Forging- Si amping - Heaf Treating
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Yearly Index—January- to December, 1925 (inclusive)
Accidents in Materia] Handling, Causes of—By David S. Beyer. . June 209
Accuracy in Drop Forging, Remarkable '. . . . May 155
Acme Forging Machine, New Sept. 337
Adaptability of Electric Arc Welding—By A. G. Bissell Nov. 409
Aims of American Refractories Institute Tune 219
Alloy Steel Reduces Die Block Costs—By Earl C. Abbe Dec. 432
Alloy Steel Rivet Sets Tune 221
Alloys, Properties of High Resistance—By M. A. Hunter and
A. .Tones Feb. 65
Al-Cu-Fe-Mg Alloy, Heat Treatment of Cast—By Samuel Daniels.Oct. 340
All-Steel Houses in Britain May 187
Aluminum in Non-Ferrous Materials, Detection of Oct! 380
A. D. F. I. Elects President Feb 40
A. E. S. C. Elects Officers Tan. 13
A. G. A. Meets at Atlantic City June 218
American Iron and Steel Instiute Holds 27th Annual Meeting at
New York June 221
American Iron and Steel Institute Program Oct. 365
American Refractories Institute Program April 140
A. S. M. E. Urges Congressional Appropriation for X-Ray Apparatus
'. Mar. 83
A. S. S. T. Prepares for Annual Convention Tuly 268
A. S. S. T. Ready for Annual Convention Sept. 301
A. S. S. T. Sectional Meeting Feb. 69
A. S. S. T. Sectional Meeting Dec. 433
A. S. T. M. Twenty-eighth Annual Meeting May 171
Analysis of Fuel Gas, The Mar. 105
Annealing from Hauck Venturi Oil Burners Sept. 321
Annealing Iron and Steel Electrically—By Harold Fulwider. . . . Nov. 391
Annealing Small Castings with Sawdust May 185
, Appraisal for Cost Purposes, Using an—By A,. W. Hollar Feb. 38
4A Forging-Stamping- tfeai Treating
Heat Treatment of Carbon Steel Die Blocks—By John Oben-
Rail Joint Tests M«- 80
Heat Treatment of Cast Al-Cu-Fe-Mg Alloy—By Samuel Daniels.Oct.
Railroad Master Blacksmiths' Convention Aug. 289
Heat Treatment of High Speed Steel Dies—By C. B. Swander.. July
Rail Steel Reinforcing Bars M»y 154
Heavy Work, Modern Forge Plant for May
Recent Patents Mnr- 106
High-Frequency Induction Furnace—By Donald F. Campbell... Nov.
Recommended Practices July 235
HydroI'neumatM Forming Press Sept.
Recuperation in Carbonizing Steel—By Porter W. Hay Nov. 403
Recuperator, The Development of the—By E. R. Posnack Mar. 81
Importance of Proper Cleaning Pe£- July 70 Reduction in Varieties of Sheet Metal Ware May 185
Improved Furnace for Vitreous Enameling Feb. May 84 Refractories Institute Meets October 29th Oct, 360
Improvements m Heat Treating Bulletin Kciuipment—By Arthur L. Greene. • vDec. 12(1
Refractories Institute, Plans for Organization of the American.. Mar. 107
Increased Use of Gas in y. 1924 Annealing—By Harold Fulwider .... April Nov. 401 Remarkable Accuracy in Drop Forging May 155
Induction Furnace, High-Frequency—By 'Review of 1924—By Donald E. F. H. Campbell... McClelland-Mar. 336
Removal of Scale During Rolling, The—By Frank L. Estep. ... Dec. 425
Industrial Engineering, Cour->e in L - : - • • bePt- • \ m* 22 6 Reports on Steel for Cutting Tools Aug. 269
Large Forgings, Some Common
Inspecting and Testing Automobile and Prevention—By Defects
Axles—By Leslie'-Aitchison^ K. L. Rolf. ! Mar. 186 Research Committee Receives Reports Dec. 435
Install Induction Furnace, and to Prevention—By Leslie^ZAkchison-r . April 424 Research on Sponge Iron Progressing Feb. 62
Large Order for Drop Hammers
By J. Flecher */,•-•' HarT- '.'..April • 391 Research Work Is Improving Cars, How Oct. 380
Large Plate Frame Billet Shear „^,. . .
Iron and Steel Electrical!
r . n jCine ^.^April 87 Resistance Alloys, Properties of High—By M. A.- Hunter and
Latrobe Electric Steel Plant, Enlargement of '. ^,Dec. 7H
Iron and Steel Literature,
A. Jones Feb. 65
Lebanon Drop Forge Shop Burned "•'•'• • •••;.. May 114 Retarding Research June 193
Machine Lectures Designed at Carnegie to Salvage Tech, Interesting Old Wire . .'. * Z.. . : * . Aug. . ^.rMay 205 283 Retrospect in Research. A May 165
Machinery Lecture on Sales Heat Building, Insulation, Great Prepares -.-.'.-.-. ::'.'.' ....*. Nov. .Dec. 135 435 Revelations in Deep Etching, Some—By J. Fletcher Harper. ... Mar. 103
Lining Manganese Furnace Steel, Bungs—By Bibliography L. of—By E. Crease E. H. McClelra*0d. '.' . \. . . *#*F«b. . v. 135 . D,ec. 49 Review of Coining-Press Developments—By A. R. Kelso May 173
List Manual of Exhibitors Contactor, at New the Public Auditorium *.-.-.-.' '. .'.-;.... % . .-. 0< t. .Sept. 424 352 Review of 1924 Iron and Steel Literature—By E. H. McClelland. Mar. 87
Literature, Manufacture Review of Nuts, of 1924 Die Performance Iron and Steel—By in—By Arthur E. H..Mc£lellahcu L. Greene,Tuly Mar. 241 18S Review of Pressed Metal Developments Aug. 282
M Manufacture I : - of Steel, Direct Process for—By Henning ;Flodiru . Qfit, 186 371 Rockwell Hardness Tester, New Aug. 284
Material, Economical Handling of—By E. Tonkin. ,-.-::.... .. j,Jfcn. 411 24 Rolling, Removal of Scale During—By Frank L. Estep Dec. 425
Material Handling, Causes of Accidents in—By David* S. Beyer .June 437 209 Rolls Become Rough, Why Hard Chilled—By Harold Harris. . .July 275
Materials Handling by Modern Methods •, . '.'Dec. 431 310 Roll Type of Board Hammer, Four Sept. 329
Material Handling in Upset Forge Plant—By D. L. Mathias. . ."May 87 146 Romance of Steel, The—By W. R. Klinkicht Jan. 8
Material and Processes, Defective—By Harry Brearley Oct. 375 Rustless Steel Introduced in Sheffield, A New May 184
Material and Processes, Defective—By Harry Brearley Nov, 394 S
Measure Loads on Stadium During Game Jan. 7 Salesmanship Mar. 77
Measuring Gases in Metals Dec. 435 Samples for Chemical Analysis, Preparation of Dec. 440
Metal Balls, Fabricating Seamless Hollow—By D. L. Mathias. . April 118 Scale During Rolling, Removal of—By Frank L. Estep Dec. 425
Metallography of Steel, Heat Treatment and—By H. C. Knerr..All Issues Seamless Hollow Metal Balls, Fabricating—By D. L. Mathias. . April 118
Metallurgy and Allied Subjects, Books on Nov. 412 Selection of Fuel, Factors Affecting the Oct. 366
Metallurgy and Allied Subjects, Books on Dec. 442 Selection of Fuel Oil Storage Facilities—By R. Kraus July 250
Metals by Direct Stress, Fatigue of—By Paul L. Irwin Aug. 277 Shearing Damages Thick Plates Mar. 106
Metal Stamping and Some of Its Forms—By H. Jay Feb. 46 Sheet Steel Executives, Annual Meeting of May 187
Metal Stamping and Some of Its Forms—By H. Jay Mar. 90 Ship Forgings July 240
Metal Statistic* for 1925 May 165 Silicon Steel Engineering Foundation June 218
Method of Casting Soft Center Ingots June 203 Simplifications of Sheet Steel April 117
Methods for Cooling Quenching Oil—By Kenneth B. Millett. . . . July 232 Skilled Mechanic, The July 225
M-.croscopic Examination of Sand June 219 Small Work, Stamping Plant Designed for Jan. 16
Modern Forge Plant for Heavy Work May 180 Smoke Detector, Recording Sept. 336
Modern Heat Treating Department, A—By E. L. Wood Sept. 290 Soaking Pit, The Electrically Heated—By T. F. Baily April 121
Splitting on a Pressed Steel Draw, To Reduce Nov. 390
National Pressed Metal Society Formed May 153 Stamping Plant Designed for Small Work Jan. 16
New Electrode Control April 120 Stamping Plant Starts Operations Feb. 48
Nickel Deposits on Alloy Steel Forgings—By Stanley A. Rich
Stamping and Some of Its Forms, Metal—By H. Jay Feb. 46
ardson Nov. 407
Nickel in High-Speed Tool Steel Leslie Aitchison. Oct. . Mar. 374 78
Stamping and Some of Its Forms, Metal—By H. Jay Mar. 90
Niles-Bement-Pond Co., New Officers of Leslie Aitchison. . Mar. April 83 114
Standardization of Drawings and Practices July 234
Notes on Duralumin Forging, Some—By H. A. Brearley Whiteley Oct. July 260 375
Standards, Adds More Nov. 393
Nuts, Die Performance in Manufacture of—By Arthur Brearley L. Greene.July Nov. 241 394
Standards for Shafting and Keys Sept. 292
Leslie Aitchison. . Mar. 78
Standard Specifications July 234
Oil from Oil-Field Sands, More Leslie Aitchison .. Sept. April 300 114
Steel at Elevated Temperatures, Tests on—By T. McLean Jasper.July 236
Steel Automobile Bodies, Strong, Light, Cheap Mar. 102
Oil Storage Facilities, Selection of Fuel—By R. Kraus July 250
Old Company Establishes New Department Nov. 411 438
Steel Dies, Heat Treatment of High Speed—By C. B. Swander. .July 238
Steel, Direct Process for Manufacture of—By Henning Flodin..Oct. 371
On to Cleveland Sept. 289 40 Steel Electrically, Heat Treating—By E. F. Collins Feb. 41
Open Hearth Committee May 18C Steel, Factors Affecting the Hardness of—By C. W. Holmes. ... Sept. 333
Q Quenching Prospects Protection
Oxygen Personals Portable Production Proper Physical, Plans Power Practical President Pressed Prevention, Processes, Processes. Production Properties Pickling Pressed Prevention, Millett The—By A. L. for Heat Presses—Their Lance
Jones Steel Walker Metal of Hint Acetylene Chemical Organization of for Defective
Defective of Media of Oil. of and Laps—Their Iron Treatment Mesta Draw, Thermo-Couples Automobile Deep for High Meredith 1925 on Society Technical Society Prevention, Some and for Open-Hearth, Holding
and Drawn Generator, To Machine Material Resistance Material Heat Steel Use of Methods Important Formed,
Reduce F. Metallurgical Production Society "The Front
Locked in Cylinders, King Treating Laps—Their—By
and—By Company, and—By in Industry—By Improved—By American Splitting New Alloys—By
Axles—By for National Needed—By in Electrically-Heated Dies—By P Hardening and—By
Cooling—By The—By Laboratories, Harry
New on Refractories R. a M.
E. Harold D. L T. L. Carbon
W. V. A. C. L.
Rolf Kenneth J. Crane Hunter Listing. Fetherston. D. Salt Mathias. Institute". Guyer...Dec. Steel.... Kelly..Nov.
Baths, B. and . Dec. Feb.
. All Nov. April July Sept. May June Jan. Nov. June Mar. .Jan. .Oct. Issues 232 293 427 213 251 411 17 390 137 201 145 153 212 406 107 14 380 T Y Steel, Steel Steel, Steel Studies Super-Steel Takes Technical Steel Taper Temperature Temperatures, Tempering Tentative Testing Tests Thermocouples Time Timken Tin Tr^e Trade Uniform Upset Use Using Value Welding What Wire With Yes, Tool \\ Westinghouse Worlds elding ardson Can H. tion of L. Steel Parts, Problems Forgings, Treaters Rope, on Heat Sampling—By The the Forge an Fuel Roller Sheets of S°ler Publications Over High Automobile Bearing, Nickel Walker in Schmid Greatest Draw Steel of—By Making, Reading, Appraisal Society Program Society Can Romance Equipment with the Treatment Products Shall Equipment Non-Destructive Plant, Gear Tests, Purity Bearings, •*• Tests for to at Spring Success, in Forging Be Ring Plating Nickel in a Improved Erect Meredith Elevated Needed, Electric Industry the May Welding Plant Exhibition The Advertised—By Material Annual Hot-Plate for Electrically-Heated Axles, on Makes of—By Oxygen D. Pressure, Company Drop and Sectional Manufacturers Deposits Steel To for Industry, Take Cost Big Convention W. Pressed Temperatures—By Metallography Inspection Locomotive F. Reduce Use!... Heat Qualities Convention Forging Handling W. in Office at Test Purposes—By Brunton Up King Cutting—By Elevated—By Providing Organized R. Meetings on Arc—By Treating—By for Metal—By Variety Building Lynn W Klinkicht of U V Alloy—By . Industry, and—By in—By Salt of—By Ellis .. Reginald of A. Baths, J. T. D. Some—By W. R. Stanley J. D. McLean L. H. L. Crowe L. Hollar. M. Trautschold The Mathias'.'.'.'. C. Mathias. ..'. Rolf Gurney A. Knerr.. .'.'.'.'.'. Jasper.July Protec and Martin . Rich ' '.'.' . G ' . •-«> .Nov! .Dec. Oct. AI1 Aug. Nov. April oc( Nov. . Oct All May July Sept. July a«L A Jan. Dec Sept j)ec Jan. Feb juiv June Jan 'oct T»n May .Jan. .June t. . Is8ue8 Isues j, Issues 9S? , ' ', 407 179 276 135
236 438 404 217 226 271 390 236 309 441 339 430 in S49 355 354 2fl
146 ' 137 373 14 204 Feb. ^78 345 45 «^2 2 8
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| R>i$ng-Si,amping-flcw ir^^ |
I Vol. XI PITTSBURGH, PA., JANUARY, 1925 No. 1 =
P r o s p e c t s f o r 1 9 2 5
T H E time has again rolled around to review business condi
tions for the past year, and to survey the prospects for the
coming year. While it is usual to write favorably of the busi
ness outlook at this time, the prospects appear brighter for 1925
than at the beginning of any year since the war.
The uncertainty as to the results of the election was a factor
in holding back business during the past year, but the assurance
given at the election that the majority of the American people are
behind the President for economy and common sense is bound to
influence industry favorably.
The steel industry, which is usually considered as the barome
ter of business conditions, promises great activity in 1925. The
atmosphere is quite different from that of the past year, and with
the elimination of factors that were working against prosperity
both at home and abroad last year, the outlook is promising indeed.
rrillllllllllllMIUIIIIIIMIIIII I IIIIIIII I llllllllllllllllllllllllllllilllllllllllllllllllf llllllllllllllllllEIIJJllllllllllllllllllllllllllllllllllllllllIhT
forging-Sfcunping- Heaf Treating
S o m e Steel P r o b l e m s in t h e D r o p F o r g i n g
Close Co-operation and Thorough Understanding Between Drop
Forger and Steel Producer Necessary to Meet Exist
ing Demands of Consumer of Drop Forgings
By MARTIN H. SCHMIDf
IN this discussion 1 will make no attempt to describe to steel for forgings. and in such cases where the
how the steel manufacturer should make his forg product is purchased in the heat treated condition is
ing steel; neither will I attempt to tell the manu also accompanied by requirements as to physical charfacturer
of drop forgings how he should perform acteristics, or at least by hardness limits — usually
various operations about which he knows so much Brinell, Rockwell or Shore. When forgings are speci
more than I. My objective is the consideration of fied according to chemical analysis alone it is reason
certain conditions which are of mutual interest, and able to assume that your customer has selected such
a better understanding of which will avoid controversy chemistry range as will give, with satisfactory heat
and promote harmony between these great branches treatment, physical properties sufficiently high to
meet stresses determined for the part or parts in ques
During the past 10 or 15 years the progress in tion. In such instances where forgings are sold on
drop forging has been very rapid. The consumers of physical properties alone the manufacturer of forgings
your products, particularly the automotive manufac is confronted with the problem of selection of an
turers, have made increasingly difficult demands which analysis which will give the desired results in the fin
have been met through your improvements in methods ished product at the lowest piece cost. He must con
of fabrication and by your exacting demands from the sider the general characteristics of the material and
steel manufacturer. Fifteen years ago the steel manu his decision is influenced by uniformity of quality,
facturer met all requirements by furnishing products tendency toward inherent defects (both surface and
limited to a few standard analyses within liberal lim sub-surface), shearing quality, forgeability, scalage,
its, and free from pipe and seams. Now he is called response to heat treatment, machinability, etc. The
upon to meet restricted chemistry ranges, not only steel manufacturer should be able to offer sound sug
freedom from pipe and seams but also segregation gestions for guidance on these points.
and the most minute external and internal imperfections.
Size restrictions, formerly considered impossible,
are now religiously adhered to. There are further
demands—the McOuaid-Ehn test, porosity and
fibre tests, microscopic examination, and looming on
the horizon are magnetic analysis and X-ray-
The closest co-operation and most thorough mutual
understanding will better enable us to satisfactorily
cope with your problems and our problems. The
steel manufacturer must exercise most rigid quality
control on his shipments of material for high grade
forgings. Quality, before being controlled, must first
be defined. Rigid inspection means but little if misdirected.
The steel maker must, by most intimate
contact with his customer, ascertain all details connected
with the requirements of material he is to furnish.
Much may be accomplished by a more comprehensive
understanding of details before filling orders.
Likewise, it is necessary for the manufacturer of forgings
to study in an exhaustive manner the precise requirements
of his trade. It is essential that inspection
be based upon practical knowledge of the application
of material in the customer's plant and that material
satisfactory for the purpose for which intended
not be needlessly rejected on minor technicalities.
Such is economic extravagance and waste.
The primary consideration in ordering steels for
forgings is chemical range. In the majority of cases
this constitutes part of the specifications pertaining
Formerly there were but few analysis types to consider
in meeting a physical specification, but now there
are many types of steel, any of which can readily meet
imposed physical requirements. Production and manufacturing
problems are becoming more and more a
governing factor in the selection of analysis.
If specifications can be standardized to permit overlapping
ranges in carbon of one type of steel for various
parts it will work to the advantage of both buyer
and seller. On forgings for such parts as spindles,
arms, connecting rods, etc., .25 to .30 carbon may be
most satisfactory; for crankshafts, front axles, etc., .27
to .32 carbon preferable; and on shafts .32 to .37 carbon.
