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Air Quality Guidelines Global Update 2005 - World Health ...

Air Quality Guidelines Global Update 2005 - World Health ...

Air Quality Guidelines Global Update 2005 - World Health

Air Quality Guidelines Particulate matter, ozone, nitrogen dioxide and sulfur dioxide Global Update 2005

  • Page 2 and 3: Air Quality Guidelines Global Updat
  • Page 4 and 5: Air Quality Guidelines Global Updat
  • Page 6 and 7: Contents Foreword ix Introduction 1
  • Page 8 and 9: 7. Health impact assessment 153 Sum
  • Page 10: Foreword Clean air is a basic requi
  • Page 13 and 14: 2 AIR QUALITY GUIDELINES who would
  • Page 15 and 16: 4 AIR QUALITY GUIDELINES In additio
  • Page 17 and 18: 6 AIR QUALITY GUIDELINES acknowledg
  • Page 20 and 21: 1. Sources of air pollution Roy M.
  • Page 22 and 23: SOURCES OF AIR POLLUTION in diamete
  • Page 24 and 25: SOURCES OF AIR POLLUTION Sulfur dio
  • Page 26 and 27: SOURCES OF AIR POLLUTION Consequent
  • Page 28 and 29: SOURCES OF AIR POLLUTION which are
  • Page 30 and 31: SOURCES OF AIR POLLUTION the above
  • Page 32 and 33: SOURCES OF AIR POLLUTION Table 1. C
  • Page 34 and 35: SOURCES OF AIR POLLUTION • They a
  • Page 36 and 37: SOURCES OF AIR POLLUTION Fig. 6. Re
  • Page 38 and 39: SOURCES OF AIR POLLUTION Fig. 8. Ty
  • Page 40 and 41: SOURCES OF AIR POLLUTION References
  • Page 42 and 43: 2. Global ambient air pollution con
  • Page 44 and 45: GLOBAL AMBIENT AIR POLLUTION CONCEN
  • Page 46 and 47: GLOBAL AMBIENT AIR POLLUTION CONCEN
  • Page 48 and 49: GLOBAL AMBIENT AIR POLLUTION CONCEN
  • Page 50 and 51: GLOBAL AMBIENT AIR POLLUTION CONCEN
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    GLOBAL AMBIENT AIR POLLUTION CONCEN

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    GLOBAL AMBIENT AIR POLLUTION CONCEN

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    GLOBAL AMBIENT AIR POLLUTION CONCEN

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    GLOBAL AMBIENT AIR POLLUTION CONCEN

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    GLOBAL AMBIENT AIR POLLUTION CONCEN

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    GLOBAL AMBIENT AIR POLLUTION CONCEN

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    GLOBAL AMBIENT AIR POLLUTION CONCEN

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    GLOBAL AMBIENT AIR POLLUTION CONCEN

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    GLOBAL AMBIENT AIR POLLUTION CONCEN

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    GLOBAL AMBIENT AIR POLLUTION CONCEN

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    62 AIR QUALITY GUIDELINES improved

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    64 AIR QUALITY GUIDELINES penetrate

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    66 AIR QUALITY GUIDELINES a relativ

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    68 Table 1. modelling approaches to

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    70 AIR QUALITY GUIDELINES not neces

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    72 AIR QUALITY GUIDELINES Critical

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    74 AIR QUALITY GUIDELINES economic

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    76 AIR QUALITY GUIDELINES space hea

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    78 AIR QUALITY GUIDELINES risk. Thi

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    80 Policy option Air quality standa

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    82 AIR QUALITY GUIDELINES 13. Peter

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    84 AIR QUALITY GUIDELINES 42. Sarna

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    4. Health effects of air pollution:

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    HEALTH EFFECTS OF AIR POLLUTION: AN

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    HEALTH EFFECTS OF AIR POLLUTION: AN

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    HEALTH EFFECTS OF AIR POLLUTION: AN

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    HEALTH EFFECTS OF AIR POLLUTION: AN

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    HEALTH EFFECTS OF AIR POLLUTION: AN

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    HEALTH EFFECTS OF AIR POLLUTION: AN

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    HEALTH EFFECTS OF AIR POLLUTION: AN

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    HEALTH EFFECTS OF AIR POLLUTION: AN

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    HEALTH EFFECTS OF AIR POLLUTION: AN

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    HEALTH EFFECTS OF AIR POLLUTION: AN

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    HEALTH EFFECTS OF AIR POLLUTION: AN

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    112 AIR QUALITY GUIDELINES The dist

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    114 AIR QUALITY GUIDELINES Factors

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    116 AIR QUALITY GUIDELINES suppress

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    118 AIR QUALITY GUIDELINES Table 1.

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    120 AIR QUALITY GUIDELINES nitrogen

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    122 AIR QUALITY GUIDELINES in patie

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    124 AIR QUALITY GUIDELINES factors

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    126 AIR QUALITY GUIDELINES environm

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    128 AIR QUALITY GUIDELINES 18. Chal

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    130 AIR QUALITY GUIDELINES 49. Chow

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    132 AIR QUALITY GUIDELINES 78. Diaz

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    6. Environmental equity Patrick L.

