BBBBflt] «BlJIUrIrlr -

BBBBflt] «BlJIUrIrlr -






January, 1926

Forging- Si amping - Heaf Treating

|""" ' ' ' ' '" ' I"111" ' m i IH minim" ' ini niiiwmifmii! i i mn ,• , • mi « IN „ .,. mm «,g

Yearly Index—January- to December, 1925 (inclusive)


Accidents in Materia] Handling, Causes of—By David S. Beyer. . June 209

Accuracy in Drop Forging, Remarkable '. . . . May 155

Acme Forging Machine, New Sept. 337

Adaptability of Electric Arc Welding—By A. G. Bissell Nov. 409

Aims of American Refractories Institute Tune 219

Alloy Steel Reduces Die Block Costs—By Earl C. Abbe Dec. 432

Alloy Steel Rivet Sets Tune 221

Alloys, Properties of High Resistance—By M. A. Hunter and

A. .Tones Feb. 65

Al-Cu-Fe-Mg Alloy, Heat Treatment of Cast—By Samuel Daniels.Oct. 340

All-Steel Houses in Britain May 187

Aluminum in Non-Ferrous Materials, Detection of Oct! 380

A. D. F. I. Elects President Feb 40

A. E. S. C. Elects Officers Tan. 13

A. G. A. Meets at Atlantic City June 218

American Iron and Steel Instiute Holds 27th Annual Meeting at

New York June 221

American Iron and Steel Institute Program Oct. 365

American Refractories Institute Program April 140

A. S. M. E. Urges Congressional Appropriation for X-Ray Apparatus

'. Mar. 83

A. S. S. T. Prepares for Annual Convention Tuly 268

A. S. S. T. Ready for Annual Convention Sept. 301

A. S. S. T. Sectional Meeting Feb. 69

A. S. S. T. Sectional Meeting Dec. 433

A. S. T. M. Twenty-eighth Annual Meeting May 171

Analysis of Fuel Gas, The Mar. 105

Annealing from Hauck Venturi Oil Burners Sept. 321

Annealing Iron and Steel Electrically—By Harold Fulwider. . . . Nov. 391

Annealing Small Castings with Sawdust May 185

, Appraisal for Cost Purposes, Using an—By A,. W. Hollar Feb. 38


4A Forging-Stamping- tfeai Treating

January, 1926

Heat Treatment of Carbon Steel Die Blocks—By John Oben-



berger £ov-

Rail Joint Tests M«- 80


Heat Treatment of Cast Al-Cu-Fe-Mg Alloy—By Samuel Daniels.Oct.

Railroad Master Blacksmiths' Convention Aug. 289


Heat Treatment of High Speed Steel Dies—By C. B. Swander.. July

Rail Steel Reinforcing Bars M»y 154


Heavy Work, Modern Forge Plant for May

Recent Patents Mnr- 106


High-Frequency Induction Furnace—By Donald F. Campbell... Nov.

Recommended Practices July 235


HydroI'neumatM Forming Press Sept.

Recuperation in Carbonizing Steel—By Porter W. Hay Nov. 403



Recuperator, The Development of the—By E. R. Posnack Mar. 81

Importance of Proper Cleaning Pe£- July 70 Reduction in Varieties of Sheet Metal Ware May 185

Improved Furnace for Vitreous Enameling Feb. May 84 Refractories Institute Meets October 29th Oct, 360

Improvements m Heat Treating Bulletin Kciuipment—By Arthur L. Greene. • vDec. 12(1


Refractories Institute, Plans for Organization of the American.. Mar. 107

Increased Use of Gas in y. 1924 Annealing—By Harold Fulwider .... April Nov. 401 Remarkable Accuracy in Drop Forging May 155

Laps—Their Production

Induction Furnace, High-Frequency—By 'Review of 1924—By Donald E. F. H. Campbell... McClelland-Mar. 336


Removal of Scale During Rolling, The—By Frank L. Estep. ... Dec. 425

Laps—Their Production

Industrial Engineering, Cour->e in L - : - • • bePt- • \ m* 22 6 Reports on Steel for Cutting Tools Aug. 269

Large Forgings, Some Common

Inspecting and Testing Automobile and Prevention—By Defects

Axles—By Leslie'-Aitchison^ K. L. Rolf. ! Mar. 186 Research Committee Receives Reports Dec. 435


Install Induction Furnace, and to Prevention—By Leslie^ZAkchison-r . April 424 Research on Sponge Iron Progressing Feb. 62

Large Order for Drop Hammers

Instrument Transformer

By J. Flecher */,•-•' HarT- '.'..April • 391 Research Work Is Improving Cars, How Oct. 380

Large Plate Frame Billet Shear „^,. . .

Iron and Steel Electrical!

r . n jCine ^.^April 87 Resistance Alloys, Properties of High—By M. A.- Hunter and

Latrobe Electric Steel Plant, Enlargement of '. ^,Dec. 7H

Iron and Steel Literature,

A. Jones Feb. 65

Lebanon Drop Forge Shop Burned "•'•'• • •••;.. May 114 Retarding Research June 193

Machine Lectures Designed at Carnegie to Salvage Tech, Interesting Old Wire . .'. * Z.. . : * . Aug. . ^.rMay 205 283 Retrospect in Research. A May 165

Machinery Lecture on Sales Heat Building, Insulation, Great Prepares -.-.'.-.-. ::'.'.' ....*. Nov. .Dec. 135 435 Revelations in Deep Etching, Some—By J. Fletcher Harper. ... Mar. 103

Lining Manganese Furnace Steel, Bungs—By Bibliography L. of—By E. Crease E. H. McClelra*0d. '.' . \. . . *#*F«b. . v. 135 . D,ec. 49 Review of Coining-Press Developments—By A. R. Kelso May 173

List Manual of Exhibitors Contactor, at New the Public Auditorium *.-.-.-.' '. .'.-;.... % . .-. 0< t. .Sept. 424 352 Review of 1924 Iron and Steel Literature—By E. H. McClelland. Mar. 87

Literature, Manufacture Review of Nuts, of 1924 Die Performance Iron and Steel—By in—By Arthur E. H..Mc£lellahcu L. Greene,Tuly Mar. 241 18S Review of Pressed Metal Developments Aug. 282

M Manufacture I : - of Steel, Direct Process for—By Henning ;Flodiru . Qfit, 186 371 Rockwell Hardness Tester, New Aug. 284

Material, Economical Handling of—By E. Tonkin. ,-.-::.... .. j,Jfcn. 411 24 Rolling, Removal of Scale During—By Frank L. Estep Dec. 425

Material Handling, Causes of Accidents in—By David* S. Beyer .June 437 209 Rolls Become Rough, Why Hard Chilled—By Harold Harris. . .July 275

Materials Handling by Modern Methods •, . '.'Dec. 431 310 Roll Type of Board Hammer, Four Sept. 329

Material Handling in Upset Forge Plant—By D. L. Mathias. . ."May 87 146 Romance of Steel, The—By W. R. Klinkicht Jan. 8

Material and Processes, Defective—By Harry Brearley Oct. 375 Rustless Steel Introduced in Sheffield, A New May 184

Material and Processes, Defective—By Harry Brearley Nov, 394 S

Measure Loads on Stadium During Game Jan. 7 Salesmanship Mar. 77

Measuring Gases in Metals Dec. 435 Samples for Chemical Analysis, Preparation of Dec. 440

Metal Balls, Fabricating Seamless Hollow—By D. L. Mathias. . April 118 Scale During Rolling, Removal of—By Frank L. Estep Dec. 425

Metallography of Steel, Heat Treatment and—By H. C. Knerr..All Issues Seamless Hollow Metal Balls, Fabricating—By D. L. Mathias. . April 118

Metallurgy and Allied Subjects, Books on Nov. 412 Selection of Fuel, Factors Affecting the Oct. 366

Metallurgy and Allied Subjects, Books on Dec. 442 Selection of Fuel Oil Storage Facilities—By R. Kraus July 250

Metals by Direct Stress, Fatigue of—By Paul L. Irwin Aug. 277 Shearing Damages Thick Plates Mar. 106

Metal Stamping and Some of Its Forms—By H. Jay Feb. 46 Sheet Steel Executives, Annual Meeting of May 187

Metal Stamping and Some of Its Forms—By H. Jay Mar. 90 Ship Forgings July 240

Metal Statistic* for 1925 May 165 Silicon Steel Engineering Foundation June 218

Method of Casting Soft Center Ingots June 203 Simplifications of Sheet Steel April 117

Methods for Cooling Quenching Oil—By Kenneth B. Millett. . . . July 232 Skilled Mechanic, The July 225

M-.croscopic Examination of Sand June 219 Small Work, Stamping Plant Designed for Jan. 16

Modern Forge Plant for Heavy Work May 180 Smoke Detector, Recording Sept. 336

Modern Heat Treating Department, A—By E. L. Wood Sept. 290 Soaking Pit, The Electrically Heated—By T. F. Baily April 121


Splitting on a Pressed Steel Draw, To Reduce Nov. 390

National Pressed Metal Society Formed May 153 Stamping Plant Designed for Small Work Jan. 16

New Electrode Control April 120 Stamping Plant Starts Operations Feb. 48

Nickel Deposits on Alloy Steel Forgings—By Stanley A. Rich­

Stamping and Some of Its Forms, Metal—By H. Jay Feb. 46

ardson Nov. 407

Nickel in High-Speed Tool Steel Leslie Aitchison. Oct. . Mar. 374 78

Stamping and Some of Its Forms, Metal—By H. Jay Mar. 90

Niles-Bement-Pond Co., New Officers of Leslie Aitchison. . Mar. April 83 114

Standardization of Drawings and Practices July 234

Notes on Duralumin Forging, Some—By H. A. Brearley Whiteley Oct. July 260 375

Standards, Adds More Nov. 393

Nuts, Die Performance in Manufacture of—By Arthur Brearley L. Greene.July Nov. 241 394

Standards for Shafting and Keys Sept. 292


Leslie Aitchison. . Mar. 78

Standard Specifications July 234

Oil from Oil-Field Sands, More Leslie Aitchison .. Sept. April 300 114

Steel at Elevated Temperatures, Tests on—By T. McLean Jasper.July 236

Steel Automobile Bodies, Strong, Light, Cheap Mar. 102

Oil Storage Facilities, Selection of Fuel—By R. Kraus July 250

Old Company Establishes New Department Nov. 411 438

Steel Dies, Heat Treatment of High Speed—By C. B. Swander. .July 238

Steel, Direct Process for Manufacture of—By Henning Flodin..Oct. 371

On to Cleveland Sept. 289 40 Steel Electrically, Heat Treating—By E. F. Collins Feb. 41

Open Hearth Committee May 18C Steel, Factors Affecting the Hardness of—By C. W. Holmes. ... Sept. 333

Q Quenching Prospects Protection


Oxygen Personals Portable Production Proper Physical, Plans Power Practical President Pressed Prevention, Processes, Processes. Production Properties Pickling Pressed Prevention, Millett The—By A. L. for Heat Presses—Their Lance


Jones Steel Walker Metal of Hint Acetylene Chemical Organization of for Defective


Defective of Media of Oil. of and Laps—Their Iron Treatment Mesta Draw, Thermo-Couples Automobile Deep for High Meredith 1925 on Society Technical Society Prevention, Some and for Open-Hearth, Holding


and Drawn Generator, To Machine Material Resistance Material Heat Steel Use of Methods Important Formed,


Reduce F. Metallurgical Production Society "The Front


Locked in Cylinders, King Treating Laps—Their—By

and—By Company, and—By in Industry—By Improved—By American Splitting New Alloys—By


Axles—By for National Needed—By in Electrically-Heated Dies—By P Hardening and—By

Cooling—By The—By Laboratories, Harry

New on Refractories R. a M.


E. Harold D. L T. L. Carbon


W. V. A. C. L.


Rolf Kenneth J. Crane Hunter Listing. Fetherston. D. Salt Mathias. Institute". Guyer...Dec. Steel.... Kelly..Nov.


Baths, B. and . Dec. Feb.



. All Nov. April July Sept. May June Jan. Nov. June Mar. .Jan. .Oct. Issues 232 293 427 213 251 411 17 390 137 201 145 153 212 406 107 14 380 T Y Steel, Steel Steel, Steel Studies Super-Steel Takes Technical Steel Taper Temperature Temperatures, Tempering Tentative Testing Tests Thermocouples Time Timken Tin Tr^e Trade Uniform Upset Use Using Value Welding What Wire With Yes, Tool \\ Westinghouse Worlds elding ardson Can H. tion of L. Steel Parts, Problems Forgings, Treaters Rope, on Heat Sampling—By The the Forge an Fuel Roller Sheets of S°ler Publications Over High Automobile Bearing, Nickel Walker in Schmid Greatest Draw Steel of—By Making, Reading, Appraisal Society Program Society Can Romance Equipment with the Treatment Products Shall Equipment Non-Destructive Plant, Gear Tests, Purity Bearings, •*• Tests for to at Spring Success, in Forging Be Ring Plating Nickel in a Improved Erect Meredith Elevated Needed, Electric Industry the May Welding Plant Exhibition The Advertised—By Material Annual Hot-Plate for Electrically-Heated Axles, on Makes of—By Oxygen D. Pressure, Company Drop and Sectional Manufacturers Deposits Steel To for Industry, Take Cost Big Convention W. Pressed Temperatures—By Metallography Inspection Locomotive F. Reduce Use!... Heat Qualities Convention Forging Handling W. in Office at Test Purposes—By Brunton Up King Cutting—By Elevated—By Providing Organized R. Meetings on Arc—By Treating—By for Metal—By Variety Building Lynn W Klinkicht of U V Alloy—By . Industry, and—By in—By Salt of—By Ellis .. Reginald of A. Baths, J. T. D. Some—By W. R. Stanley J. D. McLean L. H. L. Crowe L. Hollar. M. Trautschold The Mathias'.'.'.'. C. Mathias. ..'. Rolf Gurney A. Knerr.. .'.'.'.'.'. Jasper.July Protec­ and Martin . Rich­ ' '.'.' . G ' . •-«> .Nov! .Dec. Oct. AI1 Aug. Nov. April oc( Nov. . Oct All May July Sept. July a«L A Jan. Dec Sept j)ec Jan. Feb juiv June Jan 'oct T»n May .Jan. .June t. . Is8ue8 Isues j, Issues 9S? , ' ', 407 179 276 135

236 438 404 217 226 271 390 236 309 441 339 430 in S49 355 354 2fl

146 ' 137 373 14 204 Feb. ^78 345 45 «^2 2 8

^ f 1111 • 11111111111 11111111 • 1111 111 • 1111 • 1111111 • 1111111111 • I • 1111111111 • 1 11111 1 111M11 • 1111 • • I • 111 1111 • 11111 • I • • 111111 f •

E =

| R>i$ng-Si,amping-flcw ir^^ |

I Vol. XI PITTSBURGH, PA., JANUARY, 1925 No. 1 =

P r o s p e c t s f o r 1 9 2 5

T H E time has again rolled around to review business condi­

tions for the past year, and to survey the prospects for the

coming year. While it is usual to write favorably of the busi­

ness outlook at this time, the prospects appear brighter for 1925

than at the beginning of any year since the war.

The uncertainty as to the results of the election was a factor

in holding back business during the past year, but the assurance

given at the election that the majority of the American people are

behind the President for economy and common sense is bound to

influence industry favorably.

The steel industry, which is usually considered as the barome­

ter of business conditions, promises great activity in 1925. The

atmosphere is quite different from that of the past year, and with

the elimination of factors that were working against prosperity

both at home and abroad last year, the outlook is promising indeed.

rrillllllllllllMIUIIIIIIMIIIII I IIIIIIII I llllllllllllllllllllllllllllilllllllllllllllllllf llllllllllllllllllEIIJJllllllllllllllllllllllllllllllllllllllllIhT


forging-Sfcunping- Heaf Treating

January, 1925

S o m e Steel P r o b l e m s in t h e D r o p F o r g i n g


Close Co-operation and Thorough Understanding Between Drop

Forger and Steel Producer Necessary to Meet Exist­

ing Demands of Consumer of Drop Forgings


IN this discussion 1 will make no attempt to describe to steel for forgings. and in such cases where the

how the steel manufacturer should make his forg­ product is purchased in the heat treated condition is

ing steel; neither will I attempt to tell the manu­ also accompanied by requirements as to physical charfacturer

of drop forgings how he should perform acteristics, or at least by hardness limits — usually

various operations about which he knows so much Brinell, Rockwell or Shore. When forgings are speci­

more than I. My objective is the consideration of fied according to chemical analysis alone it is reason­

certain conditions which are of mutual interest, and able to assume that your customer has selected such

a better understanding of which will avoid controversy chemistry range as will give, with satisfactory heat

and promote harmony between these great branches treatment, physical properties sufficiently high to

of industry.

meet stresses determined for the part or parts in ques­

During the past 10 or 15 years the progress in tion. In such instances where forgings are sold on

drop forging has been very rapid. The consumers of physical properties alone the manufacturer of forgings

your products, particularly the automotive manufac­ is confronted with the problem of selection of an

turers, have made increasingly difficult demands which analysis which will give the desired results in the fin­

have been met through your improvements in methods ished product at the lowest piece cost. He must con­

of fabrication and by your exacting demands from the sider the general characteristics of the material and

steel manufacturer. Fifteen years ago the steel manu­ his decision is influenced by uniformity of quality,

facturer met all requirements by furnishing products tendency toward inherent defects (both surface and

limited to a few standard analyses within liberal lim­ sub-surface), shearing quality, forgeability, scalage,

its, and free from pipe and seams. Now he is called response to heat treatment, machinability, etc. The

upon to meet restricted chemistry ranges, not only steel manufacturer should be able to offer sound sug­

freedom from pipe and seams but also segregation gestions for guidance on these points.

and the most minute external and internal imperfections.

Size restrictions, formerly considered impossible,

are now religiously adhered to. There are further

demands—the McOuaid-Ehn test, porosity and

fibre tests, microscopic examination, and looming on

the horizon are magnetic analysis and X-ray-

The closest co-operation and most thorough mutual

understanding will better enable us to satisfactorily

cope with your problems and our problems. The

steel manufacturer must exercise most rigid quality

control on his shipments of material for high grade

forgings. Quality, before being controlled, must first

be defined. Rigid inspection means but little if misdirected.

The steel maker must, by most intimate

contact with his customer, ascertain all details connected

with the requirements of material he is to furnish.

Much may be accomplished by a more comprehensive

understanding of details before filling orders.

Likewise, it is necessary for the manufacturer of forgings

to study in an exhaustive manner the precise requirements

of his trade. It is essential that inspection

be based upon practical knowledge of the application

of material in the customer's plant and that material

satisfactory for the purpose for which intended

not be needlessly rejected on minor technicalities.

Such is economic extravagance and waste.

Chemical Composition.

The primary consideration in ordering steels for

forgings is chemical range. In the majority of cases

this constitutes part of the specifications pertaining

Formerly there were but few analysis types to consider

in meeting a physical specification, but now there

are many types of steel, any of which can readily meet

imposed physical requirements. Production and manufacturing

problems are becoming more and more a

governing factor in the selection of analysis.

If specifications can be standardized to permit overlapping

ranges in carbon of one type of steel for various

parts it will work to the advantage of both buyer

and seller. On forgings for such parts as spindles,

arms, connecting rods, etc., .25 to .30 carbon may be

most satisfactory; for crankshafts, front axles, etc., .27

to .32 carbon preferable; and on shafts .32 to .37 carbon.

As long as reasonable quantities of material are

ordered in all three classifications the steel maker is

enabled to make selective application of heats to best

suit each and every requirement. In alloy steels this

selection should not be based on carbon content alone,

but clue consideration should also be given the various

alloying elements. It is evident that the making of

such specifications are but seldom in the hands of the

manufacturers of forgings—they should come from the

automotive and other manufacturers whom you supply

with forgings. But much may be accomplished if

both producers of forgings and of steel can influence

their customers to adopt this method. The result will

be a more uniform and superior finished product and

less contention in the making.

While the scope of this article will not permit detailed

consideration of the various types of allow steels

* Paper presented at a meeting of the American Drop there Forgare

two points on which I would like to briefly

ing Institute held at Pittsburgh. October 2 and 3. 1924. dwell—the five point range in carbon and the general

•^Metallurgical Engineer. United Alloy Steel Company. effect of several alloying elements.

January, 1925

In many cases the five point range in carbon is

specified for the purpose of obtaining uniform results

on different furnace heats furnished by the steel manufacturer,

without the necessity of keeping these heats

separate throughout heat treating operations. The

carbon content seems to be considered by many as the

single factor affecting uniformity in response to heat

treatment—the most important influence of such alloying

elements as nickel, chromium, molybdenum, manganese,

etc-, seems entirely overlooked. Frequently

a heat is rejected because it falls a point or two outside

of the specified five point range in carbon, and yet the

combined value of the other hardening elements renders

it more satisfactory for results with prescribed

treatment than many heats strictly within the carbon

range, but with the percentage of alloys falling on

the extremity of the range. For example, consider the

following specifications: Carbon, .30/.35; manganese,

.50/.80; chromium, .45/75; nickel, 1.00/1.50. A heat

analyzing carbon, .29; manganese, .75; chromium, .70;

nickel, 1.40 might be rejected, whereas one analyzing

carbon, .31; manganese, .55; chromium, .50; nickel,

1.10 accepted, though less satisfactory than the rejected

one. By exercising judgment, better and more consistent

results may be obtained with less rejections of


Care Required in Heat Treating.

The proper means of attaining uniform results after

heat treatment is not in the adherence to a five point

range in carbon — it is in treatment classification of

forgings by furnace heat lots as received from the steel

manufacturer- A number of forging companies and

other parts manufacturers now retain the identity of

heats throughout forging and heat treatment operations,

prescribe definite treatment temperatures and

develop uniformity in treated products that is not otherwise

attainable. Such practice has now almost become

standard in differential ring gear production and

has been the means of minimizing distortion to such an

extent as to almost completely eliminate noisy gears.

Crankshafts have been handled by many manufacturers

in the same manner. The United Alloy Steel Corporation,

treating thousands of tons of bar stock, has

always adhered to this method, although working with

automatic treating furnaces of capacities of nearly

50 tons of treated bars daily.

Alloy Steels.

Of the alloying elements the one probably in most

general use is chromium, appearing as the predominating

influence in chrome steels, chrome-vanadium

and chrome-molybdenum steels, and as a most important

one in chrome-nickel, chrome-nickel-vanadium,

chrome-nickel-molybdenum and various other combinations.

Outside of the so-called structural alloy

steels, it is a tremendous factor in special steels such

as magnet, tool, stainless, high-speed, etc. This element,

from one to two per cent, decreases the tendency

to crystalline growth, giving a fine close grain. It

confers upon steel increased hardness, strength, and

penetrative effect in heat treatment. In higher percentages

it has a marked effect on magnetic properties

and corrosion resistance.

Nickel increases strength, ductility and toughness

of carbon steel, giving finer structure and renders the

steel more susceptible to heat treatment. It is used

in combination with chromium in many ranges covering

wide fields of application.

forging - Stamping - Heaf Treating

While both molybdenum and vanadium are occasionally

used as a sole alloying agent in plain carbon

steel, their greatest value is derived from combination

with chromium or nickel or with both of these elements,

and where their addition most materially enhances

the properties of the steel.

Manganese may be considered a necessary component

of all alloy steels and appears in all specifications.

Its greatest value is an indirect one resulting from

reduction of oxides, and from combination with the

sulphur suppressing the formation of iron-sulphide

and its embrittling effect. The direct effect of manganese

is the increase of physical properties. Excellent

physical characteristics have been developed on

plain carbon steel with approximately \y2 per cent


With the exception of high silicon steels, such as

silico-manganese and chrome-silico-manganese (together

with numerous special steel such as valve, rustless,

electrical, etc.) silicon is seldom given consideration

in chemical specifications, yet it is vitally essential.

The use of silicon in the making of alloy steels

is most important on account of its property of deoxidizing

and of eliminating gases (about four times

as active as manganese). It is equally necessary that

the finished product contains a certain minimum quantity

of this element. In most structural alloy steels a

content of .10 to .20 suffices. However, in others it is

most advantageous to hold to .15 minimum with .25 or

even .30 maximum. The higher range of .15 to .25 is

particularly advisable in the carburizing grades of

steel and has been found a most important factor in

contributing to freedom from laminations, ready machinability

with minimum tool chatter, elimination of

distortion in quenching, and superior static and

dynamic properties of the finished product. While no

silicon limits are incorporated in many of your specifications,

the steel maker should have sufficient experience

and information on your requirements to prescribe

proper limits for his melting department.

Inspecting Shipments.

Upon receipt of a shipment of steel from the manufacturer

the material is usually promptly checked for

its various qualities and properties, and as previously

stated, in a much more thorough manner than formerly

necessary when the inspection governing acceptance

was more or less superficial and in the main consisted

of chemistry check, rough dimensional check

and casual observation for pipe and surface imperfections.

On analysis, commercial allowable variations

between laboratories was accepted; rolling tolerances

were less restricted; minute surface defects were ignored.

The present day inspection embraces in most

cases rigid adherence to chemistry limits, due to a large

extent to the refusal of the motor and motor accessory

manufacturers to consider even slight deviations from

specification. Strict dimensional adherence is necessary

because keen competition will not permit of the

least extravagance in raw material. Rejections are

made for even slight surface and internal imperfections

because of the higher standard of requirements by the

motor manufacturer and because of the ever increasingly

severe operations put upon the steel in forging.

I do not protest on these conditions but merely cite

them as factors influencing the demand for better

steel. They have served as an impetus toward further

perfection in steel making.

It is quite evident that the proper time to reject

steel is before it is put into forgings — at a time before

the drop forger has put money into processing,

and at a time when the steel manufacturer may salvage.

Furthermore, before forging, the responsibility

for defects can be definitely established. After forging

there is often difficulty in definitely assigning correct

origin of a defect.

Defects in Rolled Steel.

A brief review of the most prevalent defects in

rolled steel, found by regular bar inspection, may be

of some interest. They are pipe, unsound center and

bursts or ruptures on the inside, and seams, laps, scabs

and livers on the outside, and occasionally evidence

of burning. Pipe is a central defect originating in the

shrinkage cavity in the top of the ingot and is due to

insufficient croppage. Unsound center or excessive

porosity may consist of the segregated and impure

metal immediately beneath this zone, but may also

be characteristic of the heat throughout and due to

improper refining of the metal, or over-oxidation. Pipe

may be usually distinguished by shear tests or fracture

tests, but in some cases may be so faint as to

necessitate a coarse or fine etch on a properly prepared

surface. Secondary pipe which may occur in

material rolled from small-end-up ingots is most difficult

to detect, as perfectly sound steel is found on

either side of it in the bar. For internal flaw in bars

such as unsound or segregated center, shearing tests

are usually inadequate and etch tests are necessary.

Internal ruptures or bursts are more prevalent in

steels of higher alloy content and may be detected by

fracture or etch. Most surface defects on bars are

classed as seams, or scabs and slivers, although the

former cover imperfections of various origins. Defects

known generally as seams may be due to over-fills,

under-fills, rolling laps, rolled in chip marks, guide

scratches, crossed rolls, poor roll surface, etc., or they

may originate in the ingot, elongate in rolling to billits

and persist through the next conversion into bars.

Transverse cracks in the skin of an ingot roll out into

seams in finished bars if not chipped out in the bloom

or billet form. Sub-cutaneous gas pockets form light

sub-surface seams. Scabs and slivers usually may be

attributed to poor ingot surface. The extent to which

these defects in bars give trouble in forging in most

cases is not difficult to forecast. Guide scratches

which are often mistaken for seams should cause absolutely

no trouble unless unusually deep. Slight

over-fills, if not lapped, do not open in forging, but

most other forms, unless so light as to scale off in the

heating furnace, are very likely to cause serious trouble

in the finished forging.

In man}- cases the above, which may be considered

primary inspection and consisting of check analysis,

dimensional check, examination for soundness and

surface condition, is supplemented by shear inspection

on such types where analysis is such as to make

cold shearing difficult if not hazardous. Recently, tvpes

of steel have been satisfactorily cold sheared where

formerly other than hot shearing was considered out

of the question. The steel plants, through closer temperature

control on the finishing mills, and more definite

regulation of cooling of their product have accom •

plished much in shearing quality.

Case Hardening Test.

As a rule after the steel has been subjected to these

tests it mav be stocked with assurance that "it will

forging- Si amping - He>af Treating

January, 1925

meet all requirements. However, for special purposes

there are other qualifications which must be

met. A number of specifications are now received

incorporating the McQuaid-Ehn test, of which all

should have a comprehensive idea of its intent and

general features. A thorough explanation of this test

would be quite long and highly technical, but a few

words should be able to convey its purpose together

with the general method of procedure and observations

in its execution- The McQuaid-Ehn test is to

pre-determine whether a particular heat of steel will

give satisfactory results in case hardening. Often, for

some unknown reason, soft spots are encountered in

the case on case hardened parts, characteristic of a

particular heat of steel. The analysis is correct, the

steel is sound, it is satisfactorily free from microscopic

defects. Likewise no fault can be attributed to case

hardening operations, which show satisfactory response

on other heats of steel. The McQuaid-Ehn

test will show conditions characteristic of heats which

will harden satisfactorily and of those in which trou-

14e is encountered. Furthermore, in gears made from

certain heats, distortion after hardening is much greater

than in others, and more difficult to control. This

test enables a forecast on this condition. The mechanical

procedure is as follows : Carburizing of suitable

samples at definitely prescribed temperatures for

a sufficient length of time to obtain a hyper-eutectoid

(approximately 1.00 to 1.10 carbon) case, cooling in

pots after carburizing, polishing and etching these

samples, and finally studying under the microscope.

Microscopic Study.

From a microscopic study the steel is classed

as "normal" steel, which should give satisfactory results

in case hardening, and "abnormal" steel which

may give unsatisfactory results in case hardening.

There are, of course, almost unlimited transitional

stages between "normal" and "abnormal" and their

classification must necessarily depend on experience

and personal judgment. Briefly, characteristics of

"normal" steel are, in the hyper-eutectoid case, large,

well defined, pearlite grains with excessive carbides

or cementite in the form of coarse network around

the pearlite grains and grading down into a core consisting

of large angular grains of pearlite and ferrite.

In "abnormal" steel the hyper-eutectoid case consists

of much smaller and less uniform grains of pearlite

with the excess cementite occurring in smaller envelopes

around the pearlite, and in some cases as

patches of massive cementite. In the most "abnormal"

instances the pearlite breaks down into patches of

cementite and ferrite. The core in such steel shows

much finer grained pearlite and ferrite than in "normal'^

steel, and is often quite banded. The cause of

the "abnormal" condition has been attributed to overoxidized

condition of the steel, but this has not bee i

universally accepted. In checking material for Mc­

Quaid-Ehn characteristics tests may be taken by the

consumer from finish rolled material. The time for

the making of tests by the steel manufacturer should

be when material is in the semi-finished form and before

approving a heat for application on a particular

order- A convenient method of such sampling is in

the form of chips from blooms. Sonv steel manufacturers

have based tests on ladle sample, which I consider

less reliable. The McQuaid-Ehn test, if properly

conducted and interpreted, is a valuable contribution

in quality control, but does not solve all case harden-

January, 1925 forging- Stamping - Heaf Treating

ing troubles, the fault may not and often does not lie

with the steel.


For soundness, in relatively few cases the porosity

or macro-etch test has been used, and this test, at

times offers great advantages in pre-determining the

quality of steel. The chief disadvantages in its appli-

" cation are lack of standardization (acids, acid

strengths, time and temperature factors, etc.) and

lack of ability to properly interpret and put to practical

use the results. In many cases, such as investigations

for internal ruptures, snowflakes, bursts, etc., the

test is infallible. The practical execution of this test

consists in submitting to the action of acid solution

properly prepared surfaces of longitudinal and transverse

sections cut from material submitted for examination.

Of different acids and percentages of dilution

we find for general purposes a 50 per cent hydrochloric

solution preferable, varying the time in accordance

with the nature of the material examined.

The microscope is at times used as a means of establishing

the suitability of heats for certain important

uses. It offers an excellent means for the study of

structure and freedom of steel from sonims, but it

may be abused, and in the hands of the inexperienced

cause more harm than good. It is a very difficult matter

to base the acceptance or rejection of a heat of

steel solely on microscopic examination for impurities,

when the field or fields examined represent such an

infinitesimal portion of the material involved. Furthermore,

no standards are available and any decisions

must necessarily be based on the personal opinions of

the investigators, and such opinions are wide and


Fibre tests, but rarely used, embrace the study of

fractures made after subjecting material to a sorbitizing


X-Ray and Magnetic Testing.

There appears in the near future but slight probability

of the general adoption of magnetic or X-ray

testing for other than special work, where the cost

of the finished product is very great as compared with

steel costs or where a failure would result disastrously.

Magnetic testing has evolved through the defectoscope,

a means of determining defects or flaws;

through the magnetoscope, composition and mechanical

properties. A most valuable feature of such control

is that no material is destroyed or disfigured in the

execution of tests. This method has been put into

practical use on turbine bucket wheels, gears, saws,

elevator cable, rails, etc. While there is at present

neither prospects for the steel manufacturer being able

to run the product of his mills through a defectoscope,

nor a probability that the forging manufacturer will

so test his vast production, it does appear that apparatus

of this type may be advantageously applied for

special requirements.

X-ray examination has been put to practical usage

for the detection of internal defects, but the time and

expense involved render its scope too limited for

quantity production-

The foregoing has dwelt more particularly in consideration

of stock for forging purposes. I now wish

to review in a general way a few features in connection

with its processing.

Selection of Forging Steels.

The selection of material for forgings, not the type

of steel, but the form in which it is ordered for any

particular class of work, is of some interest to the

manufacturer of the steel as well as of the forgings.

The primary considerations are the determination of

such section as will permit proper flow in the dies and

sufficient quantity to avoid shortage in flow to all recesses

of the dies, but avoidance of oversize. Shortage

of metal may result in insufficiency of the flash. The

latter condition is, however, quite serious, as the elimination

of the cushioning effect permits a shock of

such intensity on die faces as to cause breakage or

short life and in addition tremendously increases

stresses in the die impressions such as may ultimately

seriously impair die life if not actually result in the

bursting or rupture of the die.

Excessive metal will result in waste of material;

it may result in dimensional inaccuracy or even in

edge splits of forgings. The surplus of thin metal

squeezed between the dies, and chilling rapidly, forms

a fin, restricting the flow from the impression and making

attainment of accurate dimensions impossible.

The splits in this fin of metal may run into the forging

itself. With a fair knowdedge of the above conditions

the manufacturer of steel is much better qualified to

intelligently discuss occasional complaints on edge

splits, or to combat arguments that his steel gives

shorter die life than a competitors, or is harder to

hold to size. But a slight modification of size or

section may overcome the difficulty.

In deciding upon stock for forgings it must not be

overlooked that the selection of unusual sizes in flats,

or of special sections, means increased costs to the

steel manufacturer with a corresponding increase in

steel prices, and also greater difficulty in obtaining


Shearing the Stock.

Before using under the hammer, stock must be first

sheared to suitable lengths or multiples. It is impossible

on steels of higher alloying content to draw a

definite line as to what analyses will and what will not

satisfactorily cold shear. Such variables as size, condition

of shears, high or low side of range in hardening

elements, and even weather conditions have pronounced

effect. Under most favorable conditions it

may be assumed that standard analyses of Chromevanadium,

chrome-carbon, low-chrome-nickel and 3y2

per cent nickel steels will cold shear in sizes up to

2y2 in. round or square with a carbon content up to .45

maximum. With carbon as high as .50 or .55 these

types can usually be sheared cold with safety in sizes

up to iy in. round or square. These limits I give

more in the nature of a warning than as a recommendation.

A little heating before shearing steel approximating

these limits is by no means an extravagance.

In extremely cold weather much improvement may.

even be effected on certain types of steel by raising

temperatures but slightly, from yard to room temperature

for instance, or just sufficient to relieve the

intense chill from the steel. Requiring special attention

in cold shearing are capacity of shears, their

alignment, condition of knives and hold down.

Trouble in cold shearing may be evidenced in several

forms. The stock may break off sharply, or spall

on the corners it may show a very fine crack across

the sheared surface or it may be strained to such an

extent upon shearing that while no crack is percepti-

le, one opens from a few hours to a few days after.

The latter condition may prove the most serious, as

shear inspection will not reveal the trouble and such

stock may rupture further when brought to forging


Fins or ragged edges should be avoided in shearing

as they may "lap in" during forging. Often it is necessary

to grind badly finned edges. This difficulty can

usually be eliminated by closer alignment of shears

and maintenance of proper knife edges.

Heating Requires Attention.

During heating of stock in the furnace at the hammer

much more material is ruined than is generally

assumed. It is a simple matter for the operator to

detect when steel is being burnt, and to immediately

remedy conditions before the loss is great, but it is

not so readily apparent when the over-heating is only

sufficient to cause incipient burning, or to seriously

impair the structure of the steel beyond the point of

reclamation by heat treatment to develop satisfactory

properties. Usually there is no warning during too

rapid heating of "tender" steels, of the ill effects which

such practice produces.

In steels of higher alloying contents, particularly

chrome-nickel, with and without additional elements

such as vanadium, molybdenum, etc., internal defects

will result from rapid heating. The condition becomes

more acute as the carbon content increases. Pre-heating

slowly to a temperature between 600 deg. F. and

1200 deg. F. and then finish heating to forging temperature

is necessary- This can best be accomplished

by the use of a separate furnace for pre-heating, although

in some cases entirely satisfactory results may

be obtained by pre-heating on the front of the hearth

of the forging furnace, or "double rowing".

Under-heating is less frequently encountered on

account of handicaps promptly manifested to the hammerman.

The result is decreased production, misalignment

of dies, decreased life of dies and rods, increased

maintenance costs on equipment, and at times

die and rod breakage.

Forging furnaces should be so designed as to permit

proper time cycle for soaking stock to constant

head and to operate under soft rather than cutting

flame, avoiding direct flame impingement on the

charge and excessive air.

Cold Shuts and Laps.

During forging operations there are many manners

in which defects may be introduced into forgings, and

controversies as to whether their origin is in the steel

itself or in its fabrication often take place. In some

cases a decision may lie simple, in others almost impossible.

Cold shuts and laps are often claimed to

be seams, forging bursts, pipe; and vice versa. In

most cases one familiar with the method of forging

should be able to decide whether defects are laps,

shuts or seams. In other cases a careful study of the

flow of metal in the various operations under the hammer

should determine the cause of the trouble. Seams

or laps in rolled bars or billets always exist parallel

to the direction of rolling. If the flow of metal has

been such that the defect must have existed in a direction

other than longitudinal with the rolled product

the evidence is quite conclusive as to its origin. If

surface defects are characteristic of a certain position

in forgings the fault is unlikely to be in the steel — it

Fbrging-Stamping - Heat Treating

January, 1925

is improbable that pieces forged would have defects in

the same spot on the bar, billet or slab.

Enumeration or discussion of all defects encountered

under the hammer is impossible, but a number of

frequent sources of trouble might be briefly considered.

During drawing, fullering or edging operations,

ridges or fins may be formed which fold over and form

laps or shuts during finishing. Excessive working on

the flat of the die or in round sections may produce internal

ruptures, often mistaken for pipe- .Rapid wash

heating may produce similar flaws. Restricted flow

of metal in dies and too rapid heating may cause shattered

hearts, and this may .be aggravated by segregation.

Improper reduction in fullers, edgers, blocking

impressions, or preliminary die forging, may result in

forcing such large excess of metal through the flash

line in the finishing dies as to result in rupture which

may or may not be revealed in trimming, and often not

discovered until after heat treatment or failure in service

Incorrect distribution of metal for the finishing

impression frequently causes stock in finishing operation

to tend to flow from small to large sections, resulting

in bad distortion of flow lines, poor flash distribution,

and even splits, which are often attributed to

piped steel. Bending operations, with improper gathering

of stock, may produce crinkling or folding on the

concave side of the bend, which produces lapping in

the finished part. Likewise, unsatisfactorily executed

splitting operations may produce tears which may be

lapped in finishing.

Front axle forgings probably embody as many

faults as any forging produced. Predominating among

imperfections in this part are laps, shuts, flange cracks,

separation along flash line, web ruptures, cross cracks

and shattered centers. Trouble encountered in eyebeam

sections may often be attributed to faulty preliminary

forging operations, resulting in the squirting

of metal from the flanges through the parting line and

out in the flash, leaving shattered flanges. Flaws at or

near the flange and web are often due to improper

flow, resulting from too sharp filleting. Badly strained

condition along the flash line is intensified by cold

trimming. Quite uniformly spaced cross checks have

been encountered practically throughout the length of

the eye-beam section. Steel defects could not exist in

stock in such a direction as to be responsible. The use

of sharp cornered square stock has rendered the material

more susceptible to over-heating or incipient

burning on the four corners while bringing up to forging

heat; heat treatment and stretching have seriously

strained if not lightly ruptured the metal; the final

pickling with its hydrogen impregnation has brought

about the final ruptures or in some cases has merely

rendered visible previously existing ones.

Considerable progress has been made in the study

of flow of metal and in making practical application

of the same in die design. Flow should be smooth

around all corners, avoiding throws into the surface.

Its proper regulation is of vital importance in effecting

increased resistance to stress, shock, vibration, and in

such parts as gears in governing distortion arising in

heat treatment. Coarse etching constitutes a most

satisfactory means of study. Sections, after machining

and grinding free from tool marks, are etched in

a solution of from 50 to 1U0 per cent hydrochloric acid

at approximately boiling temperature for a period usually

from one-half to one and one-half hours, washed

and dried for examination. For photographing, a

January, 1925

coating of lamp black or india ink will bring out the

lines more distinctly.

Trimming the Flash.

The method of trimming the flash, hot or cold, is

dependent upon trimmer capacity, distortion, and nature

of metal and forging. Hot trimming may be done

with lighter equipment and less power, and is necessary

on certain sections to avoid distortion, and on

other sections of certain types of steel to avoid ruptures

along the flash line. At times forgings are allowed

to become cold before trimming but given a

quick heating only sufficient to materially affect the

flash before trimming. Cold trimming is responsible

in many cases for ruptures along the flash line, which

may open either before or after heat treating. The

shape of a forging governs the necessity of hot trimming,

cutting along lines parallel with fibre having a

greater tendency to rupture than along ends across

fibre. Separation may be caused by excessively sharp

corners between lorging and flash.