As long as reasonable quantities of material are
ordered in all three classifications the steel maker is
enabled to make selective application of heats to best
suit each and every requirement. In alloy steels this
selection should not be based on carbon content alone,
but clue consideration should also be given the various
alloying elements. It is evident that the making of
such specifications are but seldom in the hands of the
manufacturers of forgings—they should come from the
automotive and other manufacturers whom you supply
with forgings. But much may be accomplished if
both producers of forgings and of steel can influence
their customers to adopt this method. The result will
be a more uniform and superior finished product and
less contention in the making.
While the scope of this article will not permit detailed
consideration of the various types of allow steels
* Paper presented at a meeting of the American Drop there Forgare
two points on which I would like to briefly
ing Institute held at Pittsburgh. October 2 and 3. 1924. dwell—the five point range in carbon and the general
•^Metallurgical Engineer. United Alloy Steel Company. effect of several alloying elements.
In many cases the five point range in carbon is
specified for the purpose of obtaining uniform results
on different furnace heats furnished by the steel manufacturer,
without the necessity of keeping these heats
separate throughout heat treating operations. The
carbon content seems to be considered by many as the
single factor affecting uniformity in response to heat
treatment—the most important influence of such alloying
elements as nickel, chromium, molybdenum, manganese,
etc-, seems entirely overlooked. Frequently
a heat is rejected because it falls a point or two outside
of the specified five point range in carbon, and yet the
combined value of the other hardening elements renders
it more satisfactory for results with prescribed
treatment than many heats strictly within the carbon
range, but with the percentage of alloys falling on
the extremity of the range. For example, consider the
following specifications: Carbon, .30/.35; manganese,
.50/.80; chromium, .45/75; nickel, 1.00/1.50. A heat
analyzing carbon, .29; manganese, .75; chromium, .70;
nickel, 1.40 might be rejected, whereas one analyzing
carbon, .31; manganese, .55; chromium, .50; nickel,
1.10 accepted, though less satisfactory than the rejected
one. By exercising judgment, better and more consistent
results may be obtained with less rejections of
Care Required in Heat Treating.
The proper means of attaining uniform results after
heat treatment is not in the adherence to a five point
range in carbon — it is in treatment classification of
forgings by furnace heat lots as received from the steel
manufacturer- A number of forging companies and
other parts manufacturers now retain the identity of
heats throughout forging and heat treatment operations,
prescribe definite treatment temperatures and
develop uniformity in treated products that is not otherwise
attainable. Such practice has now almost become
standard in differential ring gear production and
has been the means of minimizing distortion to such an
extent as to almost completely eliminate noisy gears.
Crankshafts have been handled by many manufacturers
in the same manner. The United Alloy Steel Corporation,
treating thousands of tons of bar stock, has
always adhered to this method, although working with
automatic treating furnaces of capacities of nearly
50 tons of treated bars daily.
Of the alloying elements the one probably in most
general use is chromium, appearing as the predominating
influence in chrome steels, chrome-vanadium
and chrome-molybdenum steels, and as a most important
one in chrome-nickel, chrome-nickel-vanadium,
chrome-nickel-molybdenum and various other combinations.
Outside of the so-called structural alloy
steels, it is a tremendous factor in special steels such
as magnet, tool, stainless, high-speed, etc. This element,
from one to two per cent, decreases the tendency
to crystalline growth, giving a fine close grain. It
confers upon steel increased hardness, strength, and
penetrative effect in heat treatment. In higher percentages
it has a marked effect on magnetic properties
and corrosion resistance.
Nickel increases strength, ductility and toughness
of carbon steel, giving finer structure and renders the
steel more susceptible to heat treatment. It is used
in combination with chromium in many ranges covering
wide fields of application.
forging - Stamping - Heaf Treating
While both molybdenum and vanadium are occasionally
used as a sole alloying agent in plain carbon
steel, their greatest value is derived from combination
with chromium or nickel or with both of these elements,
and where their addition most materially enhances
the properties of the steel.
Manganese may be considered a necessary component
of all alloy steels and appears in all specifications.
Its greatest value is an indirect one resulting from
reduction of oxides, and from combination with the
sulphur suppressing the formation of iron-sulphide
and its embrittling effect. The direct effect of manganese
is the increase of physical properties. Excellent
physical characteristics have been developed on
plain carbon steel with approximately \y2 per cent
With the exception of high silicon steels, such as
silico-manganese and chrome-silico-manganese (together
with numerous special steel such as valve, rustless,
electrical, etc.) silicon is seldom given consideration
in chemical specifications, yet it is vitally essential.
The use of silicon in the making of alloy steels
is most important on account of its property of deoxidizing
and of eliminating gases (about four times
as active as manganese). It is equally necessary that
the finished product contains a certain minimum quantity
of this element. In most structural alloy steels a
content of .10 to .20 suffices. However, in others it is
most advantageous to hold to .15 minimum with .25 or
even .30 maximum. The higher range of .15 to .25 is
particularly advisable in the carburizing grades of
steel and has been found a most important factor in
contributing to freedom from laminations, ready machinability
with minimum tool chatter, elimination of
distortion in quenching, and superior static and
dynamic properties of the finished product. While no
silicon limits are incorporated in many of your specifications,
the steel maker should have sufficient experience
and information on your requirements to prescribe
proper limits for his melting department.
Upon receipt of a shipment of steel from the manufacturer
the material is usually promptly checked for
its various qualities and properties, and as previously
stated, in a much more thorough manner than formerly
necessary when the inspection governing acceptance
was more or less superficial and in the main consisted
of chemistry check, rough dimensional check
and casual observation for pipe and surface imperfections.
On analysis, commercial allowable variations
between laboratories was accepted; rolling tolerances
were less restricted; minute surface defects were ignored.
The present day inspection embraces in most
cases rigid adherence to chemistry limits, due to a large
extent to the refusal of the motor and motor accessory
manufacturers to consider even slight deviations from
specification. Strict dimensional adherence is necessary
because keen competition will not permit of the
least extravagance in raw material. Rejections are
made for even slight surface and internal imperfections
because of the higher standard of requirements by the
motor manufacturer and because of the ever increasingly
severe operations put upon the steel in forging.
I do not protest on these conditions but merely cite
them as factors influencing the demand for better
steel. They have served as an impetus toward further
perfection in steel making.
It is quite evident that the proper time to reject
steel is before it is put into forgings — at a time before
the drop forger has put money into processing,
and at a time when the steel manufacturer may salvage.
Furthermore, before forging, the responsibility
for defects can be definitely established. After forging
there is often difficulty in definitely assigning correct
origin of a defect.
Defects in Rolled Steel.
A brief review of the most prevalent defects in
rolled steel, found by regular bar inspection, may be
of some interest. They are pipe, unsound center and
bursts or ruptures on the inside, and seams, laps, scabs
and livers on the outside, and occasionally evidence
of burning. Pipe is a central defect originating in the
shrinkage cavity in the top of the ingot and is due to
insufficient croppage. Unsound center or excessive
porosity may consist of the segregated and impure
metal immediately beneath this zone, but may also
be characteristic of the heat throughout and due to
improper refining of the metal, or over-oxidation. Pipe
may be usually distinguished by shear tests or fracture
tests, but in some cases may be so faint as to
necessitate a coarse or fine etch on a properly prepared
surface. Secondary pipe which may occur in
material rolled from small-end-up ingots is most difficult
to detect, as perfectly sound steel is found on
either side of it in the bar. For internal flaw in bars
such as unsound or segregated center, shearing tests
are usually inadequate and etch tests are necessary.
Internal ruptures or bursts are more prevalent in
steels of higher alloy content and may be detected by
fracture or etch. Most surface defects on bars are
classed as seams, or scabs and slivers, although the
former cover imperfections of various origins. Defects
known generally as seams may be due to over-fills,
under-fills, rolling laps, rolled in chip marks, guide
scratches, crossed rolls, poor roll surface, etc., or they
may originate in the ingot, elongate in rolling to billits
and persist through the next conversion into bars.
Transverse cracks in the skin of an ingot roll out into
seams in finished bars if not chipped out in the bloom
or billet form. Sub-cutaneous gas pockets form light
sub-surface seams. Scabs and slivers usually may be
attributed to poor ingot surface. The extent to which
these defects in bars give trouble in forging in most
cases is not difficult to forecast. Guide scratches
which are often mistaken for seams should cause absolutely
no trouble unless unusually deep. Slight
over-fills, if not lapped, do not open in forging, but
most other forms, unless so light as to scale off in the
heating furnace, are very likely to cause serious trouble
in the finished forging.
In man}- cases the above, which may be considered
primary inspection and consisting of check analysis,
dimensional check, examination for soundness and
surface condition, is supplemented by shear inspection
on such types where analysis is such as to make
cold shearing difficult if not hazardous. Recently, tvpes
of steel have been satisfactorily cold sheared where
formerly other than hot shearing was considered out
of the question. The steel plants, through closer temperature
control on the finishing mills, and more definite
regulation of cooling of their product have accom •
plished much in shearing quality.
Case Hardening Test.
As a rule after the steel has been subjected to these
tests it mav be stocked with assurance that "it will
forging- Si amping - He>af Treating
meet all requirements. However, for special purposes
there are other qualifications which must be
met. A number of specifications are now received
incorporating the McQuaid-Ehn test, of which all
should have a comprehensive idea of its intent and
general features. A thorough explanation of this test
would be quite long and highly technical, but a few
words should be able to convey its purpose together
with the general method of procedure and observations
in its execution- The McQuaid-Ehn test is to
pre-determine whether a particular heat of steel will
give satisfactory results in case hardening. Often, for
some unknown reason, soft spots are encountered in
the case on case hardened parts, characteristic of a
particular heat of steel. The analysis is correct, the
steel is sound, it is satisfactorily free from microscopic
defects. Likewise no fault can be attributed to case
hardening operations, which show satisfactory response
on other heats of steel. The McQuaid-Ehn
test will show conditions characteristic of heats which
will harden satisfactorily and of those in which trou-
14e is encountered. Furthermore, in gears made from
certain heats, distortion after hardening is much greater
than in others, and more difficult to control. This
test enables a forecast on this condition. The mechanical
procedure is as follows : Carburizing of suitable
samples at definitely prescribed temperatures for
a sufficient length of time to obtain a hyper-eutectoid
(approximately 1.00 to 1.10 carbon) case, cooling in
pots after carburizing, polishing and etching these
samples, and finally studying under the microscope.
From a microscopic study the steel is classed
as "normal" steel, which should give satisfactory results
in case hardening, and "abnormal" steel which
may give unsatisfactory results in case hardening.
There are, of course, almost unlimited transitional
stages between "normal" and "abnormal" and their
classification must necessarily depend on experience
and personal judgment. Briefly, characteristics of
"normal" steel are, in the hyper-eutectoid case, large,
well defined, pearlite grains with excessive carbides
or cementite in the form of coarse network around
the pearlite grains and grading down into a core consisting
of large angular grains of pearlite and ferrite.
In "abnormal" steel the hyper-eutectoid case consists
of much smaller and less uniform grains of pearlite
with the excess cementite occurring in smaller envelopes
around the pearlite, and in some cases as
patches of massive cementite. In the most "abnormal"
instances the pearlite breaks down into patches of
cementite and ferrite. The core in such steel shows
much finer grained pearlite and ferrite than in "normal'^
steel, and is often quite banded. The cause of
the "abnormal" condition has been attributed to overoxidized
condition of the steel, but this has not bee i
universally accepted. In checking material for Mc
Quaid-Ehn characteristics tests may be taken by the
consumer from finish rolled material. The time for
the making of tests by the steel manufacturer should
be when material is in the semi-finished form and before
approving a heat for application on a particular
order- A convenient method of such sampling is in
the form of chips from blooms. Sonv steel manufacturers
have based tests on ladle sample, which I consider
less reliable. The McQuaid-Ehn test, if properly
conducted and interpreted, is a valuable contribution
in quality control, but does not solve all case harden-
January, 1925 forging- Stamping - Heaf Treating
ing troubles, the fault may not and often does not lie
with the steel.
For soundness, in relatively few cases the porosity
or macro-etch test has been used, and this test, at
times offers great advantages in pre-determining the
quality of steel. The chief disadvantages in its appli-
" cation are lack of standardization (acids, acid
strengths, time and temperature factors, etc.) and
lack of ability to properly interpret and put to practical
use the results. In many cases, such as investigations
for internal ruptures, snowflakes, bursts, etc., the
test is infallible. The practical execution of this test
consists in submitting to the action of acid solution
properly prepared surfaces of longitudinal and transverse
sections cut from material submitted for examination.
Of different acids and percentages of dilution
we find for general purposes a 50 per cent hydrochloric
solution preferable, varying the time in accordance
with the nature of the material examined.
The microscope is at times used as a means of establishing
the suitability of heats for certain important
uses. It offers an excellent means for the study of
structure and freedom of steel from sonims, but it
may be abused, and in the hands of the inexperienced
cause more harm than good. It is a very difficult matter
to base the acceptance or rejection of a heat of
steel solely on microscopic examination for impurities,
when the field or fields examined represent such an
infinitesimal portion of the material involved. Furthermore,
no standards are available and any decisions
must necessarily be based on the personal opinions of
the investigators, and such opinions are wide and
Fibre tests, but rarely used, embrace the study of
fractures made after subjecting material to a sorbitizing
X-Ray and Magnetic Testing.
There appears in the near future but slight probability
of the general adoption of magnetic or X-ray
testing for other than special work, where the cost
of the finished product is very great as compared with
steel costs or where a failure would result disastrously.
Magnetic testing has evolved through the defectoscope,
a means of determining defects or flaws;
through the magnetoscope, composition and mechanical
properties. A most valuable feature of such control
is that no material is destroyed or disfigured in the
execution of tests. This method has been put into
practical use on turbine bucket wheels, gears, saws,
elevator cable, rails, etc. While there is at present
neither prospects for the steel manufacturer being able
to run the product of his mills through a defectoscope,
nor a probability that the forging manufacturer will
so test his vast production, it does appear that apparatus
of this type may be advantageously applied for
X-ray examination has been put to practical usage
for the detection of internal defects, but the time and
expense involved render its scope too limited for
The foregoing has dwelt more particularly in consideration
of stock for forging purposes. I now wish
to review in a general way a few features in connection
with its processing.
Selection of Forging Steels.
The selection of material for forgings, not the type
of steel, but the form in which it is ordered for any
particular class of work, is of some interest to the
manufacturer of the steel as well as of the forgings.
The primary considerations are the determination of
such section as will permit proper flow in the dies and
sufficient quantity to avoid shortage in flow to all recesses
of the dies, but avoidance of oversize. Shortage
of metal may result in insufficiency of the flash. The
latter condition is, however, quite serious, as the elimination
of the cushioning effect permits a shock of
such intensity on die faces as to cause breakage or
short life and in addition tremendously increases
stresses in the die impressions such as may ultimately
seriously impair die life if not actually result in the
bursting or rupture of the die.
Excessive metal will result in waste of material;
it may result in dimensional inaccuracy or even in
edge splits of forgings. The surplus of thin metal
squeezed between the dies, and chilling rapidly, forms
a fin, restricting the flow from the impression and making
attainment of accurate dimensions impossible.
The splits in this fin of metal may run into the forging
itself. With a fair knowdedge of the above conditions
the manufacturer of steel is much better qualified to
intelligently discuss occasional complaints on edge
splits, or to combat arguments that his steel gives
shorter die life than a competitors, or is harder to
hold to size. But a slight modification of size or
section may overcome the difficulty.
In deciding upon stock for forgings it must not be
overlooked that the selection of unusual sizes in flats,
or of special sections, means increased costs to the
steel manufacturer with a corresponding increase in
steel prices, and also greater difficulty in obtaining
Shearing the Stock.
Before using under the hammer, stock must be first
sheared to suitable lengths or multiples. It is impossible
on steels of higher alloying content to draw a
definite line as to what analyses will and what will not
satisfactorily cold shear. Such variables as size, condition
of shears, high or low side of range in hardening
elements, and even weather conditions have pronounced
effect. Under most favorable conditions it
may be assumed that standard analyses of Chromevanadium,
chrome-carbon, low-chrome-nickel and 3y2
per cent nickel steels will cold shear in sizes up to
2y2 in. round or square with a carbon content up to .45
maximum. With carbon as high as .50 or .55 these
types can usually be sheared cold with safety in sizes
up to iy in. round or square. These limits I give
more in the nature of a warning than as a recommendation.
A little heating before shearing steel approximating
these limits is by no means an extravagance.
In extremely cold weather much improvement may.
even be effected on certain types of steel by raising
temperatures but slightly, from yard to room temperature
for instance, or just sufficient to relieve the
intense chill from the steel. Requiring special attention
in cold shearing are capacity of shears, their
alignment, condition of knives and hold down.
Trouble in cold shearing may be evidenced in several
forms. The stock may break off sharply, or spall
on the corners it may show a very fine crack across
the sheared surface or it may be strained to such an
extent upon shearing that while no crack is percepti-
le, one opens from a few hours to a few days after.
The latter condition may prove the most serious, as
shear inspection will not reveal the trouble and such
stock may rupture further when brought to forging
Fins or ragged edges should be avoided in shearing
as they may "lap in" during forging. Often it is necessary
to grind badly finned edges. This difficulty can
usually be eliminated by closer alignment of shears
and maintenance of proper knife edges.
Heating Requires Attention.
During heating of stock in the furnace at the hammer
much more material is ruined than is generally
assumed. It is a simple matter for the operator to
detect when steel is being burnt, and to immediately
remedy conditions before the loss is great, but it is
not so readily apparent when the over-heating is only
sufficient to cause incipient burning, or to seriously
impair the structure of the steel beyond the point of
reclamation by heat treatment to develop satisfactory
properties. Usually there is no warning during too
rapid heating of "tender" steels, of the ill effects which
such practice produces.
In steels of higher alloying contents, particularly
chrome-nickel, with and without additional elements
such as vanadium, molybdenum, etc., internal defects
will result from rapid heating. The condition becomes
more acute as the carbon content increases. Pre-heating
slowly to a temperature between 600 deg. F. and
1200 deg. F. and then finish heating to forging temperature
is necessary- This can best be accomplished
by the use of a separate furnace for pre-heating, although
in some cases entirely satisfactory results may
be obtained by pre-heating on the front of the hearth
of the forging furnace, or "double rowing".
Under-heating is less frequently encountered on
account of handicaps promptly manifested to the hammerman.
The result is decreased production, misalignment
of dies, decreased life of dies and rods, increased
maintenance costs on equipment, and at times
die and rod breakage.