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    ENVIRONMENTAL EQUITY … health or

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    ENVIRONMENTAL EQUITY a lower SEP (a

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    ENVIRONMENTAL EQUITY (45). Most epi

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    ENVIRONMENTAL EQUITY monoxide and n

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    ENVIRONMENTAL EQUITY While data are

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    ENVIRONMENTAL EQUITY of exposure-re

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    ENVIRONMENTAL EQUITY 15. Diez Roux

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    ENVIRONMENTAL EQUITY 42. Jerrett M

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    7. Health impact assessment Bart Os

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    HEALTH IMPACT ASSESSMENT other part

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    HEALTH IMPACT ASSESSMENT Fig. 1. Sc

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    HEALTH IMPACT ASSESSMENT may depend

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    HEALTH IMPACT ASSESSMENT exposure t

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    HEALTH IMPACT ASSESSMENT of the Ame

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    HEALTH IMPACT ASSESSMENT metropolit

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    HEALTH IMPACT ASSESSMENT other cova

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    HEALTH IMPACT ASSESSMENT 11. Medina

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    HEALTH IMPACT ASSESSMENT 39. Pope C

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    174 AIR QUALITY GUIDELINES role, ad

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    176 AIR QUALITY GUIDELINES Combinin

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    178 AIR QUALITY GUIDELINES severity

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    180 AIR QUALITY GUIDELINES be incon

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    182 AIR QUALITY GUIDELINES Implemen

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    184 AIR QUALITY GUIDELINES however,

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    186 AIR QUALITY GUIDELINES generati

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    188 AIR QUALITY GUIDELINES 24. Índ

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    190 Background AIR QUALITY GUIDELIN

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    192 Fig. 1. Household solid fuel us

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    194 AIR QUALITY GUIDELINES indoor e

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    196 AIR QUALITY GUIDELINES Findings

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    198 AIR QUALITY GUIDELINES tract. T

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    200 AIR QUALITY GUIDELINES Table 5.

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    202 AIR QUALITY GUIDELINES exposure

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    204 AIR QUALITY GUIDELINES indoor c

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    206 AIR QUALITY GUIDELINES Table 7.

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    208 AIR QUALITY GUIDELINES 3. Role

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    210 AIR QUALITY GUIDELINES 32. Bruc

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    212 AIR QUALITY GUIDELINES 59. Ball

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    Part 2 Risk assessment of selected

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    218 AIR QUALITY GUIDELINES on healt

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    220 AIR QUALITY GUIDELINES Submicro

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    222 AIR QUALITY GUIDELINES 52% of t

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    224 AIR QUALITY GUIDELINES coarse p

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    226 AIR QUALITY GUIDELINES areas in

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    228 Study population N a Exposure m

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    230 AIR QUALITY GUIDELINES backgrou

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    232 AIR QUALITY GUIDELINES Other me

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    234 • endothelial and vascular dy

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    236 AIR QUALITY GUIDELINES Subchron

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    238 AIR QUALITY GUIDELINES blood-br

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    240 AIR QUALITY GUIDELINES assessin

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    242 AIR QUALITY GUIDELINES exposure

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    244 AIR QUALITY GUIDELINES that the

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    246 AIR QUALITY GUIDELINES Osornio-

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    248 Box 1. Selected health outcomes

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    250 AIR QUALITY GUIDELINES Potentia

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    252 Article title Study design Popu

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    254 Article title Study design Popu

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    256 Article title Study design Popu

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    258 Excess risk estimate (%) 50 45

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    260 Mean PM10 concentration (μg/m

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    262 Reference Population Follow-up

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    264 AIR QUALITY GUIDELINES 250 gram

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    266 Cardiovascular 1 Cardiovascular

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    268 AIR QUALITY GUIDELINES two-poll

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    270 AIR QUALITY GUIDELINES initial

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    272 AIR QUALITY GUIDELINES Agricult

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    274 AIR QUALITY GUIDELINES with tha

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    276 AIR QUALITY GUIDELINES backgrou

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    278 AIR QUALITY GUIDELINES As the I

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    280 AIR QUALITY GUIDELINES and are

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    282 AIR QUALITY GUIDELINES 24. Hoek

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    284 AIR QUALITY GUIDELINES 53. Phul

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    286 AIR QUALITY GUIDELINES 82. Ebel

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    288 AIR QUALITY GUIDELINES 109. Zan

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    290 AIR QUALITY GUIDELINES 139. Zan

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    292 AIR QUALITY GUIDELINES 169. Zel

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    294 AIR QUALITY GUIDELINES 198. Ste

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    296 AIR QUALITY GUIDELINES 227. Kli

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    298 AIR QUALITY GUIDELINES 256. Dev

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    300 AIR QUALITY GUIDELINES 281. Fai

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    302 AIR QUALITY GUIDELINES 307. Sti

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    304 AIR QUALITY GUIDELINES 335. Bru

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    11. Ozone Paulo Hilário Nascimento