Trimming tears are not limited to the harder steels

but may occur as readily in very soft steel, which, on

account of its extreme ductility, has a tendency to

drag. Assuming that suitable radius has been employed

on the forging, sharp cutting dies are the best


The restriction of cooling rate on forgings is onlynecessary

on a relatively small percentage of types

possessing air hardening properties. Checks, cracks,

bursts, ruptures, etc., may result from rapid cooling,

and in a few types almost invariably occur in some

sections. Forgings may be closely packed in boxes

or barrels, free from air and cooled sufficiently slowly,

although at times it is advisable to cool in lime, ashes

or some other slow heat conducting medium. A typical

analysis requiring slow cooling is carbon, .30/.40;

chromium, 1.00/1.50; nickel, 4.00/5.00. While very

slow cooling is not necessary on many other types, it

is advisable to avoid wet floor or ground and draughts.

A thorough consideration of heat treating operations

is a broad subject in itself and cannot be given

in this paper. The annealing operations but rarely

give any difficulties except perhaps in the oil hardening

gear types where great care must be exercised to

obtain a product sufficiently soft and of proper structure

for machining quality- Continuous furnaces have

effected tremendous time saving in annealing such

material and have been able to accomplish more in a

three to six hour cycle than the stationary types in

12 to 24 hour cycle. Quantity of production must

necessarily govern the installation of type of furnace;

sufficient work must be available to make a continuous

furnace what its name implies.

In heat treating operations one of the most important

decisions is on quenching medium which will produce

most satisfactory results. On some ranges of

analysis sweeping recommendations may safely be

made for water quenching, on others equally positive

for oil quenching, but in many cases a knowledge of

size and shape of the part in question is necessary before

classifying. Often a time quench will produce

most satisfactory results, whereas quenching in water

until cold results disastrously.

Assuming that the identity of heat lots from steel

manufacturers is retained, I most firmly advocate making

a preliminary run in heat treatment on a small lot

and based on these results prescribe definite tempera­

forging - Stamping - Heat Treating

tures for the balance. This will enable the attainment

of maximum and more nearly uniform results on the


In this brief review it has been impossible to go

into details in consideration of the various problems

and conditions covered. I hope, however, that it

shows the necessity for even closer co-operation between

drop forging and steel manufacturers. A more

thorough mutual understanding between these two

groups makes inevitable an improvement in quality

and reduction in cost.

Measure Loads on Stadium During Game

Added stresses in the steel reinforcement of a concrete

stadium due to the vigorous enthusiasm of the

crowd were measured during a recent game by means

of the carbon resistance strain gages developed by

the Bureau of Standards, Department of Commerce.

By using these gages it was possible to record automatically

the variations in the loading of the steel when

the crowd all rose in a body or stamped in time to the


Such mass movement, it has long been known, mayincrease

the live load on the structure far beyond that

caused by the people when sitting or standing still or

moving at random, but until recently it has not been

possible to obtain an accurate record of such sudden

changes of stress. In this particular test the live load

when the crowd was still was found to increase the

stress in the steel by about 1,000 pounds per square

inch, whereas 4,000 pounds wrould have been considered

safe. Under the worst conditions occurring during

the course of the game the movements of the crowd

sometimes gave an additional 300 pounds per square


It is pointed out, however, that the worst conditions

from the point of view of safety arise when the

crowd, in stamping rythmically, happens to strike the

natural vibration period of the structure. It has been

reported that under these conditions the stress has

exceeded the static live load by as much as 150 per


Tests of impact stresses in other stadiums are being

made from time to time, and the data being accumulated

are expected to be of great value as a guide

in the design of such structures. Great uncertainty

now exists as to the allowance to be made for impact


In making the test the concrete was removed from

the reinforcement over short lengths, and th'e gages

were attached directly to the steel. After the test the

holes were concreted over again.

A gage of this type depends for its operation on the

fact that stacks of carbon rings undergo a change in

resistance with change in pressure. It is so arranged

that a small change in the distance between the points

of attachment to the structure causes a change in the

pressures on two of these carbon stacks, the pressure

on one being reduced while that on the other is increased.

The change in distance is caused by a change

in the load carried by the steel.

This gage is connected by three electric wires to

the indicating or recording device, and these wires

may be of any desired length. Changes of load are

followed very rapidly, and those lasting only a fraction

of a second can be recorded as well as changes of

longer duration.

s Fbrging-Stamping - Heat Treating

T h e R o m a n c e o f


S t e e l

A Review of the Manufacture of Iron and Steel for Forging and

the Methods of Forging from the Primitive Hammer to

A study of the history of iron and steel manufacture

and methods of forging carries one

through a series of interesting developments

which trace the march of the world's progress from

the dawn of civilization until the present time. Relics

in our museums tell us the story of a romantic past

filled with strange beliefs and weird rites rivalling the

most vivid of fairy tales.

Hours could be consumed in the unfolding of this

remarkable tale, but as we are particularly interested

in forging, we will confine ourselves to the outstanding

features of greatest interest to the forging industry.

FIG. 1—Early form of belly helve hammer, from Agricola's

"De Re Metallica." The water was not only used for

power, but also for heat treating purposes.

No attempt will be made to cover the various

stages of tool steel development, heat treating or

pyrometry as these branches offer such a wealth of

material in themselves that justice could not be done

them in this article. This article, therefore, will embrace

the manufacture of iron and steel for forgings

and the various methods of shaping these forging

from the primitive hammer to the present day steam

hammer and press.

In the early ages the ability to make iron forgings

imeant power, and the history of those times shows

the Present Day Steam Hammer and Press


•Paper presented at a meeting of the American Drop

Forging Institute held at Pittsburgh, October 2 and 3, 1924.

tEngineer of Tests, Pollak Steel Company, Cincinnati, O.

January, 1925

clearly that axles, knives, etc., were used for arming

men in their battles for existence, against nature and

each other. The Babylonian name for iron meant

t'stone from heaven," which is good proof that the

origin of the first known iron was meteoric.

Meteoric iron is characterized by the absence of

Combined carbon and usually contains considerable

(quantities of nickel and smaller amounts of cobalt.

Nearly all of it is malleable and the examination of its

structure reveals the Widmanstatten lines. It is nowhere

sufficiently abundant to form a basis for a true

Iron Age civilization and, in fact, Archaeologists are

agreed that the mere knowledge of native iron should

not be considered as sufficient to designate using it as

the Iron Age of Civilization, but rather the knowledge

of producing metal from the ores by an understood

process is the criterion by which a nation or tribe is

considered as having passed from the Stone Age into

the Iron Age of Civilization. It was a wonderful discovery,

however, when some low-brow cliff dweller

pn the earth detected the property of malleability

which distinguished native metals from "stones."

It is believed that the three oldest pieces of

wrought iron in existence are a sickle blade found by

Belzoni under the base of a sphinx near Thebes; a

blade probably 5,000 years old found by Col. Vyse in

one of the pyramids and a wedge-shaped piece in the

British museum which is supposed to date back to

3233 B. C.

In Asia Minor, inland from Troy and the Aegean

world, there lived from before the time of Hammurapi,

2000 B. C, a group of white people called the

Hittites who built up a powerful empire. These people

began working iron ore deposits along the Black

Sea before the thirteenth century B. C. and became

the earliest distributors of iron at the time that iron

began to displace bronze in the Mediterranean world

and the east. It was through contact with the

Hittites that iron was introduced into Assyria and the

Assyrian forces were the first large armies equipped

with weapons of iron. A single arsenal in the palace

of Sargon II, who raised Assyria to the height of her

grandeur in 750 B. C, contained 200 tons of iron implements.

Comparatively little is known of the early smiths

or their methods. However an old Egyptian wall

print gives as reliable an idea as can be found. A fire

was built in a depressed place in the ground, a forced

draft being given the flame by an attendant on either

side who worked bellows by standing on them, alternately

throwing their weight from one foot to the

other and pulling up the bellows with ropes as the

weight was shifted, thus permitting the instruments'

to be emptied and filled alternately. It is interesting

to note the method of forcing a fire by means of bellows

was used probably 4,000 years ago.

The ancient smith was held in high esteem by his

fellow-man as his skill was indispensable to their wel-

January, 1925

fare. Probably the first reference to the smith is

found in the book of Genesis, dated about 3875 B C

chapter 4, verse 22, which mentions Tubal Cain, who

was seven generations from Adam, as an "instructor

of every artificer in brass and iron." The art was

shrouded in mystery and great secrecy attended their

work, each smith under sacred oath never to reveal

the secrets of the art, unless it be to a carefully selected

apprentice, who was usually a son or near kinsman.

Some one has stated this is how the name

Smith originated. However, the writer cannot vouch

for this.

Nearly the whole inventory of weapons and implements

of the first iron age, or the period of transition

from the exclusive use of brass to that of iron as

a working metal, has already been found in the celebrated

cemetery near Hallstatt, on Lake Hallstatt in

Austria, in the thousand graves that have been opened

there. The weapons are partly of bronze and partly

of iron, the iron predominating. Axes, knives and

chisels are very numerous.

An interesting allusion to the tempering of

weapons is found in Homer's ninth book of the

Odyssey, written probably some time between 962

and 915 B. C. in which he says:

"And as when armourers temper in the ford

The keen edged pole-axe or the shining sword,

The red-hot metal hisses in the lake;

Thus in his eye ball hiss'd the plunging stake."

This refers to the story of Ullyses's escape from

the giant Cyclops.

Whatever was the first form of iron furnace, there

is no doubt as early as the sixth century B. C. the

Greeks had developed a cylindrical stack furnace.

There are several vase paintings which illustrate this

furnace and in each there is a bellows at the back, the

cylinder being about the height of a man. On top is

what appears to be a receptacle or kettle. This was

probably used for smelting copper or bronze, as the

smith in those days worked in these as well as iron.

According to Aristotle, who wrote in the fourth

century B. C, the Chalybians made iron from sand

ore dug from river banks, washed and put into a furnace

along with stone pyrimachus, meaning firemaker

or coal. He seems further to indicate that cast iron

as well as steel was known in his time as he states:

"Wrought iron itself may be cast so as to be made

liquid and to harden again, and thus it is they are wont

to make steel." He also described the process of

making Indian steel called "Wootz," which was made

in crucibles. "Wootz" was a sort of wrought iron

used for fashioning weapons that were afterwards

hardened into steel. It was the possession of such

improved weapons that facilitated the Hindoo conquest

over the non-Arian tribes of India.

The metal for the famous Damascus weapons was

made at Kona Samundrum, India, and was carried by

Persian merchants to Damascus. The ore was carefully

selected, washed and roasted if necessary, then

reduced with charcoal in small fire clay crucibles and

allowed to cool. Next it was subjected to a tempering

process, consisting of repeated heating while covered

with an iron oxide paste to soften it to suit the

desire of the purchaser, who regularly watched the

operation throughout. The ores used were very free

from both sulphur and phosphorus and contained but

little copper. It appears that a later period metal for

forging- Stamping - Heat Treating

the Damascus trade was made also at Toledo, Spain,

and from that time, together with other places of

Spain, supplied the Romans with swords.

Probably the best known relic of ancient manufacture

is the iron pillar still standing' at Delhi, India.

This pillar is covered with carving and bears an inscription

in Sanskrit describing it as a "Triumphal

Pillar of Rajah Dhava, A. D. 310, who wrote his immortal

fame with his sword." The pillar is 16 inches

in diameter and 25 feet long and seems to have been

made up of blooms of wrought iron of about 80 lbs.

each, welded together. Hadfield's analysis of samples

from this pillar showed: Carbon, .08; manganese nil.

phos., .114; sulphus, .006; silicon, .046, and iron by

analysis, 99.72 per cent.

At about the beginning of the eighth century the

iron industry took a fresh start in many European

countries and experienced what we term in modern

phraseology a "revival." When the Moors became

masters of much of Spain in the early part of the century,

they stimulated greatly the manufacture of iron.

So prominent did the iron industry of Spain become

that its ironworkers were sought in other countries,

and on the French side of the Pyrenees, in the mountains

of Germany and along the Rhine, many of their

FIG. 2—A Catalan forge with Italian Trompe, or

water blower.

small forges were erected. The earlv part of the

eighth century seems to have been the period when

the "Wolf Furnaces" or loup furnaces were introduced

into most of the European iron districts. The wolf

furnace was a high bloomery and was simply an enlargement

of the primitive low bloomeries or forges.

•somewhat like a Catalan forge, extending upward to

some ten feet in height in the form of a quadrangular

shaft about two feet wide at the top and bottom and

five feet at the widest part. There was an opening in

front about two feet square called the breast, and the

blast was applied from at least two bellows and nozzles,

both on the same side. The Catalan forge marked

the first distinct advance in iron manufacture and is

responsible for the progress made during that period.

10 Fbrging-Stamping - Heat Treating January, 1925

The first attempt to apply mechanical means to

the forging operation was in the form of water wheels

for working the hammer and bellows. This must

have been as early as the fourteenth century as there

are pictures of that period illustrating the method employed.

Georgius Agricola, sometimes styled "the Father

of Metallurgy," was by far the most important author

of the sixteenth century. His great book on this subject

was published after his death by Froben at Basel,

in the vear 1556. This book seems to have been in

preparation during a period of over twenty years. He

apparently completed it in 1550, but did not send it to

press until 1553 and it did not appear until a year after

his death in 1555. He was not merely an author, but

a man of considerable importance in many public affairs

of his time and occupied repeated important posts

of public authority. In his book "De Re Metallica"

he described for the first time scores of methods and

processes which represent the accumulation of generations

of experience. His book was not excelled for

two centuries and its value to the men who followed

in this profession during the centuries can scarcely be

gauged. Illustrations shown in his book indicate that

water was not only used for power, but also for heat

treating purposes.

The blast furnace was gradually developed in Gernianv

during the first half of the fifteenth century and

with this development came the use of cast iron. The

was then worked into a mass, after which it was removed

with tongs and placed on a plate and hammered

with sledges to remove cinder, etc. It was

then reheated and hammered under a tilt hammer into

a bloom which was again reheated and hammered into

a bar.

The tilt hammer was so called because its action

depended upon the shaft or helve being tilted up and

FIG. A—Old-fashioned water driven trip hammer, from

Overmann's "Manufacture of Steel," 1854.

then allowed to fall. The helve was tilted by means

of projections fitted into a drum which was fixed upon

a shaft. When the shaft revolved these projections

caught against the helve, causing it to tilt up for a

moment, but instantly releasing as the projection disengaged,

allowing the helve to drop by gravity. The

/die on the hammer being fixed on one end of the helve,

struck a blow on the stock placed on the anvil underneath.

The rapidity of action depended on the speed

at which the shaft revolved and also on the number

of projections in the drum. The speed varied from

60 to 300 blows per minute.

There were three types of these hammers, viz;

belly, nose and tail hammers, named from the positions

on the helves where the projections on the drum operated.

It was my privilege to witness the operation

of a belt-driven tail hammer in Indiana only a few

weeks ago. This hammer was used in the forging of

small adz and sledges and was capable of striking

about 500 blows per minute. Of course, the force of

blow and rapidity of action were constant and could

not be varied; stopping the hammer merely consisted

of shifting the belt and allowing the pulley to gradually

lose momentum, eventually stopping the hammer.

Up until the seventeenth century charcoal was

used in the manufacture of pig iron, but the enormous

consumption of wood threatened the destruction of

the forests, so that in the early days of Queen Elizabeth's

reign (about 1558) the cutting of timber trees

was forbidden in certain parts of the country. Thus

iron making in England received a severe setback

until early in the seventeenth century Dud Dudley, a

youth of 20, left Oxford University to take charge of

his father's furnaces and forges. He carried on experiments,

using pit or sea coal instead of charcoal for

smelting iron and was granted a patent by King

James. Dudley's furnace was larger than the average,

haying very large bellows and he thus succeeded

in making about seven tons of pig iron per week.

FIG. 3—The old Oliver footpower hammer.

However, a combination of charcoal iron masters opposed

the innovation, forcing him from one enterprise

first casting of cannon balls took place in Germany, to another so that his discovery was not very profit­

the first cast-iron cannon being made in England in able for him financially. His book "Metallum Mar-


-tis," published in 1665, gives a full account of his ef­

The method of converting pig iron into wrought forts to substitute coal for charcoal. The production

iron during the fifteenth century is roughly described sof charcoal pig iron has survived until today, the most

as follows: One end of the pig was heated in the notable operation being that of the Salisbury Iron

furnace and as it melted away was gradually pushed Corporation at Lakeville, Conn., where there were at

in until the entire stock was molten. The molten iron various times as many as thirty-one charcoal blast

January, 1925

furnaces. Moldenke states that "Charcoal iron is intrinsically

better than one made from coke because it

is run more carefully, with smaller units, purer ores

and extremely pure fuel."

. The use of anthracite coal in making pig iron was

not attempted until many years later. In 1812 Col.

George Shoemaker hauled nine wagons of anthracite

coal from his mines at Centerville to Philadelphia.

He sold two loads (one to White & Hazard) for the

cost of transportation and gave away the other seven

loads. Many people thought him an impostor attempting

to sell stones as coal. David Thomas was

the first to use anthracite coal in making pig iron at

the Crane Iron Works near Swansea, Wales.

The discovery of iron in the United States was the

result of one of several expeditions sent out by Sir

Walter Raleigh which reported finding ore in several

places in the Carolinas in 1585 Notwithstanding the

fact that iron ore was shipped to England in 1608 and

found to be satisfactory, no iron works was erected in

this country until about 1620. At that time a large

number of skilled workmen were sent to the colonies

to set up three iron works and from correspondence in

existence it would seem the first iron was made at

Falling Creek, Virginia, in 1622. However, in March

of that year the entire group of workmen was massacred

by the Indians and the plant was never rebuilt.

The first permanent and successful iron works in the

colonies was built at Lynn, Mass., in 1645.

The products of the early colonial iron making

were limited to cast iron and wrought iron, the latter

being made direct from the ore, or indirectly from the

pig iron produced in the blast furnace. The chance

selections of ores determined the success of any installation.

Chemical analysis was unknown and the

processes were conducted in a purely empirical way as

regards mining and preparation of the ore and use of


Nail making in the colonies was one of the first

uses to which iron was put. The metal was first

FIG. 5—General view of old Staffordshire helve.

Forging- Stamping - Heat Treating

forged into strips or rods and these were heated and

forged by hand. A skilled artisan based his reputation

upon the number of nails he could make at a

single heating of the nail rod. During this time many

country people in Massachusetts had little forges in

their chimney corners and made nails in winter evenings

when little else could be done, even the children

being sometimes thus occupied. There were no roll­

ing mills in the country in the seventeenth century

and all work on the original bloom was done by forging

usually under helve hammers, actuated by water


As the industry developed England began imposing

various restrictions until 1750 when she forbade

the building of any more iron works in the colonies

for the production of pig iron and raw bar iron. Joshua

fcagEJiSsaaflfei? '.IIP ffiflHwn

PmSltS'^: /Kn

'• I " mk - -ISIS

FIG. 6—From a painting, "First Steam Hammer in Full

Work." (Autobiography by James Nasmyth.)

Gee recommended that England should always keep a

watchful eye over the colonies to restrain them from

setting up any manufactures which are carried on in

Great Britain. Despite these restrictions the industry

slowly developed and during the revolutionaryr war

the outstanding achievement was the manufacture of

an iron chain nearly a mile long weighing 180 tons.

Its links were made of bars 2y2 inches square, weighing

about 100 lbs each. It was completed in six

weeks, 60 men being employed and 17 forges kept going

day and night. It was stretched across the Hudson

river at West Point, being supported by large

logs about sixteen feet long, sharpened at the ends and

set a short distance apart. The British vessels did

not pass West Point. Two other chains were stretched

across the Hudson during the war, one of which, however,

was destroyed by the British.

With the introduction of the reverberatory furnace

by Thomas and George Cranage in 1766 and the puddling

process by Cort in 1784, great impetus was given

to the manufacture of wrought iron. Larger forgings

were in demand than had been made heretofore and

the limitations of the tilt hammer were keenly felt.

While this hammer could make small forgings successfully,

it was an inefficient tool when dealing with

large pieces. The upper tool moved in an arc, and

therefore could not strike even blows on varying thicknesses

of metal, the metal being subjected to a greater

pressure toward the pivoted end of the helve. When

a large piece, which required heavier blows, was

placed on the anvil, it received lighter blows, owing to

the fact that the piece occupied nearly all the space in

which the helve moved. Therefore it became obviously

desirable to obtain a force of impact not only

greater than could be supplied by methods then in use,

but applied vertically, and to meet this demand someone

conceived the idea of attaching rope to a ponderous

mass of iron, lifting it in vertical guides with a


12 Fbrging-Stamping - Heat Treating January, 1925

gang of nun and then dropping it from any desired

height within the limits of the machine. This contrivance

was called the Hercules and was a fairly efficient

tool for that period.

lames Watt seems to have been the originator of

the first steam hammer and it was patented by him in

1784. However, no hammers appear to have been

made under his patent and in 1839 Mr. James Nas-

FIG. 7—Kelley's first tilting converter.

myth of the Bridgewater Foundry near Manchester,

England, designed and secured a patent for the steam

hammer. This hammer was designed in response to

an appeal made to Mr. Nasmyth by Mr. Humphries of

the Great Western Company who wanted a large paddle

shaft forged for their new steamship, the Great

Britain, then under construction. After making a

complete survey of the forge shops in the British Isles,

Mr. Humphries found that none of the forgemasters

would undertake the forging of this shaft because of

the lack of proper equipment and means. However,

the style of propulsion of the steamship w-as later

changed to the screw type, the shaft was not needed

and the idea was abandoned until four years later

when the first steam hammer was built in France according

to Mr. Nasmyth's plans.

With the introduction of the steam hammer, forgings

were no longer limited to small sizes, the limiting

factor up to the time of the introduction of steel being

the difficulty in handling large piles under the hammer.

To facilitate the handling of heavier pieces,

swinging jib cranes were installed, with handworked

winches for raising or lowering the load.

The first iron steamboat in the United States was

built in Pittsburgh about 1839. The same year.a sectional

iron canal boat, the Kentucky, came over the

mountains by means of a portage to Pittsburgh and

the next year about 100 boats were made for this


In 1S50 Sir Henry Chads, the captain of H. M. S.

"Excellent," reported that "whether iron vessels are

of slight or substantial construction, iron is not material

calculated for ships of war." Seventeen iron

ships which had then been in process of construction

for fighting purposes were thereupon condemned as

useless for war purposes. However, the destructive

effects of shells and other incendiary projectiles used

by the Russians against allied ships in an attack upon

Sebastopol led to the immediate use of armour notwithstanding

the previous adverse criticism of English

gunnery officers. Our first experience with armoured

war vessels was the engagement between the Monitor

and the Merrimac during the civil war which resulted

in the sinking of the Confederate Gunboat Merrimac

.>n May 11, 1862.

The discover}- of the pneumatic process of making

wrought iron (or Bessemer process as it is called) by

.Mr. William Kelley, in 1846, reads like a page from

fiction. lie and his brother bought the Suwanee Iron

Works, near Eddyville, Ky., where they had imported

about three hundred Chinese, being opposed to Negro

slavery. They were the first employers to bring in

Chinese labor in any numbers. Kelley's business was

the manufacture of wrought iron kettles for customers

in Cincinnati. His iron was refined in what was

called a "finery fire"—a slow, old-fashioned process

which used up large quantities of charcoal. One day

while watching his finery fire he noticed that the iron

was actually heated by the blast of air at the point

where there was no charcoal. The iron at this spot

was incandescent, yet there was no charcoal—notning

but the steady blast of air. The next week he publically

demonstrated the idea, converting some pig iron

into horseshoes and shoeing a horse with the metal.

There were steamboats on the Ohio River with boilers

made of iron that had been refined by Kelley's process,

years before Sir Henry Bessemer of England had made

any experiments with iron. It is no longer questioned

that the pneumatic process was an American and not

a British discovery.

Closely following the pneumatic or Bessemer

process came the Siemens-Martin or Open Hearth

process. As with the Bessemer, the open hearth

method for the manufacture of steel did not originate

with either Dr. Siemens or the Martins, having been

proposed and experimented with by various other inventors

prior to their connections with it, among

whom Josia Marshall Heath was most prominent.

But the process was not made a success until the great

,heat of the Siemens regenerative furnace was applied

to it. It is said that M. Breant of France was the

first to suggest that method of making steel.

With the introduction of steel ingots of increasing

size, many difficulties were encountered in their reduction

under the hammer. Steam hammers up to

120 tons were made, but because of the breakage of

the hammers and the tackle on the ingots due to excessive

vibration, they did not prove unqualifiedly

successful. Along with the advent of the heavier ingots

came the double acting type of hammer. This

alteration enabled a heavier blow to be struck, due to

the increased velocity of the descending hammer thru

admitting steam on the top of the piston. Moreover,

hydraulic and steam-operated jib cranes were used in

place of the hand-worked winches to handle the

heavier ingots.

The hammers which we have heretofore referred

to were used in forging between plain dies, smooth

forgings and various other pieces more or less uniform

January, 1925

in shape, and not many of any particular piece required

at, or in, a given time. In 1890 there began to

be a demand for small forgings of miscellanous shapes

which could not be made under a hammer using plain

dies. This demand lead to the making cif dies with

an impression in each, but as these impressions must

be in line at all times it becomes necessarv to redesign

the hammer to accommodate them. Thus a hammer

known as a board drop hammer came into use which

answered the purpose very nicely and many of these

,are still in use. However, on account of the method

,of operating these hammers, that is, by means of rollers

working in conjunction with a vertical board, the

,size is naturally limited and with the growth of the

automobile industry many larger pieces were required

in greater numbers than could be made under this

jtype hammer. About 1904 the steam drop hammer

.appeared and from that time on the development has

been very rapid until we now have steam drop hammers

up to 160 tons which when operated at 100 lbs.

pressure are capable of striking a blow at the impact

of approximately 9,000 tons.

The first hydraulic press was made in 1795 by

Braman, but there is no evidence to show it was designed

for forgings. It seems this pifss was used

entirely for bailing purposes and it was not until 1847

that a Mr. Fox, recognizing the possibilities of this

type of machine, conceived the idea of fitting tools

into Braman's press and using it for forging purposes.

Several additional improvements were made

within a few years and in 1861 Mr. Haswell successfully

used a press in railway shops in Vienna for

manufacturing locomotive forgings. fin the manufacture

of large forgings the press was found to be ideal,

the deeper and more uniform penetration obtainable

resulting in an improved quality of material hitherto


i JS!

•Hi iHtwii

, WjsSk

/*% Ip

¥ W,

ha/,- fH

" i (.^


' "',

Fbrging-Stamping - Heat Treating

fekJffl••'?' P •: I'll 1 1 m~

Lib? • '•. . •" - • • « • ';'',s

'.,'-.:,- ^Ps§S*»^SE^^'y •" '•*• '-•'•*•-• '" ^^-'"y^^^. • "'/': '-'V*raLJ-^ .

FIG. 8—The old hand-fed blast furnace.

The superiority- of large pressed forgings is now

universally recognized, many railroad specifications

requiring that for important forgings such as locomotive

driving axles, etc., the reduction from bloom or

ingot shall be made under a press of proper capacity.

In our paper we have traced the growth of the industry

from the early ages and in almost every case

improvements were necessitated by the demand for

larger forgings. As forgings increased in size, new

methods were required for their manipulation and

manufacture until it seemed there would be no limit

to the size of material in demand. However, increased

size meant increased weight and unwieldly equipment,

a severe handicap, especially on moving parts.

In recent years metallurgists have striven to produce

materials of greater strength per square inch, therebyreducing

weight and all the attendant evils. Thus

the alloy steels came into prominence and along with

the alloys came the development of scientific heat

treatment, the hollow boring of large forgings, so that

the cry of today is for lighter forgings of increased

strength, calling a halt on mere bulk and demanding

of each square inch of steel a carrying power undreamed

of by our forefathers.

Now then, we are preserving a niche in the hall of

fame for the producer of a piston rod that won't break

and a die block that won't wear out.

Acknowledgement is made to Mr. J. A. Mathews,

President Crucible Steel Company, and "The Chronology

of Iron and Steel," published by Pittsburgh

Steel Foundries Company, for several items of historical

prominence incorporated in this paper.

General Furnace Co. Takes Over Tate-Jones

Tate-Jones & Company, Pittsburgh, Pa., manufacturers

of gas and oil-fired and electric furnaces, gas

and oil burners and accessories, has made an arrangement

whereby all sales will be handled by the General

Furnace Company, 1015 Chestnut Street, Philadelphia,

Pa. Tate-Jones & Company will continue the manufacture

of equipment.

The General Furnace Company will take over the

Tate-Jones sales force and sales offices. This arrangement

went into effect January 1, 1925.

A. E. S. C. Elects Officers

At the annual meeting of the American Engineering

Standards Committee on December 11, Mr. Charles

E. Skinner, a representative of the American Institute

of Electrical Engineers, was elected chairman for the

vear 1925, and Mr. Charles Rufus Harte, representative

of the American Electric Railway Association, was

elected vice president.

The other members of the executive committee for

the year 1925 ar as follows :

Ralph G. Barrows, U. S. War Department; George

K. Burgess. U. S. Department of Commerce; John A.

Capp, American Society for Testing Materials; Coker

F Clarkson, Society of Automotive Engineers; W. A.

E. Doying, The Panama Canal; Stanley G. Flagg, Jr.,

American Society of Mechanical Engineers; E. A.

Frink, American Railway Association. Eng. Division;

C. S. Gillette. U. S. Navy Department; O. P Hood,

U. S. Department of the Interior; Sullivan W. Jones,

American Institute of Architects; Thomas A. Mac-

Donald, U. S. Department of Agriculture; Charles A.

Mead, American Society of Civil Engineers; A. H.

Moore, Electrical Manufacturers Council; A. Cressy

Morrison. Gas Group; Dana Pierce, Fire Protection

Group; F. L. Rhodes. Telephone Group; S. G. Rhodes,

Electric Light and Power Group; C. F. W. Rys, Association

of American Steel Manufacturers; Ethelebert

Stewart, U. S. Department of Labor; George C.

Stone. American Institute of Mining Engineers, and

Albert W Whitney, Safety Group.


11 forging - S tamping - Heat Treating

January, 1925

P r e s s e d M e t a l T e c h n i c a l S o c i e t y N e e d e d

Technical Society Devoted Exclusively to Pressed Metal Problems

Would Do Much to Improve Methods and Products

T H E question as to the value of the various tech-*

nical societies and organizations, devoted to the

interests of one industry or another, is much discussed,

and while some are of the opinion that there

is too much duplication of effort along this line, the

actual accomplishments support the general opinion

that they have rendered a valuable service, not onlyr

to members but to industry in general. Some concerns

feel that they are overburdened by the expense of

their representatives attending the numerous conventions

and meetings held throughout the year, but

with few exceptions the returns more than compensate

for the expense.

While most of our large industries are represented

bv their own societies, or at least take part in the

Activities of some society that can best serve their

needs, it is surprising to note that pressed metal

manufacturers devote little, if any* attention to such

Work. For more than a year Forging-Stamping-Heat

Treating has been quietly advocating the formation of

a pressed metal technical society, but only after a

thorough investigation had been made to determine

whether such a movement was under way elsewhere,

or if the activities of such a society would conflict

with other existing societies.

That the pressed metal industry should be represented

bv a society devoted exclusively to the discussion

of its own problems is borne out by the fact that

Upwards of 5,000 companies are engaged in this work.

O lly a part of this number are commercial manufacturers,

but nevertheless it does not alter the fact that

their problems still remain to lie solved.

The formation of a pressed metal section or division

in one of our large national societies should not

be given serious consideration as such action would

only tend to cause greater confusion to programs that

are already overcrowded with technical papers. Those

who attend the numerous national conventions will

agree that the proper benefit is not derived from the

many interesting papers presented; so much work

being scheduled for the various sessions as to leave

little time for discussion. Even the holding of semiannual

meetings instead of the one annual convention

or the scheduling of simultaneous sessions has not

brought about the desired relief. In view of this condition,

it does not seem advisable to consider joining

forces with any of our existing societies, as the problems

of the pressed metal manufacturer would only be

a secondary consideration to the purpose for which the

parent society was originally formed.

Societies formed 10 years ago were adequate to

serve the needs of its members, but whatever field it

covered at that time has become divided into many

specialized branches. Papers that used to be of interest

to all members now only interest those specializing

in that department with which the paper deals.


—Purposes of Such a Society Are Outlined


That this condition actually exists is verified by the

tendency of the technical societies to group papers

that deal with specific subjects.

Some of the larger manufacturers of pressed metal

products are inclined to feel that suggestions for forming

a society covering their particular field amount to

an interference with their rights. In several cases

they have gone so far as to say that they do not favor

the organization of a pressed metal technical society

as it would give the small manufacturer the benefit of

their experience, entirely overlooking the fact that

they themselves were once in the embryonic stage.

Perhaps the small concern can give his larger competitor

many valuable pointers in the art of pressing

metal, for it is not at all uncommon for large concerns

to turn down work that may involve preliminary experimental

work or in which failures may be high,

either by quoting high prices or stating their inabilty

to make delivery. The natural result is that the "undesirable"

work is thrown upon the small producer

who must possess a great deal of ability to profitably

handle it. The idea that the large concern has a

"corner" on experience is erroneous, for it is usually

lack of sufficient financial backing rather than the

lack of experience that has held the small concern


Some manufacturer, if desiring to learn competitors'

"secrets," will get them, regardless of the tactics

he must employ. If others think they are withholding

information fro mtheir competitor, they are only deceiving

themselves. Why not get together, then, and

get something in return? Co-operation is absolutely

essential to the success of any business, and the same

is true of any particular industry. The principle of

open-mindedness that is characteristic of most American

industries is responsible for much of their success.

Teamwork is a pre-eminent factor in the successful

administration of industrial activities and dispels


The pressed metal industry's need is for real teamwork

in the free exchange of technical information

and in the common effort to advance the industry by

improving the quality of the product. This can only

be accomplished through the formation of a technical

organization where the pressed metal manufacturer,

the user and those who supply equipment and raw

material can get together and discuss every phase of

the industry.

The purposes for which a pressed metal technical

society should be formed might be outlined as follows:

1—To promote the arts and sciences connected

with the pressing of metals, and the study of subjects

relating to manufacturing, uses and properties

of pressed metal parts.

2—To hold meetings for the reading and discussion

of papers bearing upon processes, equipment,

apparatus, etc., used in practical and research

work connected with the art.

January, 1925

3—To collect, publish and disseminate technical

and practical knowledge for the improvement

of pressed metal practice.

4—To closely unite those engaged in the executive,

technical and practical branches of the


5—To collect worth-while ideas and improved

methods for its members.

6—To disseminate information as to the accomplishments

and possibilities of pressed metal.

Much credit should be given to technical societies

for their part in building up our great industrial system.

Almost without exception their meetings are

open to all who may care to atttend, where executives

and artisans meet on common ground to discuss the

numerous problems encountered.

Like the proverbial chain, industrial plants are no

stronger than the individuals in charge of the various

departments. Some men enter into their work with a

venturesome spirit, because the dominating idea in

their minds is the achievement of success. To others,

work is a drudgery, and they labor merely because it

is essential to existence.

The success of any concern depends entirely upon

the initiative and self-confidence of the operating

officials. Such men are always seeking to increase

production or to cut production costs by improving

conditions and adopting new methods. Behind all

this there is an inspiration that tends to foster greater

accomplishments. It is association with other men

prominent in their particular field, at their plant or at

meetings and conventions, that broadens the mind. The

discussion of experiences in the numerous phases of

their respective trade or profession serves as an inspiration,

and tends to stimulate a greater interest in

their work.

The convention offers great opportunities for the

man who has little time to visit other plants; and

the contact with others in his particular profession is

decidedly beneficial. It is upon such occasions that

real accomplishments are achieved through the expression

of opinion and experiences of the country's

greatest engineers and scientists. New acquaintances

are made and old friendships strengthened, thus developing

a broader influence that will reflect favorably

upon the service rendered to industry.

The friendly co-operation between the various

companies during the World War was an important

factor in bringing it to a victorious conclusion, due in

a large measure to the noble work of our many societies

and the friendly relationship created at their

meetings. Any mind is bound to become stagnant if

constantly engaged in the daily routine grind of the

shop, or if engaged in research or development is apt

to lose sight of the fact that others may be working

along the same line. By working co-operatively much

duplication of effort can be eliminated. Many of the

industries' largest problems have been solved in this

manner that would otherwise have been passed over

untouched, due to the enormous expense and time


The art of pressing metal is comparatively in its

infancy, but the remarkable results that have been

prising designer ahead. achieved how In has so spite little far of the indicate of knowledge these possibilities that accomplishments the it average has of pressed a great engineer it is metal. future sur­ or

Fbrging-Stamping - Heat Treating

Whenever anyone suggests the use of pressed metal,

he associates it with toys or novelties and gives it

little if any further consideration. The advantages of

pressed metal over parts produced by other methods

are well known to the pressed metal manufacturer,

but facilities for demonstrating this to prospective

users are limited and slow in bringing results.

As the use of pressed metal is extended to heavier

work, more powerful presses and better die steels will

be required. The mild or low carbon steels of today

will be replaced with harder and stronger alloy steels

as the demand for stronger and better wearing parts

increases, necessitating smaller draws and more frequent

annealing, thus adding to the difficulties of the

pressed metal engineer.

In view of the many advantages to be gained

through the formation of a pressed metal technical

society, it is to be hoped that the year 1925 will witness

a move in this direction, and that before another

year rolls by it will be on the way to occupy a position

among our other leading societies.

In March of last year Henry L. Doherty & Company

announced the acquisition, through Combustion

Utilities Corporation, of the Surface Combustion

Company, Inc., industrial furnace engineers and manufacturers.

Combustion Utilities Corporation has just announced

the consolidation of the personal and activities

of its appliances and industrial furnace departments

with those of the Surface Combustion Company',

Inc. The greater organization continuing under

the name of the Surface Combustion Company,

Inc., will be the Utilization Division of Combustion

Utilities Corporation.

Under the consolidation Henry O. Loebell continues

as president of the Surface Combustion Company,

Inc.; E. E. Basquin, vice president and general

manager, W. M. Hepburn, vice president; Frank H.

Adams, treasurer, and E. M. Doig, secretary. Paul J.

Nutting, formerly in charge of Toledo Appliance Division

of Combustion Utilities Corporation, becomes

vice president in charge of production. C. B. Phillips,

former sales manager Toledo dvision, becomes vice

president and sales manager of the Stock Furnace Division,

which will include all the well-known "improved"

and "utility" appliances, and the "Blue Line"

furnaces. F. Wr. Manker, previously in charge of

Combustion Utilities large furnace department, becomes

vice president and will be associated with Mr.

Hepburn in the large furnace division.

The Surface Combustion Company, Inc., sales and

general offices will be continued at 366-368 Gerard

avenue, New York, and all production at Toledo.

In commenting on this consolidation Mr. Loebell

said: "This consolidation unites in one unit the utilization,

engineering and sales personnel of these two

organizations, so well known 'Wherever Heat is Used

in Industry.' It brings to all industries the skilled

services of the largest family of combustion engineers,

whose skill is exemplified in equipment for the utilization

of fuel with the utmost economy, but which

makes for easier control. Wre will continue to forge

ahead and force progress in efficient fuel utilization in

industry ment, industry and by in a its providing well great rounded strides a complete organization forward."

line of furnace to assist equip­ all



forging - Stamping - Heat Treating

January, 1925

S t a m p i n g P l a n t D e s i g n e d for S m a l l W o r k

New Plant of the Acklin Stamping Company at Toledo, Ohio,

Designed to Handle a Wide Variety of Small Work—

T H E use of pressed metal parts is gaining momentum

as the various engineers are beginning to

recognize their many advantages. Absolute uniformity

from piece to piece, lightness of weight, and

the fact that such parts require little, if any, machining

after they come from the press are only a few of the

reasons why pressed metal is gaining in popularity.

The facilities of many plants are inadequate to

handle this class of work to meet present day competition,

having been built some years ago and enlarged

from time to time by an addition here and there. What

advantages the original plant may have possessed

have been lost by the numerous enlargements until

it can no longer produce work at a profit. This is

particularly true in a plant doing a jobbing business,

where a great variety of work must be handled. Such

a plant must be laid out with a view- to expediting

orders received on short notice.

The Acklin Stamping Company, Toledo, Ohio, recently

moved into their new plant at Nebraska Avenue

and the New York Central Railroad. The building

is of modern fire proof construction, consisting of

brick, steel and glass, 600 ft. in length by 150 ft. wide

and located on a 16 acre site, which allows ample room

for expansion. The building is divided into three bays,

each 50 ft. in width, the center bay being served by a

10-ton crane.

The presses are lined up in comparatively small

groups, with separate drives for each group, thereby

removing the danger of departmental shut-down. The

small and medium sized presses are located in the

north bay; the heavy press equipment is located in

the center bay where it is served to advantage by the

crane. The heavy presses have individual drives, and

are also equipped with stationary jib cranes attached

to their frames to facilitate handling of large dies and

bolster plates.

In the south bay are also located the tumbling,

grinding, annealing and welding rooms, so located as

to reduce the trucking of parts in process to a minimum.

These rooms are completely closed so as to

eliminate noise, dust, and heat, from the rest of the

plant. In the same bay is located the space for die

storage, in which is kept the innumerable dies made

for the customer's work.

The balance of the south bay is taken up with a

space provided for steel storage'and receiving. This

end of the building is served with a side track running

Ample Room Provided for Future Expansion

the entire length, above which is a three-ton monorail

for unloading coal and loading scrap, etc. Incoming

steel is taken from the floor of the car direct into the

steel storage space. Here are located shears of various

sizes for cutting the stock to size from standard

sheets on requisition from the press room. Considering

the variety of work handled in a jobbing business,

this is an important part of the service, for not all jobs

are of sufficient size or nature to warrant the purchase

of special sizes of strip steel. The raw material is

delivered to the press room on lift trucks by means of

a gasoline tractor.

In the west end of the building is a section devoted

entirely to the manufacture of pressed steel steering

wheel spiders for automobile use. The equipment in

this department consists of the proper sizes of presses

so arranged as to eliminate the handling of parts to

a minimum between operations. In addition there is

the equipment for melting the alloys from which the

hub of the spider is cast, as well as a motor driven

turn table used in the casting operation. The special

machining, tapping, etc., required for special designs

is also handled in this department.

On the east end are located the general offices, as

well as 16,000 square feet for the die shop. Here is

a variety of equipment which enables approximately

60 die makers to turn out new production dies and

tools, as well as to take care of maintenance on old

production equipment.