Forging furnaces should be so designed as to permit
proper time cycle for soaking stock to constant
head and to operate under soft rather than cutting
flame, avoiding direct flame impingement on the
charge and excessive air.
Cold Shuts and Laps.
During forging operations there are many manners
in which defects may be introduced into forgings, and
controversies as to whether their origin is in the steel
itself or in its fabrication often take place. In some
cases a decision may lie simple, in others almost impossible.
Cold shuts and laps are often claimed to
be seams, forging bursts, pipe; and vice versa. In
most cases one familiar with the method of forging
should be able to decide whether defects are laps,
shuts or seams. In other cases a careful study of the
flow of metal in the various operations under the hammer
should determine the cause of the trouble. Seams
or laps in rolled bars or billets always exist parallel
to the direction of rolling. If the flow of metal has
been such that the defect must have existed in a direction
other than longitudinal with the rolled product
the evidence is quite conclusive as to its origin. If
surface defects are characteristic of a certain position
in forgings the fault is unlikely to be in the steel — it
Fbrging-Stamping - Heat Treating
is improbable that pieces forged would have defects in
the same spot on the bar, billet or slab.
Enumeration or discussion of all defects encountered
under the hammer is impossible, but a number of
frequent sources of trouble might be briefly considered.
During drawing, fullering or edging operations,
ridges or fins may be formed which fold over and form
laps or shuts during finishing. Excessive working on
the flat of the die or in round sections may produce internal
ruptures, often mistaken for pipe- .Rapid wash
heating may produce similar flaws. Restricted flow
of metal in dies and too rapid heating may cause shattered
hearts, and this may .be aggravated by segregation.
Improper reduction in fullers, edgers, blocking
impressions, or preliminary die forging, may result in
forcing such large excess of metal through the flash
line in the finishing dies as to result in rupture which
may or may not be revealed in trimming, and often not
discovered until after heat treatment or failure in service
Incorrect distribution of metal for the finishing
impression frequently causes stock in finishing operation
to tend to flow from small to large sections, resulting
in bad distortion of flow lines, poor flash distribution,
and even splits, which are often attributed to
piped steel. Bending operations, with improper gathering
of stock, may produce crinkling or folding on the
concave side of the bend, which produces lapping in
the finished part. Likewise, unsatisfactorily executed
splitting operations may produce tears which may be
lapped in finishing.
Front axle forgings probably embody as many
faults as any forging produced. Predominating among
imperfections in this part are laps, shuts, flange cracks,
separation along flash line, web ruptures, cross cracks
and shattered centers. Trouble encountered in eyebeam
sections may often be attributed to faulty preliminary
forging operations, resulting in the squirting
of metal from the flanges through the parting line and
out in the flash, leaving shattered flanges. Flaws at or
near the flange and web are often due to improper
flow, resulting from too sharp filleting. Badly strained
condition along the flash line is intensified by cold
trimming. Quite uniformly spaced cross checks have
been encountered practically throughout the length of
the eye-beam section. Steel defects could not exist in
stock in such a direction as to be responsible. The use
of sharp cornered square stock has rendered the material
more susceptible to over-heating or incipient
burning on the four corners while bringing up to forging
heat; heat treatment and stretching have seriously
strained if not lightly ruptured the metal; the final
pickling with its hydrogen impregnation has brought
about the final ruptures or in some cases has merely
rendered visible previously existing ones.
Considerable progress has been made in the study
of flow of metal and in making practical application
of the same in die design. Flow should be smooth
around all corners, avoiding throws into the surface.
Its proper regulation is of vital importance in effecting
increased resistance to stress, shock, vibration, and in
such parts as gears in governing distortion arising in
heat treatment. Coarse etching constitutes a most
satisfactory means of study. Sections, after machining
and grinding free from tool marks, are etched in
a solution of from 50 to 1U0 per cent hydrochloric acid
at approximately boiling temperature for a period usually
from one-half to one and one-half hours, washed
and dried for examination. For photographing, a
coating of lamp black or india ink will bring out the
lines more distinctly.
Trimming the Flash.
The method of trimming the flash, hot or cold, is
dependent upon trimmer capacity, distortion, and nature
of metal and forging. Hot trimming may be done
with lighter equipment and less power, and is necessary
on certain sections to avoid distortion, and on
other sections of certain types of steel to avoid ruptures
along the flash line. At times forgings are allowed
to become cold before trimming but given a
quick heating only sufficient to materially affect the
flash before trimming. Cold trimming is responsible
in many cases for ruptures along the flash line, which
may open either before or after heat treating. The
shape of a forging governs the necessity of hot trimming,
cutting along lines parallel with fibre having a
greater tendency to rupture than along ends across
fibre. Separation may be caused by excessively sharp
corners between lorging and flash.
Trimming tears are not limited to the harder steels
but may occur as readily in very soft steel, which, on
account of its extreme ductility, has a tendency to
drag. Assuming that suitable radius has been employed
on the forging, sharp cutting dies are the best
The restriction of cooling rate on forgings is onlynecessary
on a relatively small percentage of types
possessing air hardening properties. Checks, cracks,
bursts, ruptures, etc., may result from rapid cooling,
and in a few types almost invariably occur in some
sections. Forgings may be closely packed in boxes
or barrels, free from air and cooled sufficiently slowly,
although at times it is advisable to cool in lime, ashes
or some other slow heat conducting medium. A typical
analysis requiring slow cooling is carbon, .30/.40;
chromium, 1.00/1.50; nickel, 4.00/5.00. While very
slow cooling is not necessary on many other types, it
is advisable to avoid wet floor or ground and draughts.
A thorough consideration of heat treating operations
is a broad subject in itself and cannot be given
in this paper. The annealing operations but rarely
give any difficulties except perhaps in the oil hardening
gear types where great care must be exercised to
obtain a product sufficiently soft and of proper structure
for machining quality- Continuous furnaces have
effected tremendous time saving in annealing such
material and have been able to accomplish more in a
three to six hour cycle than the stationary types in
12 to 24 hour cycle. Quantity of production must
necessarily govern the installation of type of furnace;
sufficient work must be available to make a continuous
furnace what its name implies.
In heat treating operations one of the most important
decisions is on quenching medium which will produce
most satisfactory results. On some ranges of
analysis sweeping recommendations may safely be
made for water quenching, on others equally positive
for oil quenching, but in many cases a knowledge of
size and shape of the part in question is necessary before
classifying. Often a time quench will produce
most satisfactory results, whereas quenching in water
until cold results disastrously.
Assuming that the identity of heat lots from steel
manufacturers is retained, I most firmly advocate making
a preliminary run in heat treatment on a small lot
and based on these results prescribe definite tempera
forging - Stamping - Heat Treating
tures for the balance. This will enable the attainment
of maximum and more nearly uniform results on the
In this brief review it has been impossible to go
into details in consideration of the various problems
and conditions covered. I hope, however, that it
shows the necessity for even closer co-operation between
drop forging and steel manufacturers. A more
thorough mutual understanding between these two
groups makes inevitable an improvement in quality
and reduction in cost.
Measure Loads on Stadium During Game
Added stresses in the steel reinforcement of a concrete
stadium due to the vigorous enthusiasm of the
crowd were measured during a recent game by means
of the carbon resistance strain gages developed by
the Bureau of Standards, Department of Commerce.
By using these gages it was possible to record automatically
the variations in the loading of the steel when
the crowd all rose in a body or stamped in time to the
Such mass movement, it has long been known, mayincrease
the live load on the structure far beyond that
caused by the people when sitting or standing still or
moving at random, but until recently it has not been
possible to obtain an accurate record of such sudden
changes of stress. In this particular test the live load
when the crowd was still was found to increase the
stress in the steel by about 1,000 pounds per square
inch, whereas 4,000 pounds wrould have been considered
safe. Under the worst conditions occurring during
the course of the game the movements of the crowd
sometimes gave an additional 300 pounds per square
It is pointed out, however, that the worst conditions
from the point of view of safety arise when the
crowd, in stamping rythmically, happens to strike the
natural vibration period of the structure. It has been
reported that under these conditions the stress has
exceeded the static live load by as much as 150 per
Tests of impact stresses in other stadiums are being
made from time to time, and the data being accumulated
are expected to be of great value as a guide
in the design of such structures. Great uncertainty
now exists as to the allowance to be made for impact
In making the test the concrete was removed from
the reinforcement over short lengths, and th'e gages
were attached directly to the steel. After the test the
holes were concreted over again.
A gage of this type depends for its operation on the
fact that stacks of carbon rings undergo a change in
resistance with change in pressure. It is so arranged
that a small change in the distance between the points
of attachment to the structure causes a change in the
pressures on two of these carbon stacks, the pressure
on one being reduced while that on the other is increased.
The change in distance is caused by a change
in the load carried by the steel.
This gage is connected by three electric wires to
the indicating or recording device, and these wires
may be of any desired length. Changes of load are
followed very rapidly, and those lasting only a fraction
of a second can be recorded as well as changes of
s Fbrging-Stamping - Heat Treating
T h e R o m a n c e o f
S t e e l
A Review of the Manufacture of Iron and Steel for Forging and
the Methods of Forging from the Primitive Hammer to
A study of the history of iron and steel manufacture
and methods of forging carries one
through a series of interesting developments
which trace the march of the world's progress from
the dawn of civilization until the present time. Relics
in our museums tell us the story of a romantic past
filled with strange beliefs and weird rites rivalling the
most vivid of fairy tales.
Hours could be consumed in the unfolding of this
remarkable tale, but as we are particularly interested
in forging, we will confine ourselves to the outstanding
features of greatest interest to the forging industry.
FIG. 1—Early form of belly helve hammer, from Agricola's
"De Re Metallica." The water was not only used for
power, but also for heat treating purposes.
No attempt will be made to cover the various
stages of tool steel development, heat treating or
pyrometry as these branches offer such a wealth of
material in themselves that justice could not be done
them in this article. This article, therefore, will embrace
the manufacture of iron and steel for forgings
and the various methods of shaping these forging
from the primitive hammer to the present day steam
hammer and press.
In the early ages the ability to make iron forgings
imeant power, and the history of those times shows
the Present Day Steam Hammer and Press
By W. R. KLINKICHTf
•Paper presented at a meeting of the American Drop
Forging Institute held at Pittsburgh, October 2 and 3, 1924.
tEngineer of Tests, Pollak Steel Company, Cincinnati, O.
clearly that axles, knives, etc., were used for arming
men in their battles for existence, against nature and
each other. The Babylonian name for iron meant
t'stone from heaven," which is good proof that the
origin of the first known iron was meteoric.
Meteoric iron is characterized by the absence of
Combined carbon and usually contains considerable
(quantities of nickel and smaller amounts of cobalt.
Nearly all of it is malleable and the examination of its
structure reveals the Widmanstatten lines. It is nowhere
sufficiently abundant to form a basis for a true
Iron Age civilization and, in fact, Archaeologists are
agreed that the mere knowledge of native iron should
not be considered as sufficient to designate using it as
the Iron Age of Civilization, but rather the knowledge
of producing metal from the ores by an understood
process is the criterion by which a nation or tribe is
considered as having passed from the Stone Age into
the Iron Age of Civilization. It was a wonderful discovery,
however, when some low-brow cliff dweller
pn the earth detected the property of malleability
which distinguished native metals from "stones."
It is believed that the three oldest pieces of
wrought iron in existence are a sickle blade found by
Belzoni under the base of a sphinx near Thebes; a
blade probably 5,000 years old found by Col. Vyse in
one of the pyramids and a wedge-shaped piece in the
British museum which is supposed to date back to
3233 B. C.
In Asia Minor, inland from Troy and the Aegean
world, there lived from before the time of Hammurapi,
2000 B. C, a group of white people called the
Hittites who built up a powerful empire. These people
began working iron ore deposits along the Black
Sea before the thirteenth century B. C. and became
the earliest distributors of iron at the time that iron
began to displace bronze in the Mediterranean world
and the east. It was through contact with the
Hittites that iron was introduced into Assyria and the
Assyrian forces were the first large armies equipped
with weapons of iron. A single arsenal in the palace
of Sargon II, who raised Assyria to the height of her
grandeur in 750 B. C, contained 200 tons of iron implements.
Comparatively little is known of the early smiths
or their methods. However an old Egyptian wall
print gives as reliable an idea as can be found. A fire
was built in a depressed place in the ground, a forced
draft being given the flame by an attendant on either
side who worked bellows by standing on them, alternately
throwing their weight from one foot to the
other and pulling up the bellows with ropes as the
weight was shifted, thus permitting the instruments'
to be emptied and filled alternately. It is interesting
to note the method of forcing a fire by means of bellows
was used probably 4,000 years ago.
The ancient smith was held in high esteem by his
fellow-man as his skill was indispensable to their wel-
fare. Probably the first reference to the smith is
found in the book of Genesis, dated about 3875 B C
chapter 4, verse 22, which mentions Tubal Cain, who
was seven generations from Adam, as an "instructor
of every artificer in brass and iron." The art was
shrouded in mystery and great secrecy attended their
work, each smith under sacred oath never to reveal
the secrets of the art, unless it be to a carefully selected
apprentice, who was usually a son or near kinsman.
Some one has stated this is how the name
Smith originated. However, the writer cannot vouch
Nearly the whole inventory of weapons and implements
of the first iron age, or the period of transition
from the exclusive use of brass to that of iron as
a working metal, has already been found in the celebrated
cemetery near Hallstatt, on Lake Hallstatt in
Austria, in the thousand graves that have been opened
there. The weapons are partly of bronze and partly
of iron, the iron predominating. Axes, knives and
chisels are very numerous.
An interesting allusion to the tempering of
weapons is found in Homer's ninth book of the
Odyssey, written probably some time between 962
and 915 B. C. in which he says:
"And as when armourers temper in the ford
The keen edged pole-axe or the shining sword,
The red-hot metal hisses in the lake;
Thus in his eye ball hiss'd the plunging stake."
This refers to the story of Ullyses's escape from
the giant Cyclops.
Whatever was the first form of iron furnace, there
is no doubt as early as the sixth century B. C. the
Greeks had developed a cylindrical stack furnace.
There are several vase paintings which illustrate this
furnace and in each there is a bellows at the back, the
cylinder being about the height of a man. On top is
what appears to be a receptacle or kettle. This was
probably used for smelting copper or bronze, as the
smith in those days worked in these as well as iron.
According to Aristotle, who wrote in the fourth
century B. C, the Chalybians made iron from sand
ore dug from river banks, washed and put into a furnace
along with stone pyrimachus, meaning firemaker
or coal. He seems further to indicate that cast iron
as well as steel was known in his time as he states:
"Wrought iron itself may be cast so as to be made
liquid and to harden again, and thus it is they are wont
to make steel." He also described the process of
making Indian steel called "Wootz," which was made
in crucibles. "Wootz" was a sort of wrought iron
used for fashioning weapons that were afterwards
hardened into steel. It was the possession of such
improved weapons that facilitated the Hindoo conquest
over the non-Arian tribes of India.
The metal for the famous Damascus weapons was
made at Kona Samundrum, India, and was carried by
Persian merchants to Damascus. The ore was carefully
selected, washed and roasted if necessary, then
reduced with charcoal in small fire clay crucibles and
allowed to cool. Next it was subjected to a tempering
process, consisting of repeated heating while covered
with an iron oxide paste to soften it to suit the
desire of the purchaser, who regularly watched the
operation throughout. The ores used were very free
from both sulphur and phosphorus and contained but
little copper. It appears that a later period metal for
forging- Stamping - Heat Treating
the Damascus trade was made also at Toledo, Spain,
and from that time, together with other places of
Spain, supplied the Romans with swords.
Probably the best known relic of ancient manufacture
is the iron pillar still standing' at Delhi, India.
This pillar is covered with carving and bears an inscription
in Sanskrit describing it as a "Triumphal
Pillar of Rajah Dhava, A. D. 310, who wrote his immortal
fame with his sword." The pillar is 16 inches
in diameter and 25 feet long and seems to have been
made up of blooms of wrought iron of about 80 lbs.
each, welded together. Hadfield's analysis of samples
from this pillar showed: Carbon, .08; manganese nil.
phos., .114; sulphus, .006; silicon, .046, and iron by
analysis, 99.72 per cent.
At about the beginning of the eighth century the
iron industry took a fresh start in many European
countries and experienced what we term in modern
phraseology a "revival." When the Moors became
masters of much of Spain in the early part of the century,
they stimulated greatly the manufacture of iron.
So prominent did the iron industry of Spain become
that its ironworkers were sought in other countries,
and on the French side of the Pyrenees, in the mountains
of Germany and along the Rhine, many of their
FIG. 2—A Catalan forge with Italian Trompe, or
small forges were erected. The earlv part of the
eighth century seems to have been the period when
the "Wolf Furnaces" or loup furnaces were introduced
into most of the European iron districts. The wolf
furnace was a high bloomery and was simply an enlargement
of the primitive low bloomeries or forges.
•somewhat like a Catalan forge, extending upward to
some ten feet in height in the form of a quadrangular
shaft about two feet wide at the top and bottom and
five feet at the widest part. There was an opening in
front about two feet square called the breast, and the
blast was applied from at least two bellows and nozzles,
both on the same side. The Catalan forge marked
the first distinct advance in iron manufacture and is
responsible for the progress made during that period.
10 Fbrging-Stamping - Heat Treating January, 1925
The first attempt to apply mechanical means to
the forging operation was in the form of water wheels
for working the hammer and bellows. This must
have been as early as the fourteenth century as there
are pictures of that period illustrating the method employed.
Georgius Agricola, sometimes styled "the Father
of Metallurgy," was by far the most important author
of the sixteenth century. His great book on this subject
was published after his death by Froben at Basel,
in the vear 1556. This book seems to have been in
preparation during a period of over twenty years. He
apparently completed it in 1550, but did not send it to
press until 1553 and it did not appear until a year after
his death in 1555. He was not merely an author, but
a man of considerable importance in many public affairs
of his time and occupied repeated important posts
of public authority. In his book "De Re Metallica"
he described for the first time scores of methods and
processes which represent the accumulation of generations
of experience. His book was not excelled for
two centuries and its value to the men who followed
in this profession during the centuries can scarcely be
gauged. Illustrations shown in his book indicate that
water was not only used for power, but also for heat
The blast furnace was gradually developed in Gernianv
during the first half of the fifteenth century and
with this development came the use of cast iron. The
was then worked into a mass, after which it was removed
with tongs and placed on a plate and hammered
with sledges to remove cinder, etc. It was
then reheated and hammered under a tilt hammer into
a bloom which was again reheated and hammered into
The tilt hammer was so called because its action
depended upon the shaft or helve being tilted up and
FIG. A—Old-fashioned water driven trip hammer, from
Overmann's "Manufacture of Steel," 1854.
then allowed to fall. The helve was tilted by means
of projections fitted into a drum which was fixed upon
a shaft. When the shaft revolved these projections
caught against the helve, causing it to tilt up for a
moment, but instantly releasing as the projection disengaged,
allowing the helve to drop by gravity. The
/die on the hammer being fixed on one end of the helve,
struck a blow on the stock placed on the anvil underneath.