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    OZONE In the United States there is

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    OZONE Canary Islands Cyprus Svalbar

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    OZONE the amount of ozone absorbed

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    OZONE be occurring but insufficient

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    OZONE was associated with an increa

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    OZONE The most thorough study is th

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    OZONE Death or reduction in life ex

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    OZONE biochemical alterations, most

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    OZONE anthropogenic and biogenic em

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    OZONE 11. Companhia de Tecnologia d

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    OZONE 42. Gryparis A et al. Acute e

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    12. Nitrogen dioxide Francesco Fora

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    NITROGEN DIOXIDE Conversion factors

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    NITROGEN DIOXIDE that the effect of

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    NITROGEN DIOXIDE linear, concentrat

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    NITROGEN DIOXIDE (weeks to months)

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    NITROGEN DIOXIDE Effects Reference

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    NITROGEN DIOXIDE Effects Reference

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    NITROGEN DIOXIDE Effects Reference

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    NITROGEN DIOXIDE subjected to nitro

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    NITROGEN DIOXIDE These results indi

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    NITROGEN DIOXIDE PM effects PM-nitr

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    NITROGEN DIOXIDE dioxide in the dai

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    NITROGEN DIOXIDE only every six day

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    NITROGEN DIOXIDE and ozone) and tot

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    NITROGEN DIOXIDE nitrogen dioxide e

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    NITROGEN DIOXIDE A later study (172

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    NITROGEN DIOXIDE Nitrogen dioxide u

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    NITROGEN DIOXIDE Nitrogen dioxide u

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    Nitrogen dioxide unit (mean) 10 ppb

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    NITROGEN DIOXIDE stayed or moved ou

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    NITROGEN DIOXIDE other PM-associate

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    NITROGEN DIOXIDE using clinical rec

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    NITROGEN DIOXIDE particles. In some

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    NITROGEN DIOXIDE association with a

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    NITROGEN DIOXIDE 18. Harlos DP et a

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    NITROGEN DIOXIDE 42. Gardner DE et

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    NITROGEN DIOXIDE 69. Von Nieding G

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    NITROGEN DIOXIDE 95. Kerr H et al.

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    NITROGEN DIOXIDE 120. Nightingale J

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    NITROGEN DIOXIDE 145. Anderson HR e

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    NITROGEN DIOXIDE 173. Quackenboss J

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    NITROGEN DIOXIDE 201. Guo YL et al.

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    13. Sulfur dioxide Morton Lippmann,

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    SULFUR DIOXIDE Conversion factors 1

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    SULFUR DIOXIDE Effects on humans Co

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    SULFUR DIOXIDE of R-R intervals wer

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    SULFUR DIOXIDE regressions, also fo

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    SULFUR DIOXIDE Table 1. Estimated t

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    SULFUR DIOXIDE Morbidity studies Th

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    SULFUR DIOXIDE stage regression (22

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    SULFUR DIOXIDE mortality. This was

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    SULFUR DIOXIDE interpretation is th

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    SULFUR DIOXIDE Table 2. Sulfur diox

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    SULFUR DIOXIDE 19. Samoli E et al.

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    SULFUR DIOXIDE 44. Health effects o

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    Part 3 Annexes

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    424 AIR QUALITY GUIDELINES most sus

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    426 AIR QUALITY GUIDELINES in mast-

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    428 AIR QUALITY GUIDELINES Synthesi

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    430 AIR QUALITY GUIDELINES Endothel

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    432 AIR QUALITY GUIDELINES cell cou

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    434 AIR QUALITY GUIDELINES due to f

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    436 AIR QUALITY GUIDELINES suggeste

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    438 AIR QUALITY GUIDELINES Table 1.

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    440 Ozone concentration (μg/m 3 )

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    442 Ozone concentration (μg/m 3 )

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    444 Ozone concentration (μg/m 3 )

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    446 AIR QUALITY GUIDELINES Table 2.

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    448 AIR QUALITY GUIDELINES Location

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    450 AIR QUALITY GUIDELINES Location

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    452 AIR QUALITY GUIDELINES Location

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    454 AIR QUALITY GUIDELINES Table 3.

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    456 AIR QUALITY GUIDELINES Location

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    458 AIR QUALITY GUIDELINES Location

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    460 AIR QUALITY GUIDELINES 20. Chee

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    462 AIR QUALITY GUIDELINES 47. Klee

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    464 AIR QUALITY GUIDELINES 75. Bayr

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    466 AIR QUALITY GUIDELINES 101. Vau

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    468 AIR QUALITY GUIDELINES 129. Kir

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    470 AIR QUALITY GUIDELINES 159. Jan

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    472 AIR QUALITY GUIDELINES 187. Bro

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    474 AIR QUALITY GUIDELINES 216. Hig

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    476 AIR QUALITY GUIDELINES 244. Won

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    478 AIR QUALITY GUIDELINES 272. Med

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    480 AIR QUALITY GUIDELINES 302. Ito

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    482 AIR QUALITY GUIDELINES Patrick

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    484 AIR QUALITY GUIDELINES Reviewer

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