As the Acklin Stamping Company is practically engaged

in a jobbing business, the new plant has an

ideal layout for handling a wide variety of work. The

arrangement also assists in expediting orders which

are received on short notice. Among other parts produced

are the majority of those required in automobile

and truck construction, and many others for stove and

furniture use, as well as electrical devices.

In 1911, Grafton M. Acklin resigned as general

manager of the Toledo Machine and Tool Company,

selling out his interest in that concern. He founded

the Acklin Stamping Company for the benefit of his

two sons, James M. Acklin and W. Collord Acklin,

who have been active in the management of the firm

since that time. At a still later date a third son, Donald

R. Ackhn, went into the firm.

Associated in the firm with the Acklin brothers are

Duane T. Anderson as chief engineer; F. Cyril Greenlull,

production manager and Harold Jay as sales engineer.

January, 1925

FIG. 1—Small presses.

FIG. 2—Die shop.

Pickling of Iron and Steel

The pickling of iron and steel is an important industrial

undertaking and many of the technical problems

involved are of live interest in the Pittsburgh

region. Since there is no book on the subject, and

adequate information is not readily found, the Technology

Department of the Carnegie Library of Pittsburgh

has compiled a list of references to the scattered

literature in journals and patent specifications. During

1924, this bibliography appeared serially in two

forging- Stamping - Heat Treating

FIG. 3—Medium presses.

FIG. 4—Die shop.

FIG. 5—Steel storage.

FIG. 6—Center bay.

local journals—"The Blast Furnace and Steel Plant,"

and "Forging-Stamping-Heat Treating." The library

has now published the material in pamphlet form and

copies are available for distribution free (by mail, 5


The list, which was compiled by Victor S. Polansky,

contains more than 300 references classified under various

headings, such as: Machines and Equipment,

Pickling in Acid Solutions, Pickling in Salt Solutions,

Electrolytic Pickling, Inhibitors and Accelerators, Recovery

of Spent Liquors, and Effect of Pickling.



Forging - S tamping - Heat Treating



January, 1925

A P r a c t i c a l C o u r s e in t h e E l e m e n t s o f



ONE of the oldest methods of testing steel is the

fracture test, in which the piece is broken, and

the exposed surface, or so-called "grain", carefully

examined. This is still widely used, and to the skilled

observer yields a surprising amount of information as

to the fineness or coarseness of true grain, presence of

blowholes, flaws, or inclusions, overheating or underheating

in heat treatment, approximate carbon content,

etc. However a highly trained eye is needed, the

results are limited at best, and the indications may

readily be misleading. For example, a piece of steel

may show a very different "grain", depending upon

whether it is broken byr gradual bending, or nicked

and broken by a sudden blow. The real grain structure

of metals is generally so small that it is invisible

to the naked eye, and can be revealed only by the

compound microscope.

In an effort to get more accurate information from

studyr of the fracture, an early scientific investigator

used the microscope to examine fractures, but little

was gained, because the surface of the break was too

irregular to permit focusing a microscope of high

power, and a clear image could not be obtained. Moreover,

the act of breaking a piece of metal will generally

distort or destroy at that point, the very structure

which it is desired to examine. Pioneers in Metallog-

*The author wishes to acknowledge his indebtedness to the

following references for information contained in this section,

and to recommend them to the student for further reading: (5)

"The Preparation of Metallographic Specimens," H. M. Boylston,

A.S.S.T. Handbook; (6) Circular of the Bureau of Standards,

No. 113—"Structure and Related Properties of Metals"; (7)

"Introduction to Physical Metallurgy." Rosenhain; (8) "The

Metallography & Heat Treatment of iron and Steel," Sauveur.

P h y s i c a l M e t a l l u r g y

The author is Chief Metallurgist, Naval Aircraft Factory,

United States Navy Yard. Philadelphia, Pa.

Copyright. 1924, by H. C. Knerr.

raphy (Sorby in England, Martens in Germany, Osmond

in France) soon found that the best way to

study the microscopic structure, or "microstructure"

of metals, was to prepare a "section", by grinding a

small flat surface, polishing it to remove all scratches,

and etching it with an acid or other reagent to reveal

the individual grains and constituents. Later it was

found that this process of polishing and etching could

be applied, to larger sections for the purpose of revealing

characteristics large enough to be seen without

the aid of a microscope, that is the "macrostructure."

Taking the specimen for metallographic examination

requires particular care and judgment, for it must

truly represent the part under examination, and the

structure must not be altered in cutting or preparing

the specimen. A record should be made of the position

of the specimen in the piece, and the relation of

the prepared surface to the direction of forging or

rolling. A sketch is helpful. In most cases a longitudinal

section yields more information than a transverse

section as it shows the effects of elongation due

to working. For a microsection the specimen should

not be larger than necessary, and may in many cases

be quite small. A section y2 inch square or round is a

good size. It is much easier to polish four pieces l/t

inch square than one piece 1 inch square. The height

dimension (perpendicular to the prepared surface)

should also be about y2 inch, for convenience in handling.

If the specimen is too high it is difficult to hold

it true in grinding and polishing, and a rounded surface

results. The polished surface must be true and

flat, otherwise it will be impossible to focus uniformly

at high magnifications, and parts of the image will be


When the sample is not too hard or tough, specimens

are generally cut out with a hack saw. Brittle

material may be nicked on an emery wheel and broken

with a hammer. A thin alundum or carborundum

disk wheel about 3/32 in. thick, running in water to

January, 1925

prevent heating, is very useful in cutting hard or

tough specimens. Distortion of the metal and heat

must be avoided. Each specimen should be marked

to identify it.

Very small specimens may be held or mounted in

various devices for convenience in handling and to insure

flatness of the surface, and also to prevent rounding

of the edges. The writer has found a set of metal

clamps, such as is illustrated in Fig. 18, quite useful

for holding specimens of a variety of shapes and sizes.

These are cheaply and easily made from square or

rectangular bar stock, and small machine screws.

Several small specimens may be polished at one time

in such a clamp. After examination the specimens

may be removed, and the clamp used again. The

specimen should be allowed to extend slightly beyond

the face of the clamp at the start, so as to avoid

grinding away too much of the clamp. The clamps

are worn away on the grinding surfaces in time, but

are readily replaced. Specimens, such as fine wire,

thin sheet, turnings and even filings, may be imbedded

in some low melting alloy, in sealing wax, or in a

composition made of litharge (PbO) and glycerine

mixed to a thick paste. The latter sets and forms a

very hard surface, which does not interfere with the

polishing of the specimens (ref. 6). The mounting

material is held in a small container consisting of a

short section of tube or gas pipe, or in a gas pipe cap,

Fig. 19. The outside diameter of the container should

be about y2 or y in. The following low melting alloys

or fuse metals are suggested by various authorities.

Any of them will melt in boiling water:

Campion an d

Metal Ferguson












•Parts by weight.














Ordinary tin-lead solder may be used where it is known that

its melting temperature will not affect the specimen.

Specimens may be copper-plated to assist in protecting

the edges of the polished surface. Directions

for doing this are given in ref. (6). The writer has

found, however, that the presence of other metals often

has a tendency to interfere with the etching of the

specimen, and therefore, prefers to use a clamp or

holder of the same metal as the specimen (steel for

steel or iron, aluminum for aluminum, etc.) and avoid

the use of fusible alloys or plating.


Polishing is done in several steps:

1. Grinding or filing to produce a flat surface.

2. Rough polishing.

3. Fine polishing.

The work may be performed by hand, but it generally

pays to provide motor driven grinding and polishing

wheels. These may be mounted either vertically

or horizontally. Various types are on the market,

some of which are illustrated in Fig. 20. Many

laboratories construct their own.

After cutting off the specimen and, if necessary,

placing it in a clamp or holder, the face to be polished

is first ground perfectly flat, on a medium fine, medium

hard grinding wheel, running at about 1200 rpm. The

forging- Stamping - Heat Treating

specimen is held in the fingers and is kept cool by

frequently dipping it in water, or running a small

stream on it. The flat side of the wheel is used. Pressure

should be light and a good cutting action insured.

For soft metals, a file may be used instead of

grinding. The file should be placed flat on the table

or held in a vise, and the specimen moved back and

forth along it.

It is well to remove 1/32 in. or 1/16 in. of metal

in the first grinding or filing operation, or more, if

necessary, to get down to metal which has not been

distorted in cutting or breaking off the specimen.

When this has been done, and the surface is perfectly

flat, the edges may be slightly rounded so that they

will not catch in subsequent polishing papers and

clothes. Where sharp edges are called for they should

be protected by the clamp or holder, as they will

otherwise be unavoidably rounded to some extent in

polishing, and this will prevent a clear focus.

The next operation is rough polishing. This may

be done on a medium fine grade of emery cloth or

paper, laid on a flat slab, such as a piece of plate glass.

(Grade numbers vary with different makes. French

No. 1 is recommended by Boylston, ref. 5. The

FIG. 18.—Clamps for holding specimens. FIG. 19.—Tube and

gas cap holder. FIG. 21.—Mounting device for use with

upright microscope.

writer has found an American grade 00 satisfactory

The student can choose a suitable grade by trial. Cutting

should be fairly rapid, but the marks distinctly

finer than those left by the grinding wheel or file.)

Instead of emery cloth, Turkish emery flour, may

be used—grade FF, spread wet on a flat disk covered

with cloth, such as 12 ounce canvas duck. The

specimen should be held so that the new polishing

marks run at right angles to the grinding or file marks,

and rough polishing continued until all the old marks

are removed.

After each successive grinding and polishing operation,

and before going to the next finer grade, the

specimen should be thoroughly cleaned (washed in

running water, if necessary), to remove all of the

coarser abrasive material. If this is neglected, deep

scratches may result, which will greatly lengthen the


Rough polishing is often done in several stages, as

by following the No. 1 French emery with Nos. 0, 00

and 000. At each stage the specimen is turned through

90 degrees, and polished until all the preceeding

scratches are removed. Polishing on successive

stages of emery paper, may well be done by hand, on


20 forging - S tamping - Heat Treating

a plate glass slab, as each step takes only a minute or

two. The paper should not be used after it ceases

to cut freely. Pressure should be light. It is easy to

spoil a well ground specimen, by rounding its surface,

in rough polishing.

Final polishing is done on a flat metal disk, covered

with broadcloth, wet with a mixture of polishing

powder and water, and revolving at about 600 revolutions

per minute. The specimen is pressed gently

on the revolving disk, and given a slight eliptical motion

near the end of the operation, to eliminate

streaks resulting from the motion of the wheel. It

is often a good plan to stop the wheel, add some fresh

polishing powder, and rub the specimen a few times

on the broad cloth by hand, as a final operation.

If steel specimens are rough polished down to No.

000 French emery, the final polish may be obtained

in a single operation, using levigated alumina powder

(AljOs). Some prefer to stop the rough polishing at

an earlier stage, and use two steps in final polishing—

the first being done with white reground tripoli powder

or alundum powder 65 F, and the last with levigated

alumina grade No. 3, or with "superfine" magnesia

powder. A different disk is used for each grade

of powder. Jewelers' rouge was formerly used by

many as a final polishing powder, but is rapidly going

out of favor because it has a persistent tendency to

leave scratches, stains the clothing and fingers and

does not cut so freely as alumina.

The finally polished surface should have a mirrorlike

finish, practically free from even microscopic

scratches. There should be no smearing or buffing

action in any of the polishing operations. A free cutting

action should be maintained throughout. The

polished specimen should be carefully washed and

dried. The surface may be wiped with a clean soft

chamois skin, but should not be touched with the fingers.

Specimens may be wrapped in cotton or soft

January, 1925

tissue paper, or placed in a dessicator until ready for

etching and examination. Hard specimens are usually

easier to polish than soft ones.

A polishing disk having a horizontal face (axis

vertical) is believed to be the more convenient, and

easier to keep clean, as it can be covered with a lid

when not in use. A good grade of broad cloth is

stretched over the face of the disk, by means of a brass

ring. The fine polishing powder has a tendency to

work through the cloth and form lumps underneath.

This may be prevented by heating the disk, spreading

on its surface a molten mixture of equal parts resin

and beeswax, and pressing the cloth flat down on this.

When the disk cools, the cloth is firmly cemented to

its surface.

Levigation of Polishing Powder.

The grinding wheels, emery cloth and paper, and

coarser polishing powders can be purchased from various

supply houses, ready for use. The aluminum oxide

is obtainable from a chemical supply house, as AL03

—CP (Chemically Pure), but usually must be refined

and cleaned before being used for fine polishing. This

process is called "levigation", and is performed as follows


Instructions for Levigation of Aluminum Oxide

Polishing Powder for Final Polishing of

Metallographic Specimens.

Step No. 1. Place about 25 cc. of aluminum oxide

(APO,—CP) in a 2,500 cc. (2y to 3 quarts), bottle.

Add 2,000 cc. (about 2 quarts) of water and 8 cc.

nitric acid (UNO,, cone). Shake well and let stand

for three or more days.

No. 2—Siphon off and discard solution.

No. 3—Add 2,000 cc. water to remaining powder.

Shake well and let stand for at least 24 hours. Siphon

off water and again add 2,000 cc. water, shake and al-

FIG. 20.—Left—Wysor combined grinding and polishing machine, single spindle type. The grinding wheels for roughing,

medium and finishing are of carborundum or alundum and are attached at the ends of the horizontal shaft. The polishing

discs are of brass with c.oth covers, easily replacable, and are mounted on the head of the vertical spindle. The

drive is by horizontal shaft with friction wheel, readily disengaged by means of a cam. The speed of the discs is controlled

by shifting the shaft contact. Polishing is done first, with a canvas covered disc and emory flour, and then with

a broadcloth disc and tripoli powder, and finally broadcloth disc and alumina or jeweler's rouge. Tin cases are provided

for holding the discs when not in use. Right—Sauveur grinding and polishing machine—An electric motor with

elongated carries at one end an Alundum wheel for grinding and at the other a cloth-covered disc for polishing

providing four surfaces of graduated fineness. The polishing powders are mixed with water and applied to the various'

discs which by is means the speed of brushes recommended Sheet for metal this shields work.

catch any surplus water thrown off during driving. Worn polishing

cloths are quickly replaced. The motor is entirely (A. protected H. Thomas from Co.) grit and dust and runs quietlv - bout 1200 r D m '*

January, 1925

low to settle for 24 hours or more. Repeat this washing

a third time to get rid of all traces of nitric acid.

No. 4—Finally, add 2,000 cc. water to the powder,

shake well and let stand for 15 or 20 minutes. At

the end of this time the coarser part of the powder

will have settled to the bottom of the bottle, but the

fine powder will remain in suspension. Siphon off

this "emulsion" of fine powder into a clean bottle and

let stand until all the powder settles and the water is

practically clear. This water may now be siphoned

off and the fine polishing powder remains.

No. 5—The remaining coarse powder may again be

shaken up with 2,000 cc. water and allowed to settle

for 20 minutes, whereupon a second lot of fine powder

will remain in suspension, and may be siphoned off

and allowed to settle as before.

Distilled water should be used in all operations if

available, otherwise filtered water. Accuracy in measuring

quantities is not essential. The levigated powder

is shaken up with enough water to make a fluid,

and kept in a small stoppered glass bottle. In use,

the bottle is shaken, and a few drops of the water,

carrying some of the powder in suspension, is sprinkled

on the polishing disk. It is very important to keep

the polishing powder, the polishing wheel, and the

finer grades of emery paper perfectly free from dust

and dirt. One or more specks of grit may produce

many scratches in a specimen, which will take a long

time to remove. In case a specimen gets scratched in

final polishing, it is best to go back to a coarser grade

of emery and repolish. It does not pay to attempt

to remove pronounced scratches in the final polishing


The polished surface must, of course, be truly

parallel to the focal plane of the microscope, or, what

is the same thing, parallel to the stage. This is automatically

taken care of in the inverted microscope.

In case an inverted microscope is not available, specimens

may be mounted by means of a device such as

illustrated in Fig. 21. The specimen is placed with

its polished face down on a flat surface, protected by

a sheet of clean paper, inside of a short tube, having

parallel ends. A piece of plastic wax is placed on top

of it, and a microscope slide, or other small flat piece,

pressed down until it rests on the ring. The wax

attaches the specimen to the slide, which is then placed

on the stage of the microscope. Sauveur has patented

a magnetic specimen holder, which is convenient for

similar purposes, illustrated in ref. 8, Fig. 9.


Under the microscope, a well polished specimen

shows a perfectly smooth, bright surface, except that

non-metallic inclusions, such as slag, oxides or manganese

sulfide, are plainly revealed. Fig. 22. It is

therefore well to examine for non-metallic inclusions

before etching.

The grain structure in a polished specimen is hidden

by an extremely thin layer of metal which has

been "smeared", or flowed over the surface in final

polishing. (This smearing action cannot be completely

avoided, owing to the nature of metals, as explained

in Rosenhain, ref. 7, Chapter II, but it must be kept

at a minimum, as discussed under polishing.)

The'surface layer is removed and the structure of

the metal revealed by "etching", that is, by attacking

the metal with a solvent, such as an acid. After the

forging- Stamping - Heat Treating

surface film is removed, the constituents and the various

grains are differently attacked by the reagent.

If the sample is pure metal, or a solid solution, such

as carbonless iron, individual grains are attacked differently,

according to their "orientation", that is, the

arrangement of their crystalline planes. This will

make some grains appear dark and others bright. The

grain boundaries will also become clearly marked. If

there are different constituents such as iron and iron

carbide (cementite), certain of them will stand out in

FIG. 22.—(a) Polished specimen, unetched. (b) Same after

etching. (lOOx.)

relief, and whether they are bright or dark will de

pend not only upon their actual condition, but also

upon how the light strikes them. Certain etching reagents

affect certain constituents in distinctive ways.

A great variety of etching reagents has been developed

for different purposes, but for all ordinary work,

a very few will be found sufficient.

Perhaps the most useful for etching steel, is a dilute

solution, from 1 per cent to 10 per cent, of nitric

acid (UNO,) in alcohol. A 2 per cent solution is

recommended. (Add 2 cc. concentrated nitric acid,

sp. gr. 1.42, to 98 cc. ethyl (grain) alcohol, 95 per

cent.) This should be kept in a bottle having a glass

stopper. When ready to etch, a glass dish about 2 in.

to 3 in. in diameter is filled to a depth of about l/^ in.

with the reagent and the specimen dipped in, polished

face down, moved about gently, without being allowed

to touch the bottom. It is observed every few seconds

to note the progress of the attack. (The surface

becomes slightly dull.) High carbon steel etches

rapidly, sometimes in two or three seconds, low carbon

steel more slowly. It is better to under etch than

over etch. When etching has progressed far enough

the specimen is rinsed in water to remove the acid,

and then in alcohol (95 per cent) to remove the water,

and carefully dried, with a clean soft chamois, or in

a warm place or a draft of warm air. If examination

under the microscope now shows that etching has

been insufficient, the process may be repeated.

Another widely used etching reagent is the following:

5 grams of picric acid, CgH^NO^OH, chemically

pure, is dissolved in 95 cubic centimeters ethyl alcohol,

95 per cent. The solution must be kept in a well

stoppered glass bottle.

Cementite (carbide of iron), the hardest constituent

of steel, remains bright after etching in the usual

etching reagents, and may therefore sometimes be



mistaken for ferrite (iron jwhich also remains bright

under certain conditions. If the polished specimen is

immersed in a boiling solution of sodium picrate for

5 or 10 minutes, the cementite will be colored brown

or black, but the ferrite will be unaffected. This affords

a sure method of identifying cementite. The

reagent may be prepared as follows: Dissolve 24.5

grams of caustic soda (sodium hydroxide, NaOH,

C. P.) in 73.5 cc. water, and dissolve 2 grams picric

acid in this (Ref. 8).

Heaf tinting is an interesting method used to distinguish

certain constituents, especially phosphorus

FIG. 23.—Sulphur Print. FIG. 24.—Deep etching—segregation.

FIG. 25.—Deep etching—stresses. (Rawdon ref. 6.)

in cast iron. The specimen is first etched very lightly

in dilute nitric or picric acid, to remove the surface

film, but not to firing out the grain structure strongly,

and washed and dried. It is then slowly heated on an

electric hot plate, a bath of molten solder, or the like.

The air causes colored oxide films to appear on the

surface. These colors change as oxidation progresses,

but the parts rich in phosphorus color more rapidly,

and will therefore reach a purple or blue color while

the other portions are still yellow, brown, or red. The

specimen is cooled at this point and examined. (Ref. 8.)

A list of etching reagents for various purposes is

given in A. S. S. T. Handbook, data sheets T-7 to T-22.

forging - S tamping - Heat Treating

Rapid Method of Polishing.

January, 1925

The following method of preparing metal specimens

for microscopic examination, described by Mr.

H. B. Pulsifer, Assistant Professor of Metallurgy, Lehigh

University, ("Chem. and Met. Engineering,"

November 5, 1923), is believed worth mentioning here.

He states that this method is not only quicker, but

due to the relief polishing effects, brings out greater

details, at moderate magnifications, than the more

elaborate methods of preparation. He does not recommend

it for magnifications higher than about lOOx,

because the relief obtained is too deep for the focal

plane of the more powerful objectives. His method is

as follows:

The surface is first prepared with a file. The file

marks are ground off with flour emery on a wet wheel,

then the emery marks are removed with tripoli. This

surface is now given a fairly prolonged etch, in the

usual picric or nitric acid solution, which dissolves off

all mechanically flowed surface metal and the deeper

scratches. The specimen is then rubbed by hand, on

a thick layer of wet, levigated tripoli, until smooth.

The etching is repeated with a short attack, and the

surface again smoothed on the board with gentler

passes. A final etching should then display the structure

to advantage. The entire operation should take

3 to 8 minutes.


Wrhen it is necessary to preserve specimens for

some time, after polishing or etching, they must be

protected from moisture. They may be kept in a dessicator,

which is a glass vessel having an air tight lid,

and containing a quantity of un-slacked lime or calcium

chloride to absorb the moisture from the air in

the container. Specimens wrapped in tissue paper

often remain uncorroded for days or even weeks, without

the use of a dessicator. Specimens as a rule become

corroded much more rapidly after they have

been etched. It is therefore better not to etch until

ready to examine. Slight corrosion may often be removed

by repolishing on the disk with alumina.


While the microscopic examination of metals gives

us the best insight into their characteristics, the effects

of various alloying elements, and the changes

which take place in heat treatment, a preliminary examination

of the grosser structure, such as can be seen

with the unaided eye or with a simple magnifying

glass, is very useful. This is called "macroscopic"

examination. It is usually made for the purpose of

revealing chemical or physical non-uniformity, segregations,

flaws, persistent ingot or casting structure,

lines of flow in forging or forming, internal flaws,

fractures, cavities, blow holes, welded areas, etc. As

in the study of microstructure, the exact method of

preparing and treating the specimen will vary with

the characteristic it is desired to bring out. The

area to be examined is of course much larger than for

a microsection, and frequently includes the full cross

section or longitudinal section of the piece. Fine polishing

is not necessary—it is generally satisfactory to

prepare a flat surface by sawing, grinding or machining

(using light finishing cuts to avoid distorting the

structure unduly) and rough polishing on fairly fine

emery cloth.

January, 1925

Sulfur Printing.

Segregation of sulfur is a defect frequently found

in steel. An analysis of the full section of the piece

may show the average sulfur content to be not excessive,

but if most of the sulfur present has collected

in certain areas (as at the center of the ingot), the

content at these areas will be unduly high, and the

metal at these parts consequently weak and unreliable.

This condition is readily detected by the process

known as "sulfur printing". In a dark room, a sheet

of photographic printing paper is immersed in a solution

of 2 per cent sulfuric acid (H,SO,j) in water, until

it becomes saturated, and is then placed face up on a

flat slab such as a piece of plate glass. The roughly

polished specimen is pressed down on the paper and

held for 10 to 30 seconds, taking care to avoid slipping.

The paper will be darkly stained at the areas high in

sulfur. The print should be fixed in "hypo", and

washed and dried, in the same manner as an ordinary

photographic print. Matte finish paper is better than

glossy, as it is very difficult to prevent slipping- on the

latter. For large pieces, the paper may be pressed

down on the specimen. (Fig. 23, sulphur print.)

Deep Etching.

Macroscopic features of interest, especially chemical

non-uniformity or segregation of impurities, are

often revealed by a rapid and deep attack with a

strong, hot acid (boiling or nearly so). The portions

rich in impurities are attacked most severely, so that

a relief pattern is produced. The kind of acid used

does not matter greatly,, so long as the action is strong

and rapid. Concentrated or 50 per cent hydrochloric

acid is perhaps the most commonly used, but 50 per

cent nitric, or 20 per cent sulfuric, may alsobe employed.

Etching should be continued until the surface

is deeply attacked, sometimes as long as 30

minutes. See Fig. 24, rail head, cracked in service.

This process is also used to locate high internal

stresses, such as may occur in severely cold worked

material, and which might cause failure in service.

Hardened steel balls, for instance, when deeply

etched with hot concentrated hydrochloric acid, may

split open along the planes of stress or weakness, Fig.

25. Minute cracks, such as are sometimes produced

in grinding hardened steel, may also be revealed by

deep etching.

Non-Uniform Grain Structure.

Macroscopic variations in grain structure (areas of

coarse and fine grain, etc.), may be shown by light

etching with the common reagents, but one of the best

is a solution of 1 to 2 grains of ammonium persulfate

[(NH4)2S208] to 10 cc. water. (Ref. 6.) This is

particularly useful in studying welds. Fig. 26.

Magnetic Process.

An ingenious and valuable way of locating minute

cracks or fissures in steel is described by Rawdon,

(Ref. 6). The roughly polished specimen is magnetized

and then immersed in a light oil, such as kerosene,

containing very fine iron dust in suspension— cast

iron mud", such as is obtained from lapping disks,

may be used. The leakage of magnetic flux across

slight discontinuities in the roughly polished surface,

causes iron particles to be attracted to those locations,

marking them clearly. Loose particles of iron are re­

Forging- Stamping - Heat Treating

moved by bathing the specimen in alcohol or clean

kerosene. Fig. 27, (a) before dipping, (b) after dipping.

An acidulated alcoholic solution of cupric chloride

(with various modifications), may be used to show

segregation of certain constituents, notably phosphorus.

Various formulas are used—Stead's reagent

being one of the commonest, as follows: Cupric chloride,

Cu CP—10 grams, magnesium chloride, Mg CP—•

40 grams, hydrochloric acid. HC1 —10 cc, alcohol, 1000

cc. Dissolve the salts in the least possible quantity

of hot water, and make up to 1000 cc. with alcohol.

Apply the solution in a thin layer to the polished and

cleaned surface of the specimen, for about one minute.

FIG. 26.—Non-uniform grain.. FIG. 27.—Magnetic method.

FIG. 28.—Segregation—Stead's Deagent. (Rawdon ref. 6.)

Copper will be deposited on the purer portions. Th

liquid may be shaken off and a fresh layer applied.

Wash the specimen in boiling water and then with

alcohol, to dry it. See Fig. 28.

Macrographic specimens are photographed with an

ordinary camera specially adapted for close work, or

for magnifying up to about three diameters.

(Every student is advised to get a copy of ref. 6,

which contains a great deal of valuable and interesting

information. It may be obtained from the Superintendent

of Documents, Government Printing Office,

Washington, D. C, for 25 cents cash, or money order.


24 Forging - Stamping - Heat Treating

E c o n o m i c a l H a n d l i n g o f M a t e r i a l *

Material Handling, Comparison of the Electric Truck and Gaso­

line Tractor and the Design of Tote Boxes, Racks

T H E Forge Department as usual, when a department

of a manufacturing plant, was placed in the

farthest corner of the property, away from the

main buildings. The heat treat was added later near

the machining departments as at that time most of the

forgings were heat treated after being rough machined.

The steel shed is located next to the forge

shop with a 5-ton overhead crane which serves to unload

cars, the shears under the shed and to deliver

most of the heavy stock to hammers. The grinders

and punch presses for cold trimming are in the forge

shop, the die room and forge department machine shop

are at one end, the tumbling room, inspection department

and die storage at one side and the shipping department

at the other end of the building.

The steel yard under the crane is 57 ft. wide by 352

ft. long, has held 3,000 tons steel stacked at random

leaving no room to get around. At present racks are

being built which will increase the capacity of the yard

over 100 per cent allowing space for railroad track to

run full length of shed and room to get around each

pile for inspection or checking purposes. The racks

are built of pipe placed in a concrete base. The pipes

have about 4 ft. centers. The racks are laid out to

take steel 20 ft. long leaving an open space of 4 ft. between

each end of piles and vacant space has been left

for steel that comes cut in short lengths and other

wide enough to stack without racks.

Stock for forgings. Most of the heavier stock is

delivered by crane to the large hammers in the row

next to the steel shed, the stock being placed on skids

under the crane slides over to the hammers. The balance

of the stock is delivered on tote racks by electric

lift trucks direct to the hammers and upsetting machines,

the heaters working the stock from the racks

into the furnaces.

The flashings are handled in wheel barrows, a

wheel barrow being placed at each hammer. When

hammerman handles flash after forging is trimmed, he

throws it in the wheelbarrow, if the flash and forging

are pushed through the trimming press together. The

checker when counting forgings throws the flash into

the wheel-barrow. One laborer on an average handles

the flash from six hammers.

After the stock is forged or upset the forgings are

handled in different ways, depending on the size and

shape. Stock up-set for hammers is loaded on tote

racks by the operator ready to move to the hammers.

Forgings such as transmission gears, spiders, bevels

and other small parts are counted into the tote box

by the checker at the hammer. Levers, windshields

and long light weight forgings are placed on tote racks

as checked. These forgings are moved in tote boxes

and racks by two electric lift trucks from the hammers

and upsetting machines to the punch presses,

and Trailers Comprehensively Discussed


January, 1925

tumbling room, inspecting department and to the shipping

platform. At each operation that may be required

on the forging, the operator works from the

loaded container performing the operation, then placing

the piece in an empty container. In this way,

handling of forgings except in performing some operation

is eliminated. In addition to the two electric lift

trucks used for moving racks and boxes there are hand

lift trucks with same capacity and lift as the electric

trucks located at the trimming presses, tumbling room

and inspection department for use of operators to

move containers short distances in case no electric

trucks are available.

The heavier forgings such as truck gears and steering

knuckles are counted by the checker into tractor

trailers equipped with boxes. Crankshafts are loaded

on special crankshaft tractor trailers. Axles both

front and rear are also loaded on special axle tractor

trailers. These trailers are moved by the gasoline

tractor. The gears are taken to the punch presses

if there is a center to punch out, then to the heat treat

where they are worked from the trailers into the

furnaces for heat treating, after heat treating and testing

they are pickeled. From the pickling tank they

are loaded directly into trailer and moved back to

inspection department. The crankshafts go from the

hammer to the upsetting machine then to the heat

treat. At the heat treat they are loaded from trailers

into furnaces, then from furnace to furnace, to testing,

pickling, centering, straightening and as inspected, are

loaded on trailers ready to ship. The axles are moved

to the bulldozer for stretching to length after which

they go to the heat treating; from the trailers they are

loaded into furnaces, heat treated, and tested as loaded

onto trailers then moved to forge shop for straightening

and inspection. An inspector works with the

straightening gang and loads the axles as inspected.

In this way all the heavy forgings are delivered to

shipping platform on trailers ready for shipping gang

to load.

The loading of cars is done by piecework. Thirtytwo

and one-half cents per ton for automobile gears,

levers, windshields and small parts. Twenty-four

cents per ton for truck gears, knuckles and medium

sized forgings and 15c per ton for axles and crankshafts.

These prices include openng the car doors,

cleaning out the cars, placing and fastening the truck

plates and closing the doors after the car is loaded.

The loading gang consists of three men with one electric

lift truck. One man looks after the gang and lines

up the material to be loaded according to his list, while

the other two, one of these driving the electric truck

move the tote boxes, racks and trailers into the car.

1 hese two men count the forgings off at the same time

being checked by the gang leader. The rate of pay is

*Paper presented at a meeting of the American Drop divided Forg­ among the three according to their responsiing

Institute held at Pittsburgh. October 2 and 3. 1924. bilities The checker gets 36 per cent of tonnage, the

tEngineer of Production, Union Switch & Signal Co. truck driver 33 per cent and the laborer gets 31 per

January, 1925

cent. Time sheets are made out daily, if the car is not

loaded in one day an estimated amount is used. When

the net weight is received from the scales a correction

is added to or taken from the next'day's time.

The tote boxes, racks and trailers. After building

many kinds of containers and purchasing ready mades

outside, standard types which will not overload the

electric trucks have been adopted which will stand up

to the heat of hot forgings and rough usage received

in a forge shop as per the blue prints attached.

The tote racks are made up of 5-in. channel, two

pieces 4 ft. 7 in. long each are bent in a U shape forming

legs liy in. high 28 in. apart, two pieces each 6 ft.

0 in. long are bent the same way forming standard 12



forging- Stamping - Heat Treating

in. high 4 ft. 0 in. apart, all the bends being made on

the flange edges. The channels for standards are laid

across the channels for legs, backs together, and the

webs riveted. The legs have 33-in. centers, the standards

20-in. centers, in addition to this the outside of

the legs are tied together with y, in. x 2 in. bars riveted

on the web of each leg 6 in. from floor. On account

of the channels being bent on the flange edges,

the hot forgings rest on the edge of the flange of the

channel leaving an air-space between the hot forgings

and the web which prevents warping of the racks from

the heat. Labor and material for racks costs $6.00,

weighs 135 lbs. and is light enough to handle shore distances

by hand if no electric truck is near.





O o|lo O



«3o ° ' ° °£*r

CKvO o i1 o o Tto

^ , O 0^'\\0 OI I O

~A'/° oo °SNt7,-

JMb o i o o-Kf. 1

//a o o|[o Q p^

- ze£/nsicfe H

3/o^S on Jbof/am hatfe cored Ao/c?s

fc> cut o'otvrt irseiqh? cute/ ribbed

fto moke // strong






P/an i/ieh/


ftj Space ft r 5/ock or forcings fSlonJant^


LJl n LJ|


.1 •


26 forging- Stamping - Heat Treating

The tote boxes have cast iron sides and bottom

with verv thin section well ribbed and cored hides to

cut down weight, and also to let scale off forgings

drop through. One pattern is used for side castings

making them interchangeable. The sides are bolted

t nto the bottom which has two 5-in. channel legs same

as on the tote racks bolted onto it. These legs have

24-in. centers instead of 33-in. as the racks, and have

the legs tied together with Vin. x 2-in. bars across

outside. The size of the tote box inside is 28>2-in.

square by 12-in. deep. Labor and material costs S18,

weight is 375 lbs.

The tractor trailers have a 3-in. x 4-in. angle iron

frame 32 in. wide by 72 in. long welded at corners 19

in. high, mounted on four cast iron wheels with 5 in.

finished face. The front wheels are 12 in. dia. and the

rear 18 in. Wheels have roller bearings and Alennte

lubrication. Tongue has ring in end to couple on tiactor

or for use by hand. There is a double acting hook

in back of frame for making up trains of trailers. 1 lie

trailer weighs 970 lbs. and can be moved by hand

when loaded. Cost, $159.00.

For axles the trailers have two 5-in. channels with

ends bent up for standards 8 in. high, 36 in. apart,

bolted across the frame. For crankshafts the trailers

have two 5 in. channels with ends bent up for standards

24 in. high, 74 in. apart, bolted lengthwise on

the frame. The standard box is 18 in. deep, 29 in. wide,

66 in. long, inside, is bound by three iron bands, and

is made of \y>-in. maple.

Before purchasing the gasoline tractor all forgings

to be heat treated or pickeled were hauled to the heat

treat which is 1,100 ft. from the forge shop with 5

per cent grade part way by two electric trucks with

two men each. On account of this long heavy haul

the upkeep was high and they were out of service

for repairs quite often. Now one gasoline tractor with

one man does this work, moves trailers in the shop

and each morning hauls castings off the foundry floor

and delivers all switch forgings to the main building

with time to spare. While the tractors look bulky,

it is surprising how they can get around in the shop.

The tractor comes equipped with solid rubber tires

and brakes. The other equipment added was a double

acting hook, bolted onto the draw bar so the driver

can drop the tongue of a trailer in it without leaving

the seat. With this hook the trailer can be pulled or


Summary of savings by use of tote boxes, racks,

trailers and tractor.

Yes, Steel Can Be Advertised*

By Lynn Ellis

Funny how principles run true to form. Sugar,

steel or peanuts—they are all quite the same. Keep

them in bulk and advertising doesn't seem possible.

Yet look at Domino, Planters'. Armco.

Get about that far and the average steel man begins

to get violent. Armco seems to be a goat-getter as

well as a go-getter. From a steel man's point of view

there is apparently something sacred about the old

rules. Any independent who doesn't slash prices

when the going is bad and make it up by charging all

•Reprinted from Printers Ink, November 13. 1924.

lanuarv, 1925

the traffic will bear in a seller's market is open to suspicion.

Yet the Youngstown Pressed Steel Company has

broken a lot of these old rules in the last four years,

borne some little criticism for doing it, and is in a fair

way of again proving that "bulk and barter" produce

less restful sleep than "principle and printers' ink."

This company moved up from Youngstown into a

fine big $1,000,000 plant at Warren, Ohio, just in time

to feel the crunching sag of business toward the end

of 1920. It had, and has, two main divisions. One

makes heavy steel stampings for other manufacturers.

The other makes fire-proofing materials for building

construction—metal lath, corner bead, channels, expanded

metal, and sd on. Both lines were pretty flat

when 1921 opened.

Up to that time stampings had been regarded as

the company's bread and butter. About 90 per cent

of the business had been with automotive and agricultural

implement manufacturers. No two industries

could have been much deader, though the consumers'

strike had hit everybody.

In the fireproofing division there was a collection

of very slow and very old-fashioned metal lath machinery.

With prices on the down grade "YPS" could

not compete and make much profit. Costs were too


All in all, it took a rosy optimism, or else a courage

born of desperation, to dig up an advertising appropriation

and out of it pay an agency service fee.

Talking to the company's president an agency executive

said: "Mr. Galbreath, before I say I want this

account I want to know if your company will adopt a

policy of using advertising. I don't mean an advertising

program. I mean a policy of advertising. That

implies, since you are a steel man, that you may have

to bend a lot of other policies to meet this one. If

you're game to do that when we can show you the

way, you're on. We'll make it a test case. We'll see

if steel can be advertised."

The Campaign Gets Started.

Mr. Galbreath said, "Shoot. The first job is to get

some new stamping business. We make and carry

in stock some few parts for farm implements — seats,

lever latches, weight boxes, gong wheels, etc. Not

much immediately ahead of us there. We stamp a

lot of stuff from dies owned by motor car plants.

They're all down and what little business there is

comes on a cut-throat margin. But pressed steel made

the automobile possible, and the automobile in turn

made pressed steel. Can't we do the same thing for

some new lines of industry?"

He outlined a service they could render—examining

castings that might be redesigned, or "redeveloped,"

into pressed steel—making the dies turning out steel

parts at lower weight and cost, with greater strength,

with reduced costs in machining, less breakage in

transit, lower freight. So, beginning in April, 1921, a

very Jew industrial papers told executives this story.

The "before and after" treatment was used in illustrations

and copy. A new slogan, "Press It From Steel

Instead," gave the theme in a nutshell.

The advertising took hold. Manufacturers in all

sorts of lines were lying awake nights to figure ways

January, 1925

of meeting the buyers' strike, to cut costs or to add

reasons for maintaining old prices. Inquiries rolled

in. By August, seven development engineers were

busy figuring — just figuring, for orders were very,

very slow. But by the first of the next year they began

to come. Gasoline pumps, washing machines,

steel wheels, stoves — all sorts of new applications.

The ice broken, competitors of the first man in each

line were easier to land.

Each new job suggested a new mailing list, or a

new publication to use. Salesmen in the field studied

every casting they saw that might be worked over. A

"black book" of photographs proved convincing to

the manufacturer who was being driven to lower costs.

To shorten a long story, a new volume — close to

50 per cent of the total for 1922 — was literally dug

out of the big depression. Not only that, but this new

business, secured by a new type of service, proved

easier to hold by continued service. It struck and

repeated, and the repeat orders mounted to higher and

higher percentages compared with the original orders.

The eggs began to be spread around comfortably

among a number of baskets. It was easier breathing.

Redevelopment was not a brand new idea in the

pressed steel industry, but it had been more or less a

side issue. Mr. Galbreath made it the main issue. He

advertised it when every advertising dollar was a dollar

added to deficit. He built a needed service. His

salesmen demonstrated service. His engineers and

plant came through with service.

The business for 1924, on a lower price per pound,

will be considerably higher than the boom business

of 1920. Two-thirds or more will have come from

advertising and selling service instead of steel alone.

That's one of the modern principles that always proves


But, after all, stamping is just a job business. The

"YPS" executives looked rather skeptical when it was

pointed out, in 1921, that the stamping division could

never go so far as the fireproofing division, which then

represented only about a third of the grand total volume.

The real fun, and the campaign in which modern

principles had a real chance to prove themselves, lay

in bringing the fireproofing sales up to practically even

terms with pressed steel.

It was a year and a half after the new note was

struck on "redevelopment" before "YPS" made its

first significant move on fireproofing. Fifteen cities

had been furnishing the bulk of the volume. Into

those cities the metal lath industry poured a young

army of salesmen to bid on every big job. Prices were

shaved until there was often nothing left for the dealer,

and sales were made direct to the contractor. It

was not so hard on concerns which also had a widespread

small-town dealer business at longer prices.

It was hard on "YPS" because the loyal dealer list was

pitifully short and produced little volume.

After a long debate one night in August, 1922,

"YPS" suddenly announced a flat price in city and

country alike, coupled with a 100 per cent dealer protection

policy. That meant a higher price in the city

and a lower price in the country. Competition was a

bit upset by this fire in the rear, but dealers responded

with enthusiasm, and immediately orders came piling

in by mail.

forging- Stamping - Heat Treating

Improved machinery and a prompt source of sheets

and strips from the parent concern, the Sharon Steel

Hoop Company, put "YPS" in position to meet prices

and maintain a profit. Dealers liked the fair-play

policy and distribution increased. But the salesmen

were still selling products instead of products plus.

Then Mr. Galbreath let out another lap. Some little

time before, the Commissioner of the Associated

Metal Lath Manufacturers, Wharton Clay, had visualized

to the industry the tremendous possibilities in getting

just a little metal lath into every frame house.

A strip here and there in corners to prevent plaster

cracks, and some more to give fire protection back of

stoves, over the furnace, etc.,—at an additional cost

of only 2 per cent—spelled a possible hundredfold increase.