The rapidity of action depended on the speed
at which the shaft revolved and also on the number
of projections in the drum. The speed varied from
60 to 300 blows per minute.
There were three types of these hammers, viz;
belly, nose and tail hammers, named from the positions
on the helves where the projections on the drum operated.
It was my privilege to witness the operation
of a belt-driven tail hammer in Indiana only a few
weeks ago. This hammer was used in the forging of
small adz and sledges and was capable of striking
about 500 blows per minute. Of course, the force of
blow and rapidity of action were constant and could
not be varied; stopping the hammer merely consisted
of shifting the belt and allowing the pulley to gradually
lose momentum, eventually stopping the hammer.
Up until the seventeenth century charcoal was
used in the manufacture of pig iron, but the enormous
consumption of wood threatened the destruction of
the forests, so that in the early days of Queen Elizabeth's
reign (about 1558) the cutting of timber trees
was forbidden in certain parts of the country. Thus
iron making in England received a severe setback
until early in the seventeenth century Dud Dudley, a
youth of 20, left Oxford University to take charge of
his father's furnaces and forges. He carried on experiments,
using pit or sea coal instead of charcoal for
smelting iron and was granted a patent by King
James. Dudley's furnace was larger than the average,
haying very large bellows and he thus succeeded
in making about seven tons of pig iron per week.
FIG. 3—The old Oliver footpower hammer.
However, a combination of charcoal iron masters opposed
the innovation, forcing him from one enterprise
first casting of cannon balls took place in Germany, to another so that his discovery was not very profit
the first cast-iron cannon being made in England in able for him financially. His book "Metallum Mar-
-tis," published in 1665, gives a full account of his ef
The method of converting pig iron into wrought forts to substitute coal for charcoal. The production
iron during the fifteenth century is roughly described sof charcoal pig iron has survived until today, the most
as follows: One end of the pig was heated in the notable operation being that of the Salisbury Iron
furnace and as it melted away was gradually pushed Corporation at Lakeville, Conn., where there were at
in until the entire stock was molten. The molten iron various times as many as thirty-one charcoal blast
furnaces. Moldenke states that "Charcoal iron is intrinsically
better than one made from coke because it
is run more carefully, with smaller units, purer ores
and extremely pure fuel."
. The use of anthracite coal in making pig iron was
not attempted until many years later. In 1812 Col.
George Shoemaker hauled nine wagons of anthracite
coal from his mines at Centerville to Philadelphia.
He sold two loads (one to White & Hazard) for the
cost of transportation and gave away the other seven
loads. Many people thought him an impostor attempting
to sell stones as coal. David Thomas was
the first to use anthracite coal in making pig iron at
the Crane Iron Works near Swansea, Wales.
The discovery of iron in the United States was the
result of one of several expeditions sent out by Sir
Walter Raleigh which reported finding ore in several
places in the Carolinas in 1585 Notwithstanding the
fact that iron ore was shipped to England in 1608 and
found to be satisfactory, no iron works was erected in
this country until about 1620. At that time a large
number of skilled workmen were sent to the colonies
to set up three iron works and from correspondence in
existence it would seem the first iron was made at
Falling Creek, Virginia, in 1622. However, in March
of that year the entire group of workmen was massacred
by the Indians and the plant was never rebuilt.
The first permanent and successful iron works in the
colonies was built at Lynn, Mass., in 1645.
The products of the early colonial iron making
were limited to cast iron and wrought iron, the latter
being made direct from the ore, or indirectly from the
pig iron produced in the blast furnace. The chance
selections of ores determined the success of any installation.
Chemical analysis was unknown and the
processes were conducted in a purely empirical way as
regards mining and preparation of the ore and use of
Nail making in the colonies was one of the first
uses to which iron was put. The metal was first
FIG. 5—General view of old Staffordshire helve.
Forging- Stamping - Heat Treating
forged into strips or rods and these were heated and
forged by hand. A skilled artisan based his reputation
upon the number of nails he could make at a
single heating of the nail rod. During this time many
country people in Massachusetts had little forges in
their chimney corners and made nails in winter evenings
when little else could be done, even the children
being sometimes thus occupied. There were no roll
ing mills in the country in the seventeenth century
and all work on the original bloom was done by forging
usually under helve hammers, actuated by water
As the industry developed England began imposing
various restrictions until 1750 when she forbade
the building of any more iron works in the colonies
for the production of pig iron and raw bar iron. Joshua
fcagEJiSsaaflfei? '.IIP ffiflHwn
'• I " mk - -ISIS
FIG. 6—From a painting, "First Steam Hammer in Full
Work." (Autobiography by James Nasmyth.)
Gee recommended that England should always keep a
watchful eye over the colonies to restrain them from
setting up any manufactures which are carried on in
Great Britain. Despite these restrictions the industry
slowly developed and during the revolutionaryr war
the outstanding achievement was the manufacture of
an iron chain nearly a mile long weighing 180 tons.
Its links were made of bars 2y2 inches square, weighing
about 100 lbs each. It was completed in six
weeks, 60 men being employed and 17 forges kept going
day and night. It was stretched across the Hudson
river at West Point, being supported by large
logs about sixteen feet long, sharpened at the ends and
set a short distance apart. The British vessels did
not pass West Point. Two other chains were stretched
across the Hudson during the war, one of which, however,
was destroyed by the British.
With the introduction of the reverberatory furnace
by Thomas and George Cranage in 1766 and the puddling
process by Cort in 1784, great impetus was given
to the manufacture of wrought iron. Larger forgings
were in demand than had been made heretofore and
the limitations of the tilt hammer were keenly felt.
While this hammer could make small forgings successfully,
it was an inefficient tool when dealing with
large pieces. The upper tool moved in an arc, and
therefore could not strike even blows on varying thicknesses
of metal, the metal being subjected to a greater
pressure toward the pivoted end of the helve. When
a large piece, which required heavier blows, was
placed on the anvil, it received lighter blows, owing to
the fact that the piece occupied nearly all the space in
which the helve moved. Therefore it became obviously
desirable to obtain a force of impact not only
greater than could be supplied by methods then in use,
but applied vertically, and to meet this demand someone
conceived the idea of attaching rope to a ponderous
mass of iron, lifting it in vertical guides with a
12 Fbrging-Stamping - Heat Treating January, 1925
gang of nun and then dropping it from any desired
height within the limits of the machine. This contrivance
was called the Hercules and was a fairly efficient
tool for that period.
lames Watt seems to have been the originator of
the first steam hammer and it was patented by him in
1784. However, no hammers appear to have been
made under his patent and in 1839 Mr. James Nas-
FIG. 7—Kelley's first tilting converter.
myth of the Bridgewater Foundry near Manchester,
England, designed and secured a patent for the steam
hammer. This hammer was designed in response to
an appeal made to Mr. Nasmyth by Mr. Humphries of
the Great Western Company who wanted a large paddle
shaft forged for their new steamship, the Great
Britain, then under construction. After making a
complete survey of the forge shops in the British Isles,
Mr. Humphries found that none of the forgemasters
would undertake the forging of this shaft because of
the lack of proper equipment and means. However,
the style of propulsion of the steamship w-as later
changed to the screw type, the shaft was not needed
and the idea was abandoned until four years later
when the first steam hammer was built in France according
to Mr. Nasmyth's plans.
With the introduction of the steam hammer, forgings
were no longer limited to small sizes, the limiting
factor up to the time of the introduction of steel being
the difficulty in handling large piles under the hammer.
To facilitate the handling of heavier pieces,
swinging jib cranes were installed, with handworked
winches for raising or lowering the load.
The first iron steamboat in the United States was
built in Pittsburgh about 1839. The same year.a sectional
iron canal boat, the Kentucky, came over the
mountains by means of a portage to Pittsburgh and
the next year about 100 boats were made for this
In 1S50 Sir Henry Chads, the captain of H. M. S.
"Excellent," reported that "whether iron vessels are
of slight or substantial construction, iron is not material
calculated for ships of war." Seventeen iron
ships which had then been in process of construction
for fighting purposes were thereupon condemned as
useless for war purposes. However, the destructive
effects of shells and other incendiary projectiles used
by the Russians against allied ships in an attack upon
Sebastopol led to the immediate use of armour notwithstanding
the previous adverse criticism of English
gunnery officers. Our first experience with armoured
war vessels was the engagement between the Monitor
and the Merrimac during the civil war which resulted
in the sinking of the Confederate Gunboat Merrimac
.>n May 11, 1862.
The discover}- of the pneumatic process of making
wrought iron (or Bessemer process as it is called) by
.Mr. William Kelley, in 1846, reads like a page from
fiction. lie and his brother bought the Suwanee Iron
Works, near Eddyville, Ky., where they had imported
about three hundred Chinese, being opposed to Negro
slavery. They were the first employers to bring in
Chinese labor in any numbers. Kelley's business was
the manufacture of wrought iron kettles for customers
in Cincinnati. His iron was refined in what was
called a "finery fire"—a slow, old-fashioned process
which used up large quantities of charcoal. One day
while watching his finery fire he noticed that the iron
was actually heated by the blast of air at the point
where there was no charcoal. The iron at this spot
was incandescent, yet there was no charcoal—notning
but the steady blast of air. The next week he publically
demonstrated the idea, converting some pig iron
into horseshoes and shoeing a horse with the metal.
There were steamboats on the Ohio River with boilers
made of iron that had been refined by Kelley's process,
years before Sir Henry Bessemer of England had made
any experiments with iron. It is no longer questioned
that the pneumatic process was an American and not
a British discovery.
Closely following the pneumatic or Bessemer
process came the Siemens-Martin or Open Hearth
process. As with the Bessemer, the open hearth
method for the manufacture of steel did not originate
with either Dr. Siemens or the Martins, having been
proposed and experimented with by various other inventors
prior to their connections with it, among
whom Josia Marshall Heath was most prominent.
But the process was not made a success until the great
,heat of the Siemens regenerative furnace was applied
to it. It is said that M. Breant of France was the
first to suggest that method of making steel.
With the introduction of steel ingots of increasing
size, many difficulties were encountered in their reduction
under the hammer. Steam hammers up to
120 tons were made, but because of the breakage of
the hammers and the tackle on the ingots due to excessive
vibration, they did not prove unqualifiedly
successful. Along with the advent of the heavier ingots
came the double acting type of hammer. This
alteration enabled a heavier blow to be struck, due to
the increased velocity of the descending hammer thru
admitting steam on the top of the piston. Moreover,
hydraulic and steam-operated jib cranes were used in
place of the hand-worked winches to handle the
The hammers which we have heretofore referred
to were used in forging between plain dies, smooth
forgings and various other pieces more or less uniform
in shape, and not many of any particular piece required
at, or in, a given time. In 1890 there began to
be a demand for small forgings of miscellanous shapes
which could not be made under a hammer using plain
dies. This demand lead to the making cif dies with
an impression in each, but as these impressions must
be in line at all times it becomes necessarv to redesign
the hammer to accommodate them. Thus a hammer
known as a board drop hammer came into use which
answered the purpose very nicely and many of these
,are still in use. However, on account of the method
,of operating these hammers, that is, by means of rollers
working in conjunction with a vertical board, the
,size is naturally limited and with the growth of the
automobile industry many larger pieces were required
in greater numbers than could be made under this
jtype hammer. About 1904 the steam drop hammer
.appeared and from that time on the development has
been very rapid until we now have steam drop hammers
up to 160 tons which when operated at 100 lbs.
pressure are capable of striking a blow at the impact
of approximately 9,000 tons.
The first hydraulic press was made in 1795 by
Braman, but there is no evidence to show it was designed
for forgings. It seems this pifss was used
entirely for bailing purposes and it was not until 1847
that a Mr. Fox, recognizing the possibilities of this
type of machine, conceived the idea of fitting tools
into Braman's press and using it for forging purposes.
Several additional improvements were made
within a few years and in 1861 Mr. Haswell successfully
used a press in railway shops in Vienna for
manufacturing locomotive forgings. fin the manufacture
of large forgings the press was found to be ideal,
the deeper and more uniform penetration obtainable
resulting in an improved quality of material hitherto
" i (.^
Fbrging-Stamping - Heat Treating
fekJffl••'?' P •: I'll 1 1 m~
Lib? • '•. . •" - • • « • ';'',s
'.,'-.:,- ^Ps§S*»^SE^^'y •" '•*• '-•'•*•-• '" ^^-'"y^^^. • "'/': '-'V*raLJ-^ .
FIG. 8—The old hand-fed blast furnace.
The superiority- of large pressed forgings is now
universally recognized, many railroad specifications
requiring that for important forgings such as locomotive
driving axles, etc., the reduction from bloom or
ingot shall be made under a press of proper capacity.
In our paper we have traced the growth of the industry
from the early ages and in almost every case
improvements were necessitated by the demand for
larger forgings. As forgings increased in size, new
methods were required for their manipulation and
manufacture until it seemed there would be no limit
to the size of material in demand. However, increased
size meant increased weight and unwieldly equipment,
a severe handicap, especially on moving parts.
In recent years metallurgists have striven to produce
materials of greater strength per square inch, therebyreducing
weight and all the attendant evils. Thus
the alloy steels came into prominence and along with
the alloys came the development of scientific heat
treatment, the hollow boring of large forgings, so that
the cry of today is for lighter forgings of increased
strength, calling a halt on mere bulk and demanding
of each square inch of steel a carrying power undreamed
of by our forefathers.
Now then, we are preserving a niche in the hall of
fame for the producer of a piston rod that won't break
and a die block that won't wear out.
Acknowledgement is made to Mr. J. A. Mathews,
President Crucible Steel Company, and "The Chronology
of Iron and Steel," published by Pittsburgh
Steel Foundries Company, for several items of historical
prominence incorporated in this paper.
General Furnace Co. Takes Over Tate-Jones
Tate-Jones & Company, Pittsburgh, Pa., manufacturers
of gas and oil-fired and electric furnaces, gas
and oil burners and accessories, has made an arrangement
whereby all sales will be handled by the General
Furnace Company, 1015 Chestnut Street, Philadelphia,
Pa. Tate-Jones & Company will continue the manufacture
The General Furnace Company will take over the
Tate-Jones sales force and sales offices. This arrangement
went into effect January 1, 1925.
A. E. S. C. Elects Officers
At the annual meeting of the American Engineering
Standards Committee on December 11, Mr. Charles
E. Skinner, a representative of the American Institute
of Electrical Engineers, was elected chairman for the
vear 1925, and Mr. Charles Rufus Harte, representative
of the American Electric Railway Association, was
elected vice president.
The other members of the executive committee for
the year 1925 ar as follows :
Ralph G. Barrows, U. S. War Department; George
K. Burgess. U. S. Department of Commerce; John A.
Capp, American Society for Testing Materials; Coker
F Clarkson, Society of Automotive Engineers; W. A.
E. Doying, The Panama Canal; Stanley G. Flagg, Jr.,
American Society of Mechanical Engineers; E. A.
Frink, American Railway Association. Eng. Division;
C. S. Gillette. U. S. Navy Department; O. P Hood,
U. S. Department of the Interior; Sullivan W. Jones,
American Institute of Architects; Thomas A. Mac-
Donald, U. S. Department of Agriculture; Charles A.
Mead, American Society of Civil Engineers; A. H.
Moore, Electrical Manufacturers Council; A. Cressy
Morrison. Gas Group; Dana Pierce, Fire Protection
Group; F. L. Rhodes. Telephone Group; S. G. Rhodes,
Electric Light and Power Group; C. F. W. Rys, Association
of American Steel Manufacturers; Ethelebert
Stewart, U. S. Department of Labor; George C.
Stone. American Institute of Mining Engineers, and
Albert W Whitney, Safety Group.
11 forging - S tamping - Heat Treating
P r e s s e d M e t a l T e c h n i c a l S o c i e t y N e e d e d
Technical Society Devoted Exclusively to Pressed Metal Problems
Would Do Much to Improve Methods and Products
T H E question as to the value of the various tech-*
nical societies and organizations, devoted to the
interests of one industry or another, is much discussed,
and while some are of the opinion that there
is too much duplication of effort along this line, the
actual accomplishments support the general opinion
that they have rendered a valuable service, not onlyr
to members but to industry in general. Some concerns
feel that they are overburdened by the expense of
their representatives attending the numerous conventions
and meetings held throughout the year, but
with few exceptions the returns more than compensate
for the expense.
While most of our large industries are represented
bv their own societies, or at least take part in the
Activities of some society that can best serve their
needs, it is surprising to note that pressed metal
manufacturers devote little, if any* attention to such
Work. For more than a year Forging-Stamping-Heat
Treating has been quietly advocating the formation of
a pressed metal technical society, but only after a
thorough investigation had been made to determine
whether such a movement was under way elsewhere,
or if the activities of such a society would conflict
with other existing societies.
That the pressed metal industry should be represented
bv a society devoted exclusively to the discussion
of its own problems is borne out by the fact that
Upwards of 5,000 companies are engaged in this work.
O lly a part of this number are commercial manufacturers,
but nevertheless it does not alter the fact that
their problems still remain to lie solved.
The formation of a pressed metal section or division
in one of our large national societies should not
be given serious consideration as such action would
only tend to cause greater confusion to programs that
are already overcrowded with technical papers. Those
who attend the numerous national conventions will
agree that the proper benefit is not derived from the
many interesting papers presented; so much work
being scheduled for the various sessions as to leave
little time for discussion. Even the holding of semiannual
meetings instead of the one annual convention
or the scheduling of simultaneous sessions has not
brought about the desired relief. In view of this condition,
it does not seem advisable to consider joining
forces with any of our existing societies, as the problems
of the pressed metal manufacturer would only be
a secondary consideration to the purpose for which the
parent society was originally formed.
Societies formed 10 years ago were adequate to
serve the needs of its members, but whatever field it
covered at that time has become divided into many
specialized branches. Papers that used to be of interest
to all members now only interest those specializing
in that department with which the paper deals.
—Purposes of Such a Society Are Outlined
By D. L. MATHIAS*
That this condition actually exists is verified by the
tendency of the technical societies to group papers
that deal with specific subjects.
