.<br />

If c<strong>on</strong>siderati<strong>on</strong> is given to the issue of internati<strong>on</strong>al sport success in the late<br />

twentieth century <str<strong>on</strong>g>and</str<strong>on</strong>g> in the early part of this new century it is clear that this involves<br />

a c<strong>on</strong>test between systems located within a global c<strong>on</strong>text. <str<strong>on</strong>g>Sport</str<strong>on</strong>g> success depends <strong>on</strong><br />

several elements: the availability <str<strong>on</strong>g>and</str<strong>on</strong>g> identificati<strong>on</strong> of human resources; methods of<br />

coaching <str<strong>on</strong>g>and</str<strong>on</strong>g> training; the efficiency of the sport organisati<strong>on</strong> <str<strong>on</strong>g>and</str<strong>on</strong>g> the depth of<br />

knowledge of sports medicine <str<strong>on</strong>g>and</str<strong>on</strong>g> sport sciences. These nati<strong>on</strong>al sport system<br />

mechanisms are a necessary but not sufficient explanati<strong>on</strong> of internati<strong>on</strong>al sport<br />

success. In additi<strong>on</strong> to these elements sport development within a particular society<br />

also depends <strong>on</strong> the status of that nati<strong>on</strong> in the sports internati<strong>on</strong>al rank order. Less<br />

developed nati<strong>on</strong>s tend to under-utilise their talent <str<strong>on</strong>g>and</str<strong>on</strong>g> performers <str<strong>on</strong>g>and</str<strong>on</strong>g>/or lose them to<br />

more powerful nati<strong>on</strong>s in the global sports process. Global sport processes can thus<br />

lead to the under- or dependent development of a nati<strong>on</strong>'s talent.<br />

The migrati<strong>on</strong> of performers, coaches, administrators <str<strong>on</strong>g>and</str<strong>on</strong>g> sport scientists<br />

within <str<strong>on</strong>g>and</str<strong>on</strong>g> between nati<strong>on</strong>s <str<strong>on</strong>g>and</str<strong>on</strong>g> within <str<strong>on</strong>g>and</str<strong>on</strong>g> between c<strong>on</strong>tinents <str<strong>on</strong>g>and</str<strong>on</strong>g> hemispheres is<br />

also a pr<strong>on</strong>ounced feature of late twentieth century sport. Migrati<strong>on</strong> of this elite talent<br />

6

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