The industry already had given up talking one

metal lath against another and was talking metal lath

construction. Later on it went further, and agreed

to concentrate its advertising on fire and crack prevention,

including a one-hour fire rating for metal lath

and plaster on wood studding and more or less to the

exclusion of suspended ceilings, two-inch solid partitions

in office buildings, back plastered stucco exteriors,

etc. In short it undertook to build volume out of

small jobs.

"YPS" went further. It put on a modest campaign

in a woman's magazine or two—enough to show good

faith—then went to the dealer in town and country

with this new story of a field for him to work. The

sales force was geared up to sell every small dealer the

idea of stocking a little lath and pushing the fire and

crack prevention idea to the householder. Dealers

were supplied with attractive folders for distribution.

A "Better Homes" booklet was offered in magazine

advertisements. The directors hitched up their belts

and decided to stay with it until a full line of products,

a fair dealer policy and a constructive selling idea were

given a chance to demonstrate.

Today, the "YPS" fireproofing salesman is turning

in a steadily increasing volume per square mile of territory.

Dealers are working. Even with a much lower

price per yard, this year's volume in dollars will

nearly double that of 1920. The "YPS" percentage of

all sales in the industry has also increased. And even

the most hide-bound, old-time salesmen on the force

are selling a Big Idea—products plus.

"YPS" is advertising the idea to dealer, architect

and consumer. One of the smallest concerns in the

industry, it has taken the lead in crystallizing an idea

which is on the verge of national acceptance. With

standardized units and high quality in the product, a

loyal and growing dealer organization and a sales

crew tuned up to the ideas expressed in the advertising,

modern marketing principles are again working

out in the steel business.

The advertising has not been at all reckless—something

less than 2 per cent on net volume in both divisions.

But it has furnished a keynote by which policies,

product and service have been raised to new high

levels. Further visions of a line of specialties—the

sort of article that can be built into an "own-brand"

business, and already expressed in coal chute doors

and basement sash, are coming closer to realization.


28 forging - S tamping - Heat Treating

Correspondence Course in Heat Treatment

and Metallography of Steel

Forging-Stamping-Heat Treating has arranged

with Mr. Horace C. Knerr, Director of the Course in

Heat Treatment and Metallography of Steel being

given at Temple University, Philadelphia, Pa., to offer

through this publication, a correspondence course, covering

the same subject.

This course will run for about one year. It will

include a complete set of lessons covering the topics

as outlined below, examination papers for each lesson,

marking and returning papers, personal instruction

by letter where needed, a series of laboratory exercises

to be performed by the student, and a set of

metal specimens for metallographic study. The equipment

required will be simple, and will be such as many

men have available in the plant in which they are employed.

The course is intended for those who wish to study

the treatment, structure and properties of steel in

their spare time. Fundamental principles will be emphasized.

The charge for the complete course will be $25.00.

For further information write to the Editor, Forging-

Stamping-Heat Treating, Box 65, Pittsburgh, Pa.

Outline of Course


1—An Ancient Craft and a Modern Science

2—Physical Metallurgy

3—Principles of Chemistry and Physics

4—Physical Properties of Steel


1—Processes of Manufacture

(a) Ores and Materials

(b) Pig Iron

(c) Wrought Iron

(d) Crucible Steel

(e) Bessemer

(f) Open Hearth

(g) Electric

(h) Miscellaneous

2—Mechanical Treatment

(a) Hot Working

(b) Cold Working


1—Microscopic Examination of Metals

(a) The Metallurgical Microscope

(b) Preparation of Specimens, Polishing, Etching

(c) Photomicrography

2—Macroscopic Examination

(a) Deep Etching

(b) Sulphur Printing

(c) Flaws

(d) (a) Pure Segregations Metals

3—Structure (b) Alloys of Metals

(c) Wrought Iron

(d) Steel, Low, Medium and High Carbon

(e) Cast Iron, etc.

(f) Alloy Steels

(g) Impurities

icro-Constituents of Steel

(a) Ferrite

(b) Cementite

(c) Pearlite

(d) Austenite

(e) Martensite

(f) Troostite

(g) Sorbite

• •

5—Critical Points of Steel—Their Manifestations


1—Heat and Temperature

2—Methods of Measuring Temperature

(a) Melting, Freezing, Boiling Point

(b) Expansion

(c) Electrical Resistance

(d) Thermo-electric

(e) Optical

(f) Radiation


4—Galvanometers and Millivoltmeters



7—Temperature Recorders


1—Methods of Determining Critical Points

2—Heating and Cooling Curves

(a) Time-Temperature Curves

(b) Inverse Rate Curves

(c) Difference Curves


1—Nature of Critical Points

(a) Crystallization

(b) Solid Solution

(c) Transformation

2—Constitution Diagrams

3—Slip Interference Theory


1—Purposes of Heat Treatment

(a) Tool Steels

(b) Structural Steels

2—Annealing, Normalizing

3—Hardening, Tempering

4—Carburizing, Casehardening

5—Alloy Steels

(a) Effects of Alloys

(b) Treatment

6—High Speed Steel

7—Equipment Used in Heat Treatment

(a) Fuels

(b) Furnaces

(c) Quenching Equipment

(d) Pyrometers

(e) Temperature and Atmosphere Control

8—Miscellaneous and Special Treatments


January, 1925

1—Chemical Analysis

2—Physical Testing

(a) Tensile Tests: Tensile Strength, Yield Point, Proportional

Limit, Elongation, Reduction of

(b) Area, Modulus of Elasticity

Hardness Tests: Brinell, Shore Scleroscope,

(c) Rockwell Hardness Tester, etc.

(d) Impact Tests: Oharpy, Izod, etc.

(e) Fatigue Tests

(f) Magnetic Testing

X-Ray Examination

3—Metallographic Inspection

4—Inspection During Fabrication


January, 1925

Crossword Puzzle

Give your brain a little exercise on this puzzle.

It contains no words of more than five letters, practically

all of which are frequently used by technical men.

Solution of the puzzle will appear in the February











Z 3 4




H *

J -

H //

s 6


L. • •


• •

• -' 32 J3


^^H 1*°


forging- Stamping - Heat Treating


• /.:.



• /.'.'


• -W




1. Incapable of reflecting light.

S. Strength or energy.

10. Knowledge gained from books or experience.

12. Part of a jib crane.

13. A grain.

14. A wooden fixture having a brass foot rail as an accessory

(now almost extinct).

IS. To immerse in a liquid.

16. One dimension of a tubular object, (ab.)

17. A tool used for cutting out blanks.

19. Commissioned officer in the army, (ab.)

20. Bachelor of Laws, (ab.)

22. That which forms part of a track.

23. That which binds together.

25. A prefix signifying again.

27. Chemical symbol for selenium.

29. Chemical symbol for rubidium.

31. A metal pin for uniting plates.

34. Point of the compass.

35. An age or period of time.

36. A device to catch or entrap.

37. A perforated block of metal used in conjunction with a

fastening device (sometimes used to designate inmates of an


38. To shut with force.

40. A system of rules or regulations.

41. An alloy of iron and iron carbide.

42. Measure of capacity in the metric system.


1. Roughly forged or rolled mass of steel or wrought iron.

2. Burden.

3. Skill or science.

4. Chemical symbol for cerium.

6. A prefix signifying before or against.

7. A bar of wood or metal also a measure of length.

8. To wind.

9. Void or exhausted.

11. Receptacle for liquids.

17. A small tool for cutting or bending rods.

18. Apparatus for lifting.

20. A long slender piece of metal.

21. A single unit.

24. A machine for shaping metal.

26. Used for heating and drying.

28. An instrument; also a measure of length.

30. A piece of metal used as a fastener.

32. Not out.

33. English translation (ab.).

34. Bare.

37. Used to express negation.

39. A pronoun of the first person.

40. Highly carburized iron (ab.).




1,515,778. Method and apparatus for heat generation

and control. Ralph W. E. Leach of Boston, Mass.

In an apparatus of this kind, the combination with

a housing providing a fuel combustion chamber and a

retort chamber in communication with the latter, of

material containers located within said retort chamber

and around which pass the products of combustion

from said retort chamber, a fuel supporting grate in

said combustion chamber, an air-tight compartment

beneath said grate, means for returning a predetermined

proportion of products of completed combustion

after discharge from said retort chamber into said

air-tight compartment to pass thence upwardly

through the fuel bed supported by said grate, and an

air delivery means having discharge means arranged

beneath a portion of the area of said grate for delivering

air to support combustion of fuel mixed with

returned products of completed combustion sufficient

to reheat said returned products of completed combustion

and regulate the resultant of the additional

fuel burned to the desired temperature degree and at

maintained desired volume.

1,515,794. Process of making steel ingots free

from blowholes. Isaac M. Scott of Wheeling, W. Va.,

and Samuel Peacock of Philadelphia, Pa.

The process of producing steel ingots free from

blow holes and contaminating oxides which consists

in mixing iron oxide With molten pig iron to eliminate

a portion of the carbides and any compounds of

silicon present; refining the molten metal thus produced

by subjecting it to the action of reducing gases;

and adding ferrosodium to the refined product in a

quantity sufficient to remove all oxides and occluded

gases present.

1,516,059. Process and apparatus for making expanded

metal. Edward T. Redding of Swissvale,

Pa., assignor to Consolidated Expanded Metal Companies,

a corporation of Pennsylvania.

The process of producing a substantially flat sheet

of metallic fabric from a previously formed sheet of

Golding fabric which consists in turning over the end

portions of the sheet of Golding fabric approximately

into the plane of the sheet to be formed and in passing

the sheet through rolling means to turn over the

strands and connecting bridges.


30 forging - Stamping - Heat Treating

January, 1925

jj j , 11 j i r jjji ^ij ni i • •. n 11 f ui i j i u i ljjji ti • u iij c ^xiiii ^ jm ^ in ijjj Liitiu 11 ujj ^ j j n jj iij p»j jj, j j j , 111 u> 11 j ^^mjji^ii iiif i irujJJiirn ^jij 11 ijjjxiiiyM 111 u 111 airtn i i j Ji i i^i jju j j j ij j 111 i/ih.'llllillllilllllllllllllllllIllIllllllllllllllllllMl'IIHIIIIIIIUUIlllllllJIUJllllllllKJ

uj u Li;nLryiJii i n u 111 ni uujii/ij ^jjjjxuji • ujjj hJJi; >'


'rjii4M,iMirFFtrriiiiiiiiipii4rirhiirrrTfriiii^iFPirrr7rrij lut-iiii nii-idii ,Fki-iiid:iiiirifiriMrriiEiitiiFtuiii-iiii^iMA;rqii! iiirirfjiMiriiMiiilMru^tirritidiiiiiMiiiiMF^


The Ajax Manufacturing Company,

Cleveland, Ohio, have designed a heavy

duty continuous motion heading machine.

with the primary purpose of producing

machines of ruggcdncss and durability.

The heads of rivets, carriage bolts and

track bolts are formed without flash and

do not require trimming. In filling out

the corners of square and hex-headed machine

bolts, however, a washer shaped

flash is thrown out around the bottom of

the head, which is afterwards trimmed

off cold in a vertical trimming press.

These machines will produce rivets or

bolts up to and including the size of

their rating from stock at the usual forging

temperatures of from 1500 deg. to

1800 deg. F. When operating on stock

below the scaling temperatures, commonly

known as "semi-hot," the machine

is capable of. heading work up to threefourths

of its normal rated capacity.

The general arrangement has been improved

by transferring the die slide operating

mechanism from the left to the

1 * ffiSsJ

creased and the quality of the products


The headerslide, of increased length, is

maintained in perfect alignment by the

"V-type" ways, roll lubricated, in which

it operates. The dieslide is top-suspended

so that its bearings are not subjected to

an accumulation of scale, and its front

side liner is adjustable to take up wear

so as to assure square shearing of the


With the hand feed machine, rods

heated to four or five feet in length are

fed into the machine against the stock

gauge by the operator by hand, the machine

shearing off a blank, heading and

ejecting at the rate of from 14,000 to

18.000 counts per 10 hours.

With the automatic roll feed, mill length

rods are heated in a long furnace set

about three feet from the front of the

machine. The operator need only start

the rod into the rolls, which feed it into

the machine, so that a piece is produced

on each revolution. Outputs vary from

30,000 to 50,000 counts per 10 hours, de-

1 * X ^ l

^^•k ^ T^Sk C ^ J t ^ ^ l




^ y

FIG. 1- -Ajax continuous heading machine.

right hand side, making it possible for

the operator to feed the stock, watch the

quality of holts or rivets as they come

through the discharge port, which is on

the left, and adjust the stock gauge, all

from one position. This arrangement

leaves the left hand side of the machine

clear, materially expediting the setting

of dies and tools. By thus facilitating

the operation of the machine and the

supervision of production, outputs are in-

pending on the length and size of rivets


All sizes of machines can be furnished

either belt driven through countershaft

or direct gear motor driven through safety

friction clutch coupling.

The automatic roll feed mechanism is

operated from an adjustable crank pin at

the end of the crankshaft. The eccentricity

of this pin is changed by means

of an adjusting screw so that the rolls

iniiiiiiiiiii ihiiiiiiim n « iniiimimmii mn urn

feed the correct amount of stock to produce

any given length bolt or rivet. The

rachet arm is fitted with two dogs, staggered

to give refinement of feed.

The feed rolls which carry the heated

bar stock consist of rings with the circumference

grooved to suit the various

sizes of stock. They are mounted in

holders on the roll shafts so as to be

easily changed for different sizes of stock

FIG. 2 (Above)—Top-suspended die slide

of Ajax heading machine. (Below)—

Top-suspended headerslide.

and adjusted laterally for different shear

center distances. The roll pressure is

controlled by removable weights mounted

on the bearings of the upper roll shafts

which are movable vertically.

With direct motor drive a safety friction

clutch coupling cushions the motor

from shocks and protects both the machine

and motor from damage should

anything prevent a complete revolution

of the crankshaft.

The steel bed is of the ribbed type with

continuous housings for the crankshaft

bearings. It is extremely heavy and its

deep sections and liberal flanges make it

so rigid between crankshaft and backing

plate that it is not necessary to pack up

excessively behind the heading tool to

bring rivet or bolt heads down to the

proper thickness. This eliminates the

pounding of the head tool on the dies

on idle strokes and increases the life of

both accordingly.

The crankshaft is of special analysis

steel forging of the single throw, two

main bearing type with cylindrical cheeks,

and large journal and eccentric pin diameters.

All toggle pins are large and of

alloy steel.

The headerslide, Fig. 2, is top-suspended

from "V-type" bearings. It is especially

January, 1925

forging- Stamping - Heat Treating

long for steadiness and the "V-type" timing for different shear center disbearings

maintain it in perfect align- tances.

ment, eliminating the difficulty from The toolholders are of the extension

eccentricity of bolt and rivet heads which type and of special analysis steel casting.

is experienced with plain bearings. The Two lengths arc furnished as standard

trough ways of the bed, in which the equipment, so as to keep the heading

headerslide bearings operate, are above tools as short and stiff as possible, thus

FIG. 3—Spindle arrangement of Holmes bolt threader.

the scale line. They are roll lubricated

from two reservoirs and drain at the

front, so that good lubrication with clean

oil is maintained. The bearings on the

headerslide and the ways in the bed are

both removable for realignment.

The die slide, Fig. 2, is top-suspended

from plain bronze faced bearings. Its

great length and liberal side bearing

areas keep it in alignment for long service.

A wedge liner on the crankshaft

side, adjustable without removing any

parts, makes it possible to keep the moving

die back tight on the cutter, so as to

shear the stock squarely.

The breast plate is a heavy, special

analysis steel forging with a large rectangular

cutter holder which takes the

direct wear of the dies. The new type

rectangular cutter with semi-circular cutting

grooves in two edges has proved

most satisfactory in service, and is economical

to manufacture.

The ejector is of the walking beam

type operated from a cam on the inside

of the flywheel. The cam is adjustable to

control the time of kick-out and offset

any wear.

The stock gauge can be adjusted by

means of the hand wheel while the machine

is running. The hand wheel is convenient

to the operator as he watches

the product being headed so that adjustments

can be made quickly, for a slight

variation in the stock diameter so that

this all cam heads gauge on the will is headerslide be adjustable properly filled which to change out. actuates the The

minimizing heading tool costs. An adjusting

wedge back of the toolholders

provides an effective means for fine adjustment

of the tool, and, in case the machine

is stalled on center by the tool

mashing a rivet against the face of the






dies, the wedge can be driven down and

the tool released.


A bolt threader of entirely new design

has been developed by Holmes Engineering

Company, Oshkosh, Wis., who have

been assisted by Graham Bolt & Nut

Company of Pittsburgh, Pa., in completing

the design.

The machine was designed for rapidly

threading bolts up to Y% in. in diameter

and from 1 in. to 12 in. long. Only bolts

having square, hexagon or clipped heads,

or square or oval shanks can be threaded.

The operator loads and knocks out the

bolts, but all other operations are fully

automatic, including conveying the bolts

into skip boxes. Under actual working

conditions, it was found practicable to

cut threads on smaller sizes of bolts at

the rate of 60 per minute, without undue

fatigue to the operator, and on the larger

sizes a speed of 50 bolts per minute was

steadily maintained. Slower feeds of 30

or 40 bolts per minute can be instantly

shifted to in order to take care of threads

of unusual length and for operators unaccustomed

to the machine. Several

changes of cutting speeds are arranged

for to take care of cutting bolts of various

sizes as no chaser speed is used

greater than 30 feet per minute.

The six tilted spindles are placed at an

angle of 30 deg. from vertical to permit of

the use of self-clamping slots, to provide

ample lubrication of working parts, free

washing away of chips, and to facilitate

ejection of threaded bolts into the conveyor.

Sixty quarts of cutting lubricant

flow through the spindles every minute.

Twelve synchronized cams are employed,

six to start the bolts and six to

close the die heads, but as these cams

ii&gi,-, —#•: •••" *':••"•"—r~*~ •'-

IS ° - - '*-

' anLaHl . i ^ |

f *-> ^-rfMtmawWfc'iWmm

32 forging- Stamping - Heat Treating

the design has been clearly demonstrated. to various kinds of work may be easily

The lower set of counterweights start the applied by securing them to the body

bolls and the upper set close the die with the two screws provided. For the

heads. In the photograph of the rear inspection of small pieces and specimens

view of the machine, the left hand spindle the microscope may be attached to the

I':'-;. •r^f»,HH(**J11 ^tmk^

*""**'*-wmm%?: 1

FIG. 5—Zeiss microscope fitted for laboratory use


has received and is cutting a bolt, the column of a stand, the knee of which is

second spindle is being entered, and the adjustable by rack and pinion.

die head of the third spindle is just clos­ The microscope for structure testing


may be illuminated by daylight or by

A complete change of set up can be means of an electric lamp. In this case,

made in 10 minutes, and if the set up is the source of light is a low current incan­

merely from length to length, the change descent lamp consuming 0.4 amp., the

can be made in one minute on all six voltage


being 4. The current may be


Carl Zeiss of Jena. Germany, offers a

microscope entirely different from usual

lines, so as to meet the demands of both

the scientific laboratory and of the shop,

and to make it suitable for objects of the

most diversified shapes. The instrument

is sufficiently rigid and easy to apply so

that it may be given into the hands of

the foreman for the inspection of work

during any stage of finishing or for making

tests in connection with the heattreating

department, whereby valuable

information about annealing periods,

hardening temperatures, carbonizing me­

dia, etc.. may be obtained.

The microscope may be used for inspecting

shafts, cylindrical pieces, shoulders

and fillets in crank shafts, bent

shafts, eccentrics and plain surfaces.

Other attachments for adapting the tool



January, 1925

work of various shapes, and that the use

of this instrument will open up a new

field of research.

The microscope is not confined to the

examination of test pieces and specfmens,

but shows defects of material used

in the finished product. It gives valuable

information regarding the manufacturing

processes and the changes in

structure caused by faulty heat treatment,

cutting or grinding operations. In order

to produce the grain the metal is first

cut by planing, milling or sawing and the

surfaces to be inspected are lapped and

polished until all scratches disappear.

Care should be taken not to heat the

metal unduly when cutting or grinding.

The grain is then produced by the use

of etching reagents, which act differently

on the various components and thus

make them distinguishable under the


For laboratory use the microscope is

furnished with base, bellows, shutter,

plate holders, condenser lens and lamp.

George Scherr, 143 Liberty Street, New

York, is exclusive American representative

for this instrument.

FIG. 7—Procunier double jaw quick change chuck.

furnished by a storage battery or taken

from a 110 or 220 volt current by interposing

a reducing rheostat.

It will be readily seen from the illustrations

that the microscope tills a distinct

need in the shop for inspecting

FIG. 6—Carl Zeiss portable microscope and equipment.


William L. Procunier, 18 South Clinton

Street, Chicago, 111., has recently placed

on the market a new "double jaw" quick

change chuck. By adapting this tool on

a single spindle drill press it can be converted

into a semi-multiple spindle press,

as it is not necessary to stop the machine

to change tools in the chuck. When the

operator lifts up a sleeve or collar, it

allows two balls to slide out of the

pocket of the collet, allowing it to drop

in the operator's hand, and a different

one may be inserted in the chuck without

moving the work out of alignment.

There are several different types of

collets which will handle all classes of

tools, such as taper shank drills, and

reamers, machine taps, round button dies

and blanks, which can be made to suit

special requirements. The collets as well

as the chuck are of hardened steel and

ground throughout, assuring durability and


January, 1925


Beaudry Company, Inc., Everett, Mass.,

has recently brought out a utility hammer

for shops where there is not sufficient

blacksmithing done to warrant a

large investment Jn a power hammer.

FIG. 8—Beaudry utility hammer.

These hammers are built in three sizes

only, 25, 50 and 100 lbs. weight of ram,

and for their size have an exceptionally

long stroke and may be operated at a

very high rate of speed. Being self-contained

and cast in one piece, they require

no extensive foundation and in manycases

may be bolted direct to the floor

without any other support.

The ram or hammer head is of steel

and has external elliptical-shaped tracks.

Two steel spring arms, with steel rollers

at the lower extremites and a helical

spring at, the top, operate upon the

curved tracks and lift and throw the

ram, which, with increased speed of hammer,

acquires increased travel and force

or blow. Full stroke can be had on varying

thicknesses of stock ana no change

of adjustment is necessary excepting for

unusually heavy or special work.

The hammer is started, stopped and

regulated by a foot treadle extending

around the base of machine. By varying

the pressure on the treadle, any desired

speed or force of blow may be obtained.

The ram is carefully machined and fitted

to heavy guides and is adjustable on its

connecting rod for varying heights above

the dies. It has an adjustable taper gib

for taking up wear. These hammers may

be worked to equal advantage from all

sides, the anvil clearing the main frame

casting, allowing bars of any length to

be worked either way.

forging- Stamping - Heat Treating

As regularly furnished, these hammers Exhaustive tests at the experimental

may be operated by an overhead belt laboratories of the manufacturers, over a

running at any angle or by a motor at­ long period and on various types of dip

tached to the frame as shown. They tanks and inflammables, have proved this

may be turned into a motor-drive at any new automatic extinguisher to be abso­

time without any mechanical change exlutely dependable in operation. In test

cept for the bolting on of the motor after test, the release has operated in less

bracket and the attaching of the motor. than 10 seconds, extinguishing the fire before

it has a possibility of spreading to

SMALL FIRE EXTINGUISHER the overhead construction or surrounding

To meet the demand for a small fire-

room. The 100 gallons of Firefoam genextinguisher

for isolated small dip tanks,

erated by the device is discharged in ap­

the Foamite-Childs Corporation, Utica,

proximately one minute.

N. Y., has just developed a small auto­

The automatic extinguisher is capable

matic Foamite extinguishei operating on

of extinguishing a fire in a dip tank hav­

the same principle as their large engine

ing 30 square feet of exposed surface,


with the necessary margin of safety. It

is leak-proof against the evaporation of

This device, in outward appearance, is

the chemical solutions, as all openings

a 22-in. red enameled cube, fitted with a

are upward and covered with stoppers

three-point suspension for nanging over

when the device is in the set position.

the risk. The interior contains a tumbler

Its operation and maintenance are very

with a capacity of six gallons of each of

simple. It is only necessary to set the

the- two Foamite- solutions. The tumbler

Lowe release and refill the extinguisher

is set eccentrically on trunnions, and pre­

after the fire.

vented from rotating by the Lowe release.

At the first flash of fire, the heat

actuated device, operated on a rate of



A new helve hammer, radically different

in design from other hammers of this

class, is an addition to the line of the

Beaudry Company, Inc., Everett, Mass.

The hammer has no rubber bumpers,

being cushioned entirely by air, which is

ideal for cushioning purposes and is the

least expensive.

The hammer consists of a well designed,

semi-enclosed frame, upon the

rear of which is an adjustable yoke supporting

the helve at its pivoted end.

Within the frame is the air compressor

cast in one piece with the helve actuating

cylinder, the piston of which connects

with the helve. A rotary valve

operated by the treadle, is located between

the two cylinders for controlling the


FIG. 9—Fire extinguisher for dip tanks.

rise principle, causes the release to trip

the trigger holding the tumbler. The

tumbler rotates, permitting the two solutions

to combine in the mixing chamber

and expand to eight times their volume in


The Firefoam generated has unusual

extinguishing value, and drops directly

from the mixing chamber to the dip tank.

By cutting off the supply of oxygen

necessary to support combustion, it puts

the fire out and keeps it out. As the

blanket of Firefoam stands up long after

the fire is extinguished, there is no possibilitv

of reflash.

FIG. 10—Beaudry air-cushioned helve



The construction of the machine permits

the operator to deliver the lightest

tap or heaviest blow at full speed, which

means practically doubling the daily production.

The force of the blow is regulated

as heretofore by simply more or less

pressure on the foot treadle. This varia-

,u Forging- Stamping - Heat Treating

tion does not change the speed of the

hammer, but simply the force of the blow

and enables the operator to obtain light,

quick blows which are so essential to

finishing any forging.

The helve is designed for belt or motor

drive. When belt driven, tight and loosepulley

and belt shifter form part of theunit,

the belt being shifted to the loose

pulley only for long stops. When motor

driven, the tight pulley is replaced by a

gear engaging the pinion of the motor

which is supported upon a bracket secured

to the hammer frame which allows

the hammer to be placed in any location

desired, independent of line shafts. The

crankshaft runs in bronze ring-oiling bear-

iiiihiiiiiiii iiiiiiiiii iiiiiiiiiiinii iiiiiiiiiiiiiiiiiiiiiiiiiiiiiiiiiiiiiiiiiiiiiiiiiiiiiiiiiiiiiiiiiiiiiiiiiiiiiiiiiiiiiiiiiiiiiiiiiiiiiiiiiiiiiimiiiiiiiiiiiiiiiiiiimiiiiiiimmuiiio



Walter X. Crafts has recently become associated

with the American Chain Company, as works manager

of the Reading Steel Casting Company, Reading, Pa.

For the past live years he has been general manager

of the Canadian Electric Steel Company, Ltd., of

Montreal, and during the war period was general superintendent

of the Toronto plant of the British Forgings,

Ltd., the largest producer of electric furnace steel

for shells.

Dr. Zay Jerferies was the speaker at the monthly

meeting of the Pittsburgh Chapter, American Society

for Steel Treating at the Fort Pitt Hotel, Pittsburgh,

Tuesday. December 2. his subject being "More About

Steel" Dr. Jeffries is head of the research bureau of

the Aluminum Company of America. Cleveland.

Y E. Hillman, director of research at the Crompton

e\: Knowles Loom Works. Worcester. Mass., delivered

a paper on the evening of December 19 on "The Evolution

of the Blast Furnace and the Manufacture of

Pig Iron from Iron Ore" at a joint meeting of the

American Society for Steel Treating and the American

Chemical Society at the rooms of the Providence Engineering

Society. Providence, R. I.

Martin H. Schmid, metallurgical engineer of the

United Alio}- Steel Corporation. Canton, Ohio, has

been appointed assistant general manager of sales of

the alloy divison of the company, effective December

1. He was graduated from Lehigh University in 1907

with the degree of mechanical engineer and for two

years was engaged in power plant work.

E. B. Rogers, formerly superintendent of the Samson

Tractor Company. Janesville, Wis., has been appointed

superintendent of the Midwest Forgings Company.

Chicago Heights, 111., succeeding R. C. Rowan,

who resigned to engage in other business.

Dr. Waldemar Dryssen has been appointed chief

engineer of the furnace equipment department and

the forge and hammer welding department of the

Blaw-Knox Company. Blawknox, Pa.

FIG. 11—Air compressor and actuating

cylinder of Beaudry hammer.

January, 1925

ings, thereby insuring efficient lubrication.

When adjusting the dies for different

thicknesses of work four nuts are loosened

on the pivot yoke and the hand wheel on

the top of the machine is turned the

proper amount to raise or lower the yoke

after which the four nuts are tightened.

The connecting rod of the helve is adjusted

by a turnbuckle. These adjustments

the operator makes without help.

The pivot of the helve consists of hardened

steel centers, easy of adjustment,

and affords means for entirely eliminating

side play of the dies so that they may

always register with each other, thereby

giving perfect alignment, which makes

them very satisfactory for the work.

John H. Hall, Metallurgist of the Taylor-Wharton

Iron & Steel Company, High Bridge, N. J., and G. R.

Hank, superintendent of the same company, gave addresses

on the subject of manganese steel before the

members of the Industrial Club, Bethlehem, Pa., at a

recent gathering.

Marcus A. Grossman is affiliated with the United

Alloy Steel Corporation, Canton, Ohio, in charge of

the research division.

Charles Kachel, for 14 years superintendent of the

Bossert Corporation, Utica, N. Y., has retired from the

sheet metal stamping business and will make his home

in Miami, Fla. He expects to organize a sales organization

in that city.

Henry W. Darling, for more than 30 years treasurer

of the General Electric Company, has resigned

and on January 1 will be succeeded by R. S. Murray,

who has been assistant treasurer of the company since

1910. In accepting the resignation of Mr. Darling as

treasurer, the Board of Directors elected him a vice

president with such duties as shall be assigned to him

by the president.


George Urick, 40 years old, superintendent of the

open-hearth department of the Duquesne steel works,

Carnegie Steel Company, Pittsburgh, was found dead

in the attic of his home in Duquesne, Pa. Mr. Urick

according to a report to the coroner's office, hanged


W. Lucien Scaife, aged 71, a former manufacturer

of Pittsburgh, died in his home December 5. He formerly

was chairman of the board of directors of the

Scaife Foundry & Machine Company, Pittsburgh, and

was one of the first trustees of Carnegie Institute of


L. Leslie Helmer, general manager of the Cumberland.

Md., works of N. & G. Taylor Company,

Philadelphia, manufacturers of tin plate, died of

typhoid fever at his residence on December 24, aged

47 years. John M. Read, formerly assistant general

manager, has been advanced to the position of general


January, 1925

Arc Welding and Cutting Manual, by General Electric

Company staff; cloth; 127 pages, 8xl0y>. This

has been given the designation Y-2007 and was issued

to acquaint the uninformed in a general way with

some of the applications of arc welding, and to provide

a simple and logical method by which one may

acquire a certain familiarity with the manipulation of

the electric welding arc and its characteristics.

The volume is profusely illustrated with photographs,

diagrams and charts explanatory of the text.

It is divided into three parts, the first devoted to general

information on arc welding, the second to a training

course for operators, and the third giving a number

of applications for arc welding. The manual

should prove very valuable in practically all industries

and trades. It is being distributed at a nominal


Structural Metallography, by H. B. Pulsifer; cloth;

210 pages, 6x8^4; 146 illustrations; published by the

Chemical Publishing Co., and distributed by Forging-

Stamping-Heat Treating. Price $5.00, postpaid.

The purpose of this rather abundantly illustrated

book is to give beginners an introductory text, which

shall present as clearly as possible the principles, the

scope and significance of metallography.

One of the aims of this book is to provide students

with illustrations of metal structures, to explain how

these structures can be discovered and pictured, to

tell something about their origin and to summarize

the property changes dependent on structure.

A list of texts and articles covering the most important

and comprehensive contributions on the subject

of metallography is included. Contents: 1—Introduction,

2—Metal Structures and Testing, 3—The Solidification

of Metals, 4—Smoothing and Etching Metal

Surfaces, 5—Photomicrography, 6—Some Properties

of Metals and Simple Structures, 7—The Pure Metals,

8—The Iron-Carbon Series, 9—The Iron-Carbon Series

(continued), Iron and Steel Castings, 10—Transformations

and Treatments, 11—Worked Metal and

12—The Major Alloys.

Forging- Stamping - Heat Treating




The Collins Manufacturing Company, Lewistown,

Pa., is running full at its local plant, with production

on a basis of about 1,300 doz. axes per week. The

company recently succeeded to the plant and business

of the Mann Axe & Tool Company, Mann's Narrows,


The Pressed Steel Tank Company, Milwaukee,

manufacturer of steel barrels, drums and other containers,

acetylene cylinders, annealing pots, pressure

tanks, etc., has issued $500,000 first (closed) mortgage

serial gold bonds, the proceeds to be used to facilitate

the enlargement of production and business generally.

The plant is situated in West Allis and consists of six

acres with buildings of 200,000 sq. ft. of floor space.

Fixed assets were appraised March 15, 1924 at $1,257,-

535. Herman O. Brumder is president.

The Gibb Instrument Company, Bay City, Mich.,

has changed its name to the Gibb Welding Machines

Company. The change is in name only and not in personnel,

and was made to better describe the company

and its products.

The Endicott Forging and Manufacturing Company,

Inc., Endicott, N. Y., have under construction a

new brick building 50 x 130 feet.

The Parish Manufacturing Company, Chestnut

Street, Reading, Pa., manufacturer of automobile axles,

frames, etc., has acquired about 10 acres near the

northern city limits, and contemplates the early erection

of a new plant to increase its present output about

50 per cent. The company is occupying the former

shops of the Philadelphia and Reading Railway Company.

The Continental Axle Company, Edgerton, Wis.,

affiliated with the Highway Trailer Company, same

city, is erecting a steel foundry as an addition to its

automobile, truck, tractor and trailer axle and spring

works. The portions of the plant badly damaged by

fire some time ago also are being repaired and inquiry

is being made for some new machinery. J. W. Menhall

is general manager.

Allen Specialty Company, Chicago, has changed its

name to the American Automotive Accessories Corporation,

and increased its stock from $100,000 to


The United States Stamping Company, Moundsville,

W. Va., manufacturer of enameled wares, is remodeling

its plant Xo. 2, which will be devoted exclusively

to the manufacture of a single coat gray


The Painter-Bundy Tool Company, Box 1162, Fort

Worth, Texas, has been incorporated with capital

stock of $150,000 to manufacture drilling and fishing

tools. Its main plant is at Fort Worth and branch

plant at Wichita Falls, Texas. Special attention will

be given to a new rotary bit and core drill. M. A.

Bundy is president.

The Murray Body Corporation, Detroit, has been

formed with a capital of $12,300,000 to take over and

consolidate the R. G. Wilson Body Company, J. C.

Widman Company, and the Towson Body Corporation,

all operating local plants for the manufacture of

closed automobile bodies. The new company will be

affiliated with the J. W. Murray Manufacturing Company,

Detroit, manufacturers of automobile sheet steel

products, of which J. W and J. R. Murray are heads.

The corporation will operate four individual plants,

and has plans for expansion. Allen Shelden will be

president and Gordon Fairgreaves, heretofore manager

of the Towson ^Body Company, general manager. A

bond issue of $4,000,000 is being arranged.

The Hughes Steel and Equipment Company, now

at Allegan, Mich., will move to Holland, Mich., where

it will occupy the former Gunsey Willow Company

factory. The Hughes company manufactures steel

factory furniture.


36 Forging- Stamping - Heat Treating

The Horni Signal Manufacturing Corporation,

Newark, X. J., care of Isador Stern, 20 Branford

Place, registered agent, has leased the building at 153-

55 Frelinghuysen Avenue, for a new plant to manufacture

traffic signal lamps and other electric signal devices.

The company was chartered recently with a

capital of $500,000 by Paul P Horni and Charles Milbauer.

The last noted has been elected president.

Standard Guage Steel Company, Beaver Falls, Pa.,

manufacturer of finished steel specialties, announce the

removal of its Chicago office to 547 Webster Building,

327 S. LaSalle Street, in charge of S. A. Dinsmore,

district sales manager.

The Ford Motor Company is adding departments

for manufacturing truck radius rods and running board

brackets to its Hamilton, < >., plant. This plant has

been manufacturing Ford wheels chiefly and daily production

is 12,000 wheels. The company is understood

to be planning an assembly plant in Hamilton just east

of the present site.




Power Transmission Machinery — W A. Jones

Foundry and Machine Company. Catalog Xo. 31. Covers

shaft hangers, pillow blocks, couplings, collars,

belt tighteners, mule stands, bench legs, etc.; all items

are well illustrated, listed, dimensioned, tabulated, etc.

The very latest data on a completely rounded out line

of quality transmission appliances.

Sprocket Wheels and Chain Belting — W. A. Long

Foundry and Machine Company. Catalog No. 32.

Covers a full line of sprocket wheels and chain belting,

as well as chain tighteners, elevator boots, buckets,

bolts, hand wheels, etc., illustrations, listing prices and

complete specifications on all items shown.

Electric Hoists — Shepard Electric Crane & Hoist

Company, has issued a catalog illustrating and describing

the floor operated hoists that this company makes.

The various types and forms are briefly portrayed with

excellent illustrations showing the hoist in operation

and a view of the product itself. Data, price lists and

dimensions are included in the catalog.

Welding and Cutting Apparatus — Oxy-acetylene

and oxy-hydrogen welding and cutting apparatus are

described and illustrated in a catalog issued bv the

Burdett Manufacturing Company. Chicago. 111. Torches,

mixers, tips, regulators and other accessories are

shown and the many uses of the products are also


Electric Furnaces — The Electric Heating Apparatus

Company, Newark. N. J., has published a pamphlet

describing its line of electric furnaces. The

work is well illustrated with many views of installations

and the characteristics and dimensions of the

various types of furnaces are listed.

Electric Ovens — The F. A. Coleman Companv,

Cleveland, recently issued a folder describing and

illustrating one of its installations at the plant oi the

Ferro Machine & Foundry Company. Cleveland. The

oven is of the continuous electric type for drying pasted

and blackened cores.

January, 1925

Welding Eelectrode — The General Electric Company,

Schenectady. N. Y., has issued a booklet describing

a new type of welding electrode. Details are

given on electrode construction and characteristics.

Results of tests on welded cast iron specimens and

deposited metal specimens are described, and oscillograms

demonstrating arc stability are reproduced. Instructions

for the use of the electrodes are given as are

specifications of standard sizes.

Rotary Furnaces — The W. S. Rockwell Companv,

has published a pamphlet describing rotary furnaces

with automatic charging and discharging mechanism

for continuous heat treating of metal products of size

and shape which will permit a slow rolling action,

The special features of this system when used for the

heat treatment of castings in malleable iron, steel and

various alloys also is described and illustrated.

Tumbling Mills — Whiting Corporation, Harvey,

111. Catalog Xo. 174. Three standard types of tumbling

mills are described and illustrated and also small

tumblers for brass work, dry and water cinder mills.

A cleaning department layout for an average gray iron

foundry of 50 tons capacity is given.

Hydraulic and Hydro-Pneumatic Presses — Metalwood

Manufacturing Company, Leib and Wight

Streets, Detroit. Catalog, 88 pages, 8y2xl\ in. A

wide variety of hydraulic and hydro-pneumatic arbor

and forcing presses, broaching, forcing and forming

presses, straightening presses, metal forming presses,

vulcanizing presses and plastic material forming presses

are described and illustrated. Capacities, dimensions

and other essential data are given. Information

is given on the Hele-Shaw pump unit and accumulators

and other accessory equipment. There are more

than 100 illustrations.

Welding and Cutting—Bastian Blessing Company,

Chicago, 111. Catalog No. 32. Covers "Rego" welding

and cutting equipment of all kinds, and is fully


Electrical Equipment for Cranes — General Electric

Bulletin Xo. 48732. This is an attractive, 35-page

leaflet, well illustrated with photographs, diagrams,

tables and charts. It discusses the subject thoroughly,

with particular reference to crane motors and control,

brakes, etc. Information is given on operating characteristics,

and types of standard motors are listed,

together with other valuable data.

CCL Apparatus — "Measuring C02 Electrically" is

the title of Catalog No. 32 recently issued by the

Brown Instrument Company, Philadelphia, Pa. The

principle of operation of the electric C02 meter is given

together with a description of the various units entering

into the construction of complete apparatus. Numerous

types of indicators and recorders suitable for

different applications of the meter are illustrated and


Heat Insulation — "High Temperature Insulation"

is the title of a booklet compiled by Celite Products

Company, Chicago, 111. The subject of heat insulation

as applied to industrial equipment is covered in a comprehensive


Arc Welding Generators — The Allan Manufacturing

and Welding Company, Buffalo, N. Y., have

mailed out leaflets showing various types of generators

and transformer arc welders. Short descriptions tell

the story of the products.

umiiiiiiiiiiiimiiiiiiiiiiiiiiiiiiiimiiiiiiiiiiiiiiiiiiiiiiiiiiiiiiiiiiiiiiiiiiiiiiiiiiiiiiiiiiiii i mini iiiiiuiiiiiiiii iiiiii:

I rarging-Sraniping-BGarlipa^ |

= Vol. XI PITTSBURGH, PA., FEBRUARY, 1925 No. 2 =

A v o i d i n g W a s t e i n t h e S h o p

EFFICIENT operation depends upon a number of factors and it would be

no small task to decide which is the most important. A well laid out

plant with modern equipment would naturally give the impression that

it is the last word in efficiency, but how often is this advantage offset by a

poor organization or incompetent men?

Incompetency is reflected in the amount of waste materials and the rejection

of defective products. In some cases the nature of the product may be

such that any attempt at economizing in material would increase the manufacturing

cost beyond the saving effected in materials. Any plant handling

large quantities of material should give serious consideration to preventing

and minimizing waste.

Inadequate inspection of raw materials often leads to an excessive waste

during manufacturing operations, and if defective products are allowed to

pass final inspection, will result in dissatisfied customers.

Many large plants have organized a special department to make a study

of manufacturing methods for the purpose of preventing excessive waste, salvaging

scrap and to increase efficiency wherever possible. For example, the

substitution of upset forgings for parts formerly machined from bar stock

greatly reduces material and machining costs. By carefully designing blanking

dies with reference to the width of the stock, a considerable amount of

stock can be saved.