Some of the larger manufacturers of pressed metal
products are inclined to feel that suggestions for forming
a society covering their particular field amount to
an interference with their rights. In several cases
they have gone so far as to say that they do not favor
the organization of a pressed metal technical society
as it would give the small manufacturer the benefit of
their experience, entirely overlooking the fact that
they themselves were once in the embryonic stage.
Perhaps the small concern can give his larger competitor
many valuable pointers in the art of pressing
metal, for it is not at all uncommon for large concerns
to turn down work that may involve preliminary experimental
work or in which failures may be high,
either by quoting high prices or stating their inabilty
to make delivery. The natural result is that the "undesirable"
work is thrown upon the small producer
who must possess a great deal of ability to profitably
handle it. The idea that the large concern has a
"corner" on experience is erroneous, for it is usually
lack of sufficient financial backing rather than the
lack of experience that has held the small concern
Some manufacturer, if desiring to learn competitors'
"secrets," will get them, regardless of the tactics
he must employ. If others think they are withholding
information fro mtheir competitor, they are only deceiving
themselves. Why not get together, then, and
get something in return? Co-operation is absolutely
essential to the success of any business, and the same
is true of any particular industry. The principle of
open-mindedness that is characteristic of most American
industries is responsible for much of their success.
Teamwork is a pre-eminent factor in the successful
administration of industrial activities and dispels
The pressed metal industry's need is for real teamwork
in the free exchange of technical information
and in the common effort to advance the industry by
improving the quality of the product. This can only
be accomplished through the formation of a technical
organization where the pressed metal manufacturer,
the user and those who supply equipment and raw
material can get together and discuss every phase of
The purposes for which a pressed metal technical
society should be formed might be outlined as follows:
1—To promote the arts and sciences connected
with the pressing of metals, and the study of subjects
relating to manufacturing, uses and properties
of pressed metal parts.
2—To hold meetings for the reading and discussion
of papers bearing upon processes, equipment,
apparatus, etc., used in practical and research
work connected with the art.
3—To collect, publish and disseminate technical
and practical knowledge for the improvement
of pressed metal practice.
4—To closely unite those engaged in the executive,
technical and practical branches of the
5—To collect worth-while ideas and improved
methods for its members.
6—To disseminate information as to the accomplishments
and possibilities of pressed metal.
Much credit should be given to technical societies
for their part in building up our great industrial system.
Almost without exception their meetings are
open to all who may care to atttend, where executives
and artisans meet on common ground to discuss the
numerous problems encountered.
Like the proverbial chain, industrial plants are no
stronger than the individuals in charge of the various
departments. Some men enter into their work with a
venturesome spirit, because the dominating idea in
their minds is the achievement of success. To others,
work is a drudgery, and they labor merely because it
is essential to existence.
The success of any concern depends entirely upon
the initiative and self-confidence of the operating
officials. Such men are always seeking to increase
production or to cut production costs by improving
conditions and adopting new methods. Behind all
this there is an inspiration that tends to foster greater
accomplishments. It is association with other men
prominent in their particular field, at their plant or at
meetings and conventions, that broadens the mind. The
discussion of experiences in the numerous phases of
their respective trade or profession serves as an inspiration,
and tends to stimulate a greater interest in
The convention offers great opportunities for the
man who has little time to visit other plants; and
the contact with others in his particular profession is
decidedly beneficial. It is upon such occasions that
real accomplishments are achieved through the expression
of opinion and experiences of the country's
greatest engineers and scientists. New acquaintances
are made and old friendships strengthened, thus developing
a broader influence that will reflect favorably
upon the service rendered to industry.
The friendly co-operation between the various
companies during the World War was an important
factor in bringing it to a victorious conclusion, due in
a large measure to the noble work of our many societies
and the friendly relationship created at their
meetings. Any mind is bound to become stagnant if
constantly engaged in the daily routine grind of the
shop, or if engaged in research or development is apt
to lose sight of the fact that others may be working
along the same line. By working co-operatively much
duplication of effort can be eliminated. Many of the
industries' largest problems have been solved in this
manner that would otherwise have been passed over
untouched, due to the enormous expense and time
The art of pressing metal is comparatively in its
infancy, but the remarkable results that have been
prising designer ahead. achieved how In has so spite little far of the indicate of knowledge these possibilities that accomplishments the it average has of pressed a great engineer it is metal. future sur or
Fbrging-Stamping - Heat Treating
Whenever anyone suggests the use of pressed metal,
he associates it with toys or novelties and gives it
little if any further consideration. The advantages of
pressed metal over parts produced by other methods
are well known to the pressed metal manufacturer,
but facilities for demonstrating this to prospective
users are limited and slow in bringing results.
As the use of pressed metal is extended to heavier
work, more powerful presses and better die steels will
be required. The mild or low carbon steels of today
will be replaced with harder and stronger alloy steels
as the demand for stronger and better wearing parts
increases, necessitating smaller draws and more frequent
annealing, thus adding to the difficulties of the
pressed metal engineer.
In view of the many advantages to be gained
through the formation of a pressed metal technical
society, it is to be hoped that the year 1925 will witness
a move in this direction, and that before another
year rolls by it will be on the way to occupy a position
among our other leading societies.
In March of last year Henry L. Doherty & Company
announced the acquisition, through Combustion
Utilities Corporation, of the Surface Combustion
Company, Inc., industrial furnace engineers and manufacturers.
Combustion Utilities Corporation has just announced
the consolidation of the personal and activities
of its appliances and industrial furnace departments
with those of the Surface Combustion Company',
Inc. The greater organization continuing under
the name of the Surface Combustion Company,
Inc., will be the Utilization Division of Combustion
Under the consolidation Henry O. Loebell continues
as president of the Surface Combustion Company,
Inc.; E. E. Basquin, vice president and general
manager, W. M. Hepburn, vice president; Frank H.
Adams, treasurer, and E. M. Doig, secretary. Paul J.
Nutting, formerly in charge of Toledo Appliance Division
of Combustion Utilities Corporation, becomes
vice president in charge of production. C. B. Phillips,
former sales manager Toledo dvision, becomes vice
president and sales manager of the Stock Furnace Division,
which will include all the well-known "improved"
and "utility" appliances, and the "Blue Line"
furnaces. F. Wr. Manker, previously in charge of
Combustion Utilities large furnace department, becomes
vice president and will be associated with Mr.
Hepburn in the large furnace division.
The Surface Combustion Company, Inc., sales and
general offices will be continued at 366-368 Gerard
avenue, New York, and all production at Toledo.
In commenting on this consolidation Mr. Loebell
said: "This consolidation unites in one unit the utilization,
engineering and sales personnel of these two
organizations, so well known 'Wherever Heat is Used
in Industry.' It brings to all industries the skilled
services of the largest family of combustion engineers,
whose skill is exemplified in equipment for the utilization
of fuel with the utmost economy, but which
makes for easier control. Wre will continue to forge
ahead and force progress in efficient fuel utilization in
industry ment, industry and by in a its providing well great rounded strides a complete organization forward."
line of furnace to assist equip all
forging - Stamping - Heat Treating
S t a m p i n g P l a n t D e s i g n e d for S m a l l W o r k
New Plant of the Acklin Stamping Company at Toledo, Ohio,
Designed to Handle a Wide Variety of Small Work—
T H E use of pressed metal parts is gaining momentum
as the various engineers are beginning to
recognize their many advantages. Absolute uniformity
from piece to piece, lightness of weight, and
the fact that such parts require little, if any, machining
after they come from the press are only a few of the
reasons why pressed metal is gaining in popularity.
The facilities of many plants are inadequate to
handle this class of work to meet present day competition,
having been built some years ago and enlarged
from time to time by an addition here and there. What
advantages the original plant may have possessed
have been lost by the numerous enlargements until
it can no longer produce work at a profit. This is
particularly true in a plant doing a jobbing business,
where a great variety of work must be handled. Such
a plant must be laid out with a view- to expediting
orders received on short notice.
The Acklin Stamping Company, Toledo, Ohio, recently
moved into their new plant at Nebraska Avenue
and the New York Central Railroad. The building
is of modern fire proof construction, consisting of
brick, steel and glass, 600 ft. in length by 150 ft. wide
and located on a 16 acre site, which allows ample room
for expansion. The building is divided into three bays,
each 50 ft. in width, the center bay being served by a
The presses are lined up in comparatively small
groups, with separate drives for each group, thereby
removing the danger of departmental shut-down. The
small and medium sized presses are located in the
north bay; the heavy press equipment is located in
the center bay where it is served to advantage by the
crane. The heavy presses have individual drives, and
are also equipped with stationary jib cranes attached
to their frames to facilitate handling of large dies and
In the south bay are also located the tumbling,
grinding, annealing and welding rooms, so located as
to reduce the trucking of parts in process to a minimum.
These rooms are completely closed so as to
eliminate noise, dust, and heat, from the rest of the
plant. In the same bay is located the space for die
storage, in which is kept the innumerable dies made
for the customer's work.
The balance of the south bay is taken up with a
space provided for steel storage'and receiving. This
end of the building is served with a side track running
Ample Room Provided for Future Expansion
the entire length, above which is a three-ton monorail
for unloading coal and loading scrap, etc. Incoming
steel is taken from the floor of the car direct into the
steel storage space. Here are located shears of various
sizes for cutting the stock to size from standard
sheets on requisition from the press room. Considering
the variety of work handled in a jobbing business,
this is an important part of the service, for not all jobs
are of sufficient size or nature to warrant the purchase
of special sizes of strip steel. The raw material is
delivered to the press room on lift trucks by means of
a gasoline tractor.
In the west end of the building is a section devoted
entirely to the manufacture of pressed steel steering
wheel spiders for automobile use. The equipment in
this department consists of the proper sizes of presses
so arranged as to eliminate the handling of parts to
a minimum between operations. In addition there is
the equipment for melting the alloys from which the
hub of the spider is cast, as well as a motor driven
turn table used in the casting operation. The special
machining, tapping, etc., required for special designs
is also handled in this department.
On the east end are located the general offices, as
well as 16,000 square feet for the die shop. Here is
a variety of equipment which enables approximately
60 die makers to turn out new production dies and
tools, as well as to take care of maintenance on old
As the Acklin Stamping Company is practically engaged
in a jobbing business, the new plant has an
ideal layout for handling a wide variety of work. The
arrangement also assists in expediting orders which
are received on short notice. Among other parts produced
are the majority of those required in automobile
and truck construction, and many others for stove and
furniture use, as well as electrical devices.
In 1911, Grafton M. Acklin resigned as general
manager of the Toledo Machine and Tool Company,
selling out his interest in that concern. He founded
the Acklin Stamping Company for the benefit of his
two sons, James M. Acklin and W. Collord Acklin,
who have been active in the management of the firm
since that time. At a still later date a third son, Donald
R. Ackhn, went into the firm.
Associated in the firm with the Acklin brothers are
Duane T. Anderson as chief engineer; F. Cyril Greenlull,
production manager and Harold Jay as sales engineer.
FIG. 1—Small presses.
FIG. 2—Die shop.
Pickling of Iron and Steel
The pickling of iron and steel is an important industrial
undertaking and many of the technical problems
involved are of live interest in the Pittsburgh
region. Since there is no book on the subject, and
adequate information is not readily found, the Technology
Department of the Carnegie Library of Pittsburgh
has compiled a list of references to the scattered
literature in journals and patent specifications. During
1924, this bibliography appeared serially in two
forging- Stamping - Heat Treating
FIG. 3—Medium presses.
FIG. 4—Die shop.
FIG. 5—Steel storage.
FIG. 6—Center bay.
local journals—"The Blast Furnace and Steel Plant,"
and "Forging-Stamping-Heat Treating." The library
has now published the material in pamphlet form and
copies are available for distribution free (by mail, 5
The list, which was compiled by Victor S. Polansky,
contains more than 300 references classified under various
headings, such as: Machines and Equipment,
Pickling in Acid Solutions, Pickling in Salt Solutions,
Electrolytic Pickling, Inhibitors and Accelerators, Recovery
of Spent Liquors, and Effect of Pickling.
Forging - S tamping - Heat Treating
HEAT TREATMENT and METALLOGRAPHY of STEEL~| j
A P r a c t i c a l C o u r s e in t h e E l e m e n t s o f
PREPARATION OF SPECIMENS*
ONE of the oldest methods of testing steel is the
fracture test, in which the piece is broken, and
the exposed surface, or so-called "grain", carefully
examined. This is still widely used, and to the skilled
observer yields a surprising amount of information as
to the fineness or coarseness of true grain, presence of
blowholes, flaws, or inclusions, overheating or underheating
in heat treatment, approximate carbon content,
etc. However a highly trained eye is needed, the
results are limited at best, and the indications may
readily be misleading. For example, a piece of steel
may show a very different "grain", depending upon
whether it is broken byr gradual bending, or nicked
and broken by a sudden blow. The real grain structure
of metals is generally so small that it is invisible
to the naked eye, and can be revealed only by the
In an effort to get more accurate information from
studyr of the fracture, an early scientific investigator
used the microscope to examine fractures, but little
was gained, because the surface of the break was too
irregular to permit focusing a microscope of high
power, and a clear image could not be obtained. Moreover,
the act of breaking a piece of metal will generally
distort or destroy at that point, the very structure
which it is desired to examine. Pioneers in Metallog-
*The author wishes to acknowledge his indebtedness to the
following references for information contained in this section,
and to recommend them to the student for further reading: (5)
"The Preparation of Metallographic Specimens," H. M. Boylston,
A.S.S.T. Handbook; (6) Circular of the Bureau of Standards,
No. 113—"Structure and Related Properties of Metals"; (7)
"Introduction to Physical Metallurgy." Rosenhain; (8) "The
Metallography & Heat Treatment of iron and Steel," Sauveur.
P h y s i c a l M e t a l l u r g y
The author is Chief Metallurgist, Naval Aircraft Factory,
United States Navy Yard. Philadelphia, Pa.
Copyright. 1924, by H. C. Knerr.
raphy (Sorby in England, Martens in Germany, Osmond
in France) soon found that the best way to
study the microscopic structure, or "microstructure"
of metals, was to prepare a "section", by grinding a
small flat surface, polishing it to remove all scratches,
and etching it with an acid or other reagent to reveal
the individual grains and constituents. Later it was
found that this process of polishing and etching could
be applied, to larger sections for the purpose of revealing
characteristics large enough to be seen without
the aid of a microscope, that is the "macrostructure."
Taking the specimen for metallographic examination
requires particular care and judgment, for it must
truly represent the part under examination, and the
structure must not be altered in cutting or preparing
the specimen. A record should be made of the position
of the specimen in the piece, and the relation of
the prepared surface to the direction of forging or
rolling. A sketch is helpful. In most cases a longitudinal
section yields more information than a transverse
section as it shows the effects of elongation due
to working. For a microsection the specimen should
not be larger than necessary, and may in many cases
be quite small. A section y2 inch square or round is a
good size. It is much easier to polish four pieces l/t
inch square than one piece 1 inch square. The height
dimension (perpendicular to the prepared surface)
should also be about y2 inch, for convenience in handling.
If the specimen is too high it is difficult to hold
it true in grinding and polishing, and a rounded surface
results. The polished surface must be true and
flat, otherwise it will be impossible to focus uniformly
at high magnifications, and parts of the image will be
When the sample is not too hard or tough, specimens
are generally cut out with a hack saw. Brittle
material may be nicked on an emery wheel and broken
with a hammer. A thin alundum or carborundum
disk wheel about 3/32 in. thick, running in water to
prevent heating, is very useful in cutting hard or
tough specimens. Distortion of the metal and heat
must be avoided. Each specimen should be marked
to identify it.
Very small specimens may be held or mounted in
various devices for convenience in handling and to insure
flatness of the surface, and also to prevent rounding
of the edges. The writer has found a set of metal
clamps, such as is illustrated in Fig. 18, quite useful
for holding specimens of a variety of shapes and sizes.
These are cheaply and easily made from square or
rectangular bar stock, and small machine screws.
Several small specimens may be polished at one time
in such a clamp. After examination the specimens
may be removed, and the clamp used again. The
specimen should be allowed to extend slightly beyond
the face of the clamp at the start, so as to avoid
grinding away too much of the clamp. The clamps
are worn away on the grinding surfaces in time, but
are readily replaced. Specimens, such as fine wire,
thin sheet, turnings and even filings, may be imbedded
in some low melting alloy, in sealing wax, or in a
composition made of litharge (PbO) and glycerine
mixed to a thick paste. The latter sets and forms a
very hard surface, which does not interfere with the
polishing of the specimens (ref. 6). The mounting
material is held in a small container consisting of a
short section of tube or gas pipe, or in a gas pipe cap,
Fig. 19. The outside diameter of the container should
be about y2 or y in. The following low melting alloys
or fuse metals are suggested by various authorities.
Any of them will melt in boiling water:
Campion an d
•Parts by weight.
Ordinary tin-lead solder may be used where it is known that
its melting temperature will not affect the specimen.
Specimens may be copper-plated to assist in protecting
the edges of the polished surface. Directions
for doing this are given in ref. (6). The writer has
found, however, that the presence of other metals often
has a tendency to interfere with the etching of the
specimen, and therefore, prefers to use a clamp or
holder of the same metal as the specimen (steel for
steel or iron, aluminum for aluminum, etc.) and avoid
the use of fusible alloys or plating.
Polishing is done in several steps:
1. Grinding or filing to produce a flat surface.
2. Rough polishing.
3. Fine polishing.
The work may be performed by hand, but it generally
pays to provide motor driven grinding and polishing
wheels. These may be mounted either vertically
or horizontally. Various types are on the market,
some of which are illustrated in Fig. 20. Many
laboratories construct their own.
After cutting off the specimen and, if necessary,
placing it in a clamp or holder, the face to be polished
is first ground perfectly flat, on a medium fine, medium
hard grinding wheel, running at about 1200 rpm. The
forging- Stamping - Heat Treating
specimen is held in the fingers and is kept cool by
frequently dipping it in water, or running a small
stream on it. The flat side of the wheel is used. Pressure
should be light and a good cutting action insured.
For soft metals, a file may be used instead of
grinding. The file should be placed flat on the table
or held in a vise, and the specimen moved back and
forth along it.
It is well to remove 1/32 in. or 1/16 in. of metal
in the first grinding or filing operation, or more, if
necessary, to get down to metal which has not been
distorted in cutting or breaking off the specimen.
When this has been done, and the surface is perfectly
flat, the edges may be slightly rounded so that they
will not catch in subsequent polishing papers and
clothes. Where sharp edges are called for they should
be protected by the clamp or holder, as they will
otherwise be unavoidably rounded to some extent in
polishing, and this will prevent a clear focus.
The next operation is rough polishing. This may
be done on a medium fine grade of emery cloth or
paper, laid on a flat slab, such as a piece of plate glass.
(Grade numbers vary with different makes. French
No. 1 is recommended by Boylston, ref. 5. The
FIG. 18.—Clamps for holding specimens. FIG. 19.—Tube and
gas cap holder. FIG. 21.—Mounting device for use with
writer has found an American grade 00 satisfactory
The student can choose a suitable grade by trial. Cutting
should be fairly rapid, but the marks distinctly
finer than those left by the grinding wheel or file.)
Instead of emery cloth, Turkish emery flour, may
be used—grade FF, spread wet on a flat disk covered
with cloth, such as 12 ounce canvas duck. The
specimen should be held so that the new polishing
marks run at right angles to the grinding or file marks,
and rough polishing continued until all the old marks
After each successive grinding and polishing operation,
and before going to the next finer grade, the
specimen should be thoroughly cleaned (washed in
running water, if necessary), to remove all of the
coarser abrasive material. If this is neglected, deep
scratches may result, which will greatly lengthen the
Rough polishing is often done in several stages, as
by following the No. 1 French emery with Nos. 0, 00
and 000. At each stage the specimen is turned through
90 degrees, and polished until all the preceeding
scratches are removed. Polishing on successive
stages of emery paper, may well be done by hand, on
20 forging - S tamping - Heat Treating
a plate glass slab, as each step takes only a minute or
two. The paper should not be used after it ceases
to cut freely. Pressure should be light. It is easy to
spoil a well ground specimen, by rounding its surface,
in rough polishing.
Final polishing is done on a flat metal disk, covered
with broadcloth, wet with a mixture of polishing
powder and water, and revolving at about 600 revolutions
per minute. The specimen is pressed gently
on the revolving disk, and given a slight eliptical motion
near the end of the operation, to eliminate
streaks resulting from the motion of the wheel. It
is often a good plan to stop the wheel, add some fresh
polishing powder, and rub the specimen a few times
on the broad cloth by hand, as a final operation.
If steel specimens are rough polished down to No.
000 French emery, the final polish may be obtained
in a single operation, using levigated alumina powder
(AljOs). Some prefer to stop the rough polishing at
an earlier stage, and use two steps in final polishing—
the first being done with white reground tripoli powder
or alundum powder 65 F, and the last with levigated
alumina grade No. 3, or with "superfine" magnesia
powder. A different disk is used for each grade
of powder. Jewelers' rouge was formerly used by
many as a final polishing powder, but is rapidly going
out of favor because it has a persistent tendency to
leave scratches, stains the clothing and fingers and
does not cut so freely as alumina.
The finally polished surface should have a mirrorlike
finish, practically free from even microscopic
scratches. There should be no smearing or buffing
action in any of the polishing operations. A free cutting
action should be maintained throughout. The
polished specimen should be carefully washed and
dried. The surface may be wiped with a clean soft
chamois skin, but should not be touched with the fingers.
Specimens may be wrapped in cotton or soft
tissue paper, or placed in a dessicator until ready for
etching and examination. Hard specimens are usually
easier to polish than soft ones.
A polishing disk having a horizontal face (axis
vertical) is believed to be the more convenient, and
easier to keep clean, as it can be covered with a lid
when not in use. A good grade of broad cloth is
stretched over the face of the disk, by means of a brass
ring. The fine polishing powder has a tendency to
work through the cloth and form lumps underneath.
This may be prevented by heating the disk, spreading
on its surface a molten mixture of equal parts resin
and beeswax, and pressing the cloth flat down on this.
When the disk cools, the cloth is firmly cemented to
Levigation of Polishing Powder.
The grinding wheels, emery cloth and paper, and
coarser polishing powders can be purchased from various
supply houses, ready for use. The aluminum oxide
is obtainable from a chemical supply house, as AL03
—CP (Chemically Pure), but usually must be refined
and cleaned before being used for fine polishing. This
process is called "levigation", and is performed as follows
Instructions for Levigation of Aluminum Oxide
Polishing Powder for Final Polishing of
Step No. 1. Place about 25 cc. of aluminum oxide
(APO,—CP) in a 2,500 cc. (2y to 3 quarts), bottle.
Add 2,000 cc. (about 2 quarts) of water and 8 cc.
nitric acid (UNO,, cone). Shake well and let stand
for three or more days.
No. 2—Siphon off and discard solution.
No. 3—Add 2,000 cc. water to remaining powder.
Shake well and let stand for at least 24 hours. Siphon
off water and again add 2,000 cc. water, shake and al-
FIG. 20.—Left—Wysor combined grinding and polishing machine, single spindle type. The grinding wheels for roughing,
medium and finishing are of carborundum or alundum and are attached at the ends of the horizontal shaft. The polishing
discs are of brass with c.oth covers, easily replacable, and are mounted on the head of the vertical spindle. The
drive is by horizontal shaft with friction wheel, readily disengaged by means of a cam. The speed of the discs is controlled
by shifting the shaft contact. Polishing is done first, with a canvas covered disc and emory flour, and then with
a broadcloth disc and tripoli powder, and finally w.th broadcloth disc and alumina or jeweler's rouge. Tin cases are provided
for holding the discs when not in use. Right—Sauveur grinding and polishing machine—An electric motor with
elongated spind.es carries at one end an Alundum wheel for grinding and at the other a cloth-covered disc for polishing
providing four surfaces of graduated fineness. The polishing powders are mixed with water and applied to the various'
discs which by is means the speed of brushes recommended Sheet for metal this shields work.
catch any surplus water thrown off during driving. Worn polishing
cloths are quickly replaced. The motor is entirely (A. protected H. Thomas from Co.) grit and dust and runs quietlv - bout 1200 r D m '*
low to settle for 24 hours or more. Repeat this washing
a third time to get rid of all traces of nitric acid.
No. 4—Finally, add 2,000 cc. water to the powder,
shake well and let stand for 15 or 20 minutes. At
the end of this time the coarser part of the powder
will have settled to the bottom of the bottle, but the
fine powder will remain in suspension. Siphon off
this "emulsion" of fine powder into a clean bottle and
let stand until all the powder settles and the water is
practically clear. This water may now be siphoned
off and the fine polishing powder remains.
No. 5—The remaining coarse powder may again be
shaken up with 2,000 cc. water and allowed to settle
for 20 minutes, whereupon a second lot of fine powder
will remain in suspension, and may be siphoned off
and allowed to settle as before.
Distilled water should be used in all operations if
available, otherwise filtered water. Accuracy in measuring
quantities is not essential. The levigated powder
is shaken up with enough water to make a fluid,
and kept in a small stoppered glass bottle. In use,
the bottle is shaken, and a few drops of the water,
carrying some of the powder in suspension, is sprinkled
on the polishing disk. It is very important to keep
the polishing powder, the polishing wheel, and the
finer grades of emery paper perfectly free from dust
and dirt. One or more specks of grit may produce
many scratches in a specimen, which will take a long
time to remove. In case a specimen gets scratched in
final polishing, it is best to go back to a coarser grade
of emery and repolish. It does not pay to attempt
to remove pronounced scratches in the final polishing
The polished surface must, of course, be truly
parallel to the focal plane of the microscope, or, what
is the same thing, parallel to the stage. This is automatically
taken care of in the inverted microscope.
In case an inverted microscope is not available, specimens
may be mounted by means of a device such as
illustrated in Fig. 21. The specimen is placed with
its polished face down on a flat surface, protected by
a sheet of clean paper, inside of a short tube, having
parallel ends. A piece of plastic wax is placed on top
of it, and a microscope slide, or other small flat piece,
pressed down until it rests on the ring. The wax
attaches the specimen to the slide, which is then placed
on the stage of the microscope. Sauveur has patented
a magnetic specimen holder, which is convenient for
similar purposes, illustrated in ref. 8, Fig. 9.
Under the microscope, a well polished specimen
shows a perfectly smooth, bright surface, except that
non-metallic inclusions, such as slag, oxides or manganese
sulfide, are plainly revealed. Fig. 22. It is
therefore well to examine for non-metallic inclusions
The grain structure in a polished specimen is hidden
by an extremely thin layer of metal which has
been "smeared", or flowed over the surface in final
polishing. (This smearing action cannot be completely
avoided, owing to the nature of metals, as explained
in Rosenhain, ref. 7, Chapter II, but it must be kept
at a minimum, as discussed under polishing.)
The'surface layer is removed and the structure of
the metal revealed by "etching", that is, by attacking
the metal with a solvent, such as an acid. After the
forging- Stamping - Heat Treating
surface film is removed, the constituents and the various
grains are differently attacked by the reagent.
If the sample is pure metal, or a solid solution, such
as carbonless iron, individual grains are attacked differently,
according to their "orientation", that is, the
arrangement of their crystalline planes. This will
make some grains appear dark and others bright. The
grain boundaries will also become clearly marked. If
there are different constituents such as iron and iron
carbide (cementite), certain of them will stand out in
FIG. 22.—(a) Polished specimen, unetched. (b) Same after
relief, and whether they are bright or dark will de
pend not only upon their actual condition, but also
upon how the light strikes them. Certain etching reagents
affect certain constituents in distinctive ways.
A great variety of etching reagents has been developed
for different purposes, but for all ordinary work,
a very few will be found sufficient.
Perhaps the most useful for etching steel, is a dilute
solution, from 1 per cent to 10 per cent, of nitric
acid (UNO,) in alcohol. A 2 per cent solution is
recommended. (Add 2 cc. concentrated nitric acid,
sp. gr. 1.42, to 98 cc. ethyl (grain) alcohol, 95 per
cent.) This should be kept in a bottle having a glass
stopper. When ready to etch, a glass dish about 2 in.
to 3 in. in diameter is filled to a depth of about l/^ in.
with the reagent and the specimen dipped in, polished
face down, moved about gently, without being allowed
to touch the bottom. It is observed every few seconds
to note the progress of the attack. (The surface
becomes slightly dull.) High carbon steel etches
rapidly, sometimes in two or three seconds, low carbon
steel more slowly. It is better to under etch than
over etch. When etching has progressed far enough
the specimen is rinsed in water to remove the acid,
and then in alcohol (95 per cent) to remove the water,
and carefully dried, with a clean soft chamois, or in
a warm place or a draft of warm air. If examination
under the microscope now shows that etching has
been insufficient, the process may be repeated.
Another widely used etching reagent is the following:
5 grams of picric acid, CgH^NO^OH, chemically
pure, is dissolved in 95 cubic centimeters ethyl alcohol,
95 per cent. The solution must be kept in a well
stoppered glass bottle.
Cementite (carbide of iron), the hardest constituent
of steel, remains bright after etching in the usual
etching reagents, and may therefore sometimes be
mistaken for ferrite (iron jwhich also remains bright
under certain conditions. If the polished specimen is
immersed in a boiling solution of sodium picrate for
5 or 10 minutes, the cementite will be colored brown
or black, but the ferrite will be unaffected. This affords
a sure method of identifying cementite. The
reagent may be prepared as follows: Dissolve 24.5
grams of caustic soda (sodium hydroxide, NaOH,
C. P.) in 73.5 cc. water, and dissolve 2 grams picric
acid in this (Ref. 8).
Heaf tinting is an interesting method used to distinguish
certain constituents, especially phosphorus
FIG. 23.—Sulphur Print. FIG. 24.—Deep etching—segregation.
FIG. 25.—Deep etching—stresses. (Rawdon ref. 6.)
in cast iron. The specimen is first etched very lightly
in dilute nitric or picric acid, to remove the surface
film, but not to firing out the grain structure strongly,
and washed and dried. It is then slowly heated on an
electric hot plate, a bath of molten solder, or the like.
The air causes colored oxide films to appear on the
surface. These colors change as oxidation progresses,
but the parts rich in phosphorus color more rapidly,
and will therefore reach a purple or blue color while
the other portions are still yellow, brown, or red. The
specimen is cooled at this point and examined. (Ref. 8.)
A list of etching reagents for various purposes is
given in A. S. S. T. Handbook, data sheets T-7 to T-22.
forging - S tamping - Heat Treating
Rapid Method of Polishing.
The following method of preparing metal specimens
for microscopic examination, described by Mr.
H. B. Pulsifer, Assistant Professor of Metallurgy, Lehigh
University, ("Chem. and Met. Engineering,"
November 5, 1923), is believed worth mentioning here.
He states that this method is not only quicker, but
due to the relief polishing effects, brings out greater
details, at moderate magnifications, than the more
elaborate methods of preparation. He does not recommend
it for magnifications higher than about lOOx,
because the relief obtained is too deep for the focal
plane of the more powerful objectives. His method is
The surface is first prepared with a file. The file
marks are ground off with flour emery on a wet wheel,
then the emery marks are removed with tripoli. This
surface is now given a fairly prolonged etch, in the
usual picric or nitric acid solution, which dissolves off
all mechanically flowed surface metal and the deeper
scratches. The specimen is then rubbed by hand, on
a thick layer of wet, levigated tripoli, until smooth.
The etching is repeated with a short attack, and the
surface again smoothed on the board with gentler
passes. A final etching should then display the structure
to advantage. The entire operation should take
3 to 8 minutes.
Wrhen it is necessary to preserve specimens for
some time, after polishing or etching, they must be
protected from moisture. They may be kept in a dessicator,
which is a glass vessel having an air tight lid,
and containing a quantity of un-slacked lime or calcium
chloride to absorb the moisture from the air in
the container. Specimens wrapped in tissue paper
often remain uncorroded for days or even weeks, without
the use of a dessicator. Specimens as a rule become
corroded much more rapidly after they have
been etched. It is therefore better not to etch until
ready to examine. Slight corrosion may often be removed
by repolishing on the disk with alumina.
PART 2—MACROSCOPIC EXAMINATION
While the microscopic examination of metals gives
us the best insight into their characteristics, the effects
of various alloying elements, and the changes
which take place in heat treatment, a preliminary examination
of the grosser structure, such as can be seen
with the unaided eye or with a simple magnifying
glass, is very useful. This is called "macroscopic"
examination. It is usually made for the purpose of
revealing chemical or physical non-uniformity, segregations,
flaws, persistent ingot or casting structure,
lines of flow in forging or forming, internal flaws,
fractures, cavities, blow holes, welded areas, etc. As
in the study of microstructure, the exact method of
preparing and treating the specimen will vary with
the characteristic it is desired to bring out. The
area to be examined is of course much larger than for
a microsection, and frequently includes the full cross
section or longitudinal section of the piece. Fine polishing
is not necessary—it is generally satisfactory to
prepare a flat surface by sawing, grinding or machining
(using light finishing cuts to avoid distorting the
structure unduly) and rough polishing on fairly fine
Segregation of sulfur is a defect frequently found
in steel. An analysis of the full section of the piece
may show the average sulfur content to be not excessive,
but if most of the sulfur present has collected
in certain areas (as at the center of the ingot), the
content at these areas will be unduly high, and the
metal at these parts consequently weak and unreliable.
This condition is readily detected by the process
known as "sulfur printing". In a dark room, a sheet
of photographic printing paper is immersed in a solution
of 2 per cent sulfuric acid (H,SO,j) in water, until
it becomes saturated, and is then placed face up on a
flat slab such as a piece of plate glass. The roughly
polished specimen is pressed down on the paper and
held for 10 to 30 seconds, taking care to avoid slipping.
The paper will be darkly stained at the areas high in
sulfur. The print should be fixed in "hypo", and
washed and dried, in the same manner as an ordinary
photographic print. Matte finish paper is better than
glossy, as it is very difficult to prevent slipping- on the
latter. For large pieces, the paper may be pressed
down on the specimen. (Fig. 23, sulphur print.)
Macroscopic features of interest, especially chemical
non-uniformity or segregation of impurities, are
often revealed by a rapid and deep attack with a
strong, hot acid (boiling or nearly so). The portions
rich in impurities are attacked most severely, so that
a relief pattern is produced. The kind of acid used
does not matter greatly,, so long as the action is strong
and rapid. Concentrated or 50 per cent hydrochloric
acid is perhaps the most commonly used, but 50 per
cent nitric, or 20 per cent sulfuric, may alsobe employed.
Etching should be continued until the surface
is deeply attacked, sometimes as long as 30
minutes. See Fig. 24, rail head, cracked in service.
This process is also used to locate high internal
stresses, such as may occur in severely cold worked
material, and which might cause failure in service.
Hardened steel balls, for instance, when deeply
etched with hot concentrated hydrochloric acid, may
split open along the planes of stress or weakness, Fig.
25. Minute cracks, such as are sometimes produced
in grinding hardened steel, may also be revealed by
Non-Uniform Grain Structure.
Macroscopic variations in grain structure (areas of
coarse and fine grain, etc.), may be shown by light
etching with the common reagents, but one of the best
is a solution of 1 to 2 grains of ammonium persulfate
[(NH4)2S208] to 10 cc. water. (Ref. 6.) This is
particularly useful in studying welds. Fig. 26.
An ingenious and valuable way of locating minute
cracks or fissures in steel is described by Rawdon,
(Ref. 6). The roughly polished specimen is magnetized
and then immersed in a light oil, such as kerosene,
containing very fine iron dust in suspension— cast
iron mud", such as is obtained from lapping disks,
may be used. The leakage of magnetic flux across
slight discontinuities in the roughly polished surface,
causes iron particles to be attracted to those locations,
marking them clearly. Loose particles of iron are re
Forging- Stamping - Heat Treating
moved by bathing the specimen in alcohol or clean
kerosene. Fig. 27, (a) before dipping, (b) after dipping.
An acidulated alcoholic solution of cupric chloride
(with various modifications), may be used to show
segregation of certain constituents, notably phosphorus.
Various formulas are used—Stead's reagent
being one of the commonest, as follows: Cupric chloride,
Cu CP—10 grams, magnesium chloride, Mg CP—•
40 grams, hydrochloric acid. HC1 —10 cc, alcohol, 1000
cc. Dissolve the salts in the least possible quantity
of hot water, and make up to 1000 cc. with alcohol.
Apply the solution in a thin layer to the polished and
cleaned surface of the specimen, for about one minute.
FIG. 26.—Non-uniform grain.. FIG. 27.—Magnetic method.
FIG. 28.—Segregation—Stead's Deagent. (Rawdon ref. 6.)
Copper will be deposited on the purer portions. Th
liquid may be shaken off and a fresh layer applied.
Wash the specimen in boiling water and then with
alcohol, to dry it. See Fig. 28.
Macrographic specimens are photographed with an
ordinary camera specially adapted for close work, or
for magnifying up to about three diameters.
(Every student is advised to get a copy of ref. 6,
which contains a great deal of valuable and interesting
information. It may be obtained from the Superintendent
of Documents, Government Printing Office,
Washington, D. C, for 25 cents cash, or money order.