The heat treating department is frequently overlooked when the question

of manufacturing efficiency is up for discussion. Good tool steels are

ruined by inadequate heat treating facilities, with the result that many hours'

time are lost through the idleness of expensive equipment caused by faulty


These are just a few examples of how efficiency may be increased. By

careful planning, it is possible in many other ways to decrease manufacturing

costs and reduce material waste to a minimum.

niiiiiiuiiiiiiiii mn i iiiiiiiiii iiiliiiiilin iiiiiuiiiiiiiii i iiiiiiiiiiiiiiiiiiiiiiiiiiiiiiiiiiiiiiiiniii r<


38 Forging - Stamping - Heat Treating

February, 1925

U s i n g a n A p p r a i s a l for C o s t P u r p o s e s

An Appraisal for Cost Purposes Is Essential in the Forging In­

dustry Because of the Large Investment Required—

Great Variety of Equipment Necessary

T H E majority of appraisals are made with the intention

of using the reports for making financial

statements, for adjusting accounting records or

perhaps for disposing of assets, with little or no consideration

for their possibilities in cost work. In the

forging industry these possibilties stand out strongly,

particularly because of the large investment required

nnd also because of varying types and sizes of equipment

used. With such equipment it is absolutely

necessary to establish some sort of hourly rates for

both overhead and profit. In our plant we use the

hourly machine rate system, which we believe is the

most accurate yet devised, and for this work an appraisal

properly reported is of great additional value.

One of the first items encountered in distributing

overhead is depreciation, carried as an item of cost in

our hourly overhead rate per hammer. It is impossible

to correctly distribute the total depreciation of

a forge plant over the various departments and thence

to different groups of hammers according to some

arbitrary percentage basis and it therefore becomes

necessary to compute depreciation separately on

buildings and appurtenances, machinery, furnaces,

power plant equipment, cranes and all other classes

of equipment per department and per group.

The next problem we have in properly allocating

certain expenses to different department and production

centers is establishing percentage bases per department

and per hammer group for those items

which vary in accordance with asset valuation or in

accordance with some percentage made up with asset

valuation as a factor. Here again the appraisal furnishes

a basis for obtaining the correct relation of

values per department and per production center, as

it is clearly an error to base any figuring of this nature

on book records showing actual purchase prices of

machines. For cost purposes there is no reason why

a hammer purchased in 1916 should carry lower overhead

and interest rates than one of the same type and

size purchased in 1924 at a considerably higher price.

The last use we have in mind, but by no means

the least, is for the purpose of figuring interest on

investment as a basis for profit rates per hammer per

hour. The averaee jobbing forge plant is selling service

or use of certain types of equipment—steam hammers,

board hammers or upsetters—rather than material

plus labor and overhead, and the profit estimated

per job should certainly bear some relation to

the interest on investment required to carry the individual

hammer or upsetter together with its corresponding

share of auxiliary equipment and departments.

This is especially true in a plant using all

three types of equipment. Steam hammers require

a boiler plant, coal storage, coal handling apparatus.

etc.. representing a much higher investment than

board hammers of similar sizes, while upsetters are

*Assistant to General Manager. Dominion Forge & Stamping



very expensive in themselves and their values stand

out prominently in an appraisal even without their

share of the repair and other departments. In the

matter of profit it is also well to consider both those

forgings made by two or more operations in different

units and those made from different grades of steel

with varying base prices. In the case of multiple

operations in different production centers the error

in figuring profit on a percentage of cost is multiplied

|by the number of production centers involved. The

question of different profits on different grades of steel

can be discussed at length, but we shall content ourselves

with asking whether you are interested mainly

in obtaining profit in proportion to the direct material

cost or in proportion to the service your equipment


It was for the purpose of checking cost figures

and assuring ourselves of the correct relation of our

production centers with respect to each other, that we

recently ordered a new appraisal. In addition to the

standard form submitted by the appraisal company

we requested a report designed to take care of our

requirements for cost work. This extra report means

only a little more clerical work in the office of the

appraisal company and not very much extra field

work, providing, of course, the field men receive complete

instructions upon their arrival on the job. A detailed

outline with all necessary notes as to individual

cases was given to the field manager and the following

is a copy of that portion applying to land, sidings

and buildings:

Land—Two plots, one north and one south side Seminole


Railroad Sidings—Coal sidings Nos. 3, 4, 5 and 6. Oil

siding Xo. 2. Stock sidings Nos. 1, 7 and crossover.

Wide gauge tracks (boiler plant).

Buildings—Construction, by buildings. Outside crane

runway from Building No. 4 to be included with

Building No. 4. Tunnel and pits to be included

with buildings wherever possible.

Plumbing and Sewerage—By buildings as much

as possible, balance lump sum.

Heating Piping—Radiation per building to be

shown separately in value and square feet heating

surface. Main heating lines, returns and

connections to be lump sum.

Electric Lighting and Wiring—Lighting per building.

Trunk lines and connections to be lump


Sprinkler and Fire Protection Piping—Per building.

Balance (outside lines, etc.) lump sum.

Ventilating System—Per building.

As will be noted, we have two separate sections of

land, one being vacant and the other section being

entirely used by our various buildings and storage

spaces. The two values are given separately, making

it easy to charge the proper land value to each build-

February, 1925

ing in accordance with the floor space occupied. The unoccupied

section is charged to our general department.

The railroad sidings are valued and grouped together

in such a manner that they are readily charged

to the department served. The values of buildings

and their appurtenances are given in the same manner

as in any appraisal and it should not be difficult

to charge each building to the department served, or

in the case of two or more departments occupying

the same structure it should not be difficult to charge

each department in proportion to the floor space occupied.

If the amounts involved are large it is advisable

to pay particular attention to such items as trunk

lines and connections for electric light wiring; and

main lines, returns and connections for heating piping.

The main heating lines (trunk lines, returns and connections)

are chargeable to the boiler plant as they

are a part of the investment required to supply heat

to the various buildings. The same idea applies to

trunk lines for electric lighting. They are chargeable

to the electrical power plant. Under heating piping

the radiation per building in square feet of heating

surface was requested for the purpose of establishing

a basis for distributing that portion of boiler plant

chargeable to heating.

On land, railroad sidings and buildings, the appraisal

company furnished a report in accordance

with outline given above, but did not make any attempt

at departmentalization. It is a simple matter

for us to divide up these items by departments and

we do not feel it worth while to have the appraisal

company go to this expense. The important work is

allocating machines to various departments regardless

of their location in the plant and in reporting other

items of equipment, such as transmission, piping and

wiring in such a manner that each department can be

charged with its correct share. The following are a

few examples of equipment requiring special notation:

Continuous annealing furnace located in our upsetter

department is noted as belonging to the heat treating

department; motor generator and frequency changer

sets in the electrical department used for operating

blower motors are noted as belonging in furnace department;

one 5-ton electrical crane charged one half

to upsetters and one-half to steam hammers; and another

crane of the same size charged entirely to the

stock handling department. On power wiring the

main feed lines to starters are charged to the electrical

department, while the balance remains in the department

served. Furnace air and fuel oil lines (feed

lines) are charged to furnace department, balance, departmental.

All trucks, boxes, trays, etc., are noted

as belonging in the stock handling department.

The final summary or extra report as referred to

previously furnished by our appraisal company shows,

therefore, land in two plots, railroad sidings in four

values, buildings and appurtenances by buildings and

equipment per department. The equipment per department

is not merely one total, of course, but is

tabulated as machinery, foundations, motors, transmission,

belting, power wiring, piping, cranes and

hoists, etc. When this summary was received it remained

for us to distribute the land in accordance

with the area occupied, place the sidings in proper

departments and charge each department with its

proportionate share of buildings in order to arrive at

the investment represented by each of the following

departments: No. 11 steam hammer, No. 22 board

hammer, No. 33 upsetters, No. 66 heat treat, straight­

rorging- Stamping - Heat Treating

en, No. 44 cold trim, No. 55 grind and tumble, No. 77

die and blacksmith, No. 88 stock handling, No. 46 furnace

department (oil tanks and blowers), No. 45 boiler

plant, No. 70 repair department, No. 78 electrical department,

No. 99 general.

Although this work is more or less new, our appraisers

followed instructions very carefully as evidenced

by the fact that only 3 per cent of the total

equipment is charged to general and not more than 13

per cent of our total valuation is represented by the

general department after adding its share of land and


From this asset distribution, yearly departmental

depreciation can be figured, using individual rates

which both appraisers and auditors now generally

agree will apply on the various items. Following are

itemized values of one production department and

their corresponding depreciation figures after certain

similar items were grouped together for the purpose

of saving time.




$ 1,657

Buildings and appurtenances 34,730


Non-productive machinery


Machinery foundations 10,928

Motors 2,972

Mechanical transmission 1,694

Belting . . 339

Electric power circuit

Power piping 9,010

Water mechanical piping

High pressure air piping

Low pressure air piping

Fuel oil piping


Lubricating oil piping

Exhaust and blower piping

Permanent tools


Furnaces 10,757

Cranes and hoists 3,916

Overhead tracks and trolleys


Testing equipment

Fire apparatus

Trucks and scales


Benches, tables and racks

Stock and scrap trays

Tote boxes and barrels

OfHce furniture

Office mechanical devices

Factory furniture

Restaurant equipment

Trucking equipment

Rolling stock

Departmental value $235,119




Sidings •

Buildings and appurtenances $ 695

Machinery 9,491

Machinery foundations 656


Non-productive machinery


Mechanical transmission 85

Belting •••


Electric power circuit


Power piping

Low pressure air piping


Minor and fuel oil piping 31

Departmental Rolling Cranes, Trucking Permanent Benches, Furniture stocks hoists tables depreciation and equipment tools fire and and apparatus tanks tracks racks $ 12,423

205 16


40 Forging - S tamping - Heat Treating

Under "value" the entire number of classifications

are purposely shown and it will be noticed, as explained

earlier, electric power circuit, fuel oil piping

and trays and barrels are not shown in this productive

flepartment, but are charged respectively to the electrical,

furnace and stock handling departments.

The next step is to divide the three forging department

assets into groups or production' centers.

Because of the class of our work our three types of

units are made up of steam hammer, press, foundations

and furnace; board hammer, foundation and

furnace; upsetter, foundation, motor and furnace.

There are several units charged with two furnaces

and in the case of board hammers all presses are

grouped in the cold trim department, whether physically

located there or in the board shop. Here again

the appraisers noted to which unit each press, foundations,

furnace and upsetter motor belonged, making

it easy to arrange the items together. The land,

buildings and miscellaneous equipment in these three

departments can be distributed over the groups on

percentage bases and depreciation figured in the same

manner as before. These depreciation figures per

group and per department can be used in overhead

distribution as desired, but since there has been considerable

public discussion on this point, we will be

glad to explan our system to anyone interested, as our

overhead rates contain only earned depreciation and

therefore automatically take care of irregular operation.

The results of the asset distribution as outlined

above furnish plenty of information for the ourpose

of charging different departments with expenses

which vary in accordance with asset value, but in

order to arrive at hourly interest rates per hammer

it is necessary to distribute the indirect or non-productive

departments so that the entire value may be

borne by production centers. Our steam hammers,

board hammers and upsetters constitute our producing

departments and therefore they must receive their

share of all the other departments in proportion to

availability. This distribution is obtained by what is

known as the step methods. First, the electrical department

is charged to all others on the basis of connected

horsepower. The boiler plant is divided into

one portion for manufacturing and another for heating.

The value for manufacturing is charged on the

basis of service rendered (a percentage figured out

by our engineering department on the basis of steam

used per hour by each department) and the heating

is distributed in accordance with square feet of radiation.

The remaining departments, including die and

blacksmith, are taken care of in a similar manner with

the exception of cold trim, which is charged entirely

to the board shop.

The indirect departments now shown with the

steam hammers, boards and upsetters can be charged

to their respective groups by the use of various percentages.

For instance, that portion of the electrical

department charged to upsetters can be distributed

on the basis of connected horsepower per upsetter

group, while in the steam and board shops it can be

charged on the basis of weight produced per hour per

group. After the total investment has been distributed

to the production centers the interest is figured on

the total of each group and is then divided by the

number of probable yearly hours per group. One of

our production centers made up of two hammers of

February, 1925

the same size has a total reproductive valuation of

$230,000 after complete distribution has been made as

outlined. On a single shift basis each of these machines

should run 1,550 hours per year, making 3,100

hours for the group. At 6 per cent the interest per

year is $13,800, which when divided by 3,100 hours

results in an hourly rate of $4.45 for this particular

size and type of machine. The exact multiple of this

figure to use must of course be left to the individual,

.but by comparing possible yearly sales with total investment

it will be found that 6 per cent on the investment

is equivalent to a little over one-half that per

cent on sales.

A. D. F. I. Elects President

Mr. S. 1. Marshall, president and treasurer of the

Endicott Forging & Manufacturing Company, Endicott.

X. V.. was elected president of the American

Drop Forging Institute for the ensuing year at a meeting

of the institute held at

the Seaview Country Club,

Absecon, N. J., January 6

and 7.

Mr. Marshall has been

active in the work of the institute

during the past year

and it was largely through

his efforts that the many

splendid papers presented

at the Industrial Meeting

held in Pittsburgh last October

were secured.

In 1915, Mr. Marshall organized

the Endicott Forging

& Manufacturing Company,

and for 10 years prior

S. J. Marshall t0 tHat was secretary and

treasurer of the Globe Malleable

Iron & Steel Company. He was also connected

with H. II. Franklin Manufacturing Company of Syracuse

for three and a half years.

The retiring president, Mr. M. E. Pollak, president

of the Pollak Steel Company, Cincinnati, Ohio, devoted

a great amount of effort to revive interest in

the work of the Institute, which was reorganized early

last year. That his efforts were successful is indicated

by the substantial increase in membership during

his presidency. The office of the institute is located

at 1001 Union Bank Bldg., Pittsburgh, Pa. Mr.

W. T. Johnson is secretary, Mr. Donald McKaig,

treasurer, and Mr. J. M. Wright, general counsel.

Quenching Media for Heat Treating

The Bureau of Standards, Washington, is determining

the predominating factors in aqueous quenching

solutions, so that predictions can be made as to

the solution and its concentration. Motion pictures

of samples, during actual quenching, on which regular

cooling curves are being obtained, have been taken

by using a suitable glass quenching tank. Apparatus

is now being designed and built for pressure quenching

as a means of getting increased rates of cooling

for given solutions, and for making emulsions of oil

and water without the use of air.

February, 1925

Forging - Stamping - Heat Treating

H e a t T r e a t i n g S t e e l Electrically

Use of Electric Heat Does Not Call for New Methods of Applica­

tion—Practically All Uncertainties Connected with

THOUSANDS of tons of steel are produced annually

for use where particularly severe conditions

have to be met. In order that steel (castings included)

may possess the best physical qualities of

which it is capable, some form of heat treatment is

usually necessary. Results from untreated, high

priced, high grade steels may be no better than low

grade steels, properly heat treated.

These changes, although governed by the same

definite laws, must be obtained by giving to such steel

its own best cycle of heat treatment.

Improvement of the physical properties of steel is

generally secured by heating to or through the critical

range. Hence, location of the critical points in the

thermal scale is necessary. In general, quenching

from temperatures much higher than the critical range

will give a hardened steel but with a coarser grain

than if the quenching had occurred more closely to the

critical point; and of course it is understood that the

finer the grain, the stronger the steel.

It is evidently important, then, to apply and abstract

heat according to heating and cooling curves

of the steel under treatment — giving due consideration

to the critical temperatures. Otherwise the value

of the steel will not be completely available.

Heat Generation in Electric and Fuel

Fired Furnaces.

Proper Application of Heat Are Removed


In the electric furnace, heat generation can be kept

nicely balanced against heat absorption by the charge.

The importance of this fact cannot be over-emphasized,

since the problem of heat absorption is of first

importance in all heating furnaces. It goes without

saying that efficient generation or development of

heat units by chemical oxidation means little, unless

the Btu. released are in a minimum constant proportion

to the Btu. absorbed in doing useful work. Hence

the rate of heat generation and heat absorption must

be skillfully controlled to guarantee proper heat absorption

with time.

All Btu. that fails to be absorbed by the charge is

simply wasted, no matter how efficient the burners

and resulting combustion may be, and in this lies a

very definite handicap where rate of generation to absorption

cannot be properly governed as with fuel firing.

If the heating fluid be the product of combustion,

as in a fuel fired furnace consisting largely of CO,,

water vapor and nitrogen, then currents and eddies

exist in the combustion chamber, due to changes in

densities depending in part on variation in temperature.

These gases have a continuous flow and practical

results are obtained by removing as much heat

as possible from such streams while they are passing

through the furnace to the stack. This aim is accom-

plished more or less satisfactorily by designs which allow

the charge to be swept and enveloped so far as

possible by the stream of hot gases.

Complete and properly regulated envelopment is

necessary to a uniform or high rate of heat absorption,

which in turn is dependent upon heat conductivity

of the charge, its mass and the area of surface contact.

If only parts of the body lie in the stream or if

the streams vary in velocity or temperature, we may

expect non-uniform heating of that body. It should

be remembered that in fuel-fired furnaces, especially

where forced draft is used, that these currents of hot

gases have a cyclonic violence and continuously shift

as erratically.

The foregoing brings up some points of practical

importance in the quenching and heating process.

The careful operator should, therefore, for the best

results be furnised with an electric furnace. Pyrometer

or temperature control, secured automatically,

may be used to limit and control the temperature of

the heating chamber to values of 25 deg. to 100 deg.

above the temperature to which the charge is to be

heated, thus securing a floating effect while the charge

is passing its critical points and so avoiding excessive

strains and distribution in heating. For it must be

remembered that negative and positive expansions

lie adjacent to each other at the critical temperatures

and, therefore, heating at a high rate at or near criticals

is to be avoided, especially where variable section

are encountered in the steel part under heat treatment.

Non-simultaneous passing of the criticals for each section

will produce warpage and, with too wide differences,

cracks and ruptures, in the process of heating

just as surely as will improper quenching.

Electric Heat-Treating Furnaces.

It is being rapidly and conclusively demonstrated

that electric heat offers advantages equal to or greater,

in reheating and general heat treatment of steel, than

those secured in melting and refining. A striking expansion

in the use of the electric resistance furnace for

the heat treatment of steel has taken place in the

past five years and progress in the demands of industry

is sure, hence forth, to require the "over all"

economy and high quality which accompany the use

of electric heating for such processes as, (1) annealing;

(2) carburizing; (3) hardening; and (4) tempering

or drawing of steels.

It is being daily demonstrated that the electric furnace

for reheating, when properly designed and used

on steels having uniform characteristics such as may

be had from the electric melting furnace, can show

an advance in uniformity and quality over the usual

steel product of the present day fuel-fired furnace.

Furthermore, furnaces are available for any and all

tonnage requirements and of such simple and dependable

design that their continuity of operation equals

"Consulting Engineer, Industrial Heating Department, Gen­

that of any fuel-fired furnace, while the advantage of

eral Electric Company, Schenectady, N. Y.


42 Fbrging-Stamping - Heat Treating

low upkeep cost usually is on the side of the electric

furnace. To this may be added automatic control of

temperatures, duplication of heating cycles, reduction

in defective heat-treated parts, and usually many other

influencing factors which work in the direction of a

reduced "over all" cost of production in favor of the

electric heat-treating furnace.

The Metallic Resistor Furnace.

Important heat-treating processes, in which the

metallurgist should be interested, and for which the

metallic resistor electric furnace is peculiarly adapted,

will be enumerated and briefly described so that the

working field for such type of furnace may be clearly

indicated. We may, for convenience, consider elec-

February, 1925

the carbon content, and the spread of the critical range

varies likewise.

The committee of the American Society of Testing

Materials has recommended the following range in


Carbon Content Annealing Temp. Range

Per Cent Degrees Fahr.

Less than 0.12 1607 to 1697

0.12 to 0.25 1544 to 1598

0.30 to 0.49 1399 to 1544

0.50 to 1.00 1454 to 1499

The length of time steel should be held at the annealing

temperature varies with the size and shape of

the piece. It is important that the piece be heated

through uniformly at the annealing temperature.

Where quality of output is the watchword, modern

heat treatment is not attempted without first carrying

out correct annealing treatments as a proper foundation

for subsequent processes.

- 70


0 —57^

--_ r — 7SC J^c- 77S°C




February, 1925

Case Hardening With Electric Furnace.

Case hardening, applied to low carbon (below 0.25

per cent) dies, is merely the outgrowth of the old

cementation process, as used in making crucible steel.

Here, however, instead of carburizing the metal

through and through, the process ceases after carburizing

to a greater or lesser depth below the surface.

The modern case hardening operation is not as simple

as the crucible process. A furnace should be available

whose heat is easy to regulate and maintain at a

fixed uniform distribution during the whole carburizing

process. It should be equipped with a pyrometer,

and automatic regulation of temperature is a valuable

asset. Carburization may be effected in several ways

but we will restrict ourselves to the pack hardening in

boxes containing the carburizing material with which

the parts to be treated are surrounded. For practical

purposes, work is usually heated to at least 1560 deg.

F., and may even be brought to temperatures of 1850

to 1900 deg. F. High temperature gives speed to the

process but is objectionable, due to coarsening the

grain of the steel and a tendency to distort the work.

A good carburizing temperature (1560 deg. F.), has

the advantage of altering the core but little, unless the

process is unduly prolonged. The time of exposure

depends upon the size of the work, the depth of carbon

penetration desired, the per cent of carbon required

in the case, the carburizing agent used, the temperature

used, etc. Published tests on a ^-inch steel blank

(carbon 0.15 per cent), show the following results of

penetration with temperature and a carbon content on

the surface of 0.85 to 0.90 per cent with a penetration

of 0.050 inches for a particular carburizer:

Forging - Stamping - Heat "Beating

that carbon is in solid soluton with the iron, and from Time of Exposure

such assumption explains all heat-treating phenomena. in Hours Penetration in Inches for Deg. F.

All theories concerning hardening, however, are

1550° 1650° 1800°

united as to the necessity of heat control. Hence the

J4 008 .012 .030

electric furnace may be used successfully for heating

1 018 .026 .045

high-carbon steel dies which are to be hardened by

quenching. No doubt can exist in the mind of the operator

of the electric furnace as to the exact time when

the die block, be it large or small, has reached an

absolutely uniform temperature throughout; wherefore,

other things being normal, successful hardening

can only be thwarted by improper quenching.

2 035 .048 .060

3 045 .055 .075

4 052 .061 .092

6 :. .056 .075 .110

8 062 .083 .130

High temperature and long exposure tend to render

work brittle, partly because of prolonged exposure

to high temperature and partly because of relative in­

The electric furnace is ideally suited for annealing, crease in cross section of hardened area compared to

in the ordinary tool room. It is likewise suited to any the soft core.

heating requirements where the charges do not re­ The above remarks lead one to the conclusion that

quire more than 1,800 deg. F. Some of its advantages the electric furnace has important advantages for the

over fuel-fired unmuffled furnaces are as follows: (1) carburization stage of the case hardening process,

radiant heat; (2) satisfactory heat distribution; (3) where it is evident that close regulation and control of

automatic control of temperatures if desired, (4) prac­ temperature, as well as uniform delivery and distributically

non-oxidizing atmosphere, if desired; (5) tion of heat, are essential for the best results. Uni­

small amount of heat given off to the room; (6) no formity of product requires that each part of the

products of combustion or obnoxious gases given off charge be subjected as nearly as possible to the same

to heating chamber or room; (7) ratio of heat genera­ heat cycle, whether it be near the center of the cartion

to heat absorption by charge correctly mainburizing box or near its outer walls. It has already

tained; (8) uniform and complete penetration of heat been stated that the electric furnace, with its auto­

through the charge without overheating of corners, matic control, will bring each part of a charge of

fins or surfaces; (9) ability to repeat desired heat material to the same temperature through the control

cycles, giving uniformity of product; (10) a reduction. by a surface couple on that charge. Furnaces may be

generally, in labor; (11) a better overall economy and designed to give practically the same heat in each car­

the production of higher quality product at the same burizing box constituting the furnace charge, even

or slightly higher cost or the same quality at a lesser though the control is actuated from a pyrometer on a

overall cost.

single box. In other words, uniform heating conditions

exist throughout the heating chamber.

Remarks already made concerning the use of the

electric furnace for hardening high-carbon steel dies

apply equally to heating for the quench of carburized


Tempering and Drawing.

The temper should be drawn on all hammer dies,

to relieve strains and to give resilliency or spring, resulting

in better wearing qualities. An oil or air tempering

bath electrically heated is a most satisfactory

tool, and the hardened dies should immediately go

into it even before the die is quite cooled from the

hardening operation. The temperature of the oil bath

should be about 400 deg. F. In other words, hardened

steel is "tempered" by being reheated to about 400

deg. F., where it loses considerable brittleness and yet

little of its hardness, making it suited for dies and

metal cutting tools; reheated to 480 deg. F., it is less

brittle and suited for use in rock drills, stone cutting

tools, etc.; at 525 deg. F., it is suited to dental and

surgical instruments, hack saws, etc.; at 570 deg. F.,

the maximum usually employed, it may be used for

wood saws, springs, etc. Sudden cooling after tempering

does not effect hardness or softness of steel;

hence, when taken from the oil bath, it may cool either

rapidly or slowly.

Electric furnaces for heat treating drop forged dies

and metal cutting tools are usually of the box type.

These furnaces operate at temperatures up to and including

1850 deg. F., and may be obtained with automatic

control as previously described.

A furnace suited to heating large dies and cutters

at temperatures not exceeding 1850 deg. F., with automatic

temperature control, by test has shown the fol-


44 Fbrging-Stamping - Heat Treating

lowng performance, compared with a similar oil-fired

furnace on the same work :


Dimensions heating

chamber ... 30" x 36" x 22" High

Average temperature

held 1450 Deg F.

Fuel or power to

hold at 1400 deg.

F 8.04 Kwh.

Cost per hour to

hold 1400 deg. F.

at $1.25 $0.10

Amount of steel

heated per hr. . . 84 pounds

Fuel or power for

heating steel .. . 13.35 Kwh.

Cost fuel or power

per hour $0,167

Cost per pound

heating steel.... $0,199

Oil Fired

28" x 24" x 20" High

1400 Deg. F.

1.65 gal. per hr.

at $0.06 $.099

84 pounds

1.9 gal per hour



February, 1925

or tunnel type, of either vertical or horizontal construction.

All furnaces may be well heat lagged without

danger to refractories and at the same time secure

low thermal capacity resulting in quick heating.

As an exhibit demonstrating the inherent suitability

of electric heat for almost entirely eliminating the

decarburization and scaling of 1.10 carbon steel during

heat treatment, an instructive record of carefully

observed results is shown in Curves Figs. 1 and 2.

The parts on which these observations were made

were of 1.10 carbon steel round, y in. diameter and 2

in. long.

The furnaces used were (1) a gas furnace fired with

city gas and, (2), an electric metallic resistor furnace

of the direct heat type.

The temperature to which steel was heated ranged

from about 14130 deg. F. to about 1550 deg. F., and

work was quenched following its heating, to harden.

Fig. 2 (d)

FIG. 2—Gas furnace and electric furnace. Tests for surface and under surface decarburization with 1.10 carbon steel.

These results may be surprising to those who base

their calculations solely on relative Btu. costs for oil

and electricity. Were the upkeep costs included, the

difference in favor of electric furnaces would increase,

since, in the past six years, the upkeep of this furnace

has been practically nothing.

The foregoing applies to the electric furnace for

heating processes in producing drop forged dies and

metal cutting tools. A much greater field for the electric

furnace lies in the heat treatment of drop forgings.

Here we meet again the annealing, hardening by

quenching, case hardening, and tempering or drawing

processes. The metallic resistor furnace is here again

ready to demonstrate its superiority in heating processes

involving 1850 deg. F. or less. The designs of

furnaces must comply with methods of handling a production

having volume and tonnage. Electric heat can

be utilized with practically all types of furnaces, such

as car bottom type, pusher type, conveyor type, box

Scale in Electric vs. Gas.

Let us first look at Curve Sheet b, Fig. 1, where

diameters, after hardening, are shown for different

temperatures and for different spaces of time, beginning

with five minutes in the furnace. Observations

were made for a heating period of five minutes, increasing

by 10 minutes up to 110 minutes.

The original dimensions of round 1.10 C. steel stock

were 0.751 in. diameter by 2 in. long before heating.

The decreased diameter after quenching is assumed

to indicate the amount of scale formed and which is

snapped off in the quench. Note that this decrease in

diameter is about equal at approximately 1430 deg. F.

in the gas furnace, and at 1560 deg. F. in the electric

furnace with equal time of heating, while almost twice

as much scale is formed in the gas furnace at 1560 deg.

F., as in the electric under the same conditions.

February, 1925

Forging-Stamping-Heat Treating

Hardness in Electric vs. Gas.

The hardness rises to a maximum for work done

in the electric furnace when a temperature of 1425 deg.

F. is used (see Fig. 1), and a slight falling-off occurs

at increased temperatures, due perhaps to the

increased solution of "hard carbide" and to the formation

of greater amounts of "austenite". There is no

decrease of hardness for long periods of heating, which

means that the decarbonization is almost inappreciable.

To be sure, we note that hardness occurs in a

shorter period with higher temperature, but this is not

the maximum hardness obtainable. We see that 20

minutes is required for maximum hardness for 1430

deg. F., whereas, for lower temperatures, the work was

heated for a longer period. The reason that the gas

heated stock does not reach an equally high degree of

hardness may be due to the effect of some decarburization.

In no case could there be detected with the micro-

" scope any measurable area of totally decarburized surface

metal, except those heated to 1560 deg. F. in the

gas furnace for the longer periods. Hence to get an

exact comparison on the cross section, Rockwell hardness

numbers were determined (1) at the surface; (2)

at a depth of ^-in. and 3/16-in. below the surface; and

(3) at the center.

In the electric furnace, the maximum hardness is

practically constant, even through the long periods of

heating. The adjacent underlying zone is always

shown to be less hard. At 1560 deg. F. an exception

is noted in that the interior metal increases in hardness

and ultimately exceeds the surface hardness. This

may be explained as resulting from surface decarburization

shown as shaded area in Fig. 2, a, c and d.

In the gas furnace, the surface decreases in hardness

as does the underlying stock at 1480 deg. F.,

but at a greater rate. In much greater quantity we

find decarburizaton over that in the electric furnace,

yet at lower temperatures. The decrease in diameter

corresponds to the area on the curve and under the


Finally, we note that, in the gas furnace, the decrease

of diameter and increase of decarburization

have reached surprisingly high values at a temperature

of 1560 deg. F.

Here the "overall" cost of metal heating when done

electrically may be touched upon briefly. Let us see

what the cost of the heat treating operating really is,

in proportion to the total cost of manufacture. A few

representative products in table form run about as

follows: Electricity 1 per cent per kwh.:


ti 03



2— "

3— "

4— "

5- "

6- "


8- "

9- "

10— "

11- "












die block 110

-- v.-












-'S 2-5














£ et O — H.













The average cost of electricity for the heat treatment

of these parts is thus .86 of one per cent of the

total factory cost. Assuming that the cost of oil for

doing the same heating were only one-half this

amount, costs would be equalized if an advantage of

.43 of one per cent were realized by the electric process.

Whether that advantage comes from increased

quality, increased production, decreased floor space,

better working conditions, ability to duplicate results,

temperature control, uniformity of product, decrease in

rejects, decrease in labor, or some other element entering

into the total cost of production, matters not.

Fortunately for electric heating, when these conditions

are all taken at their increased value, due to the electric

process, the balance is in increasing numbers

found to be on the side of the electric.


The author feels that no comment is necessary to

lead one to decide from the above the relative merits

of each furnace for metallurgical work.

There has been no attempt in this paper to put

forth any new heat-treating process. Well known and

accepted process specifications have in part been described

only that the completeness with which the

electric furnace is able to meet such conditions might

be more clearly presented.

The use of the electric furnace does not call for

new methods of manipulation of present heating processes,

but rather fits itself into standard and generally

accepted heat-treating requirements admirably, removing

practically all uncertainties connected with the

proper application of heat; and eliminates almost entirely

the handicaps inherent in fuel-fired furnaces.

Test Sheets for Welding Qualities

Certain lots of sheets which give unsatisfactory

welds, apparently on account of the evolution of gas

as the molten weld metal freezes, are encountered by

manufacturers of oxy-acetylene welded sheet steel

products. The Bureau of Standards, Washington, is

analyzing satisfactory and unsatisfactory sheet steel,

submitted by a tube manufacturer, to determine if

there is any difference in the gas content of these two

grades of welding steels. Similar samples have been

promised by a manufacturer of welded steel barrels.

Bell Laboratories Formed

The Bell Telephone Laboratories, Inc., was organized

on January 1, 1925, for the purpose of carrying

on development and research activities. The newcompany

is jointly owned by the American Telephone

& Telegraph Company and the Western Electric Company,

Inc., and has taken over the personnel, buildings

and equipment of the research laboratories of

these two companies, which were formerly operated

as the Engineering Department of the Western Electric


Laboratory space in the form of a new building

covering: almost a quarter of a city block will be added

to the 400,000 sq. ft. at present in service in the group

of buildings at 463 West Street, New York City. At

the date of incorporation, the personnel numbered approximately

3,600, of whom about 2,000 are members

of the technical staff.


46 forging- Stamping - Heat Treating

February, 1925

M e t a l S t a m p i n g a n d S o m e o f Its F o r m s

Uniformity in Shape and Design, Rapid Rate of Production, Com­

paratively Low Cost and Elimination of Machine Work

T H E art of metal stamping is an old one, although

it is only in recent years that it has taken its logical

place in industry. It is an important factor

now in the manufacturing of this country, but present

development and experimental work will make its

use far reaching in the future.

To describe it in an elementary w^ay — the art of

metal stamping is the process of cutting and forming

shapes from flat stock — steel, brass, copper, aluminum,

and other metals — by means of dies or tools

designed for the work and operated in various types

of punch presses.

It is safe to say that the average layman has no

conception of the extent to which metal stampings

are used in our every day life. The insignificant little

collar button is a metal stamping, and going to the

other extreme we have the pressed steel freight car.

Cooking utensiles, telephones, bicycles, automobiles,

adding machines, electrical and radio devices, washing

machines, and an almost unlimited number of other

articles have pressed metal parts or metal stampings

in some form or other.

The advantages of the metal stamping are many.

Innumerable shapes or forms may be manufactured in

quantities at a rapid rate and at a comparatively low

cost. With the properly designed tool equipment

parts may be made in unlimited quantities, each one

uniform in shape and design; and where required, to

remarkably close limits.

In recent years the engineer and designer have

given first thought to the stamping where before a

forged or cast part may have been used. This is particularly

true where a saving in weight is desirable,

for in most instances the stamped part, though equally

strong, is lighter than a corresponding cast or forged

form. And this reduction in weight means a lowering

of costs and a further saving in packing and shipping

expense. Light gauged metals may be ribbed and

formed so as to make a very strong construction. A

similar result is obtained in a drawn or shell shaped

part due to the shape and the fact that the action of

the drawing dies has a tendency to toughen the metal.

Most stamped shapes may be so designed that little or

no machining will be required before use. It does

not necessarily follow that all cast parts may be produced

as stampings, but there have been many that

have been redesigned at a tremendous saving and for

the same reason this form of construction is being considered

more and more.

Manufacturers of electrical goods and stoves were

perhaps among the first to make use of stampings to

any great extent, but it was the automobile that

brought the industry to its present prominence. Here

was a product for which there was an increasing de-

Are Among Advantages of Metal Stampings

By H. JAY*

mand and yet a need for lower costs to put machines

within the reach of everyone. Starting with a very

few pressed parts at first we find the present car design

an example of pressed metal engineering carried

to its fullest possibilities. The late war also brought

many opportunities for pressed metal development.

The demand then was for huge quantities of material

to be produced almost over night. Steel helmets,

booster casing, fuse sockets, etc., were among some

of the parts that would never have been produced in

the quantities and designs required if it hadn't been

for this most versatile method of manufacture.

FIG. 1—Common type of blanking die for cutting a

little dog or plunger.

And it is readily seen why the automobile engineer

has turned to the stamping for use in his highly productive

field. The cast brake drum and axle housing,

the forged windshield bracket and clutch and brake

pedals, with very little change in design, can and

have been produced as stampings on a very economical

basis and at a decided saving in weight. Fenders,

oil pans, hoods, bodies, frames, hub caps, parts for the

motor clutch and transmission are all some form of

pressed metal. Producing these parts with such ra­

*Sales Engineer, The Acklin Stamping Company, Toledo, pidity and at such a saving in material and labor, the

Ohio. Paper presented to the Seniors in Mechanical Engineering advantages from a cost and production viewpoint are

at Cornell University and the University of Pennsylvania.


February, 1925

Given a stamped part to produce, the first problem

is to make the proper selection of tools and material.

This selection is dependent upon the probable number

of pieces required, the finish if any, tolerances, shape,

etc. The tool and die design is an important link in

the chain, for improperly designed tools means expensive

upkeep and poor workmanship and slow production.

Under almost identical conditions the same

kind of metal will act differently in one drawn part

than it will in another, so that the tool designer's

work is an important one. This is one reason why the

art is so interesting — and costly at times to those

working on a competitive basis—for each job is practically

a new problem in itself.

There are so many different classes of stamping

work that it would be rather difficult to attempt to

describe all of them at one sitting. Some forms, such

as the collar button, shoe eyelet, etc., are produced

entirely automatically, the raw stock being fed into

the press at one end and after passing through successive

steps in the die, coming out a finished piece.

Other parts of a nature that would not permit automatic

control are put through various press operations

at a surprising rate. Some of the larger types — automobile

frames and freight car ends, for example, are

handled by cranes in hydraulic presses of upwards of

3 or 4,000 tons capacity. A study of a few of the common

forms of pressed metal parts and the design of

the dies or tools might be interesting.

The simplest form of tool is the blanking die for

cutting flat pieces, such as washers or gusset plates.

The tool operated in a punch press consists of two portions;

the male part generally called the punch and

the female portion the die — although it is common

practice to refer to the complete tool as a die. The

stock to be cut quite naturally is placed between the

punch and the die and as the punch descends the shearing

action between the two cuts the blank.

FIG. 2—Where a clean square edge is desired, the rough

blank is put through a shaving or burnishing operation.

Fig. 1 shows a common type of blanking die for

cutting a little dog or plunger. The punch holder C

is mounted in the ram of the press and to it is fitted

the punch A. The die B is mounted on the die shoe

D which in turn is held stationary on the bed of the

press. The stock E is feed from right to left and at

each stroke of the press a blank is cut falling through

the die and the bed of the press. The wastage between

blanks is kept to a minimum by means of the

stop G which properly locates the stock between each

Forging- Stamping - Heat Treating

cut. A certain amount of clearance is allowed between

the punch and the die to obtain the best cutting action.

This clearance is dependent upon the metal thickness,

being approximately 15 thousandths of an inch on

a side in this case for steel one-quarter inch thick.

This clearance is all in the die, the punch corresponding

to the outline of the blank desired. For this reason

the stock clings to the punch as it ascends after each

stroke, but it is removed by the stripper plate F, located

in a fixed position around the punch. A blank

FIG. 3—Compound die for piercing and blanking in

a single operation.

cut in this manner is apt to be distorted somewhat

due to the shearing action, but this distortion may be

removed by flattening between two surfaces mounted

in a press in the same manner as in blanking.

It is evident that in blanking stock, in the manner

just described, a clean cut, square edge cannot be obtained

due to the clearance in the die. The stock in

being cut is sheared clean and true for about one-third

of the thickness and then practically torn apart for

the remainder. The thumb sketch in Fig. 1 shows

this condition in a slightly exaggerated way. This

ragged condition on the edge of the cut blank becomes

more pronounced as heavier stock is used, but it is not

objectionable for ordinary use. Where a cleaner or

more square edge is necessary for the sake of obtaining

accuracy in an assembly of stamped parts, a shaving

or burnishing operation is added. The tool for this

purpose is somewhat similar to a plain blanking die;

the essential difference being in the decreased clearance.

A shaving operation cuts away a few thousands

of stock; whereas a burnishing operation sharpens a

blanked edge by ironing out the metal by brute force

between a closely fitting punch and die, although removing

a certain amount of stock. The part shown

in Fig. 2, being cut from five-eighths thick stock, came



from the blanking die quite ragged; but a burnishing

operation leaves an edge that was quite comparable

with an expensive machining operation.

Another type of flat work is a reinforcement plate

for holding an automobile hood latch in place. This

part is used in the construction of a popular make of


FIG. 4—Progressive die used for piercing, countersinking

and blanking.

automobile and is required in large quantities. A compound

type of die is used, this being one that blanks

the piece and pierces all the holes in one operation—a

finished piece being produced with each stroke of the


In Fig. 3 showing the complete die, the upper portion

contains a cutting edge A, which corresponds to

the outline of the blank allowing clearance as in the

plain type of blanking die. The punches B for the

small holes are also in this portion of the die and

after being properly located are held in place by the

punch holder. This punch holder may be readily removed

so that duplicate punches may be inserted as

wear and breakage occur.

FIG. 5—Forming die. In addition to shaping the part, it

shears off part of the stock to give a sharp knife-like edge.

The lower portion consists of the shoe D on which

is mounted the plug E which serves as a punch for the

blank and in addition is the die for the small punches

above. The stripper F removes the strip from the

punch as the press ascends and the knock-out pad G

removes the stamping from the small punches.

Forging- Stamping - Heat Treating

February, 1925

This is a very practical type of die for quantity

production for it is capable of producing upwards of

15,000 pieces daily. To operate satisfactorily the small

holes should be located far enough away from the

edge of the blank — at least once and one-half metal

thickness — so that the die construction will not be


Another type of small stamping is the little plate

that serves as the catch for an automobile door lock.

The countersinking required for the wood screws

eliminates the possibility of using the compound type

of die previously described, so that a progressive or

step type is used as shown in Fig. 4. The material,

hot rolled strip steel, is fed into the first operation die

from right to left in strips wide enough for the blank

and allowing sufficient stock on the sides to hold the

strip together after the blank is cut. Otherwise, small

pieces of scrap falling off the strip would clog up the

die and slow up production. A and B are indexing

gauges used in starting the strip which is handled to

the best advantage in eight to 10 foot lengths. A is

held in place on the first stroke of the press, locating

the material for the first step, the piercing of the two

small holes by the punches C. A is then released

and the stop B locates for the countersinking on the

next stroke of the press by the punches D. Then in

the next stroke the blank is cut with the punch E,

roughly gauging from a stop at F and accurately locating

the stock with little pins in the punch which

fit into the countersunk holes before the blank G is

actually cut. At each successive stroke thereafter one

blank is cut, falling through the die and out of the

way, and the piercing and countersinking are performed

on two other portions of the strip.