24 Forging - Stamping - Heat Treating
E c o n o m i c a l H a n d l i n g o f M a t e r i a l *
Material Handling, Comparison of the Electric Truck and Gaso
line Tractor and the Design of Tote Boxes, Racks
T H E Forge Department as usual, when a department
of a manufacturing plant, was placed in the
farthest corner of the property, away from the
main buildings. The heat treat was added later near
the machining departments as at that time most of the
forgings were heat treated after being rough machined.
The steel shed is located next to the forge
shop with a 5-ton overhead crane which serves to unload
cars, the shears under the shed and to deliver
most of the heavy stock to hammers. The grinders
and punch presses for cold trimming are in the forge
shop, the die room and forge department machine shop
are at one end, the tumbling room, inspection department
and die storage at one side and the shipping department
at the other end of the building.
The steel yard under the crane is 57 ft. wide by 352
ft. long, has held 3,000 tons steel stacked at random
leaving no room to get around. At present racks are
being built which will increase the capacity of the yard
over 100 per cent allowing space for railroad track to
run full length of shed and room to get around each
pile for inspection or checking purposes. The racks
are built of pipe placed in a concrete base. The pipes
have about 4 ft. centers. The racks are laid out to
take steel 20 ft. long leaving an open space of 4 ft. between
each end of piles and vacant space has been left
for steel that comes cut in short lengths and other
wide enough to stack without racks.
Stock for forgings. Most of the heavier stock is
delivered by crane to the large hammers in the row
next to the steel shed, the stock being placed on skids
under the crane slides over to the hammers. The balance
of the stock is delivered on tote racks by electric
lift trucks direct to the hammers and upsetting machines,
the heaters working the stock from the racks
into the furnaces.
The flashings are handled in wheel barrows, a
wheel barrow being placed at each hammer. When
hammerman handles flash after forging is trimmed, he
throws it in the wheelbarrow, if the flash and forging
are pushed through the trimming press together. The
checker when counting forgings throws the flash into
the wheel-barrow. One laborer on an average handles
the flash from six hammers.
After the stock is forged or upset the forgings are
handled in different ways, depending on the size and
shape. Stock up-set for hammers is loaded on tote
racks by the operator ready to move to the hammers.
Forgings such as transmission gears, spiders, bevels
and other small parts are counted into the tote box
by the checker at the hammer. Levers, windshields
and long light weight forgings are placed on tote racks
as checked. These forgings are moved in tote boxes
and racks by two electric lift trucks from the hammers
and upsetting machines to the punch presses,
and Trailers Comprehensively Discussed
By E. TONKINf
tumbling room, inspecting department and to the shipping
platform. At each operation that may be required
on the forging, the operator works from the
loaded container performing the operation, then placing
the piece in an empty container. In this way,
handling of forgings except in performing some operation
is eliminated. In addition to the two electric lift
trucks used for moving racks and boxes there are hand
lift trucks with same capacity and lift as the electric
trucks located at the trimming presses, tumbling room
and inspection department for use of operators to
move containers short distances in case no electric
trucks are available.
The heavier forgings such as truck gears and steering
knuckles are counted by the checker into tractor
trailers equipped with boxes. Crankshafts are loaded
on special crankshaft tractor trailers. Axles both
front and rear are also loaded on special axle tractor
trailers. These trailers are moved by the gasoline
tractor. The gears are taken to the punch presses
if there is a center to punch out, then to the heat treat
where they are worked from the trailers into the
furnaces for heat treating, after heat treating and testing
they are pickeled. From the pickling tank they
are loaded directly into trailer and moved back to
inspection department. The crankshafts go from the
hammer to the upsetting machine then to the heat
treat. At the heat treat they are loaded from trailers
into furnaces, then from furnace to furnace, to testing,
pickling, centering, straightening and as inspected, are
loaded on trailers ready to ship. The axles are moved
to the bulldozer for stretching to length after which
they go to the heat treating; from the trailers they are
loaded into furnaces, heat treated, and tested as loaded
onto trailers then moved to forge shop for straightening
and inspection. An inspector works with the
straightening gang and loads the axles as inspected.
In this way all the heavy forgings are delivered to
shipping platform on trailers ready for shipping gang
The loading of cars is done by piecework. Thirtytwo
and one-half cents per ton for automobile gears,
levers, windshields and small parts. Twenty-four
cents per ton for truck gears, knuckles and medium
sized forgings and 15c per ton for axles and crankshafts.
These prices include openng the car doors,
cleaning out the cars, placing and fastening the truck
plates and closing the doors after the car is loaded.
The loading gang consists of three men with one electric
lift truck. One man looks after the gang and lines
up the material to be loaded according to his list, while
the other two, one of these driving the electric truck
move the tote boxes, racks and trailers into the car.
1 hese two men count the forgings off at the same time
being checked by the gang leader. The rate of pay is
*Paper presented at a meeting of the American Drop divided Forg among the three according to their responsiing
Institute held at Pittsburgh. October 2 and 3. 1924. bilities The checker gets 36 per cent of tonnage, the
tEngineer of Production, Union Switch & Signal Co. truck driver 33 per cent and the laborer gets 31 per
cent. Time sheets are made out daily, if the car is not
loaded in one day an estimated amount is used. When
the net weight is received from the scales a correction
is added to or taken from the next'day's time.
The tote boxes, racks and trailers. After building
many kinds of containers and purchasing ready mades
outside, standard types which will not overload the
electric trucks have been adopted which will stand up
to the heat of hot forgings and rough usage received
in a forge shop as per the blue prints attached.
The tote racks are made up of 5-in. channel, two
pieces 4 ft. 7 in. long each are bent in a U shape forming
legs liy in. high 28 in. apart, two pieces each 6 ft.
0 in. long are bent the same way forming standard 12
GASOLINE TRACTOR. SHOIV//MC DOUBLE ACTING HOOK
STAAJDARD TRAILER EQUIPPED FOR. CI2ANK3HAETS
forging- Stamping - Heat Treating
in. high 4 ft. 0 in. apart, all the bends being made on
the flange edges. The channels for standards are laid
across the channels for legs, backs together, and the
webs riveted. The legs have 33-in. centers, the standards
20-in. centers, in addition to this the outside of
the legs are tied together with y, in. x 2 in. bars riveted
on the web of each leg 6 in. from floor. On account
of the channels being bent on the flange edges,
the hot forgings rest on the edge of the flange of the
channel leaving an air-space between the hot forgings
and the web which prevents warping of the racks from
the heat. Labor and material for racks costs $6.00,
weighs 135 lbs. and is light enough to handle shore distances
by hand if no electric truck is near.
STANDARD TRAILER. EQUIPPED FO/2. AXLES
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CFI5T IRON TOTE BOX FOR FORGINGS FOR ELECTRIC LIFT TRUCK
ftj Space ft r 5/ock or forcings fSlonJant^
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26 forging- Stamping - Heat Treating
The tote boxes have cast iron sides and bottom
with verv thin section well ribbed and cored hides to
cut down weight, and also to let scale off forgings
drop through. One pattern is used for side castings
making them interchangeable. The sides are bolted
t nto the bottom which has two 5-in. channel legs same
as on the tote racks bolted onto it. These legs have
24-in. centers instead of 33-in. as the racks, and have
the legs tied together with Vin. x 2-in. bars across
outside. The size of the tote box inside is 28>2-in.
square by 12-in. deep. Labor and material costs S18,
weight is 375 lbs.
The tractor trailers have a 3-in. x 4-in. angle iron
frame 32 in. wide by 72 in. long welded at corners 19
in. high, mounted on four cast iron wheels with 5 in.
finished face. The front wheels are 12 in. dia. and the
rear 18 in. Wheels have roller bearings and Alennte
lubrication. Tongue has ring in end to couple on tiactor
or for use by hand. There is a double acting hook
in back of frame for making up trains of trailers. 1 lie
trailer weighs 970 lbs. and can be moved by hand
when loaded. Cost, $159.00.
For axles the trailers have two 5-in. channels with
ends bent up for standards 8 in. high, 36 in. apart,
bolted across the frame. For crankshafts the trailers
have two 5 in. channels with ends bent up for standards
24 in. high, 74 in. apart, bolted lengthwise on
the frame. The standard box is 18 in. deep, 29 in. wide,
66 in. long, inside, is bound by three iron bands, and
is made of \y>-in. maple.
Before purchasing the gasoline tractor all forgings
to be heat treated or pickeled were hauled to the heat
treat which is 1,100 ft. from the forge shop with 5
per cent grade part way by two electric trucks with
two men each. On account of this long heavy haul
the upkeep was high and they were out of service
for repairs quite often. Now one gasoline tractor with
one man does this work, moves trailers in the shop
and each morning hauls castings off the foundry floor
and delivers all switch forgings to the main building
with time to spare. While the tractors look bulky,
it is surprising how they can get around in the shop.
The tractor comes equipped with solid rubber tires
and brakes. The other equipment added was a double
acting hook, bolted onto the draw bar so the driver
can drop the tongue of a trailer in it without leaving
the seat. With this hook the trailer can be pulled or
Summary of savings by use of tote boxes, racks,
trailers and tractor.
Yes, Steel Can Be Advertised*
By Lynn Ellis
Funny how principles run true to form. Sugar,
steel or peanuts—they are all quite the same. Keep
them in bulk and advertising doesn't seem possible.
Yet look at Domino, Planters'. Armco.
Get about that far and the average steel man begins
to get violent. Armco seems to be a goat-getter as
well as a go-getter. From a steel man's point of view
there is apparently something sacred about the old
rules. Any independent who doesn't slash prices
when the going is bad and make it up by charging all
•Reprinted from Printers Ink, November 13. 1924.
the traffic will bear in a seller's market is open to suspicion.
Yet the Youngstown Pressed Steel Company has
broken a lot of these old rules in the last four years,
borne some little criticism for doing it, and is in a fair
way of again proving that "bulk and barter" produce
less restful sleep than "principle and printers' ink."
This company moved up from Youngstown into a
fine big $1,000,000 plant at Warren, Ohio, just in time
to feel the crunching sag of business toward the end
of 1920. It had, and has, two main divisions. One
makes heavy steel stampings for other manufacturers.
The other makes fire-proofing materials for building
construction—metal lath, corner bead, channels, expanded
metal, and sd on. Both lines were pretty flat
when 1921 opened.
Up to that time stampings had been regarded as
the company's bread and butter. About 90 per cent
of the business had been with automotive and agricultural
implement manufacturers. No two industries
could have been much deader, though the consumers'
strike had hit everybody.
In the fireproofing division there was a collection
of very slow and very old-fashioned metal lath machinery.
With prices on the down grade "YPS" could
not compete and make much profit. Costs were too
All in all, it took a rosy optimism, or else a courage
born of desperation, to dig up an advertising appropriation
and out of it pay an agency service fee.
Talking to the company's president an agency executive
said: "Mr. Galbreath, before I say I want this
account I want to know if your company will adopt a
policy of using advertising. I don't mean an advertising
program. I mean a policy of advertising. That
implies, since you are a steel man, that you may have
to bend a lot of other policies to meet this one. If
you're game to do that when we can show you the
way, you're on. We'll make it a test case. We'll see
if steel can be advertised."
The Campaign Gets Started.
Mr. Galbreath said, "Shoot. The first job is to get
some new stamping business. We make and carry
in stock some few parts for farm implements — seats,
lever latches, weight boxes, gong wheels, etc. Not
much immediately ahead of us there. We stamp a
lot of stuff from dies owned by motor car plants.
They're all down and what little business there is
comes on a cut-throat margin. But pressed steel made
the automobile possible, and the automobile in turn
made pressed steel. Can't we do the same thing for
some new lines of industry?"
He outlined a service they could render—examining
castings that might be redesigned, or "redeveloped,"
into pressed steel—making the dies turning out steel
parts at lower weight and cost, with greater strength,
with reduced costs in machining, less breakage in
transit, lower freight. So, beginning in April, 1921, a
very Jew industrial papers told executives this story.
The "before and after" treatment was used in illustrations
and copy. A new slogan, "Press It From Steel
Instead," gave the theme in a nutshell.
The advertising took hold. Manufacturers in all
sorts of lines were lying awake nights to figure ways
of meeting the buyers' strike, to cut costs or to add
reasons for maintaining old prices. Inquiries rolled
in. By August, seven development engineers were
busy figuring — just figuring, for orders were very,
very slow. But by the first of the next year they began
to come. Gasoline pumps, washing machines,
steel wheels, stoves — all sorts of new applications.
The ice broken, competitors of the first man in each
line were easier to land.
Each new job suggested a new mailing list, or a
new publication to use. Salesmen in the field studied
every casting they saw that might be worked over. A
"black book" of photographs proved convincing to
the manufacturer who was being driven to lower costs.
To shorten a long story, a new volume — close to
50 per cent of the total for 1922 — was literally dug
out of the big depression. Not only that, but this new
business, secured by a new type of service, proved
easier to hold by continued service. It struck and
repeated, and the repeat orders mounted to higher and
higher percentages compared with the original orders.
The eggs began to be spread around comfortably
among a number of baskets. It was easier breathing.
Redevelopment was not a brand new idea in the
pressed steel industry, but it had been more or less a
side issue. Mr. Galbreath made it the main issue. He
advertised it when every advertising dollar was a dollar
added to deficit. He built a needed service. His
salesmen demonstrated service. His engineers and
plant came through with service.
The business for 1924, on a lower price per pound,
will be considerably higher than the boom business
of 1920. Two-thirds or more will have come from
advertising and selling service instead of steel alone.
That's one of the modern principles that always proves
But, after all, stamping is just a job business. The
"YPS" executives looked rather skeptical when it was
pointed out, in 1921, that the stamping division could
never go so far as the fireproofing division, which then
represented only about a third of the grand total volume.
The real fun, and the campaign in which modern
principles had a real chance to prove themselves, lay
in bringing the fireproofing sales up to practically even
terms with pressed steel.
It was a year and a half after the new note was
struck on "redevelopment" before "YPS" made its
first significant move on fireproofing. Fifteen cities
had been furnishing the bulk of the volume. Into
those cities the metal lath industry poured a young
army of salesmen to bid on every big job. Prices were
shaved until there was often nothing left for the dealer,
and sales were made direct to the contractor. It
was not so hard on concerns which also had a widespread
small-town dealer business at longer prices.
It was hard on "YPS" because the loyal dealer list was
pitifully short and produced little volume.
After a long debate one night in August, 1922,
"YPS" suddenly announced a flat price in city and
country alike, coupled with a 100 per cent dealer protection
policy. That meant a higher price in the city
and a lower price in the country. Competition was a
bit upset by this fire in the rear, but dealers responded
with enthusiasm, and immediately orders came piling
in by mail.
forging- Stamping - Heat Treating
Improved machinery and a prompt source of sheets
and strips from the parent concern, the Sharon Steel
Hoop Company, put "YPS" in position to meet prices
and maintain a profit. Dealers liked the fair-play
policy and distribution increased. But the salesmen
were still selling products instead of products plus.
Then Mr. Galbreath let out another lap. Some little
time before, the Commissioner of the Associated
Metal Lath Manufacturers, Wharton Clay, had visualized
to the industry the tremendous possibilities in getting
just a little metal lath into every frame house.
A strip here and there in corners to prevent plaster
cracks, and some more to give fire protection back of
stoves, over the furnace, etc.,—at an additional cost
of only 2 per cent—spelled a possible hundredfold increase.
The industry already had given up talking one
metal lath against another and was talking metal lath
construction. Later on it went further, and agreed
to concentrate its advertising on fire and crack prevention,
including a one-hour fire rating for metal lath
and plaster on wood studding and more or less to the
exclusion of suspended ceilings, two-inch solid partitions
in office buildings, back plastered stucco exteriors,
etc. In short it undertook to build volume out of
"YPS" went further. It put on a modest campaign
in a woman's magazine or two—enough to show good
faith—then went to the dealer in town and country
with this new story of a field for him to work. The
sales force was geared up to sell every small dealer the
idea of stocking a little lath and pushing the fire and
crack prevention idea to the householder. Dealers
were supplied with attractive folders for distribution.
A "Better Homes" booklet was offered in magazine
advertisements. The directors hitched up their belts
and decided to stay with it until a full line of products,
a fair dealer policy and a constructive selling idea were
given a chance to demonstrate.
Today, the "YPS" fireproofing salesman is turning
in a steadily increasing volume per square mile of territory.
Dealers are working. Even with a much lower
price per yard, this year's volume in dollars will
nearly double that of 1920. The "YPS" percentage of
all sales in the industry has also increased. And even
the most hide-bound, old-time salesmen on the force
are selling a Big Idea—products plus.
"YPS" is advertising the idea to dealer, architect
and consumer. One of the smallest concerns in the
industry, it has taken the lead in crystallizing an idea
which is on the verge of national acceptance. With
standardized units and high quality in the product, a
loyal and growing dealer organization and a sales
crew tuned up to the ideas expressed in the advertising,
modern marketing principles are again working
out in the steel business.
The advertising has not been at all reckless—something
less than 2 per cent on net volume in both divisions.
But it has furnished a keynote by which policies,
product and service have been raised to new high
levels. Further visions of a line of specialties—the
sort of article that can be built into an "own-brand"
business, and already expressed in coal chute doors
and basement sash, are coming closer to realization.
28 forging - S tamping - Heat Treating
Correspondence Course in Heat Treatment
and Metallography of Steel
Forging-Stamping-Heat Treating has arranged
with Mr. Horace C. Knerr, Director of the Course in
Heat Treatment and Metallography of Steel being
given at Temple University, Philadelphia, Pa., to offer
through this publication, a correspondence course, covering
the same subject.
This course will run for about one year. It will
include a complete set of lessons covering the topics
as outlined below, examination papers for each lesson,
marking and returning papers, personal instruction
by letter where needed, a series of laboratory exercises
to be performed by the student, and a set of
metal specimens for metallographic study. The equipment
required will be simple, and will be such as many
men have available in the plant in which they are employed.
The course is intended for those who wish to study
the treatment, structure and properties of steel in
their spare time. Fundamental principles will be emphasized.
The charge for the complete course will be $25.00.
For further information write to the Editor, Forging-
Stamping-Heat Treating, Box 65, Pittsburgh, Pa.
Outline of Course
1—An Ancient Craft and a Modern Science
3—Principles of Chemistry and Physics
4—Physical Properties of Steel
II. MANUFACTURE OF IRON AND STEEL
1—Processes of Manufacture
(a) Ores and Materials
(b) Pig Iron
(c) Wrought Iron
(d) Crucible Steel
(f) Open Hearth
(a) Hot Working
(b) Cold Working
1—Microscopic Examination of Metals
(a) The Metallurgical Microscope
(b) Preparation of Specimens, Polishing, Etching
(a) Deep Etching
(b) Sulphur Printing
(d) (a) Pure Segregations Metals
3—Structure (b) Alloys of Metals
(c) Wrought Iron
(d) Steel, Low, Medium and High Carbon
(e) Cast Iron, etc.