To finish the plate it is put through another tool

shown in Fig. 5. This is known as a forming die and

in addition to shaping the part actually pinches off a

bit of the stock to give the sharp knife edge required.

After the stamping is formed it is carried up with the

punch on the up stroke of the press and is removed by

a striper plate not shown in the sketch. The press

being inclined the stamping falls away from the tool

of its own accord in time to permit the insertion of

the next blank. A set of tools of this type is suitable

for large production on a very economical basis. The

first operation is capable of producing approximately

20,000 pieces in a 10-hour day and the second operation

approximately 12,000, at a combined cost of considerably

under a cent per piece including material.

(Continued next month.)

Stamping Plant Starts Operations

The Geometric Appliance Corporation, 27 Sixth

fr. ' • Vrooklyn, N. Y., incorporated August 20,

1924, with a capital of $200,000. The company started

business January 2, 1925, and will specialize in the

scientific heat treatment of metals by a special process,

and the manufacture of patented hair curlers,

can openers, surgical instruments and other metal

stamping and die work. Thomas H. Ross, president,

has patented several products to be manufactured,

and has developed the new heat treating process after

-5 years of experimentation. George Macaulay is vice

president, and George E. Nace, secretary-treasurer.

February, 1925

Forging - Stamping - Heat Treating

B i b l i o g r a p h y o f M a n g a n e s e S t e e l

(Bibliographies accompany several of the references

mentioned below. See the second, eleventh, and twelfth

references under Hadfield; the second reference under

Hibbard; and references under Burnham, Desch, Hopkinson,

Mars, and Ruemelin.)

Books and Periodical Literature.

LAcier au manganese, 1908. (In Le Genie civil, v.

52, p. 288-290.)

Angerer, V. Designing Manganese Steel Track

Work. 1915. (In Railway Age Gazette, v. 59, p. 341-


Gives brief history and uses of manganese steel in railroad


Armstrong, P. A. E. Manganese Steel Welding.

1916. (In Electric Railway Journal, v. 47, p. 1144-1146.)

Describes the Strohmenger process for welding manganese


Arnold, J. O., and Read, A. A. Chemical and Mechanical

Relations of Iron, Manganese, and Carbon.

1910. (In Journal of the Iron and Steel Institute, v. 81,

p. 169-185.)

Arnold, J. O., and Read, A. A. Chemical Relation of

Carbon and Iron. 1894. (In Journal of the Chemical

Society, v. 65, p. 788-801.)

Gives analysis of manganese steel, p. 798-801.

Barrett, W. F. On the Physical Properties of a

Nearly Non-Magnetisable (Manganese) Steel. 1887.

(In Report of the British Association for the Advancement

of Science, v. 58, p. 610.)

Barrett, W. F., and others. Researches on the Electrical

Conductivity and Magnetic Properties of Upwards

of One Hundred Different Alloys. 1902. (In Journal

of the Institution of Electrical Engineers, v. 31, p. 674-


The same, abstract. 1903. (In Minutes of Proceedings

of the Institution of Civil Engineers, v. 151, pt. 1,

p. 498-499.)

Includes 18 varieties of manganese alloys.

Barton, Larry J. Manganese Steel Made in Electric

Furnace. 1922. (In Iron Age, v. 109, p. 4-8, 109.)

Discusses melting practice for castings, use of manganese

steel scrap, deoxidizing with manganese ores, and heat treatment.

Beliaeff, Sergius S. Cored Structure in Quenched

Manganese Steel. 1922. (In Chemical and Metallurgical

Engineering, v. 27, p. 1086.)

Sample quenched in water from 1850° F., was etched with

3 per cent nital to develop its structure.

Bidwell, George L. Beater Rolls and Hydration

Problems. 1922. (In Paper, v. 30, No. 7, p. 53-54, 56.)

The same. 1922. (In Paper Trade Journal, v. 74,

pt. 2, No. 15, p. 191, 193.)

Discusses the use of manganese steel beater and washer

bars in paper manufacture.

Blue, A. A. Carbonizing Manganese Steel. 1921.

(In Forging and Heat Treating, v. 7, p. 413-415.)

Deals with the advantages of using higher manganese content

in steels for carbonizing purposes.

Blue, A. A. Distortion Produced in Casehardening.

1922. (In American Machinist, v. 56, p. 915-916.)

Deals with the effect of casehardening on manganese steel.

•Technical Librarian, Carnegie Library, Pittsburgh, Pa.

By e. h. McClelland*

Brearley, Harry. Case-Hardening of Steel; an Illustrated

Exposition of the Changes in Structure and Properties

Induced in Mild Steels by Cementation and Allied

Processes. Ed. 2. 1921. Longmans.

Treats of manganese steel, p. 78-79, 144.

Bronson, C. B. Heat Treatment as Applied to Railroad

Materials. 1919. (In Journal of the American

Steel Treaters' Society, v. 1, p. 336-341.)

Deals with manufacture, heat treatment, and tests of manganese


Burgess, Charles P., and Aston, James. Observations

upon the Alloys of Iron and Manganese. 1909. (In

Electrochemical and Metallurgical Industry, v. 7, p. 476-


Burnham, Thomas H. Special Steels; a Concise

Treatise on the Constitution, Manufacture, Working,

Heat Treatment and Applications of Alloy Steels;

Chiefly Founded on the Researches Regarding Alloy

Steels of Sir Robert Hadfield, and with a Foreword by

Him. Pitman. 1923. (Pitman's Technical Primer


"List of papers by Sir Robert A. Hadfield on manganese

steel," p. 167-168.

Treats of manganese steel, p. 91-100.

Campbell, Howard. Grinding Manganese-Steel Castings.

1923. (In American Machinist, v. 58, p. 783-786.)

Presents some interesting methods and equipment.

Campredon, Louis. Proprietes physiques et mecaniques

des aciers extra-doux ou fers fondus. 1890.

(In Le Genie civil, v. 17, p. 276-277, 358-359.)

Discusses the physical and mechanical properties of manganese


Carpenter, H. C. H., and others. Seventh Report to

the Alloy Research Committee: On the Properties of a

Series of Iron-Nickel-Manganese-Carbon Alloys. 1905.

(In Proceedings of the Institution of Mechanical Engineers,

v. 69, p. 857-1041.)

Gives a summary of the work of previous investigators, and

describes preparation, heat treatment, and chemical, mechanical,

and micrographical properties of the alloys.

Carr, Bradley Sayre. Manufacture of Manganese

Steel Castings. 1918" (In Machinery, v. 25, p. 182.)

Abstract of article in "Armour Engineer."

Cast-Steel Wheel with Manganese Tread and Flange.

1916. (In Electric Railway Journal, v. 48, p. 69-71.)

The same. 1916. (In Foundry, v. 44, p. 457-460.)

Chicago's Experience with Solid and Insert Manganese

Special Track Work. 1914. (In Electric Railway Journal,

v. 43, p. 970-980.)

History of experience in the use of manganese steel, with

accounts of individual installations.

Cone, Edwin F. High-Manganese Steel for Locomotives.

1924. (In Iron Age, v. 114, p. 824-825.)

Davis, Z. T Manganese Steel Cutting. 1923. (In

Journal of the American Welding Society, v. 2, No. 3,

p. 31-33.)

Dejean, M. P. Sur la classification des aciers au

nickel et des aciers au manganese. 1917. (In Comptes

rendus hebdomadaires des seances de l'Academie des

Sciences, v. 165, p. 334-337.)


50 Fbrging-Stamping - Heat Treating

Ucsch, Cecil H., and H'hyle, Samuel. The Influence

of Manganese on the Corrosion of Steel. 1914. (In

West of Scotland Iron and Steel Institute, v. 21, p. 176-


The same, abstract. 1914. (In Journal of the Iron

and Steel Institute, v. 90, p. 386.)

Discusses corrosion of manganese steels in 5 per cent

sodium chlorid solution.

Contains a bibliography of 18 references.

Difficulties in the Manufacture of Manganese Steel

Castings. 1914. (In Electric Railway Journal, v. 43, p.


Diller, H. E. Casting Manganese Steel. 1924. (In

Foundry, v. 52, p. 245-249, 298-302.)

Describes method of casting, testing and working.

Diller, H. E. Specializes Manganese Steel. 1923.

(In Foundry, v. 51, p. 891-897.)

The same. 1923. (In Iron Trade Review, v. 73, p.


Dubois, R. Recherche des causes de la desagregation

du ferro-manganese expose a l'air libre. 1901. (In Bulletin

de l'Association Beige des Chimistes, v. 15, p. 281-


Discusses the action of weathering on ferro-manganese.

Dupuy, Eugene L., and Portcvin, Albert M. Thermo-

Electric Properties of Special Steels. 1915. (In Journal

of the Iron and Steel Institute, v. 91, p. 306-335.)

Test results made on four special manganese steels, p.


Garrison, F. Lynwood. New Alloys and Their Engineering

Applications. 1891. (In Journal of the Franklin

Institute, v. 132, p. 54-65, 111-129, 223-240.)

Treats of manganese steel, p. 127-129, 223-228.

The same, abstract. 1891. (In Journal of the Iron

and Steel Institute, v. 40, p. 302-309.)

Treats of manganese steel, p. 305-306.

George, Howard H. Correct Welding Procedure Retains

Qualities of Manganese Steel. 1924. (In Electric

Railway Journal, v. 63, p. 611-613.)

Use of arc welding prolongs life of manganese steel special

work from one to five years.

Gilbert, N. J. Effect of Certain Elements on the

Properties of Steel. 1919. (In Journal of the American

Steel Treaters' Society, v. 1, p. 349-359.)

Compares properties of manganese steels with other steels.

Grard, Charles Albert Marie. L'acier; aviation—

automobilisme; constructions mecaniques sanctions de la

guerre. 1919.

Deals with the properties, forging, and heat treatment of

common and special steels.

Treats of manganese steel, p. 208-211.

Groos, A., and Varinois, Maurice. Traite theorique

et pratique de cementation; trempe, recuit et revenu.

Ed. 2, rev. and enl. 1921.

Manganese steel is discussed, p. 33-34.

Guillet, Leon. Aciers au manganese. 1903. (In

Bulletin de la Societe d'Encouragement pour lTndustrie

Nationale, v. 105, p. 421-448.)

The same, abstract translation. 1904. (In Stahl und

Eisen, v. 24, pt. 1, p. 281-285.)

Lengthy article on the mechanical properties, critical points

and metallography of manganese steel.

GuUlet, Leon. Les aciers speciaux; preface de Henrv

Le Chatelier. 2v. in 1. 1904-05.

Includes researches on the structures and physical properties

of manganese steel, p. 47-77.

February, 1925

Guillet, Leon. Nouvelles recherches sur les aciers au

manganese. 1904. (In Revue de metallurgie, v. 1,

memoires, p. 89-91.)

Further researches on manganese steels, and states that

these steels cannot be used without quenching, as the hardness

of troostite-martensite structure is insufficient for practical


Guillet, Leon. Quaternary Steels. 1906. (In Journal

of the Iron and Steel Institute, v. 70, p. 1-141.)

Treats of the constitution, mechanical properties and influence

of treatment on manganese steels, p. 6-7, manganesechromium

steels, p. 101-109, manganese-silicon steels, p. 109-

114. Contains numerous photomicrographs.

Guillet, Leon. Recherches sur les aciers au manganese.

1903. (In Le Genie civil, v. 43, p. 261-264,


Hadfield, Robert A., and others. Contribution to the

Study of the Magnetic Properties of Manganese and of

Some Special Manganese Steels. 1917. (In Proceedings

of Royal Society of London, Series A, v. 94, p.


Hadfield, Robert A. Experiments Relating to the

Effect on Mechanical and Other Properties of Iron and

Its Alloys Produced by Liquid Air Temperatures. 1905.

(In Journal of the Iron and Steel Institute, v. 67, p. 147-


Contains a bibliography of 76 references, p. 206-210. Includes

consideration of various alloys containing manganese.

Hadfield, Robert A. Heating and Cooling Curves of

Manganese Steel. 1913. (In Journal of the Iron and

Steel Institute, v. 88, p. 191-202.)

Hadfield, Robert A., and Friend, J. Newton. Influence

of Carbon and Manganese upon the Corrosion of

Iron and Steel. 1916. (In Journal of the Iron and Steel

Institute, v. 93, p. 48-76.)

Considers manganese steel.

Hadfield, Robert A. Iron Alloys with Special Reference

to Manganese Steels. 1893. (In Transactions

of the American Institute of Mining Engineers, v.

23, p. 148-196.)

Hadfield, Robert A., and Hopkinson, B. Magnetic

and Mechanical Properties of Manganese Steel. 1914.

(In Journal of the Iron and Steel Institute, v. 89, p.


Hadfield, Robert A., and Hopkinson, B. Magnetic

Properties of Iron and Its Alloys in Intense Fields.

1910. (In Journal of the Institution of Electrical Engineers,

v. 46, p. 235-306.)

Discusses magnetic properties of alloys in general, p. 253-

258, and iron manganese alloys, p. 263-269.

Hadfield, Robert A., and others. Magnetic Mechanical

Analysis of Manganese Steel. 1921. (In Proceedings

of the Royal Society of London, Series A, v. 98,

p. 297-302.)

The same, abstract. 1921. (In Journal of the Iron

and Steel Institute, v. 103, p. 462.)

Hadfield, Robert A. Manganese-Steel Rails. 1914.

(In Transactions of the American Institute of Mining

Engineers, v. 50, p. 327-339.)

The same, abstract. 1914. (In Engineer, v. 118, p.

564.) S

Hadfield, Robert A. Manganese-Steel, with an Abstract

of the Discussion upon the Papers; ed. by James

Forrest. 1888. Institution of Civil Engineers.

Treats of manganese in its application to metallurgy.—

Some newly discovered properties of iron and manganese. Reprinted

from the "Minutes of proceedings of the Institution

of Civil Engineers."

February, 1925

Hadfield, Robert A. On Manganese Steel. 1888.

(In Journal of the Iron and Steel Institute, v. 33, p


Gives history, manufacture and properties of manganese

steel. Contains a bibliography, p. 76-77.

Hadfield, Robert A. Results of Heat Treatment on

Manganese Steel and Their Bearing upon Carbon Steel.

1894. (In Journal of the Iron and Steel Institute, v. 45,

p. 156-180.)

"Bibliography," p. 177-180.

Hall, John H., and others. Heat Treatment of Cast

Steel. 1920. (In Transactions of the American Institute

of Mining and Metallurgical Engineers, v. 62, p


Treats of high-manganese carbon steel, p. 381-388.

Hall, John H. Manganese Steel. 1915. (In Journal

of the Society of Chemical Industry, v. 34, pt. 1, p.


The same. 1915. (In Journal of Industrial and Engineering

Chemistry, v. 7, p. 94-98.)

The same, condensed. 1915. (In Foundry, v. 43,

p. 138-139.)

Discusses properties, manufacture, moulding, etc., of manganese


Hall, John H. Manganese Steel Castings. 1913.

(In Iron Age, v. 91, pt. 1, p. 712-713.)

Treats of foundry methods and heat treatment.

Hall, John H. Pearlitic and Sorbitic Manganese

Steels. 1922. (In Iron Age, v. 110, p. 786-788.)

Treats of castings of about 1 per cent manganese, some

of the literature on the subject and their heat treatment and


Hand, S. A. Manganese Steel and Methods of Machining

It. 1921. (In American Machinist, v. 54, p.


Discusses briefly the heat treatment and methods of


Harbord, Frank William, and Hall, J. W Metallurgy

of Steel. Ed. 7, rev. 2 v. 1923. Griffin. (Metallurgical


Treats of manganese steel, v. 1, p. 400-403.

Hibbard, Henry D.- Discovery of Manganese Steel.

1922. (In Blast Furnace and Steel Plant, v. 10, p. 450.)

The same. 1922. (In Brass World and Platers'

Guide, v. 18, p. 339.)

The same. 1922. (In Iron Trade Review, v. 71,

p. 39.)

Research Narrative No. 35, of the Engineering Foundation.

Hibbard, Henry D. Manufacture and Uses of Alloy

Steels. 1915. (In United States Bureau of Mines.

Bulletin No. 100.

Treats of manganese steel, p. 22-34.

"Bibliography," p. 34-36.

The same. 1916. (In Railway Review, v. 58, p.

281-284, 304-305, 345-346, 371-375, 680-683, 840-844.)

Manganese steel, p. 371-375.

Heat Treatment of Manganese Steel. 1924. (In

Engineering, v. 118, p. 411.)

Hilpert, S., and others. Ueber die magnetischen

Eigenschaften von Nickel und Manganstaehlen. 1912.

(In Stahl und Eisen, v. 32, pt. 1, p. 96-104.)

The same. 1912. (In Zeitschrift fuer Elektrochemie,

v. 18, p. 54-64.)

The same, translation. 1912. (In Journal of the

Iron and Steel Institute, v. 86, p. 302-310.)

Discusses the influence of heat treatment on magnetic properties

of manganese steels.

forging- Stamping - Heat Treating

Hopkinson, B., and Hadfield, Robert A. Research

with Regard to the Non-Magnetic and Magnetic Conditions

of Manganese Steel. 1914. (In Transactions of

the American Institute of Mining Engineers, v. 50, p.


"Bibliography," p. 494-497.

Howe, Henry M., and Levy, Arthur G. Are the Deformation

Lines in Manganese Steel Twins or Slip

Bands? 1915. (In Transactions of the American Institute

of Mining Engineers, v. 51, p. 881-896.)

Howe, Henry M. Heat-Treatment of Steel. 1893.

(In Transactions of the American Institute of Mining

Engineers, v. 23, p. 466-541.)

Presents results of experiments on toughening manganesesteel

by sudden cooling, p. 467-476. •

Howe, Henry M. Manganese-Steel. 1891. (In

Transactions of the American Society of Mechanical

Engineers, v. 12, p. 955-974.)

The same, abstract. 1891. (In Journal of the Iron

and Steel-Institute, v. 40, p. 309-311.)

Gives results of tests and various uses of manganese steel.

Howe, Henry M. Manganese Steel. 1893. (In

Tournal of the Franklin Institute, v. 135, p. 114-128,


Howe, Henry M. Metallurgy of Steel, v. 1. 1895.

Manganese steel is discussed, p. 48, 361-365.

Hozvc, Henry M. Note on Manganese-Steel. 1893.

(In Transactions of the American Institute of Mining

Engineers, v. 21, p. 625-631.)

Howe, Henry. M. Role of Manganese. 1917. (In

Proceedings of the American Society for Testing Materials,

v. 17, pt. 2, p. 508.)

The same. 1917. (In Engineering and Mining Journal,

v. 104, p. 467-468.)

The same, abstract. 1917. (In Iron Age, v. 100, pt.

l.p. 239.)

The same, condensed. 1917. (In Iron Trade Review,

v. 60, p. 1401-1402.)

Discusses mechanical properties of manganese steel.

Improved Manganese Steel. 1915. (In Machinery,

v. 21, p. 450.)

Improved steel possessing the characteristic hardness of

the regular manganese steel, but which contains less manganese.

Jacobs, F. B. Grinding Manganese Steel Castings.

1921. (In Foundry, v. 49, p. 767-770.)

Discusses the method and reasons for grinding.

Johnson, F. E. Manganese Steel. 1910. (In Journal

of the Association of Engineering Societies, v. 45,

p. 175-183.)

The same, abstract. 1911. (In Engineering Review,

v. 24, p. 173.)

The same, abstract. 1911. (In Foundry, v. 37, p.


Paper read before the Utah Society of Engineers.

Johnson, R. M. Manganese Steel Grinding. 1920.

(In Grits and Grinds, v. 11, No. 10, p. 2-8.)

The same. 1920. (In Foundry, v. 48, p. 659-661.)

The same. 1920. (In Iron Trade Review, v. 66, p.


Killing, Erich. Beitraege zur Frage der Manganausnutzung

im basischen Martinofen. 1920. (In Stahl

und Eisen, v. 40, pt. 2, p. 1545-1547.)

Discusses experiments on conditions necessary to secure

the most effective use of the manganese additions.


52 Forging- Stamping - Heat Treating

Lake, E. F. Manganese Steel and Some of Its Uses.

1907 (In American Machinist, v. 30, pt. 1, p. 700-702.)

Discusses its advantages over carbon steel for rails, vaults,


Laic. E. F Effect of Mass on Heat Treatment.

1919. (In Proceedings of the Steel Treating Research

Society, v. 2, No. 2, p. 11-19. 31.)

Discusses mechanical properties of manganese steel as influenced

by various heat treatments, p. 14.

Ledebur. A. Ueber Manganstahl. 1893. (In Stahl

und Eisen, v. 13, p. 504-507.)

Levin, M'., and Tammann, G. Lleber Mangan-Eisenlegierungen.

1905. (In Zeitschift fuer Anorganische

Chemie, v. 47. p. 136-144.)

The same, abstract translation. 1908. (In Revue de

metallurgie, v. 5, pt. 1, memoires. p. 537-539.)

Gives results of experiments of the heating and cooling

curves of manganese-iron alloys.

Machine Shop without Cutting Tools. 1909. (In

American Machinist, v. 32, pt. 2, p. 893-897.)

Deals with appliances used in building burglar proof safes

of manganese steel which can only be machined by grinding.

McKcc, Walter S. Manganese-Steel Castings in the

Mining Industry. 1916. (In Transactions of the American

Institute of Mining Engineers, v. 53, p. 437-450.)

The same, condensed. 1915. (In Iron Age v 96

pt. 2, p. 1362-1365.)

The same, without discussion. 1915. (In Iron Trade

Review, v. 57. p. 1077-1081.)

Considers their characteristics, some of their uses, foundry

practice and heat treatment.

McKce, Walter S., and Blake. J. M. Manganese

Steel Castings in the Mining Industry. 1921. (In Transactions

of the Canadian Institute of Mining and Metallurgy

and of the Mining Society of Nova Scotia, v. 24

p. 188-195.)

Gives the chemical and physical properties, heat treatment

and uses.

McKcc, Walter S. The Manufacture of Manganese

Steel Castings. 1917. (In Transactions of the American

Foundrymen's Association, v. 25, p. 403-426.)

The same. 1917. (In Foundry, v. 45, p. 141-146.)

The same. 1917. (In Iron Trade Review, v. 60, p


Discusses the difficulties encountered in making alloy castings,

and application of manganese steel to various kinds of


Making Manganese Steel bv the Open-Hearth Process.

1919. (In Iron Trade Review, v. 65, p. 1701-1705.)

Making Manganese Steel Castings Machineable

1912. (In Foundry, v. 40, p. 271.)

Method of softening the castings by heat treatment.

Manganeisenhaltige I.egierungen und Ihre Herstellun"und

Yerwendung. 1912. (In Elektrochemische Zeitschrift,

v.19, p. 131-133.)

Includes use of ferromanganese, etc., in manganese steel.

Manganese Steel for Burglar-Proof Safes. 1899.

(In Journal of the Franklin Institute, v. 147, p. 491.)

Manganese Steel Products. 1909. (In Iron Age v

84, pt. 1," p. 984-987.)

Deals with the progress of the Potter process of rolling

manganese steel.

Manganese Steel Track-Work Specifications. 1915.

(In Electric Railway Journal, v. 45, p. 1118.)

February, 1925

Manufacture of Manganese Steel Castings. 1913.

(In Iron Trade Review, v. 52, p. 1404-1411.)

Discusses the practice of the Edgar Allen American

Steel Co.

Mars. G. Die Spezialstaehle; Ihre Geschichte, Eigenschaften,

Behandlungen und Herstellung. Ed. 2, rev.


Contains bibliographical foot-notes.

Treats of manganese steel, p. 287-331.

Mesnager, A. Essais d'aciers speciaux sur les chemins

de fer et tramways. 1921. (In Le Genie civil, v.

79, p. 155.)

Discusses advantages of Hadfield steel (12 per cent manganese)

for railway parts exposed to heavy wear.

Metcalf, William. Steel; a Manual for Steel Users.

1900. Wiley.

Treats of the properties of steel, effect of impurities, theory

and methods of hardening, tempering, annealing, etc. Manganese

steel, p. 33-35.

Mukai, Tctskichi. Studien ueber chemisch-analytische

und mikroskopische Untersuchungen des Manganstahls.

Friedberg. 1892.

Not in Carnegie Library of Pittsburgh.

New Track Appliances. 1913. (In Railway and

Engineering Review, v. 53, p. 955-957.)

Committee report to the Roadmasters' and Maintenance

of Way Association on manganese steel appliances.

Onnes, Kamerlingh, and others. On the Influence of

Low Temperatures on the Magnetic Properties of Alloys

of Iron with Nickel and Manganese. 1921. (In Proceedings

of the Royal Society of London, Series A, v.

99, p. 174-196.)

Osmond, F Sur la cristallographie du fer. 1900.

(In Annales des mines, v. 196, memoires, p. 110-165.)

Discusses the structure of manganese steel, p. 138-139.

Pennington, H. R. Welding Frogs and Crossings

with Manganese Steel. 1922. (In Railway Review, v.

70, p. 153-157.)

The same. 1922. (In Engineering and Contracting,

v. 57, p. 152-154.)

Discusses the qualities of manganese steel and methods of

using it in welding operations.

Portevin, A., and Le Chatelier, Henry. Sur les aciers

au manganese. (In Comptes rendus hebdomadaires des

seances de TAcademie des Sciences, v. 165, p. 62-65.)

Gives results of the effect of very slow cooling on manganese

steels of different percentages of manganese.

Potter, W S. Manganese Steel. 1909. (In Journal

of the Western Society of Engineers, v. 14, p. 212-


The same, abstract. 1909. (In Iron Trade Review,

v. 44, p. 584-587.)

Deals with the physical properties and heat treatment, and

gives results of a series of tests to determine the coefficient of

fr.ct.on between chill cast and steel-tired wheels, and Bessemer

and manganese steel rails.

Potter, W S. Manganese Steel, with Especial Reference

to the Relation of Physical Properties to Micros

ructure and Critical Ranges. 1914. (In Transactions

jyhe75Amencan Institute of Mining Engineers, v. 50, p.

Recent Solid Manganese Steel Crossings. 1915. (In

Electric Railway Journal, v. 45, p. 711-712 )

for*pTcia7tracdk worT"^1"6 °f man*— ^l "stings

February, 1925

Revillon, L. Les aciers speciaux. (1907.) Masson.

(Encyclopedic scientifique des aide-memoire.)

Concise review of their physical and chemical properties,

methods of working and uses.

Treats of manganese steel, p. 65-82, also of nickel-manganese,

manganese-silicon and manganese chromium steels.

Rhodes, J. B. A Development of a High-Grade Alloy

Steel at Low Cost. 1915. (In Journal of the American

Society of Naval Engineers, v. 27, p. 911-915.)

The same. 1915. (In Iron Age, v. 96, p. 1553-1554.)

Discusses high grade castings and forgings of a manpanese-copper-nickel

steel showing superior static properties

and developed at a low cost.

Roberts, H. W. Relative Life of Manganese and

Open-Hearth Rail on Curves. 1918. (In Electric Railway

Journal, v. 52, p. 697.)

The same, abstract. 1918. (In Engineering and

Contracting, v. 50, p. 479.)

Gives results of tests showing manganese rails to wear

about seven times as long as open-hearth.

Rolled Manganese Steel Rail. 1908. (In Railroad

Age Gazette, v. 45, p. 1536-1538.)

Rouelle, Jean Baptiste Celestin. L'aciers; elaboration

et travail. 1922. (Collection Armand Colin. Section de


Outlines methods of manufacturing steel and special steels,

and deals with testing, heat treatment, shaping and working.

Treats of manganese steel, p. 87-89.

Rudhardt, Paid. Les metaux utilises la technique

moderne et leur traitement rationnel. Ed. 2. 1920.

Treats very briefly of manganese steel, p. 153.

Ruemelin, G., and Fick, K. Beitraege zur Kenntnis

des Systems Eisen-mangan. 1915. (In Ferrum, v. 12,

p. 41-44.)

Discusses the physical and chemical properties, and contains

numerous foot-note references.

Sauveur, Albert. Manganese Steel and the Allotropic

Theory. 1914. (In Transactions of the American Institute

of Mining Engineers, v. 50, p. 501-514.)

Sauveur, Albert. Metallography and Heat Treatment

of Iron and Steel. Ed. 2. 1916. Sauveur.

Treats of manganese steel, p. 343-346.

Schneider et Cie. L'acier au manganese. 1909. (In

Revue de metallurgie, v. 6, memories, p. 551-561.)

Treats of the properties and applications.

Schuler, E. J. Manganese Special Work Welding.

1924. (In Engineering and Contracting (Railways), v.

61, p. 419-420.)

Selleck, Theodore G. Practical Talks on Case-Hardening.

1919. (In Journal of the American Steel Treaters'

Society, v. 1, p. 325-335.)

Gives table of carbonizing efficiency of various steels, including

manganese, p. 335.

Shaner, E. L. Making Manganese Steel by the Open-

Hearth Process. 1920. (In Foundry, v. 48, p. 63-66.)

Discusses how steel containing 12 per cent manganese is

made by open hearth process.

Sirovich, G. Deoxidation of Steel by Silico-Manganese.

1919. (In Journal of the Iron and Steel Institute,

v. 99, p. 662.)

Brief abstract from Metallurgia Italiana, 1918, v. 10, p.


Spring, La Verne Ward. Non-technical Chats on

Iron and Steel and Their Application to Modern Industry.

1917. Stokes.

Treats of manganese steel, p. 235-236.

Fbrging-Stamping - Heat Treating

Springer, J. F. Manganese Steel. 1910. (In Cassier's

Magazine, v. 39, p. 99-116.)

Deals with properties and tests of manganese steels.

Stadler, A. Einfluss des Mangans auf die mechanischen

und strukturellen Eigen schaften niedriggekohlten

Flusseisens gewoehnlicher Handelsqualitaet. 1913. (In

Zeitschrift fuer Anorganische Chemie, v. 81, p. 61-69.)

Stone, S. R. Manganese Steel for Machinery Parts.

1913. (In Iron Age, v. 91, pt. 1, p. 140-142.)

Discusses the variety of service in which such castings have

been used to advantage.

Stoughton, Bradley. The Metallurgy of Iron and

Steel. Ed. 3. McGraw. 1923.

Discusses manganese steel, p. 435-437.

Strauss, Jerome. Characteristics of Some Manganese

Steels. 1923. (In Transactions of the American

Society for Steel Treating, v. 4, p. 665-708.)

Gives a brief history of iron-manganese alloys, and discusses

the mechanical, electrical and magnetic properties, and shows

the relation of microstructure to mechanical properties in a

series of steels.

Strauss, Jerome. Properties of Manganese Steels.

1920. (In Proceedings of the Steel Treating Research

Society, v. 2, No. 11, p. 14-19, 47.)

Short review of the physical and mechanical properties as

influenced by various heat treatments.

Strong, J. B. Manganese Construction in Track

Work. 1920. (In Official Proceedings of the St. Louis

Railway Club, v. 25, No. 5, p. 47-55.)

The same, abstract. 1920. (In Engineering and Contracting,

v. 54, p. 499.)

The same, abstract. 1920. (In Railway Review, v.

69, p. 928.)

Strong, J. B. Rolled Manganese Steel Rails. 1909.

(In Railway and Engineering Review, v. 49, p. 214-215.)


Taritqi, N. Neues Verfahren zur Venvertung stark

Siliciumhaltiger Eisen- und Mangan-Mineralien. 1913.

(In Chemiker-Zeitung, v. 37, p. 511-512.)

Way Engineer. Welding Manganese Steel. 1916.

(In Electric Railway Journal, v. 48, p. 27-28.)

Brief discussion of P. A. E. Armstrong's and W. S. Potter's


Welding Manganese Steel. 1923. (In Journal of

the American Welding Society, v. 2, No. 6, p. 39-56.)

Questions asked the bureau of information of the American

Welding Society on electric welding of rails, and giving

the opinion of competent engineers on the subject.

Wickhorst, M. H. Tests of Manganese Steel Rails.

1918. (In American Railway Engineering Association,

v. 19, p. 472-491.)

The same, abstract. 1918. (In Iron Age, v. 101, pt.

1, p. 560-561.)

The same, abstract. 1918. (In Railway Age, v. 64,

p. 162.)

Gives a report of the behavior of manganese steel rails

under service conditions.

Zerhansen, F R. How Manganese Steel Castings

are Made. 1914. (In Foundry, v. 42, p. 132.)

The same, abstract. 1914. (In Machinery, v. 20, p.


Details of molding, melting and pattern making.


54 Forging- Stamping - Heat Treating

H E A T T R E A T M E N T and M E T A L L O G R A P H Y of STEEL

February, 1925

A P r a c t i c a l C o u r s e in t h e E l e m e n t s o f



Pure Metals.

A pure metal of almost any kind, whether iron,

gold, copper, tungsten, etc., when polished, etched and

examined under the microscope, looks very much like

Fig. 29. (If cold worked, the network will be more

or less elongated.) In fact, the various pure metals

look so much alike, under the microscope, that it is

difficult to tell them apart.

All metals are crystalline. This fact has a great

deal to do with their physical properties. When a

molten metal solidifies, its atoms arrange themselves

in orderly groups, somewhat like a crowd of soldiers

assembling for parade, and tend to form themselves

naturally into small solid bodies of regular geometrical

shape, such as cubes, octahedrons')-, etc. Such

bodies are called "crystals", and the mass which they

make up is said to be "crystalline" A crystal grows

from a small beginning, by the building on of more

atoms from the adjacent liquid, each atom taking its

regular place in the pattern, like bricks in a wall. The

pattern taken by iron atoms is cubical, and the crystals

of iron, if allowed to grow without outside interference,

would be cubes. But, during solidification, many

crystals start to form at different points, all according

to the same pattern, but each choosing its own direction

for its lines of formation. Each crystal continues

to grow until it meets one of its neighbors, and its

boundaries are therefore determined by chance, rather

than bv the natural tendency of the crvstal.

*The author wishes to acknowledge his indebtedness to the

following references for material contained in this section, and

to recommend them to the student for further readine. Ref. 7

(Rosenhain) Chapter IV. Ref. 8 (Sauveur) Chapter IV.

fAn octahedron is an eight sided solid.

The author is Chief Metallurgist, Naval Aircraft Factory,

United States Navy Yard. Philadelphia. Pa.

Copyright, 1924, by H. C. Knerr.

P h y s i c a l M e t a l l u r g y

This action has been very clearly illustrated by

Rosenhain (Ref. 7) as shown in Fig. 30. The progressive

steps, (a), (b), (c), (d), (e), represent the

gradual growth of 7 crystals, which finally meet, as

in (e), so that their outlines or a section through them

would look like (f). For simplicity, Rosenhain has

shown only a single layer of blocks, all in one plane.

In a mass of liquid, the little blocks would build up in

layers as well as in rows, and the layers of one crystal

would not be parallel to the layers of its neighboring

crystals. The direction of the lines or planes of formation

of a crystal is called its "orientation". We seldom

find two crystals in one specimen oriented alike.

What one sees in a polished and etched specimen

of a pure metal under the microscope, is a slice or

cross section through a mass of these solid, irregular

crystals. The network of lines represents merely the

boundaries of the crystals.

Crystals occur in many kinds of material in nature,

and we are used to thinking of them as bodies of

regular and symmetrical shape. It should be kept in

mind that it is the internal construction and not the

external shape, that makes a body a crystal.

Crystals which have formed under such conditions

that they have been able to assume the shape natural

to their type (such as perfect cubes, for instance), are

called "idiomorphic" crystals. Those which have been

hindered in their growth, so that they have taken their

shape from their surroundings (as in most metal specimens),

are called "allotriomorphic" crystals. Metallurgists

have adopted a shorter term than the latter,

which is equally good, and call these imperfect crystals

simply "crystalline grains", or just "grains".

This should not be confused with the term "grain",

sometimes applied to metals, especially wrought iron,

because of the fibrous appearance of the fracture,

which resembles the grain of wood. In this sense

metal has no real grain, although the distribution of

certain inclusions, impurities or flaws, often produces

February, 1925

a condition which amounts to almost the same thing.

Hot or cold working also tends to set up a condition

resembling the grain of wood, by tending to orient the

grains parallel to the direction of working.

When a mass of molten metal, such as a newly

poured ingot, cools slowly, crystals start to form at

those points which first reach the freezing temperature

FIG. 29a—(Above) Pure gold, cast, lightly etched. (50x.)

29b—(Below) Gold containing 0.20 per cent lead. (lOOx.)


of the pure metal. This is generally at the inner surface

of the mold. These crystals grow inward, until

they meet other crystals, and may attain quite a large

size, see Fig. 31. Hot working breaks up these large

crystalline grains, and if properly done, entirely eliminates

this ingot structure, reducing the metal to a

mass of crystalline grains of microscopic size, oriented

in all directions. If the molten metal solidifies fairly

rapidly, crystals start to form at a great number of

points, and do not have time to grow far, so that the

crystalline structure is also fine in this case.

The crystals of metals have the peculiar property

of being able to grow while the metal is in a solid

state. This may take place much below the melting

point, although a fairly.high temperature is usually

necessary. Such grain growth is due to the absorbtion

of some of the crystals by their neighbors, so that

the total number of crystalline grains is reduced as

their average size is increased. In passing across the

boundary from the crystal which is being absorbed,

into the one which is absorbing it, the atoms take the

orientation of the growing crystal, and become a part

of it. The arrangement or pattern of the atoms of iron

undergoes changes at certain temperatures. This

causes modifications in the crystalline state and cor­

forging- Stamping - Heat Treating

responding changes in the structure and properties of

the metal. These points will be discussed more fully

further on, but are mentioned here to make it clear

that the history of a specimen, its rate of cooling and

its mechanical and thermal treatment, must be taken

into consideration when studying its grain structure

under the microscope.

When a pure metal is lightly etched, the grain

boundaries are at first revealed, giving the appearance

of a network, as shown in Fig. 29a, but if the

etching is somewhat deeper, the areas enclosed by the

lines take on a different appearance, some being dark

and others light, with variations between. Moving the

specimen so as to change the direction in which the

light strikes it, will cause the grains to change in brilliance,

bright ones becoming dark, and dark ones

bright. This is due to the different orientation of the

grains. Deeper etching has removed the smooth layer

from the surface of the grains, and exposed the very

minute facets produced by the crystalline structure.

These facets result from the lines or planes along

which the atoms have arranged themselves in crystallizing.

They are therefore parallel to each other in

any one crystal, but those of different crystals lie at

different angles to the polished surface of the specimen.

This causes some of the crystalline grains to

reflect more light into the microscope than others,

and therefore to appear brighter. Changing the angle

at which the light strikes them, causes them to reflect

a greater or less amount into the microscope.

FIG. 30.—Illustrating progressive stages in growth of crystalline

grains. (Rosenhain.)

Fig. 32 shows a photomicrograph of a specimen oi

nearly pure iron, lightly etched (the black specks are

non-metallic inclusions). Fig. 33 shows a similar material

in which the lustre due to the different orientation

of various grains has been brought out by deeper



50 Forging - Stamping - Heat 'Beating


The faceted surface of etched grains is clearly illustrated

in Fig. 34, which shows an exceptionally large


So far we have discussed pure metals. It is well

known that the addition of small amounts of certain

elements to a pure metal (as for instance of carbon to

iron), causes great changes in its properties. From

the metallurgists standpoint, such additions are classified

as "impurities" or "alloying elements", according

to whether their influence on the metal is good or bad.

When the metal is molten, these foreign materials

either dissolve in the metal without chemical change, or

combine chemically with a small part of it, This chemical

compound then dissolves in the molten metal. In either

case we have an ordinary liquid solution.

When the liquid cools and solidifies, the added

element or the chemical compound which it has

formed, may remain dissolved in the crystals of the

original metal as a "solid solution", or it may be rejected

and form a seperate constituent between the

grains of the original metal. ( iften both of these effects

take place, some of the foreign element remaining

in solid solution and the balance being rejected as a

seperate constituent.

FIG. 31.—Crystal growth in a slowly cooled ingot, showing

large grains which form planes of weakness. (Stoughton.)

A solid solution has the same characteristic qualities

as a liquid solution, which were discussed in Chapter

I, the only difference being that the mass is solid

and. in metals, crystalline. The solvent and solute

may vary in proportion, and are so completely merged

that they cannot be distinguished under the highest

magnification. The appearance under the microscope

of a solid solution is >imilar to that of a pure metal,

although the alloy may have a tendency to increase

or decrease the size of the grains.

In case the added element or its compound is rejected

from solution, during the process of solidification,

its presence is quite evident under the microscope

as illustrated in Figs. 29b, 35 and 36.


The insoluble material, whether element or compound,

is not as a rule, rejected in a solid mass between

the crystalline grains, but unites mechanically

with a certain amount of the metal to form what is

known as a "eutectic alloy' A "eutectic" allov (meaning

"most fusible), is one that has the lowest melting

point of any combination of the two materials. The

eutectic constituent of any pair of materials always

February, 1925

has a definite composition and a definite melting point.

(Freezing and melting point are equivalent). This

will be further discussed in Chapter VI.

Complex Alloys.

An allov containing only two elements, such as lead

and tin, or iron and carbon, is called a "binary alloy",

and the whole range of alloys between two such elements

is known as a "binary system". Where there

FIG. 32.—Photomicrograph of nearly pure iron, lightly etched

(500 diameters). (By Huester, in author's laboratory.)

FIG. 33.—Nearly pure iron more deeply etched than Fig.

32, showing light and dark effect due to different orientation

of the grains. FIG. 35.—Alloyed material or impurity

rejected to grain boundaries. (Aluminum—copper alloy.)

FIG. 36.—Alloyed material (carbon constituent in low carbon

steel) rejected as islands between grains. 500x.

are three elements the alloy is called "ternary", and

if four, "quaternary". Alloys of more than two or

three elements are referred to as complex alloys. Such

alloys follow, in general, the same laws as have been

discussed for simple or binary alloys.

Iron Carbon Alloys.

Iron forms a great variety of alloys, both simple

and complex. They are so numerous and so important

February, 1925

that metallurgy is often divided into two great classes—"ferrous",

including all the alloys of which iron is

the major constituent, and "non-ferrous", including

all the rest. The most important ferrous alloys are

those of iron and carbon. Alloys of iron containing

from about .05 per cent to 1.70 per cent carbon are

classed as steel, and those containing from about 2.25

per cent to 5.0 per cent as cast iron. These boundaries

are approximate, and it is in fact, quite difficult

to draw any sharp distinction between the commercial

products known as iron, steel and cast iron.

Iron forms a chemical compound with carbon,

whose formula is Fe3C, and which therefore contains

6.67 per cent carbon by weight. This, in the solid

state, is a hard, brittle, crystalline substance. It is

known as "iron carbide" or "cementite", and is chiefly

responsible for the hardening qualities of steel. As

carbon is added to liquid iron, this carbide is formed,

and it will go into solution in increasing amounts

with increasing temperature, up to about 1823 deg. C.

(3313 deg. F.) at which the molten iron will take up

FIG. 34.—Faceted surface of deeply etched grain, highly magnified.


6.67 per cent of its weight of carbon, and would therefore

consist entirely of liquid cementite.

The cooling and solidification of such a solution,

with the accompanying crystallization of various constituents,

is a rather complex matter, the discussion

of which will be taken up in Chapter VI. It will suffice

at this stage to describe the effects of small, and

gradually increasing amounts of carbon, upon the

structure of iron carbon alloys, and also the effects of

certain other alloys and impurities.

Wrought Iron.

In describing the manufacture of wrought iron it

was shown that this material consists of practically

carbonless iron, containing included particles of slag,

which are rolled out to thread-like inclusions during

the process of hot working. Before the structure of

metals was studied under the microscope, it was generally

supposed that wrought iron was fibrous, like

wood, and that this characteristic gave the metal many

valuable properties. If a piece of wrought iron is bent

and broken, it certainly shows a fibrous appearance.

However, examination of properly prepared longi­

Fbrging-Stamping - Heat Treating

tudinal and transverse sections under the microscope,

reveals the fact that the metal itself is not fibrous but

crystalline, and that the fibrous appearance is due to

the elongated particles of slag. Fig. 37 shows a longitudinal

section (parallel to direction of rolling),

through a specimen of wrought iron. The crystalline

grains are practically carbonless iron (ferrite), and the

dark streaks are slag particles, which, as will be noted,

sometimes run right through the crystalline grains.

Fig. 38 shows a transverse section (across direction of

rolling), through the same specimen, the slag particles

FIG. 37.—Wrought iron, longitudinal section, showing grain

structure. Black streaks are slag inclusions. (500x.) FIG.

38.—Same as Fig. 37, but transverse section. 500x. (By

Huester, author's laboratory.)

in this case being seen endwise. The grains themselves

are not elongated but are about as wide one

way as another. It will be noted that, aside from the

streaks of slag, the microstructure of wrought iron is

practically the same as that of the nearly pure iron

shown in Fig. 32. The presence of the slag streaks is,

in fact, the distinguishing characteristic of wrought

iron, under the microscope.


Specimens of nearly pure iron (not wrought iron)

were shown in Figs. 32 and 33. The presence of less


58 Fbrging-Stamping - Heat Treating

than about 0.05 per cent of carbon in iron is not evident

in its microstructure, for this amount is apparently

held in solid solution by ferrite at room temperature.

It should be mentioned here that in the present discussion

we are considering specimens which have been

allowed to cool slowly from above the critical temperature,

so as to eliminate such effects on the structure

as would be caused by quenching the metal or by cold


FIG. 39.—Steel containing about 0.20 per cent carbon, annealed.

(500x.) FIG. 40.—Steel containing about 0.40 per

cent carbon, annealed. (500x.) (By Downes, in author's

laboratory). FIG. 41.—Steel containing about 60 per cent

carbon, annealed. (500x.)

A slowly cooled steel specimen which contains

about 0.20 per cent carbon will show grains of ferrite,

interspersed with small dark areas, as in Fig. 39. If

the carbon content is about .40 per cent it will be

noted that the dark areas represent about y2 of the

total area (Fig. 40) and if 0.60 per cent they will cover

about 2/3 of the entire area, the ferrite grains now

having the appearance of a net-work between the darker

areas I Fig. 41). If the carbon content is .85 to .90

per cent the entire area will be composed of the dark

constituent. See Fig. 42. Close examination of the

February, 1925

dark constituent will show that it is made up of many

thin layers or laminations of two different materials,

so that it resembles mother-of-pearl. This constituent

is called "pearlite". An exceptionally large and clear

example is shown in Fig. 43. The smooth light areas

are free ferrite.

Pearlite is composed of alternate layers of ferrite

and cementite. Above certain temperatures, all the

carbide or cementite in steel goes into solid solution in

FIG. 42 Steel containing about .90 per cent carbon, annealed.

(500x.) FIG. 43.—Exceptionally large formation of pearlnc.

'H. (500x.) >,juux.,» Smooth omootn white wmte islands are _ free ferrite grains. ,

FIG 44.—Steel containing about 1.20 per cent carbon, annealed.


the ferrite, as will be described later. At lower temperatures

its solubility decreases, and it finally separates

out completely, in thin curved plates, combining

mechanically during its separation with alternate

layers or plates of ferrite, and in such a proportion

that the amount of carbon in the pearlite is about 0.85

per cent to .90 per cent. This fact affords a convenient

means of estimating the carbon content in a

piece of plain carbon steel. The specimen is first heated

to a fairly high temperature, above the critical

range, say to 1650 deg. F. and slowly cooled, as by

February, 1925

letting it cool down with the furnace. It is then polished

and etched. The carbon content may now be

estimated within say, plus or minus .05 per cent in

low carbon steels or .10 per cent in high carbon steels

by estimating the proportion of pearlite present in the

microsection, and applying the following simple formula:

P X -85 _ c


where P = per cent pearlite in area

C = per cent carbon.

All the carbon present in slowly cooled steel containing

not over .85 to .90 per cent carbon is in the pearlite.

If the carbon content is greater than .90 per cent,

the excess will be rejected to the grain boundaries of

the pearlite as a net-work of free cementite, as shown

in Fig. 44. In this case, an estimate of the carbon content

may be made with the aid of the following formula


.85 P 6.67 Cm

+ = C

100 100

where P



= per cent pearlite in area.

per cent cementite in area.

= per cent carbon in the steel.

(It will be remembered that cementite contains 6.67

per cent carbon.)

These rules apply only to annealed steels and do

not apply to alloy steels which contain carbide forming

elements, such as chromium, tungsten, etc., as in

these less than .85 per cent will be needed to make

the steel all pearlite. A detailed discussion of methods

of estimating the amounts of certain constituents

in steel and iron, from their microstructure, is given

by Sauveur—Ref. 8.

Typical structure of cast steel is illustrated in Fig.

45, which shows part of three large grains. The carbon

content of this specimen was about .40 per cent.

Note that the ferrite has been rejected partly to the

grain boundaries and partly within the grains themselves,

along the crystalline planes. The dark constituent

is pearlite. Steel having this structure is

comparatively weak and brittle and must be refined

by heat treatment or hot working to give it the best


Ordinary steel may be regarded as an alloy of two

elements, iron and carbon, and therefore as a binary

alloy. In addition to iron and carbon, all commercial

steels contain traces of certain other elements, such

as phosphorus, sulphur, silicon and manganese, but

in amounts so small that they are not regarcjed as

alloys. Phosphorus and sulphur are classed as impurities,

because of their tendency to cause brittleness,

weakness and unreliability, and they are seldom allowed

to exceed about .05 per cent. Silicon and manganese

are introduced as scavengers during manufacture,

because of their deoxidizing action and their

ability to take up gases. Manganese also has the

property of combining with sulphur to form the compound,

manganese sulfide MnS, which is less harmful

to the steel than sulphur. Ordinary steels usually

contain from a trace to .30 per cent silicon and .30

per cent to .80 per cent manganese.

The properties of such steels are determined mainly

by their carbon content, and they are therefore

Forging- Stamping - Heat Treating

called "carbon steels''. Carbon steels may be classified

roughly as follows:


Ingot Iron

Less than .05% (practically carbonless steel)

.05 to .15. . .Very mild or dead soft steel.

.15 to .30.. .Mild or machinery- steel.

.30 to .60. .Medium carbon or forging steel.

.60 to 1.20. . .Tool steel, various grades.

.25 and over. Very high carbon or extra hard steel

FIG. 45.—Cast steel containing about .40 per cent carbon.

Note coarse grains and ingotism. (lOOx.) (By Huester, in

author's laboratory.) FIG. 49.—Malleable iron (partly

malleablized). Black areas graphite; white, ferrite; gray,

pearlite. (lOOx.)

These classifications are of a general nature only.

In specifying steel for any particular purpose, the carbon

content must be held between closer limits, especially

in the three latter classes.

Steels to which certain elements have been added

in sufficient quantities to have a pronounced effect in

improving the physical properties, are called "alloy

steels" Some of the commoner alloying elements

used for this purpose are nickel, chromium, vanadium.

tungsten, molybdenum and also silicon and manganese.

(The last two in much larger amounts than in



ordinary carbon steel.) When one such alloy is added

the steel is referred to by the name of the alloying

element, such as "nickel steel", or "chromium steel",

etc. Such steels are ternary alloys, and their properties

vary with the amount of carbon present as well as

with the amount of the alloying element. Two alloying

elements are often used, making a quaternary

alloy (there being present four important elements in

all—iron, carbon and the two alloys). Examples of

FIG. 46.—White cast iron. (SOOx.) Bright areas, carbide;

dark areas, pearlite. FIG. 47.—Gray cast iron, polished

but not etched. Dark areas, graphite plates. (lOOx.) FIG.

48.—Same specimen as Fig. 47, etched. Black areas, graphite;

white, ferrite; gray, pearlite and phosphide eutectic


this nature are "chromium-vanadium steel", "nickelchromium

steel", etc. Steels containing three or more

alloys are manufactured for special purposes, especially

for high grade tools.

Each alloying element has important and characteristic

effects upon the properties of the steel, and upon

its behavior under heat treatment. They either go into

solid solution with the ferrite, or combine with some

of the carbon present to form carbides, or both. They

therefore, as a rule, produce no new constituent which

can be distinguished under the microscope from the

Fbrging-Stamping- Heat Treating

February, 1925

usual constituents of carbon steel. Their influence so

far as the microstructure is concerned, lies chiefly

in their effects upon the structure produced in the

steel by heat treatment. This matter will be taken

up in Chapter VII.

Cast Iron—White.

Cast iron contains much more carbon than steel,

generally from 2.50 to 4.00 per cent. When the metal

FIG. 50— (a) Manganese sulfide globules (gray) in low carbon

steel. (500x.) (b) Manganese sulfide inclusions elongated

by rolling. (500x.) FIG. 51.—Intercrystalline quenching

cracks, due to high sulphur. (SOOx.)

is molten, the carbon goes completely into solution

in the iron (either as carbon or the carbide Fe3C). If

the metal is cooled fairly rapidly to the solid state,

the carbon separates from solution in the form of carbide,

Fe3C, as in steel, some of it forming pearlite

with a portion of the iron, and the rest forming a net

work or ground mass of cementite. This produces the

extremely hard and rather brittle material known as

white cast iron," from the white and shining appearance

of its fracture. The microstructure of a piece

of white cast iron is shown in Fig. 46. The bright

areas are cementite and the dark areas pearlite:

February, 1925


If, however, the metal is allowed to cool and solidify

slowly, some of the carbide will decompose into

iron and graphite, according to the formula, Fe3C =

3Fe + C. (Graphite is one of the forms of the element

carbon) and the graphite will be distributed

through the mass in the form of tiny curved plates

or flakes. This is ordinary "gray cast iron". If a piece

is broken, the fracture will follow along the graphite

plates, as they have little tenacity. This produces the

characteristic gray appearance and accounts for the

comparative brittleness and lack of Juctility of ordinary

cast iron. The presence of silicon promotes the

formation of graphitic carbon.

Some of the carbon usually remains in the combined

state, producing cementite and pearlite. If

the specimen is polished but not etched, the graphite

only will be revealed as shown in Fig. 47. Etching

will then bring out the pearlite. See Fig. 48.


If white cast iron is given a suitable long annealing

treatment, some or all of the carbide will break

down into iron and graphite, but in this case the

graphite will collect into small, nearly round globules,

which have not the weakening effect that the graphite

plates have in gray cast iron. The presence of silicon

aids this reaction. Carbon produced in this way is

called "temper carbon". Some of the carbon is usually

oxidized out in the process. The metal now consists

of a mass of ferrite grains, interspersed with

particles of graphite and is comparatively ductile and

malleable. It is called malleable iron.

Fig. 49 shows the microstructure of a partly malleablized

specimen, The free carbide has decomposed,

leaving rounded masses of graphite (black), surrounded

by carbonless iron or ferrite (white) which are, in

turn, imbedded in a ground mass of pearlite (gray).

Such material is stronger but not so malleable as fully

malleablized iron.


Macroscopic examination as a means of studying

impurities has been discussed. More minute study of

certain impurities under the microscope is often valuable.


The small quantity of phosphorus which is present

in steel forms the phosphide of iron, Fe3P, which goes

into solid solution with the ferrite, and is therefore not

visible in the microstructure. Carbonless iron will

take up as much as 1.7 per cent phosphorus in this

way. Cast iron may contain relatively large quantities

of phosphorus and more than the ferrite can take up.

The presence of carbon tends to throw the phosphorus

out of solution, causing it to form a ternary eutectic

of iron carbide (Fe3C) iron phosphide (Fe3P) and iron

(ferrite), somewhat resembling pearlite in appearance.

This constituent can be recognized and studied under

the microscope by the method of heat tinting, described

in the section on etching.


Sulphur has a strong tendency to combine chemically

with manganese, at high temperatures, forming

manganese sulfide, MnS. One of the purposes of

adding manganese to steel is to take up the sulphur

in this way. The manganese sulfide separates out in

Forging - Stamping - Heat Treating

the form of small round globules, some of which

float to the top of the ingot while others are entrapped

when the metal solidifies. Hot working elongates the

globules in the direction of forging or rolling. They

may be recognized under the microscope, by their gray

color, Fig. 50 a and b. These small particles have little

effect on the strength of steel, unless they are present

in excessive quantities. From the atomic weights

it is evident that 55 parts of manganese are required

to combine with 32 parts of sulphur. Actually more

FIG. 52.—Banded or ghost line structure. (lOOx.) (a) Probably

due to phosphorus, (b) Probably due to sulphur.

FIG. 53.—Solid non-metallic impurities. Very "dirty" steel.

Longitudinal section through rolled bar. Polished but not

etched. (lOOx.)

mangane'se is needed to insure that all the sulphur

is taken up. In case there is excess sulphur, it combines

with some of the iron, forming iron sulfide,

FeS. This is yellow or brown in color, low in strength,

and tends to form a film or envelope around the ferrite

grains, thereby greatly weakening the metal. The

low melting point of this material (FeS) is the probable

cause of the well known brittleness ("red shortness")

of steel high in sulphur when heated to forging

temperature. Such steel is also likely to crack in heat

treatment. Fig. 51 is a photomicrograph of a piece


62 Forging-Stamping-Heat Treating

which cracked apparently from this cause. It was

found to be high in sulphur in the vicinity of the

crack, due to segregation.


Small quantities of impurities, such as are generally

found in good steel, have no serious effect on the

physical properties so long as the steel is homogeneous,

that is, uniform in composition throughout. But

impurities have a tendency to collect in certain portions

of an ingot or casting on cooling, and these

portions may then contain so large a proportion of

impurities as to be very weak and unreliable. Forging,

rolling or heat treating, or the strains of service

are likely to cause a fracture to start at such a weak

point which will spread through the piece until failure

occurs. Quite often these segregated areas are

associated with the size and form of the grains in the

original ingot, and are greatly elongated when the

metal is rolled or forged. This latter condition is

known as "banded" or "ghost line" structure. Examples

are shown in Fig. 52. Segregations of Phosphorus

and sulphur tend to produce such a condition,

and it is often accompanied by local decarburization.

Metal showing this type of structure is likely to fail

in service.


Molten steel is never entirely free from small particles

of slag or other non-metallic impurities such as

oxides, or grains of sand, etc., which remain suspended

in the metal in much the same way that particles

of dust float about in the air. The term "solid nonmetallic

impurities" used to describe these inclusions,

has been abbreviated to the word "sonims". Steel of

good quality contains few sonims, but some times

they are present in great numbers, in which case the

steel is said to be "dirty". Sonims, like other impurities,

frequently segregate, causing local points of

weakness. It is not advisable to use such steel where

resistance to repeated stress is called for, as in the

working parts of engines, for example.

Sonims are most readily detected in specimens

which have been polished but not etched. A final gentle

polishing by hand is advisable to remove any surface

film of metal which may have been smeared over

the inclusions when polishing on the disk. An example

is shown in Fig. 53. Sometimes the sonims fall

out in polishing, leaving pits.

Minute flaws or fissures, such as tiny blowholes

which have been flattened out but not welded up in

rolling, are an occasional source of weakness in steel,

and may sometimes be detected in a carefully polished

but unetched specimen.

Endicott Forging Enlarges Plant

The Endicott Forging & Manufacturing Company,

makers of drop forgings, Endicott, N. Y., have contracted

for a brick building, 50x130 feet, for heat treating

and die storage, and a 50x96-foot steel addition

to their present forge shop. Three heat treating furnaces

have been purchased and the Binghamton Foundry

& Construction Company will supply' the steel for

the die storage racks. Two or three board hammeis

will also be added to the forge shop equipment. These

additions will require an expenditure of from $50,000

to $60,000.

February, 1925

Research on Sponge Iron Progressing

Experimental work in the production of' sponge

iron, conducted by the Department of the Interior at

the Seattle, Wash., experiment station of the Bureau

of Mines, has advanced to the point where it is believed

that industrial applications of the process can

be safely considered for the production of sponge iron

as a metallurgical reagent for the precipitation of copper,

lead, and numerous other metals from solution.

In those regions remote from larger iron and steel

making centers and where electric energy can be had

at a comparatively cheap rate, sponge iron can also be

converted into iron and steel products by melting in

the electric furnace.

If a piece of iron oxide is completely reduced at

such a low temperature that no sintering or fusion

takes place, then the piece of metallic iron formed has

the same size and shape as the original piece of oxide.

On account of the removal of oxygen, the structure is

finely porous, exposing a large surface of iron, and

the apparent density is less than that of the original

iron oxide. The material is called "sponge iron."

When sponge iron is used as a metallurgical reagent

in the precipitation of metals from a solution,

the precipitation reaction takes place with greater

speed than if the precipitating reagent is a massive

form of iron, such as scrap or pig iron, and hence the

use of sponge iron proportionately increases plant

capacity'. Sponge iron is likely to be of increasing importance

in the hydrometallurgy of low-grade copper

and complex ores. Its production insures a permanent

and reliable source of metallic iron—a very important

consideration to the Pacific region, in view of the

small scrap iron supply and great distance from ironproducing

centers. It is probable that the future success

of large-scale leaching and precipitating processes

for copper and lead depends largely upon a supply of

cheap sponge iron.

In the process developed through the co-operation

of the Bureau of Mines and the University of Washington,

almost any type of iron ore can be used for the

production of sponge iron. Experiments at the Seattle

station showed that similar results are obtained

with magnetite, hard and soft hematite, limonite, and

sintered hematite. It is probable that sponge iron

will be made from such by-product materials as flue

dust, pyrite cinder, various slags of high-iron content,

and iron-oxide sludge.

The process developed by the Bureau of Mines

consists of passing a mixture of iron ore and coal

through a rotating kiln heated at one end to a temperature

sufficient to convert iron oxide to metallic

iron, then discharging and cooling the product and

passing it through a magnetic separator to remove

the sponge iron from the residual coke and siliceous


During the past year a furnace using the Bureau

of Mines process was operated commercially at Silver

City, Utah, producing about three tons of sponge iron

daily. Further tests of the process on a fairly large

commercial scale are much to be desired, to give the

data necessary for further refinements in kiln and improvements

in economy of operation.

Details of these investigations are given in Serial

2656, by Clyde E. Williams, Edward P. Barrett and

Bernard M. Larsen, copies of which may be obtained

from the Department of the Interior, Bureau of Mines,

Washngton, D. C.

February, 1925

Forging-Stamping-Heat Treating

P r o p e r t i e s o f H i g h R e s i s t a n c e


A l l o y s

This Paper Contains a Summary of the Important Physical Con­

stants of the Well Known High Resistance Alloys

T H E recent advances in the art of electrical heating

have stimulated research in the field of high-resistance

alloys. In the last 10 years many new

combinations of the metals have been suggested as

resistor materials and some of them have rendered

very satisfactory service. The new alloys are for the

most part binary and ternary mixtures of the more

common metals. A review of the literature discloses a

considerable amount of information on the specific resistances

of these alloys and also on their temperature

coefficients between room temperature and 100 deg. C.

Little information will be found, however, on the same

electrical properties at the high temperatures at which

the material is required to operate.

The present paper gives, in an attempt to supply

this need, a summary of these important physical constants

for some of the well-known high-resistance alloys.

The attempt to use ,the high-resistance alloys as

elements in base-metal thermocouples for the measurement

of temperature was only a natural ste2 in the

development. In the second division of the paper

some old and some new information has therefore been

included on the electromotive forces which may be expected

from various combinations of these materials.

Theoretical Considerations.

It has already been stated that high-resistance alloys

are produced by alloying metals with one another

in binary or ternary combinations. It does not follow,

however, that all such combinations give materials of

high specific resistance.

When two or more metals are melted together they

may behave on freezing in two characteristically different

ways. When in the molten state the constituents

of the alloy are of course minutely dispersed in

one another. On freezing they may remain minutely

dispersed so that even in a microscopic section the constituents

cannot be differentiated. These combinations

are known as "solid solutions." The second class of

alloys comprises those which on freezing permit the

two or more constituents to freeze separately from one

another. They no longer remain in solution in the

solid state. The microscope can distinguish the separate

constituents. These alloys form what is known

as "eutectic mixtures" with one another. The metals

may, however, in certain concentrations form intermetallic

compounds with one another and the compound

thus formed may dissolve and subsequently

freeze either as a solid solution or as a eutectic mixture

with the pure metal which is present. Since these

intermetallic compounds are in general hard and brittle

materials no great concentrations can be carried

*A paper presented at the Twenty-seventh Annual Meeting of

the American Society for Testing Materials, held at Atlantic

City, N. J., June, 1924.

tRussell Sage Laboratory, Rensselaer Polytechnic Institute;

also Research Division, Driver Harris Co.

tRussell Sage Laboratory, Rensselaer Polytechnic Institute.

That Are Used for High Temperatures

By M. A. HUNTERf and A. JONES*

in any alloy which has subsequently to be reduced to


The electrical properties of these two classes of

alloys are very different from one another. In a solid

solution the electrical resistance of the resulting alloy

bears no relation to the resistances of the components.

It is in all cases very materially higher than either.

The temperature coefficient of electrical resistance is

also changed. Whereas the individual constituents

have temperature coefficients approximately equal to

0.004 per deg. C, the temperature coefficient of the

solid solutions drops very rapidly with increasing con-

I 5


.„ |4-1 -. £





•tfitf P


200 400 600 800 1000

Temperature, deg. Cent.

FIG. 1 — Showing the variation of Electrical resistance of

nickel and certain nickel alloys at various temperatures.

Values plotted are given in Table I, chemical compositions in

Table II.

centrations of the added component. In some cases

it drops to zero and may even in special cases become

negative. In eutectic mixtures, however, no such radical

variations are produced. The electrical resistances

of these alloys approximate in the main to the mean of

the electrical resistances of the components while the

temperature coefficient, if it drops at all, does so to

only a slight degree.

It is therefore evident that high-resistance alloys

belong in the class of solid solutions. It is further to

be noted that such combinations will yield alloys with

temperature coefficients which are considerably lower

than the pure metals from which they are made.


M Fbrging-Stamping - Heat Treating

Materials Used for High-Resistance Alloys.

The metallic combinations which are commerciallyavailable

for high-resistance materials are made in

general from nickel, iron or copper, melted in binary

or ternary combinations with manganese or chromium.

All of these metals are comparatively cheap, are available

in sufficient quantity for commercial production

and resist oxidation satisfactorily over the range of

temperature which limits their use. For the purpose

of classification we may divide the various alloys into

three groups:

Group A. — Materials of high resistance available

for units running at temperatures below 500 deg. C.

Group B. — Materials of high resistance for units

running at temperatures above 500 deg. C.; and

Group C.—Materials having special properties other

than high resistance used in units at room temperature.


deg. Cent.








February, 1925

Grade C and Grade D. Intentional additions of manganese

in the two latter affect to a considerable degree

the electrical properties of the material.

The specific resistance of nickel can be increased

by the addition of metals which form solid solutions

with it. The commonest additions are copper and

iron. Among the nickel-copper alloys are monel and

Advance, the former having a preponderating amount

of nickel, the latter of copper. Among the nickel-iron

alloys used, the most important are Alloy No. 141 and

Alloy No. 193, the former having an excess of nickel,

the latter an excess of iron.

The variations in resistance of samples of these

materials at various temperatures and their specific

resistances at 20 deg. C. are given in Table 1. The

chemical compositions of the wires used in these observations

are given in Table II.

The values given in Table I, with the exception of


Expressed as the ratio of resistance at the various temperatures to resistance at 20 deg. C.

For complete chemical compositions, see Table II.














Grade A













Grade C













Specific Resistance at 20 deg. C, Ohms per Mil-Foot

58.6 64 84

Grade D





































No. 141















No. 193

The analysis given for alloy No. 193 is an approximate analysis only. The other values given are t

samples used to obtain the results detailed in Table I.

Material Nickel Copper Iron Carbon Manganese Silicon Chromium

Electrolytic Nickel 99.80 0.25 0.15

Grade A Nickel 98.85 0.24 0.65 0.08 0.08 0.03

Grade C Nickel 96.15 0.40 0.89 0.22 2.10 0.18

Grade D Nickel 94.10 0.16 0.74 0.08 4.75 0.13

Monel 68.10 27.66 2.40 1.16 1.50 0.11

Advance 44.00 54.00 0.45 ... 1.16

Alloy No. 141 69.33 0.16 28.86 0.22 1.30 0.13

Alloy No. 193 30.00 .... 67.00 0.22 1.00 .. 2

Group A.—Alloys for Use Below 500° C.

The alloys in this group have nickel as their major

component. Nickel alone has usually been considered

to be unsatisfactory by reason of its low specific resistance

at room temperature. Nickel has, however,

two valuable properties which render it useful as a resistor

material. It resists oxidation at elevated temperatures

better than any of the commoner metals.

It has further a high temperature coefficient of electrical

resistance, the effect of which on the electrical

resistance at high temperature is indicated in subsequent


Nickel can be obtained commercially in several

grades. The purest obtainable is electrolytic nickel

and following in order of lesser purity are Grade A,












those for Advance, are plotted as a function of the

temperature in Figs. 1 and 2. These curves are characteristic

of the various grades of nickel and monel

metal. Slight variations in composition will of course

change the actual values for the resistance at any temperature,

but the trend of the curve remains the same.

The change in slope of each curve is due to the fact

that at the corresponding temperature the metal is

changing from the magnetic to the non-magnetic condition.

The transformation points as obtained from

the curves are as follows:

Grade A Nickel 350 Deg. C.

Grade C Nickel 320 Deg. C.

Grade D Nickel 275 Deg. C.

Monel Metal 93 Deg. C.

February, 1925

Forging- Stamping - Heat Treating


Expressed as the ratio of resistance at the various temperatures to resistance at 20 deg. C.


deg. Cent. N(J_ s

Nichrome III I Nichrome IV

No. 6 No. 1 No. 4 No. 11* No. 10 No. 13 Mean B D1

20 1.000 1.000 1.000 1.000 1.000 1.000 1.000 1.000 1.000 1.000 1.000 1.000

300 1.055 1.034 1.047 1.037 1.057 1.040 1.039 1.043 1.034 1.027 1.026 1.025

400 1.066 1.047 1.063 1.051 1.068 1.051 1.053 1.056 1.046 1.036 1.032 1.036

500 1.073 1.060 1.071 1.063 1.075 1.060 1.063 1.066 1.060 1.045 1.041 1.042

600 1.071 1.058 1.074 1.061 1.074 1.058 1.062 1.065 1.055 1.036 1.034 1.032

700 1.072 1.060 1.077 1.062 1.077 1.063 1.065 1.068 1.056 1.032 1.030 1.028

800 1.074 1.066 1.088 1.068 1.086 1.072 1.073 1.075 1.063 1.033 1.031 1.028

900 1.082 1.076 1.100' 1.094 1.096 1.083 1.083 1.088 1.074 1.038 1.032 1.030

1000 1.097 1.090 1.118 Specific Resistance 1.104 1.112 at 20 deg. 1.098 O, Ohms 1.099 per Mil-Foot 1.103 1.090 1.049 1.046 1.040

604 604


567 599 595 553 575 620 629 633

Percentage of Chromium

14.10 14.45 15.40 15.60 15.70 15.80 16.20 17.47 18.18 18.70 18.95

•Plotted in Fig. 3 as typical of Nichrome III. ' Plotted in Fig. 3 as typical of Nichrome IV.

The values given for Advance in Table 1 indicate a

peculiar property in this metal. The temperature coefficient

is negative over the lower ranges of temperatures,

increases slowly between 200 and 400 deg. C.

and rapidly thereafter. Not all samples of Advance,

however, give negative temperature coefficients in the

lower range. The presence of impurities in the metal

may yield a material with a low positive coefficient

over this lower range. But the rapid rise in temperature

coefficient in the higher ranges of temperature is

general in all cases.

Alloy No. 141 is peculiarly susceptible to heat treatment.

A sample of the material when slowly cooled

after annealing gives a much lower specific resistance

and a higher temperature coefficient than one which

has not been so treated. The values reported in Table

I are for the second heat on wire which was slowly

cooled after being taken up to 1000 deg. C. After this

treatment the wire appears to be stable for further

cycles of heat. Slight variations in the impurities also


300 .


500 ,

600 .

700 .

800 .

900 .

1000 .

have a very considerable effect. Therefore, while this

alloy is excellent as a high-resistance material, it is

difficult to reproduce in commercial production.

Alloy No. 193, as will be seen from Table I, is an

exceedingly good resistor up to 500 deg. C. and has

received in consequence wide application. The resistance-temperature

curve for this material is plotted in

Fig. 2.

Group B.—Materials Available for Temperatures

In Excess of 500° C.

The second group includes all those alloys which

are essentially combinations of nickel, iron and

chromium in various proportions. Most of these alloys

have been worked under a patent granted to Marsh

in February, 1906, which has now expired. These

alloys are remarkable in that they possess very high

specific resistances and resist oxidation at high temperatures

to a very rrtarked degree. The specific

resistances and temperature coefficients at room tern-


Expressed as the ratio of resistance at the various temperatures to resistance at 20 deg. C.

For complete chemical com] positions, see table V.


Temp erature,

N ichrome

Nichrome II Other Alloys

deg. Cent. No. 2 No. 3 No. 8 No. 12 No. 9 No. 7* No.lf No. 2 No. 3 No.4J

1 000

1 091

1 113

1 126

1 132

1 142

1 152








1 120

1 125

1 133

1 141

1 154































Specific Resistance at 20 deg. C, Ohms per Mil-foot.







of Chromium

































•Plotted in Fig. 3 as typical of Nichrome. trotted in Fig. 3 as typical of Nichrome II. ^Plotted in Fig. 2.


























66 Fbrging-Stamping - Heat Treating

perature have been known for some time but information

on these points at the temperatures of operation is

meager or entirely lacking. It has generally been assumed

that the temperature coefficient of the alloy was

uniform throughout the whole range of temperatures

used, an assumption which, as will be seen from the

following tables, is very far from the truth.

For convenience in classification the alloys are divided

into three sub-groups:

1. Nickel-chromium alloys.

2. Nickel-iron-chromium alloys.

3. Iron-chromium alloys.




2 1.3








t —

\ v/


\ A 4 Y






,\^y> ^

* Alii %**'

200 400 600 600 1000

Temperature, deg. Cent.

FIG. 2—Showing the variation of electrical resistance of several

alloys at various temperatures.

Alloy No. 193 and Monel values plotted are given in Table I,

chemical compositions in Table II.

Nickel-Iron-Chromium Alloy.—Values plotted are for Alloy

No. 4, Table IV; for chemical composition see Table V.

Iron-Chromium Alloy.—Values plotted are for Alloy No. 1,

Table VI; for chemical composition see text.

Nickel-Chromium Alloys.

The simplest and best combination is the binary

alloy of nickel and chromium. Alloys containing as

high as 25 and 30 per cent of chromium have been made.

It is commercially practicable to make alloys containing

15 and 20 per cent of chromium. In general it may

be said that the resistance to oxidation bears a direct

relation to the amount of chromium in the wire. This

is certainly true for chromium contents up to 20 per

cent and probably holds for higher percentages. For

temperatures below 1000 deg. C. alloys of the Nichrome

III class containing 15 per cent of chromium

have given good service. For the range between 1000

deg. C. and 1100 deg. C. alloys of the Nichrome IV

class, containing 18 to 20 per cent of chromium, are

February, 1925

advisable. While these alloys may be used for short

periods at temperatures above 1100 deg. C. their life

under these conditions is exceedingly short.

The variations in resistance of some of these nickelchromium

wires and their specific resistances at room

temperatures are given in Table III. Typical resistance-temperature

curves are plotted in Fig. 3. These

results indicate an interesting peculiarity which seems

to be inherent in all nickel-chromium wires. In the

case of the Nichrome III alloys (15 per cent chromium)

the resistance-temperature curve rises at a uniform

rate up to 500 deg. C. From 500 to 700 deg. C,

the curve runs practically parallel to the temperature

axis, indicating a zero temperature coefficient over this

range. Above 700 deg. C. the resistance rises sharply

again. In the Nichrome IV series (18 to 20 per cent

chromium) the same general trend is followed except

that between 500 and 700 deg. C. the wire has a marked

negative temperature coefficient. This can be readily

seen in Fig. 2 on which the values for the two representative

nickel-chromium wires are plotted.

The reason for this change in slope of the resistance

temperature curve at 500 deg. C. is not at present understood.

It is not a magnetic transformation point

since the materials themselves are non-magnetic at

room temperatures. In the absence of a better explanation

we may conclude that it is due* to a change

in the molecular configuration of the elements in the


Nickel-Iron-Chromium Alloys.

Of all the alloys in this class, the alloy known as

Nichrome has received the most extended application.

This alloy contains approximately 60 per cent of

nickel, 26 per cent of iron and 12 per cent of chromium.




All values are per cent.

Alloy Nickel Iron Chromium Manganese


No. 2 59.29 28.70 10.75 1.54

No. 3 59.02 27.86 10.90 1.54

No. 8 59.57 26.97 11.05 1.69

No. 12 .... 61.75 24.97 11.45 1.19

No. 9 62.00 24.35 11.70 1.46

No. 7 61.20 24.88 12.05 1.44

Nichrome II

No. 1 .... 19.5

No. 2 69.35 10.53 17.95 1.58

Other Alloys

No. 3 53.58 13.77 31.35 0.00

No. 4 27.62 48745 21.10 0.85

It has a higher specific resistance than a straight nickel-chromium

alloy and a somewhat higher temperature

coefficient. It resists oxidation satisfactorily at temperatures

up to 900 cleg. C. For temperatures in excess

of this, it should be replaced by a nickel-chromium

alloy substantially free from iron.

Nichrome II is a nickel-iron-chromium alloy of intermediate

composition. It has less iron and more

chromium than Nichrome.

Attempts have been made from time to time to

diminish the nickel content of this class of materials.

But under these conditions, to maintain the high re-

February, 1925

Fbrging-Stamping- Heat 'Beating

sistance to oxidation it becomes necessary to increase

proportionately the chromium content.

tent is relatively high. The alloys withstand oxidation

fairly well but they are inferior to the nickel-

The electrical properties of this group of alloys are chromium alloys. Another radical objection observed

given in Table IV. The chemical compositions of the was that the wire under continued heating tended to

wires used in these observations are given in Table V. increase permanently in length.

Typical resistance-temperature curves are plotted in

Fig. 3.




Expressed as the ratio of resistance at the various

temperatures to resistance at 20 deg. C.


deg. Cent. No. 1* No. 2

20 1.000 1.000

300 1.129 1.132

400..- 1.175 1.174

500 1.225 1.235

600 1.278 1.283

700 1.316 1.322

800 1.338 1.341

900 1.357 1.355

1000 1.375 1.365

•Plotted in Fig. 2 as typical of iron-chromium alloy. The specific

resistance at 20 deg. C. of alloy No. 1 was 583 ohms per


Iron-Chromium Alloys.

The iron-chromium alloys have up to the present

received but little attention. Some of these materials,

however, have been introduced on the market so that

some mention should be made of them. The alloys

contain approximately 7 per cent of iron and 22 per

.. '16

g 1.12

^ S 1.08

CO c


c '£


1 ° 1-04


Temperature, deg. Cent.

Hi' ^



l^V£ hromt

ZOO 400 tOO 800



FIG. 3 — Showing the variation of electrical resistance of

nickel-chromium and nickel-iron-chromium alloys at various


Nichrome III.—Values plotted are Alloy No. 11, Table III;

chromium, 15.70 per cent.

Nichrome IV.—Values plotted are for Alloy D, Table III;

Chromium, 18.95 per cent.

Nichrome.—Values plotted are for Alloy No. 7, Table IV; for

chemical composition see Table V.

Nichrome II.—Values plotted are for Alloy No. 1, Table IV;

for chemical composition see Table V.

cent of chromium, the high content of chromium being

necessary to overcome the tendency of the iron to

oxidize. The silicon content sometimes runs as high

as 2 per cent. From the manufacturer's standpoint the

material is hard to draw, especially if the silicon con­



Temperature, deg. Cent.

FIG. 4 — Showing thermal electromotive forces of various

metals and alloys against standard platinum.

Observations on the electrical properties of two of

these wires are given in Table VI. The chemical compositions

of the two wires are as follows:

Iron, per cent

Chromium, per cent.

Nickel, per cent

Silicon, per cent

Carbon, per cent

No. 1






No. 2






The values obtained for wire No. 1 are plotted in

Fig. 2.

Group C.—Materials With Special Properties.

The third class of alloys to be considered includes

those materials that have some special properties

which render them useful under restricted conditions.

The fact that pure nickel has a remarkably high temperature

coefficient of electrical resistance is made use

of in the' construction of resistance thermometers.

Again, the fact that advance and manganin have remarkably

low temperature coefficients is applied in the

construction of precision resistances.

Electrical Properties of Pure Nickel.

Two samples of nickel wire were obtained directly

from electrolytic sheet. A section cut from the sheet

was rolled to wire. The material was therefore not

contaminated by impurities which usually enter during

melting. From these wires the following results were


olytic Nickel

No. 1

No. 2



Microhm cm.





per deg. Cent.



Temperature coefficient is expressed in ohms per deg. C. per

ohm at 20 deg. C, over the range from 20 to 50 deg. C. The

coefficient for No. 1 is equivalent to a value of 0.00629 per ohm

at 0 deg. C.

8 Forging- Stamping - Heat Treating February, 1925














Cold Junction, 20 deg. C.

N'icke l-Chromium Alloys

10% Cr









Alloys Positive to Platinum

15% Cr









20% Cr





















25% Cr









It is, however, not feasible to produce such material

on a commercial scale. The metal must be melted in

large quantities, cast into ingots, forged and drawn

into wire. The effect of manganese additions used

for deoxidation at the end of the melting operation

was found to be as follows:

Manganese Added, Temperature

Per cent Coefficient

0.25 0.00460

0.63 0.00452

100 0.00357

The time of melting is a material factor. A succession

of small melts were made in an electric furnace.

For the first melt the furnace required 45 minutes

to reach the melting point of nickel. The second,

third, and fourth melts required progressively shorter

times; the last melt was cast 12 minutes after the introduction

of the cold charge. The following results

were obtained from the separate melts:

Time of Specific

Melting, Resistance, Temperature

Melt No. Minutes Michormcm. Coefficient

1 45 9.75 0.00448

2 20 8.80 0.00462

3 8.67 0.00484

4 8.64 0.00484

5 12 9.12 0.00490

An analysis of the material from melt No. 5 showed

the following constituents: Nickel 99.22 per cent, manganese

0.59 per cent, iron 0.14 per cent, copper 0.03

per cent, and carbon 0.00 per cent. This material

should be somewhat purer than those from the four

preceding melts, since it was exposed for a shorter

time to furnace gases and crucible lining.



deg. Cent.










Cr 10%,






















Cold Junction

Ni 90%,

Cr 10%,




















All. ays Negat ive to Platinum

Nickel Alloy! • 1

















Copper -Nickel All oys

Advance Advance Advance

(60% Cu, + +

40% Ni) 15% Cr 10% Cr

























These experiments indicate the conditions to be observed

in order to secure nickel wire with the highest

possible temperature coefficient of electrical resistance.

The nickel should be the purest available. The additions

of manganese (or magnesium) must be as small

as is compatible with subsequent forgeability. The

time taken to melt should be a minimum in order that

the molten material should be exposed for as short a

time as possible to the effect of the furnace gases. If

these conditions are met, a high-grade nickel wire can

be produced.

Materials With Zero Temperature Coefficients.

Advance and manganin have been mentioned as

alloys which have special applications as materials for

precision resistances by reason of the fact that they

have temperature coefficients which approximate to

zero over restricted ranges of temperature.

Advance contains as major constituents approximately

55 per cent of copper and 45 per cent of nickel.

An alloy containing these materials only has a pronounced

negative temperature coefficient at 20 deg. C.

The material as commercially produced, however, contains

small amounts of impurities such as iron, manganese,

carbon and silicon which are present either in

the raw materials used or are taken up during the

melting. The general effect of these impurities is

to increase the temperature coefficient of the material.

The extent of this change, as produced by the above

impurities, is now under consideration and will be reported

on at a later time.

Manganin is a ternary alloy having as its major

constituents 84 per cent of copper, 12 per cent of


20 deg. C.

Ni 85%,

Cr 15%,











Ni 80%,























Ni 90%,

Cr 10%,



+ 15% Cr









February, 1925

manganese and 4 per cent of nickel. The effect of

small variations in these constituents is at present under

investigation. It is interesting to note that the

condition of the surface of the wire modifies its temperature

coefficient to a pronounced degree. Wire

made from material of the composition given above

has a negative coefficient over the range from 20 to

50 deg. C. If, however, the wire has been superficially

oxidized either by exposure to moist air or heat, the

manganese is selectively oxidized leaving a metallic

skin of copper on the wire. If this superficial skin is

more than a few thousandths of an inch in thickness,

the wire takes on an appreciable positive temperature

coefficient. As in the case of the advance wire, the

presence of small amounts of impurities in manganin

appears to modify this temperature coefficient. These

phenomena are, however, still being studied and will

not be further discussed here.

Thermal Electromotive Forces of Alloys.

The fact that the various alloys described in the

preceding section give widely varying electromotive

forces renders certain combinations exceedingly useful

as base-metal thermocouples for the measurement

oi" temperature.

The combinations of iron and advance (constantan)

and of chromel (10 per cent of chromium in nickel)

with alumel (1 to 2 per cent of aluminum in nickel)

are already well known and widely used. The former

gives an e.m.f. of approximately 58 millivolts at 1000

deg. C. and the latter approximately 41 millivolts. The

thermal e.m.f.'s of these materials and of other alloys

of nickel or iron and chromium are given in Table VII,

in which alloys that are positive to a sample of pure

platinum chosen as a standard and alloys that are

negative to the same sample of platinum are listed separately.

The values given in this table have been

plotted in Fig. 4. The alloys of advance (copper 55

per cent, nickel 45 per cent) with chromium, whose

thermal e.m.f.'s against platinum are given in the last

three columns of Table VII, were made with the view

of obtaining a material that would be more resistant to

oxidation than the old advance wire. Among the

nickel-chromium alloys, the 90 per cent nickel-10 per

cent chromium combination gives the highest electromotive

force, but the 80-20 material is good and of

course resists oxidation to a greater degree.

An examination of Table VII reveals some suggestive

combinations for securing electromotive forces

considerably in excess of that given by the first two

well-known couples. Some of these combinations are

given in Table VIII.


The authors desire, in conclusion, to express their

appreciation of the assistance given during the progress

of the work by the technical staff of the Driver-

Harris Company.

D'Arcambal Addresses Pittsburgh Chapter

At a meeting of the American Society for Steel

Treating, held in the William Penn Hotel, Pittsburgh,

January 6, A. H. D'Arcambal, metallurgical engineer,

Pratt & Whitney Company, Hartford, Conn., delivered

an address on the "Hardening of Small Tools," illustrated

with a number of interesting lantern slides.

Forging - Stamping - Heat Treating

A. S. S. T. Sectional Meeting

The American Society for Steel Treating held its

winter sectional meeting at the Hotel Sinton, Cincinnati,

Ohio, January 15 and 16, and the attendance was

the best that has been recorded at one of these sectional

meetings. Other chapters besides the Cincinnati

Chapter were well represented.

O. N. Stone, assistant chief engineer of the Van

Dorn & Dutton Company, Cleveland, spoke at the

first session. His subject was "Gearing as a Medium

of Industrial Power Transmission." The speakers for

the afternoon session were R. G. Guthrie, G. W. Quick

and S. J. Rosenberg. Mr. Guthrie, metallurgist of the

industrial gas department of the People's Gas Light

& Coke Company, Chicago, took for his subject,

"Sample Preparation for High Power Photo-Micrography,"

while G. W. Quick and S. J. Rosenberg, Bureau

of Standards, Washington, gave a paper entitled,

"Wear and Wear Testing."

Julian A. Pollak was toastmaster at the informal

banquet held on Thursday night, and the address of

welcome was delivered by Fred A. Geier of the Cincinnati

Milling Machine Company. President W. S.

Bidle of the A. S. S. T. responded, and a technical

paper was delivered by R. H. Smith, vice president of

the Lamson & Sessions Company, Kent, Ohio.

On Friday, the steel treaters inspected many of

the machine plants in and around Cincinnati.

Crossword Puzzle

Solution of crossword puzzle which appeared in

the January issue of Forging-Stamping-Heat Treating.

B L A c\hMf o r C E

L O r e M t ^ b o o M

O A tMb /} rMd J P

O dWp u N CH^L T

mMb ABrjH° oWy

• /T/7 / ±w[£> A/pM

P W R EMoMs £->77

R B^R 1 V e rmin E

E o /v|/v E TW u T

S L n m^nMc o D E

S T E elMl/ T E R

Ford Engineering Laboratory

The Ford Motor Company, Dearborn, Mich., has

completed what is said to be the finest laboratory in

the country. It is designed for chemical, metallurgical

and affiliated industrial research and experiments,

comprising practically one room in a new building

202x804 feet, approximately two city blocks in length.

The total glass area of the new laboratory proper

aggregates 64,000. sq. ft., or equivalent to 40 per cent

of the total floor space. The mechanical installation

consists of complete equipment for the construction

of an entire automobile, with chemical research apparatus,

physial test machines, equipment for metallurgical

research and investigations, drafting room facilities,

etc. Xo piping or wiring is exposed in the laboratory;

all power lines are under the floor in conduits,

with feed wires fed up through the floor to individual

motor drives. The building will also contain

a comprehensive reference library.


70 Forging- Stamping - Heat Treating

Improved Furnace for Vitreous Enameling

In the vitreous enameling of metal parts one thing

that has often impressed the thoughtful operator is

the very considerable loss of heat due to opening the

doors of a furnace while charging and removing the

work. It is quite certain, too. that aside from the consequent

loss of heat, this periodic opening of the doors

causes a fluctuation in furnace temperature which may

be harmful as well as slowing up the operation of fusing

the enamel, to say nothing of the discomfort and

delay in removing the work from the fork and the

length of time when there is nothing in the furnace.

Possibly these things prompted the development

by Mr. C. C. Armstrong of the Armstrong Manufacturing

Company, Huntington, West Virginia, of an

electrically operated furnace for enameling comparatively

flat pieces whereby the opening and closing of

charging doors is eliminated through the medium of

a conveyor which carries the work through the furnace

from the charging end and discharges it at the

opposite end. It is more accurate to say that the doors

Conveyor type furnace for vitreous enameling.

are continuously open rather than not being opened

at all. That is, they are adjusted to open only sufficiently

to allow the passage of the work in and out

of the furnace, depending upon the height of the pieces

being fired.

The furnace proper does not differ materially from

the ordinary electrically heated enameling furnace.

The heating chamber is 9 ft. 8 in. long, 30 in. tall and

32 in. in width.

The conveyor is built up from a number of nichrome

"burning bars" 30 in. in length, 1 in. wide by

H in. thick. These blades are fastened vertically in

pairs to cast nichrome links and stand 3y in. apart.

The chain is completed by the use of. connecting links

made from 3/16 in. by y in. nichrome bars which are

movably attached to the cast links by means of nichrome

pins 4g in. in diameter. Three complete

chains support the knife edged nichrome burning bars,

one in the center and one at either end. The conveyor

chain on its passage through the furnace slides over

three nichrome bars 2 in. wide by y2 in. thick extending

from end to end of the heating chamber and supported

on cross bars that rest on a ledge built into the

side walls of the furnace under the side heating ele­

February, 1925

ments and in the center on small piers about 12 in.

apart Resting on these same cross bars are two

nichrome plates 10 in. wide, by 3/16 in. thick, extending

the length of the furnace, which cover the heating

elements under the conveyor and protect them from

anything falling on them. The conveyor returns beneath

the furnace through a well insulated tunnel and

over an idler sprocket. The chains and bars comprising

the conveyor are carried over cast steel sprockets

mounted at each end of the furnace, which are made

in the form of a drum to prevent the parts falling

through and to help prevent heat losses.

The set of three of these sprockets (which are 26

in. in diameter), at the discharge end of the furnace

is driven by an electric motor through a speed reducing

mechanism and a speed change box with nine

changes of speed so that the conveyor can be made to

travel at will to allow work to remain from \y2 to 3yi

minutes in its passage through the heating chamber.

The set of sprockets engaging the conveyer at the

charging end is an idling set and is carried on bearings

adjustable longitudinally by spring tension to

compensate for the change in the length of the chain

due to its change in temperature.

The centers of the driving and idling sprockets

over which the conveyor works are 42 in. beyond

either end of the furnace to allow for proper charging

and discharging on a convenient flat surface. At the

discharge end of the furnace well below the center

of the sprockets driving the conveyor is located an

auxiliary conveyor working at double the speed of the

main conveyor on which the work falls as it leaves

the main conveyor after passing through the furnace.

This auxiliary conveyor is constructed of a reinforced

asbestos belt 31 in. in width. This belt is 10 ft. in

length and is covered for 5 ft. of its length next to the

furnace by an insulated tunnel, which serves as a

cooling chamber, giving the work an opportunity to

cool somewhat before it approaches the outer air temperature.

This cooling chamber also serves to retard

the loss of heat through the slightly raised door at

the rear end of the furnace.

In addition to being protected by the usual thickly

insulated doors counterweighted in the usual manner,

there is attached to each door a hood which is adjustable

with the door for height, and which entirely covers

the main conveyor at the discharge end of the furnace

and leaves at the charging end of the furnace

only room enough for feeding in the work to be burned.

Because of its comparative light construction and

its nearly complete protection from contact with the

outside air, the loss of heat due to the passage of the

main conveyor through the furnace has been found to

be relatively unimportant. The temperature of the

furnace is automatically controlled by a Leeds and

Northrup Controlling and Recording Instrument

which makes and breaks the full load of 105 kw. The

power is 250 volts, 60 cycle, 3 phase. Two persons

are required for the operation of the furnace—one to

place pieces on conveyor and one to remove them

from the auxiliary conveyor.

The furnace has been in operation for several

months, enameling steel shells .035 in. thick measuring

7V% in. square by 2%. in. tall. The furnace easily handles

these pieces on first coat work at the rate of

600 pieces per hour. On second and third white coats

and on firing decals the rate is 800 pieces per hour.

February, 1925

The loss due to improper firing is practically negligable,

amounting to under y2 of one per cent in the experience

thus far. Larger shells, 20^ in. square by 4

in. in depth, are handled with satisfactory speed, the

production of these pieces at this time has not been in

sufficient volume to determine accurately what can be

expected in the way of output.

It will be apparent that the furnace is remarkably

successful, both from the standpoint of rapidity of

operation as well as the almost entire absence of loss

due to improper firing. Once the proper speed of the

conveyor and the proper heat of the furnace is found

for a certain part, the results are entirely uniform.

The furnace was built and installed by the Electric

Furnace Construction Company, 1015 Chestnut Street,

Philadelphia, Pa.

Solving the Problem of Die Costs

The shop management frequently encounters difficulties

in satisfying the demand for both economy

and time saving in production. In some cases, for

example, the necessarily limited demand for a product

will not warrant the expense attached to the machining

of a steel die for quantity production; at. the same

time, the demand may be sufficient to make the method

of built-up construction not only very expensive

but a time losing proposition as well.

In instances of this kind, the difficulty can be solved

at times by making the dies of cast iron rather than

of steel. In this manner the high cost of machining

is greatly reduced and at the same time a die is produced

that will take ample care of the manufacturing

needs. This is true particularly of the larger size dies.

An example of the above is shown in the accompanying

illustration of a cast iron die designed and

manufactured by the Buffalo Forge Company, of Buffalo,

for stamping the steel hearths used with their

general repair forges. The object here was to keep

the cost of the die as low as possible. The forge

hearth in question has an overall size of 24 in. x 30

in. and is rectangular in shape. The depth is 5y in.

On two opposite sides is a cut-out section to allow

long bars to lay across the forge and at the same time

to rest in the fire. The four upper corners of the

hearth have a 3 in. radius, while the bottom corners

have a \y2 in. radius.

It has been the practice up to very recently to make

these hearths or bowls of built-up construction. The

great amount of labor and time entailed, however,

made this procedure a costly one. The first operation

under this method was to shear the plate, then notch

the corners and recess the cuts in the side. Followed

by flanging of the sides for the box forming and then

the riveting of angle irons to reinforce the edges. In

the center of the hearth was placed a steel plate, also

for reinforcing purposes.

By employing a die, however, all of the individual

operations are eliminated; a single down stroke of the

press produces the finished hearth. The new forming

die is built-up of six castings made of close grain iron;

three castings comprise the female section and three

the male. The castings for the latter consist of a flat

plate 2 in. thick with the punch fastened to it with

eight bolts, while the pressure ring fits over the punch.

The female section consists of a flat plate \y2 in. thick

to which the forming die itself is fastened. The ejector

plate fits inside the die. The reason for building the

Fbrging-Stamping - Heat 'Beating

die in two sections was due to difficulties in machining

when made in one solid casting. A one-piece section

could only be machined with a vertical mill and this

required the expenditure of considerable time and labor.

By building it in two sections, the machining

operations entailed were of the simplest kind. Another

advantage to be noted is the ease with which

this die can be enlarged if desired without discarding

any of the old castings.

At each corner there is a steel insert fastened in the

die; these inserts were bored and turned in the lathe

and pack hardened. The die was then put on a boring

mill and the corners bored out and the recess cut

for the steel insert. These inserts are held in place

by two bolts each. Because of the great wear and

strain on the corners of the die, it was deemed advisable

to have these inserts in order to prolong the

life of the apparatus. After the inserts were fitted,

the die was put on the planer and the sides finished.

It should be mentioned here as well that there are two

steel inserts in the die at the point where the cut-out

One piece pressed steel forge hearth.

sections in the sides of the hearth are placed. The

sides of this bowl are made 5 deg. taper in order to

facilitate stacking; the stock used is heavy gauge

pickled steel plate.

A single acting press is used for this operation;

pneumatic air cushions operating with an air pressure

of 40 lbs. are used beneath the press to keep the

stock from wrinkling. It is estimated that this die

will be good for 1000 pieces before repairs are necessitated.

In addition to now having a die at a reasonable

cost, which will save considerable time and labor

charges in production, the manufacturer is now enabled

to produce a hearth that is not only more durable

than the older design, but one that is vastly

improved in appearance as well.

Orders received by the General Electric Company

for the three months ending December 31 totalled

$80,009,978, an increase of 7 per cent over the same

quarter in 1923, according to figures made public by

Owen D. Young, chairman of the board of directors.

For the year 1924, orders totalled $283,107,697, as

compared with $304,199,746 for 1923, a decrease of 7

per cent. ,„


•mtiimnmimin iiiimniiiiiiiiiiiiiiiiinniLMiiniiiminiiiiiiiiiiniiiiiiiiiiiiiiiiniiiiiiiiiiiiiiiiiNiiiiiiiniiiiiiiiiiiiiiiiiiiiiiiiinniiiiiiiiiiiiiiiiiiiiiiiiiiiiiiiuiiiiiiiiiiiiii


r»imnmi[»iiTiirrf»tniiiiiiii:iL!Tnuiij iimmOTniimmmiiiiiiimiiiinmiiimilimnm

Forging - Stamping - Heat Treating wishes to announce

the appointment of F R. Jones and L. R.

Sales as western representatives, with offices at room

1014 Garrick Theater Bldg.. Chicago. 111.

* * *

Maxon Premix Burner Company announced the

consolidation of the Maxon Premix Burner Comparand

the Maxon Furnace & Engineering Company, the

consolidated companies to be operated under the

name of the Maxon Premix Burner Company, Muncie.

Ind. Branch offices will be retained at Pittsburgh

and Chicago and another opened in the east in the

near future.

* * *

The Hughes Tool Company, Houston, Tex., manufacturers

of oil well tools and sunnlies, has increased

its capital stock from $300,000 to $2,000,000, in order

to meet the increase in business, and have also announced

a $1,700,000 stock dividend, effective immediately.

The plant of the company was practically

doubled in 1923 and material increases were made in

1924. The program for 1925 includes the operation

of a branch plant at Oklahoma City, Okla., now under

construction, besides increases in its other activities.

* * *

The Anderson Foundry & Machine Company was

recently taken over by the Anderson Engine & Foundry

Company, Anderson, Ind., the main product being

the manufacture of oil engines. The officers and directors

of the new company are E. W. Conney, president

and general manager, formerly with the National

Forge & Tool Company, Irvine, Pa.; Bert McBride,

treasurer, president of the Continental National Bank,

Indianapolis; directors: F. C. Hesch, vice president

Titusville Forge Company, Titusville, Pa.; I. L. May,

president May Supply Company, Anderson, Ind.; J.

E. Greene, president Matthew Addy Company, Cincinnati

; Luther F Pence, Anderson, and Emerson E.

McGriff, Portland, Ind.

* * *

Remington Typewriter Company has absorbed the

Noisless Typewriter Company of Middletown, Conn.,

and in so doing retires five officers of the latter company.

These are : President C. W Colby, Vice Presidents

H. S. Duel and Arthur Hebart, Secretary Joseph

Merriam, and Treasurer E. H. Russell. The Middletown

plant will continue to be operated, but supervision

will be by officers of the Remington company, of

which B. F. Winchell is president.

* * *

The Marion Electric Corporation. Marion. Ind.,

are planning changes and improvements in their recently

purchased building at Eleventh and Adams

Streets, Marion, Ind. The Marion company manufactures

household heating appliances such as curling

irons, hot plates, grills, etc. All of its punch press,

plating, polishing and other machinery is electrically


K * * *

Announcement is made that J. O. Heinze, formerly

with the Heinze Electrical Company, Lowell, Mass.,

and at one time an engineer with the General Motors

Companv, Detroit, will build a plant to manufacture

tractors at Bessemer, Ala., 13 miles south of Birmingham.

A tract of 200 acres has been purchased and

Forging - Stamping - Heat 'Beating

February, 1925

the construction of the plant will be started at once.

The tractor will have three wheels and the engine

will be of the four-cylinder type.

* * *

The Moline Implement Company, Moline, 111., has

been incorporated with a capital of 30,000 shares of

no par common stock, and has purchased from the

Moline Plow Companv the latter's plow factory, assets

and goodwill. The new corporation starts operation

with assets of about $3,000,000 and with practically

no indebtedness.

* * *

Charles T- Graham, vice president of the Graham

Bolt & Nut'Company. Pittsburgh, Pa., has purchased

a controlling interest in the Gould Coupler Company

and the Gould Storage Battery Company, Depew,

N. Y.

* * *

The Xeverslip Door-Holder Company, 13161 Auburn

Avenue, Detroit, has been organized with capital

stock of $50,000 to manufacture garage door holders

and other hardware products. A site was purchased

and a building 40x40 ft. was erected to be used

for office and assembling. Contracts for stampings

and dies were placed with the Saginaw Stamping &

Tool Company, Saginaw, Mich., and with the American

Bolt Corporation, Detroit, for rods. Production

will begin about February 1. Dedrick F. Stearns is


* * *

The name of the New England Heat Treating

Service Company, Inc., with offices at 112 High Street,

Hartford, Conn., has been changed to the Stanley P.

Rockwell Company. This is a change in name only;

the same management will continue as heretofore. Mr.

S. P. Rockwell is president and Mr. W. D. Fuller,

vice president. The company will represent the Wilson-Maeulen

Company, American Gas Furnace Company,

Rodman Chemical Company and Duraloy Company.

It will conduct laboratories for chemical, physical

and metallographical investigations.

* * *

The Dixie Metal Products Sales Company, Inc.,

with main office and factory at Birmingham, Ala.,

was incorporated for $50,000, $25,100 being paid in, to

manufacture and sell to jobbers the following products:

radiator cabinets and shields, hot air register

cabinets, roof flashings, door handles, etc. D. A.

Thomas is president, D. D. Bentley, vice president,

and J. M. Chapman, secretary.

* * *

The Detroit Die Casting Company, 442 Jefferson

Avenue East, Detroit, plans to manufacture die castings

of various metals, small stampings, dies, tools,

jigs, etc.. having purchased the department of the Detroit

Forging Company which was devoted to this

line. Its factory at 274 Iron Street, a large modern

building, is in full operation. The officers of the company

are the same as those of Davis, Kraus & Miller,

Inc., 440 Jefferson Avenue, Detroit, manufacturers of

automobile trimmings, of which C. H. Davis is president,

Lovell R. Kraus, vice president, and Hugh Miller,

secretary. E. Martin Tallbert is general factory

manager. All purchases for the die casting company

will be made by Davis, Kraus & Miller, Inc.

* * *

The Sani-Safe Manufacturing Corporation, 608

Lexington Bldg., Baltimore, recently organized to

manufacture metal boxes of 24-gage galvanized sheets,

February, 1925

Forging- Stamping - Heat Treating 73

will buy paint-spraying equipment, dies, presses, cabinet

locks, rivets and screws. William E. Smith is

one of the principals.

* * *

affiliated with these companies for approximately 25


T * *

A. T. Rankin, formerly New England representa­

The Marion Drop Forge Company, Marion, Ind., tive of the Amco Manufacturing Company, has joined

is said to be considering plans for a one-story addi­ the sales force of the Oakes Company of Indianapotion,

to be used primarily as a heat treating building,

lis, manufacturers of automobile accessories, and will

and for one crane runway. It is purposed to break have charge of the territory embracing the Middle

ground early in the spring. The cost is reported in Western States.

excess of $25,000.

* + *

* * *

George H. Grundy, manager of the steel sales for

The Herbrand Company, Fremont, Ohio, manu­ Peter A. Frasse & Company, New York, will go to

facturer of forgings, etc., has awarded a general con­ Hartford, Conn., to take charge of the tool steel and

tract to the Steinle & Wolf Constrution Company, hot rolled alloy steel department in the old plant of

Fremont, for a one-story steam-operated power plant the Frasse Steel Company, recently sold to the Union

with capacity at 500 hp., for service at its proposed Drawn Steel Company, Beaver Falls, Pa. Under the

new plant.

terms of the sale, Peter A. Frasse & Company did not

* * *

dispose of this part of the manufacturing business,

The Parish Manufacturing Corporation, Reading, but will continue to anneal and certify tool steel and

Pa., manufacturer of pressed steel automobile frames heat treat alloy steel as well as distribute these prod­

and chrome nickel steel specialties, have increased their ucts and the cold drawn products of the Union Drawn

facilities approximately 100 per cent. The new plant

is 200x580 ft., with a 70xl40-ft. wing. The company

specializes in the manufacture of automobile frames,

heat treated. H. S. Lewis is vice president.

* * *

The Standard Forgings Company, Chicago, has recently

been organized for the production of car and

locomotive axles and forgings. George E. Van Hagen

has been made president; E. W. Richey, vice president

and manager of sales; L. C. Ryan, vice president and

treasurer; A. C. Stockton, secretary, and James A.

Cook, assistant manager of sales. The company has

acquired the plant of the Laclede Steel Company, East

St. Louis, 111.

* * *

The Freyer-Carrol Corporation, 427-33 East Avenue,

Perth Amboy, N. J., has been organized to build

commercial bodies and cabs and to do general blacksmithing

work. John A. Carrol is secretary.

Steel Company through the New York, Philadelphia,

and Buffalo warehouses.

* * *

G. V. Bellows has been made manager of maintenance

at the Lansing, Mich., plant of the Auto

Body Company. He succeeds Arthur H. Leonard,


* * *

Eugene Colfax Beck, works manager of the Cleveland

Twist Drill Company, Cleveland, has resigned

after 25 years' service with that organization.

* * *

J. L. Price, formerly connected with the Chicago

Pneumatic Tool Company, as secretary and treasurer

and director, has severed his connections with that organization

to become vice president and general manager

of the Btendix Corporation and president of the

Bendix Brake Corporation.

* * *

William Ruddy has returned to Detroit after 18


months in Paris, where he was engaged in remodel­


iiiiNiiiiiiiiiiiriiiiiiiiiiiiiiiiiiiiiiM iiiiiiiiiiiiiiiiiiiiiiiiiiiiiniii

Mr. John A. Succop has been appointed district

sales manager of the Philadelphia branch office recently

established by the Colonial Steel Company at

522 Drexel Bldg., Philadelphia, Pa. This will supersede

the arrangement formerly in effect with Eining

the factory of Andre Citroen and introducing

American methods.

* * *

Donald N. Watkins has resigned his position as

superintendent of the blooming mills at the South

Side plant of the Jones & Laughlin Steel Corporation,

Pittsburgh, and has joined the sales force of the General

Refractories Company in its Chicago office. Mr.

wechter & Wyeth as selling agents.

Watkins was formerly editor of Blast Furnace and

* * *

Mr. D. A. Stewart has recently become associated

with the Heppenstall Forge & Knife Company as

Steel Plant.

* * *

John M. Read, formerly assistant general mana­

salesman in the Pittsburgh District. For the past two

ger, has been appointed general manager of the works

years he was connected with the Union Electric Steel at Cumberland, Md., for the N. & G. Taylor Company,

Corporation, and prior to that he was for 13 years dis­ Philadelphia, manufacturers of tin plate. He suctrict

sales manager for the Sizer Forge Company of ceeds L. Leslie Helmer, who died recently. Mr. Read

Buffalo, N. Y., in the Pittsburgh District.

has been connected with the Taylor Company for the


Irvin E. McGowan

* *

has been made metallurgist

past 15 years.

* * *

and chief chemist for the Sparta Foundry Company, George S. Evans, for the past five years metallui-

Sparta, Mich., manufacturer of individually cast pisgist and superintendent of all the foundries of the

ton rings. Mr. McGowan has been engaged in metal­ Griffin Wheel Company, Chicago, has resigned to go

lurgical work for the past 17 years, ten of which were with the Mathieson Alkali Company.

spent in the blast furnace industry.

* * *

* * *

O. P. Hanchette, a welding engineer, has been

John B. Cornell has resigned as treasurer of the added to the staff of the Burke Electric Company,

Niles-Bement-Pond Company and Pratt & Whitney Erie, Pa. Mr. Hanchette will be connected with the

Company, 111 Broadway, New York. He has been Cleveland office at 7820 Euclid Avenue, Cleveland.

74 Forging- Stamping - Heat Treating

James S. O'Rourke has been made vice president

in charge of sales of the Murray Body Corporation of

Detroit, the new concern formed by the consolidation

of the C. R. Wilson Body Companv, Towson Body

Company and J. K. Widman & Company, all of Detroit.

Previous to his connection with the Murray

Body Corporation, Mr. O'Rourke was general sales

manager of the J. W. Murray Manufacturing Co.

* * *

C. B. Starr has joined the Robert June Engineering

Management Organization of 8835 Linwood Avenue,

Detroit, Mich. He was assistant mechanical engineer

with the Duff Manufacturing Company of

Pittsburgh, Pa., and later served in the capacity of

sales engineer with the Detroit office of the Wayne

Tank & Pump Company.

* * *

George T. P Klix has resigned as chief engineer of

the C. R. Wilson Body Company, Detroit, to join the

American Body Company, Buffalo. O. J. Crowe, who

has been associated with the purchasing department

of the Wilson Body Company for the last ten years,

goes with Mr. Klix as director of purchases for the

Buffalo concern.

* * *

J. H. Frantz, vice president of the American Rolling

Mill Company, Middletown, Ohio, has been elected

a director of the Pittsburgh, Cincinnati, Chicago &

St. Lous Railroad Company, succeeding William H.

Lee of St. Louis, retired because of advanced age.

* * *

Russell Huff, chief engineer of Dodge Bros, since

1915, now has the title of director of engineering.

Clarence Carson, formerly assistant chief engineer,

has been appointed chief engineer. Mr. Huff is also

a member of the board of directors of Dodge Bros.

* * *

Prof. Michael I. Pupin was elected president of the

American Association for the Advancement of Science

at its seventy-ninth annual meeting held in Washington,

D. C, recently.

* * *

E. W. Harrison of Philadelphia, long identified

with the steel industry, has resumed his connection

with the American Tube & Stamping Company,

Bridgeport, Conn., after a trip abroad and a long vacation.

Mr. Harrison will act as director of sales promotion

and will have offices in the Franklin Trust

Bldg., Philadelphia, after March 30.

* * *

Oscar W. Loew will assume charge of advertising

and sales promotion for the Truscon Steel Company,

Youngstown, Ohio, effective February 1.

» * *

Mr. T. E. Barker, president and manager of the

recently formed Accurate Steel Treating Company,

Chicago, and who is well known in steel treating

circles, has been awarded a founder's membership in

the American Society for Steel Treating. He was

the first chairman of the Chicago Section of the Steel

Treating Research Society in 1917-1918, and for two

years national president of the American Steel Treaters

Societv, and from 1920 to 1921 first vice president

of the American Society for Steel Treating.

* *. *

Announcement has been made by the Detroit Steel

Products Company, Detroit, Mich., of the appointment

of L. T. Miller as purchasing agent to succeed

T. F. Thornton, who recently resigned to take the

presidency of the Roehm Steel Rolling Mills, Detroit.


February, 1925

George Burkhardt, president of the Champion

Welding Company, Buffalo, died recently in a sanitarium

in Detroit.

* * *

L. Leslie Hammer, general manager of the N. & G.

Taylor Company, Cumberland, Md., manufacturers of

tin plate, died of typhoid fever at the age of 47 years.

He started work'with the Taylor Company many

years ago as a chemist in the open hearth department.

In 1903 he was made superintendent of the

black plate department and in 1916 became general

manager, also being elected to the board of directors,

becoming assistant secretary-treasurer.

* * *

Daniel Gray Reid, romantic figure of the tin plate

industry and one of the outstanding personalities who

guided the modern steel business in this country

through its formative period, died at his home in New

York. January 17th. Death was due to pneumonia,

but Mr. Reid' had been in ill health since 1918.

* * *

Jonathan R. Jones, a veteran of the steel industry,

and one of the best known figures in the eastern section,

died in Philadelphia, January 3. Although active

until recently, Mr. Jones had been in ill health for the

past two years.

* * *

Frederick C. Riddile, aged 59, general manager of

the Edgewater Steel Company, Pittsburgh, died December

21, in the Columbia Hospital after a week's


* * *

Charles M. Whitmore, head of the production department

of Crompton & Knowles Loom Works,

Worcester, Mass., died recently at his home.

* * *

Robert A. Bruce, formerly head of the research

department at the Hydraulic Steel Company, Cleveland,

died recently in New York, at the age of 53.

* * *

Harry R. Kimmel, chief .hemist of the Marion

Steam Shovel Company, Marion, Ohio, died January

19 at Kalamazoo, Mich., aged 46 years. He was a

graduate of the Case School of Applied Science,


iiiizriiii i]:tEinii jm [riiiu'"'^:; iiniiiiiiiiiLiiiLiiciLiiiiiiiiui nrn iiMiiMiiiiiisiMiiiniii


i mum uumniiiuiniuinniuniiii niiiiiiiuaiiniuiriiiiniii iunn i mil tntmiiuiiiii 11 m kiiii urn imnimiiiiiiiM n iiiiimfiuiiiirimnmiiniiiiinmiRii^HM

Feed Water Heaters—A new information leaflet

has just been published by the Griscom-Russell Company,

describing the well-known G-R instantaneous

heater for supplying hot water for boiler feed, heating

systems, industrial processes, etc. This leaflet concisely

outlines the applications, special advantages

and construction specifications of the heater and includes

a complete table of sizes, capacities and


Coal Meters—The Republic Flow Meters Company,

Chicago, has issued a bulletin describing a device

for measuring the volume of coal passing to a

combustion chamber. The meter is based on the fact

that equal volumes of coal have equal weight, within

narrow- limits, regardless of the size of the pieces.

Full description, engineering data and illustrations

are supplied.

February, 1925 Forging- Stamping - Heat Treating 75

Blowers—B. F. Sturtevant Company, Boston 36,

Mass. "Gaso-Fan," a new type of portable blower, is

described in a leaflet just published.

Power Presses—The Niagara Machine & Tool

Works, Buffalo, N. Y. Various presses made by this

company are described in this folder. The arch press,

the trimming press, the inclinable press, double crank

press and the squaring shears are all briefly described

and illustrated.

Rodograph—The Bridgeport Brass Co., Bridgeport,

Conn., has issued under the name of Bridgeport

Ledrite Rod-O-Graph a chart from which may be calculated

the gross weight of any number of pieces to

be cut from rods. The shapes may be round, hexagon,

octagon or square. A table of decimal equivalents

accompanies the chart, being printed on the

same page. The sheet is of cardboard and is 9y2x

I9y2. A brass eyelet for hanging is provided. Copies

may be obtained upon request.

Blowers—L. J. Wing Manufacturing Company,

352 West Thirteenth Street, New York City. Bulletin

No. 26A, "Wing Type EM Blower for Burning

with Economy Small Anthracite, Screenings and

Slack," describes and illustrates the advantages of

this type of blower.

Welding and Cutting Equipment—Putting the information

from its large catalog into a booklet that

can be enclosed with a letter, the Bastian Blessing

Company, Chicago, has presented a compact presentation

of the subject of welding and cutting by the use

of gas.

Welding Flux—The Chemical Treatment Company,

New York, has issued a pamphlet describing a

chemical compound fused at high temperature to insure

complete solution. Its purpose is to furnish a

flux for welding iron and steel which will produce a

soft, ductile weld that can be machined easily.

Universal Turret Lathe—Warner & Swasey Company,

Cleveland, Ohio, has issued a catalog describing

one of its turret lathes. Every point of construction

and operation is covered by description and illustration

and samples of output are shown.

Furnace Gas Recorder—Measuring C02 in the flue

gases of steam generating plants as a check on losses

in combustion is discussed in a catalog of the Brown

Instrument Company, Philadelphia. Attention is

called to lack of study and care in eliminating losses

in combustion and suggestions are made for bettering

conditions in this respect. Methods of applying

the recorder and illustrations of typical installations

are presented.

Electric Crane Equipment—A bulletin by the General

Electric Company, Schenectady, N. Y., discusses

at some length the various electrical devices used on

cranes. This includes motors and control, brakes and

accessories. Information is given on operating characteristics

and types of standard motors are listed,

with much valuable data.

Sheet Metal Equipment for Schools—Niagara Machine

& Tool Works, Buffalo. Circular No. 103.

Issued to promote sheet metal working courses in

vocational schools. Five plans of sheet metal shops

for large, medium and small classes, one for composite

shop in which sheet metal working is combined with

some other subject, and another for a general shop,

where several subjects are taught, are given. Floor

plans of the shops are shown, and the equipment

recommended is listed and illustrated.

Transmission Machinery—The W. A. Jones Foundry

& Machine Company, Chicago, has issued two

catalogs, one covering power transmission machinery,

and the other sprocket wheels and chain belting. Both

are illustrated and contain engineering data of use to

machine shop engineers.

Sheet Metal Machinery—Magee Sheet Metal Machinery

Company, 3916 Vermont Avenue, Detroit.

Catalog No. 5. The company's wiring and edging machine

is described and illustrated, and several pages

are devoted to the assembling machines, which is

known also as seaming machine or double-seamer.

The wiring and edging unit will complete an operation

which may be run on the edge of a piece ,f sheet

metal in one pass, regardless of the contour or size of

the sheet, or whether it is pressed or flat. Six attachments

for nine operations, wiring, hemming, CJ-ing,

hook-lock, X-lock, Y-lock, Z-lock, plain-lock and

square edge, are described and illustrated. The change

from one gage to another is made by changing rolls

of the attachment.

Automatic Rotary Heat Treating Furnaces—W.

S. Rockwell Company, 50 Church Street, New York.

Bulletin No. 261 describes the automatic rotary furnace

and quenching, coating or coloring tanks. The

equipment is intended for the heat treatment of metal

products, the size and shape of which permit of a slow

rolling action and continuous steam movement. The

furnace is internally fired and has a revolving horizontal

cylinder with a refractory, metallic or combination

spiral lining. Provisions for uniformly applying

heat to the individual piece and for gradually

heating each piece in its automatic stream movement

through the furnace are advantages stressed. Illustrations

are numerous and include installations for

heat treatment of forgings and castings.

Refractories—There has just been issued by the

Botfield Ref:actories Company, 778 Swanson Street,

Philadelphia, Pa., a very useful pocket-size booklet of

interest to all users of fire brick. It contains a number

of helpful fire brick construction suggestions.

Among these are, the proper method of laying fire

brick for thin but firm joints; how to coat furnace

walls and other fire brick construction to protect the

brick and prolong its life; and the method of filling

up holes and depressions with an inexpensive patching

mixture, saving many dollars of new construction

costs; how to lay single ring arches, in which any

one ring or part of fire brick can be replaced without

removing other rings.

Twist Drill Speeds—The Cleveland Twist Drill

Company has issued booklets describing the easy application

of the slide rule principle to determine safe

and economical cutting speeds for drills. In addition

to the tabular presentation of speeds, the jacket of the

scale presents useful hints on the operation of drills.

Oil Circuit Breakers—A new 32-page bulletin,

bearing the number 47495.1, has been issued by the

General Electric Company describing four improved

types of oil circuit breakers. The bulletin is well illustrated

by photographs, tables and diagrams, and details

covering construction, operation, characteristics,

etc., are fully covered. The circuit breaker tvpes described

bear the designations FH-103, FH-203, FH-206

and FH-209, all for controlling and protecting circuits

of large capacity. The capacities of these oil circuit

breakers vary from 2.000 amperes at 15,000 volts and

500 amperes'at 35,000 volts, to 4,000 amperes at 7,500

and 15,000 volts, and 800 amperes at 35,000 volts.

-'«', Forging- Stamping - Heat Treating




^ j _ ^



Positions Wanted and Help Wanted advertising

inserted under proper headings

free of charge. Where replies are keyed

to this office or branch offices, we request

that users of this column pay postage for

forwarding such replies. Classified ads can

be keyed for the Pittsburgh, New York or

Chicago offices.

EXECUTIVE—Young man 29 years of age, tech­ WANTED—Position as manager or superintendnical

graduate with seven years' practical exent of drop forge plant; 16 years' experience,

perience in machine design and engineering, thor­ covering actual shop practice and including all

oughly acquainted with shop and foundry methods. phases of office and sales work. Can furniBh

Ooupled with this I have served three years as best of references. At present employed; avail­

branch manager of large midwestern manufacturable on short notice. Box JPC, care of Forging.

ing company, having complete supervision of office Stamping-Heat Treating.


and sales force. Desire to associate with progressive

manufacturing or sales organization in capa­

FORGE SHOP superintendent wishes to connect

with a reliable concern offering better opporcity

of responsibility, where duties of an executive tunities; 40 years old, having practical experience

Will the advertiser of Box 147 kindly call at POSITION nature will be WANTED—Drop required, preferably forge in or the die business sinker in die room and hammer shop; can estimate and

this office for some replies to his advertisement.

end. foreman; Prefer 24 locality years' of experience, Philadelphia 12 years or New as York. fore­ do all classes of work and handle large force of

Forging-Stamping-Heat Treating.

man but and not superintendent; essential. Highest know how references. to handle Box men men. Can give A-l references. Box B 0, care of

OPPORTUNITY is open for experienced oil burn­ and OPS, get care production; of Forging-Stamping-Heat also A-l die designer. Treating. Box 8, Forging and Heat Treating.

er salesman. We are looking for a capable man care of Forging-Stamping-Heat Treating.

SITUATION WANTFD—Young executive, 84

to manage, develop, build and equip small and POSITION WANTED—Inspector and expe­

years of age, married, several years' praotlcal

large oil fired furnaces. Must have knowledge to diter, with eight years' experience In ex­ experience drop forge, foundry and machine shop

suggest to customers designs for particular condipediting and inspecting of materials and ma­ Practice; thoroughly conversant with modern

tions. Must know oil combustion, application of chinery for by-product coke plants, power usiness and production methods, also general

industrial and boiler plants. Should know low houses, bla-st furnaces, rolling mills, wheel and cost accounting, purchasing, sales, finance and

pressure burners, vacuum or pressure oil feed. To mills, etc. At present am connected with one credit, administration and organization. Not an

a man who can qualify and partially finance him­ of the large steel companies in the Pittsburgh "efficiency expert," but with very efficient methods

self will offer a generous share or profits in an district on construction. As this work Is about that produce results. At present production mana­

established business in Philadelphia. Write Box completed will be open for another position ger and assistant general manager of large shop

HHK, care of Forging-Stamping-Heat Treating, about August 1. I prefer a position which having forge shop, grey iron foundry and machine

Pittsburgh, Pa.

will keep me on the road a major portion of shops. Box DDK, care of Forging-Stamping-Heat

WANTED—Experienced POSITIONS hammersmith, WANTED or helper,

time. Box F S H T, care of Forging-Stamp­ Treating.

on ehape work for steam forging hammer. State ing-Heat Treating.

POSITION WANTED as assistant superintendent

POSITION age, experience WANTED and salary as drop desired forge hi superintend­

first letter. YOUNG EXECUTIVE, 82 years of age, married,

or general foreman of drop forge plant; 87

Box ent, 1111, general care foreman of Forging-Stamping-Heat or foreman for drop Treat­ forge 12 years' practical experience in die and forge years of age, having had 18 years' experience, in­

plant, ing. where the services of a first-class man with shop, wishes to connect with reliable firm as supercluding executive positions for the last eight years.

23 years of practical experience would be appreintendent or general foreman. Thoroughly con­ Have had the best up-to-date practical experience

ciated. Can handle men and get the very best reversant with modern methods of production, hav­ in die and tool design, also estimating on small

sults as to production. If you are interested would ing held positions of general foreman and superin­ forgings to 3,000 lbs. Steam hammer work with

be glad to have you write, or personal interview WANTED—By tendent for past technically four years. educated Can give man, A-l position refer­ direct supervision of entire plant in my last posi­

if you wish. Box C L O, care of Forging-Stampence. as factory, Box R production H, care of or Ohioago works Office, manager Forging- with tion. Have always been successful in handling

ing-Heat Treating.

a Stamping-Heat drop forge plant Treating. where present results are not large force of men. Best references can be fur­

POSITION WANTED—Hardener and steel treat­

FOREMAN satisfactory. die room, Thoroughly drop forge experienced dies, wants and to connished. Box R R R, care of Forging-Stampinger,

35 years of age, 12 years' experience in die versant make with a change; all details at present of drop general forging, foreman foundry, in Heat Treating. * *

and tool hardening, carbonizing and general heat machine, a large plant steel in fabricating Canada, but and resides mechanical in Detroit; manu­ WANTED—Position as foreman of drop forge by

treating, 4 years' experience as foreman. Box facturing has two assistants plants, modern and about methods 60 men of under production him; practical drop forge man; oyer 20 years' ex-

W O L, care of Forging-Stamping-Heat Treating. costs, twenty organization, years' experience, management five years and as administra­ foreman'. Senence, 6 Tears as foreman; up to date on pro-

WANTED—Position as annealing foreman; 15

WANTED—Position tion Box based DK, care on inside of Forging-Stamping-Heat and as actual foreman experience of forge Treating. Loca­ shop uction methods and oan handle men. At pres­

years as foreman in one plant of sheet and tintion At and present salary general secondary foreman to of future forge possibilities

and blackent employed; available on short notice. Box

plate company. Location no object. Box F B Y, Available smith department on short of notice. large ateel Box plant; F O B 34 , yean care of

818, care of Forging-Stamping-Heat Treating.

care of Forging-Staniping-Heat Treating.

age; Forging-Stamping-Heat 15 years' practical Treating. experience, past 6 yeara POSITION WANTED—By mechanic and execu­

A GENERAL FOREMAN of a drop forge depart­

as foreman; thoroughly experienced in forge and tive, age 50, with over 30 years of tool room

ment manufacturing carpenter and ball pien blacksmith department of steel mills, open hearth experience and of an inventive frame of mind;