(f) Alloy Steels
icro-Constituents of Steel
5—Critical Points of Steel—Their Manifestations
1—Heat and Temperature
2—Methods of Measuring Temperature
(a) Melting, Freezing, Boiling Point
(c) Electrical Resistance
4—Galvanometers and Millivoltmeters
V. THERMAL ANALYSIS
1—Methods of Determining Critical Points
2—Heating and Cooling Curves
(a) Time-Temperature Curves
(b) Inverse Rate Curves
(c) Difference Curves
VI. THEORY OF HARDENING
1—Nature of Critical Points
(b) Solid Solution
3—Slip Interference Theory
VII. HEAT TREATMENT
1—Purposes of Heat Treatment
(a) Tool Steels
(b) Structural Steels
(a) Effects of Alloys
6—High Speed Steel
7—Equipment Used in Heat Treatment
(c) Quenching Equipment
(e) Temperature and Atmosphere Control
8—Miscellaneous and Special Treatments
VIII. INSPECTION AND TESTING
(a) Tensile Tests: Tensile Strength, Yield Point, Proportional
Limit, Elongation, Reduction of
(b) Area, Modulus of Elasticity
Hardness Tests: Brinell, Shore Scleroscope,
(c) Rockwell Hardness Tester, etc.
(d) Impact Tests: Oharpy, Izod, etc.
(e) Fatigue Tests
(f) Magnetic Testing
4—Inspection During Fabrication
Give your brain a little exercise on this puzzle.
It contains no words of more than five letters, practically
all of which are frequently used by technical men.
Solution of the puzzle will appear in the February
Z 3 4
L. • •
• -' 32 J3
forging- Stamping - Heat Treating
1. Incapable of reflecting light.
S. Strength or energy.
10. Knowledge gained from books or experience.
12. Part of a jib crane.
13. A grain.
14. A wooden fixture having a brass foot rail as an accessory
(now almost extinct).
IS. To immerse in a liquid.
16. One dimension of a tubular object, (ab.)
17. A tool used for cutting out blanks.
19. Commissioned officer in the army, (ab.)
20. Bachelor of Laws, (ab.)
22. That which forms part of a track.
23. That which binds together.
25. A prefix signifying again.
27. Chemical symbol for selenium.
29. Chemical symbol for rubidium.
31. A metal pin for uniting plates.
34. Point of the compass.
35. An age or period of time.
36. A device to catch or entrap.
37. A perforated block of metal used in conjunction with a
fastening device (sometimes used to designate inmates of an
38. To shut with force.
40. A system of rules or regulations.
41. An alloy of iron and iron carbide.
42. Measure of capacity in the metric system.
1. Roughly forged or rolled mass of steel or wrought iron.
3. Skill or science.
4. Chemical symbol for cerium.
6. A prefix signifying before or against.
7. A bar of wood or metal also a measure of length.
8. To wind.
9. Void or exhausted.
11. Receptacle for liquids.
17. A small tool for cutting or bending rods.
18. Apparatus for lifting.
20. A long slender piece of metal.
21. A single unit.
24. A machine for shaping metal.
26. Used for heating and drying.
28. An instrument; also a measure of length.
30. A piece of metal used as a fastener.
32. Not out.
33. English translation (ab.).
37. Used to express negation.
39. A pronoun of the first person.
40. Highly carburized iron (ab.).
1,515,778. Method and apparatus for heat generation
and control. Ralph W. E. Leach of Boston, Mass.
In an apparatus of this kind, the combination with
a housing providing a fuel combustion chamber and a
retort chamber in communication with the latter, of
material containers located within said retort chamber
and around which pass the products of combustion
from said retort chamber, a fuel supporting grate in
said combustion chamber, an air-tight compartment
beneath said grate, means for returning a predetermined
proportion of products of completed combustion
after discharge from said retort chamber into said
air-tight compartment to pass thence upwardly
through the fuel bed supported by said grate, and an
air delivery means having discharge means arranged
beneath a portion of the area of said grate for delivering
air to support combustion of fuel mixed with
returned products of completed combustion sufficient
to reheat said returned products of completed combustion
and regulate the resultant of the additional
fuel burned to the desired temperature degree and at
maintained desired volume.
1,515,794. Process of making steel ingots free
from blowholes. Isaac M. Scott of Wheeling, W. Va.,
and Samuel Peacock of Philadelphia, Pa.
The process of producing steel ingots free from
blow holes and contaminating oxides which consists
in mixing iron oxide With molten pig iron to eliminate
a portion of the carbides and any compounds of
silicon present; refining the molten metal thus produced
by subjecting it to the action of reducing gases;
and adding ferrosodium to the refined product in a
quantity sufficient to remove all oxides and occluded
1,516,059. Process and apparatus for making expanded
metal. Edward T. Redding of Swissvale,
Pa., assignor to Consolidated Expanded Metal Companies,
a corporation of Pennsylvania.
The process of producing a substantially flat sheet
of metallic fabric from a previously formed sheet of
Golding fabric which consists in turning over the end
portions of the sheet of Golding fabric approximately
into the plane of the sheet to be formed and in passing
the sheet through rolling means to turn over the
strands and connecting bridges.
30 forging - Stamping - Heat Treating
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AJAX HEADING MACHINE
The Ajax Manufacturing Company,
Cleveland, Ohio, have designed a heavy
duty continuous motion heading machine.
with the primary purpose of producing
machines of ruggcdncss and durability.
The heads of rivets, carriage bolts and
track bolts are formed without flash and
do not require trimming. In filling out
the corners of square and hex-headed machine
bolts, however, a washer shaped
flash is thrown out around the bottom of
the head, which is afterwards trimmed
off cold in a vertical trimming press.
These machines will produce rivets or
bolts up to and including the size of
their rating from stock at the usual forging
temperatures of from 1500 deg. to
1800 deg. F. When operating on stock
below the scaling temperatures, commonly
known as "semi-hot," the machine
is capable of. heading work up to threefourths
of its normal rated capacity.
The general arrangement has been improved
by transferring the die slide operating
mechanism from the left to the
1 * ffiSsJ
creased and the quality of the products
The headerslide, of increased length, is
maintained in perfect alignment by the
"V-type" ways, roll lubricated, in which
it operates. The dieslide is top-suspended
so that its bearings are not subjected to
an accumulation of scale, and its front
side liner is adjustable to take up wear
so as to assure square shearing of the
With the hand feed machine, rods
heated to four or five feet in length are
fed into the machine against the stock
gauge by the operator by hand, the machine
shearing off a blank, heading and
ejecting at the rate of from 14,000 to
18.000 counts per 10 hours.
With the automatic roll feed, mill length
rods are heated in a long furnace set
about three feet from the front of the
machine. The operator need only start
the rod into the rolls, which feed it into
the machine, so that a piece is produced
on each revolution. Outputs vary from
30,000 to 50,000 counts per 10 hours, de-
1 * X ^ l
^^•k ^ T^Sk C ^ J t ^ ^ l
FIG. 1- -Ajax continuous heading machine.
right hand side, making it possible for
the operator to feed the stock, watch the
quality of holts or rivets as they come
through the discharge port, which is on
the left, and adjust the stock gauge, all
from one position. This arrangement
leaves the left hand side of the machine
clear, materially expediting the setting
of dies and tools. By thus facilitating
the operation of the machine and the
supervision of production, outputs are in-
pending on the length and size of rivets
All sizes of machines can be furnished
either belt driven through countershaft
or direct gear motor driven through safety
friction clutch coupling.
The automatic roll feed mechanism is
operated from an adjustable crank pin at
the end of the crankshaft. The eccentricity
of this pin is changed by means
of an adjusting screw so that the rolls
iniiiiiiiiiii ihiiiiiiim n « iniiimimmii mn urn
feed the correct amount of stock to produce
any given length bolt or rivet. The
rachet arm is fitted with two dogs, staggered
to give refinement of feed.
The feed rolls which carry the heated
bar stock consist of rings with the circumference
grooved to suit the various
sizes of stock. They are mounted in
holders on the roll shafts so as to be
easily changed for different sizes of stock
FIG. 2 (Above)—Top-suspended die slide
of Ajax heading machine. (Below)—
and adjusted laterally for different shear
center distances. The roll pressure is
controlled by removable weights mounted
on the bearings of the upper roll shafts
which are movable vertically.
With direct motor drive a safety friction
clutch coupling cushions the motor
from shocks and protects both the machine
and motor from damage should
anything prevent a complete revolution
of the crankshaft.
The steel bed is of the ribbed type with
continuous housings for the crankshaft
bearings. It is extremely heavy and its
deep sections and liberal flanges make it
so rigid between crankshaft and backing
plate that it is not necessary to pack up
excessively behind the heading tool to
bring rivet or bolt heads down to the
proper thickness. This eliminates the
pounding of the head tool on the dies
on idle strokes and increases the life of
The crankshaft is of special analysis
steel forging of the single throw, two
main bearing type with cylindrical cheeks,
and large journal and eccentric pin diameters.
All toggle pins are large and of
The headerslide, Fig. 2, is top-suspended
from "V-type" bearings. It is especially
forging- Stamping - Heat Treating
long for steadiness and the "V-type" timing for different shear center disbearings
maintain it in perfect align- tances.
ment, eliminating the difficulty from The toolholders are of the extension
eccentricity of bolt and rivet heads which type and of special analysis steel casting.
is experienced with plain bearings. The Two lengths arc furnished as standard
trough ways of the bed, in which the equipment, so as to keep the heading
headerslide bearings operate, are above tools as short and stiff as possible, thus
FIG. 3—Spindle arrangement of Holmes bolt threader.
the scale line. They are roll lubricated
from two reservoirs and drain at the
front, so that good lubrication with clean
oil is maintained. The bearings on the
headerslide and the ways in the bed are
both removable for realignment.
The die slide, Fig. 2, is top-suspended
from plain bronze faced bearings. Its
great length and liberal side bearing
areas keep it in alignment for long service.
A wedge liner on the crankshaft
side, adjustable without removing any
parts, makes it possible to keep the moving
die back tight on the cutter, so as to
shear the stock squarely.
The breast plate is a heavy, special
analysis steel forging with a large rectangular
cutter holder which takes the
direct wear of the dies. The new type
rectangular cutter with semi-circular cutting
grooves in two edges has proved
most satisfactory in service, and is economical
The ejector is of the walking beam
type operated from a cam on the inside
of the flywheel. The cam is adjustable to
control the time of kick-out and offset
The stock gauge can be adjusted by
means of the hand wheel while the machine
is running. The hand wheel is convenient
to the operator as he watches
the product being headed so that adjustments
can be made quickly, for a slight
variation in the stock diameter so that
this all cam heads gauge on the will is headerslide be adjustable properly filled which to change out. actuates the The
minimizing heading tool costs. An adjusting
wedge back of the toolholders
provides an effective means for fine adjustment
of the tool, and, in case the machine
is stalled on center by the tool
mashing a rivet against the face of the
dies, the wedge can be driven down and
the tool released.
SIX SPINDLE BOLT THREADER
A bolt threader of entirely new design
has been developed by Holmes Engineering
Company, Oshkosh, Wis., who have
been assisted by Graham Bolt & Nut
Company of Pittsburgh, Pa., in completing
The machine was designed for rapidly
threading bolts up to Y% in. in diameter
and from 1 in. to 12 in. long. Only bolts
having square, hexagon or clipped heads,
or square or oval shanks can be threaded.
The operator loads and knocks out the
bolts, but all other operations are fully
automatic, including conveying the bolts
into skip boxes. Under actual working
conditions, it was found practicable to
cut threads on smaller sizes of bolts at
the rate of 60 per minute, without undue
fatigue to the operator, and on the larger
sizes a speed of 50 bolts per minute was
steadily maintained. Slower feeds of 30
or 40 bolts per minute can be instantly
shifted to in order to take care of threads
of unusual length and for operators unaccustomed
to the machine. Several
changes of cutting speeds are arranged
for to take care of cutting bolts of various
sizes as no chaser speed is used
greater than 30 feet per minute.
The six tilted spindles are placed at an
angle of 30 deg. from vertical to permit of
the use of self-clamping slots, to provide
ample lubrication of working parts, free
washing away of chips, and to facilitate
ejection of threaded bolts into the conveyor.
Sixty quarts of cutting lubricant
flow through the spindles every minute.
Twelve synchronized cams are employed,
six to start the bolts and six to
close the die heads, but as these cams
ii&gi,-, —#•: •••" *':••"•"—r~*~ •'-
IS ° - - '*-
' anLaHl . i ^ |
f *-> ^-rfMtmawWfc'iWmm
32 forging- Stamping - Heat Treating
the design has been clearly demonstrated. to various kinds of work may be easily
The lower set of counterweights start the applied by securing them to the body
bolls and the upper set close the die with the two screws provided. For the
heads. In the photograph of the rear inspection of small pieces and specimens
view of the machine, the left hand spindle the microscope may be attached to the
I':'-;. •r^f»,HH(**J11 ^tmk^
FIG. 5—Zeiss microscope fitted for laboratory use
has received and is cutting a bolt, the column of a stand, the knee of which is
second spindle is being entered, and the adjustable by rack and pinion.
die head of the third spindle is just clos The microscope for structure testing
may be illuminated by daylight or by
A complete change of set up can be means of an electric lamp. In this case,
made in 10 minutes, and if the set up is the source of light is a low current incan
merely from length to length, the change descent lamp consuming 0.4 amp., the
can be made in one minute on all six voltage
being 4. The current may be
A NOVEL MICROSCOPE
Carl Zeiss of Jena. Germany, offers a
microscope entirely different from usual
lines, so as to meet the demands of both
the scientific laboratory and of the shop,
and to make it suitable for objects of the
most diversified shapes. The instrument
is sufficiently rigid and easy to apply so
that it may be given into the hands of
the foreman for the inspection of work
during any stage of finishing or for making
tests in connection with the heattreating
department, whereby valuable
information about annealing periods,
hardening temperatures, carbonizing me
dia, etc.. may be obtained.
The microscope may be used for inspecting
shafts, cylindrical pieces, shoulders
and fillets in crank shafts, bent
shafts, eccentrics and plain surfaces.
Other attachments for adapting the tool
work of various shapes, and that the use
of this instrument will open up a new
field of research.
The microscope is not confined to the
examination of test pieces and specfmens,
but shows defects of material used
in the finished product. It gives valuable
information regarding the manufacturing
processes and the changes in
structure caused by faulty heat treatment,
cutting or grinding operations. In order
to produce the grain the metal is first
cut by planing, milling or sawing and the
surfaces to be inspected are lapped and
polished until all scratches disappear.
Care should be taken not to heat the
metal unduly when cutting or grinding.
The grain is then produced by the use
of etching reagents, which act differently
on the various components and thus
make them distinguishable under the
For laboratory use the microscope is
furnished with base, bellows, shutter,
plate holders, condenser lens and lamp.
George Scherr, 143 Liberty Street, New
York, is exclusive American representative
for this instrument.
FIG. 7—Procunier double jaw quick change chuck.
furnished by a storage battery or taken
from a 110 or 220 volt current by interposing
a reducing rheostat.
It will be readily seen from the illustrations
that the microscope tills a distinct
need in the shop for inspecting
FIG. 6—Carl Zeiss portable microscope and equipment.
QUICK CHANGE CHUCK
William L. Procunier, 18 South Clinton
Street, Chicago, 111., has recently placed
on the market a new "double jaw" quick
change chuck. By adapting this tool on
a single spindle drill press it can be converted
into a semi-multiple spindle press,
as it is not necessary to stop the machine
to change tools in the chuck. When the
operator lifts up a sleeve or collar, it
allows two balls to slide out of the
pocket of the collet, allowing it to drop
in the operator's hand, and a different
one may be inserted in the chuck without
moving the work out of alignment.
There are several different types of
collets which will handle all classes of
tools, such as taper shank drills, and
reamers, machine taps, round button dies
and blanks, which can be made to suit
special requirements. The collets as well
as the chuck are of hardened steel and
ground throughout, assuring durability and
BEAUDRY UTILITY HAMMERS
Beaudry Company, Inc., Everett, Mass.,
has recently brought out a utility hammer
for shops where there is not sufficient
blacksmithing done to warrant a
large investment Jn a power hammer.
FIG. 8—Beaudry utility hammer.
These hammers are built in three sizes
only, 25, 50 and 100 lbs. weight of ram,
and for their size have an exceptionally
long stroke and may be operated at a
very high rate of speed. Being self-contained
and cast in one piece, they require
no extensive foundation and in manycases
may be bolted direct to the floor
without any other support.
The ram or hammer head is of steel
and has external elliptical-shaped tracks.
Two steel spring arms, with steel rollers
at the lower extremites and a helical
spring at, the top, operate upon the
curved tracks and lift and throw the
ram, which, with increased speed of hammer,
acquires increased travel and force
or blow. Full stroke can be had on varying
thicknesses of stock ana no change
of adjustment is necessary excepting for
unusually heavy or special work.
The hammer is started, stopped and
regulated by a foot treadle extending
around the base of machine. By varying
the pressure on the treadle, any desired
speed or force of blow may be obtained.
The ram is carefully machined and fitted
to heavy guides and is adjustable on its
connecting rod for varying heights above
the dies. It has an adjustable taper gib
for taking up wear. These hammers may
be worked to equal advantage from all
sides, the anvil clearing the main frame
casting, allowing bars of any length to
be worked either way.
forging- Stamping - Heat Treating
As regularly furnished, these hammers Exhaustive tests at the experimental
may be operated by an overhead belt laboratories of the manufacturers, over a
running at any angle or by a motor at long period and on various types of dip
tached to the frame as shown. They tanks and inflammables, have proved this
may be turned into a motor-drive at any new automatic extinguisher to be abso
time without any mechanical change exlutely dependable in operation. In test
cept for the bolting on of the motor after test, the release has operated in less
bracket and the attaching of the motor. than 10 seconds, extinguishing the fire before
it has a possibility of spreading to
SMALL FIRE EXTINGUISHER the overhead construction or surrounding
To meet the demand for a small fire-
room. The 100 gallons of Firefoam genextinguisher
for isolated small dip tanks,
erated by the device is discharged in ap
the Foamite-Childs Corporation, Utica,
proximately one minute.
N. Y., has just developed a small auto
The automatic extinguisher is capable
matic Foamite extinguishei operating on
of extinguishing a fire in a dip tank hav
the same principle as their large engine
ing 30 square feet of exposed surface,
with the necessary margin of safety. It
is leak-proof against the evaporation of
This device, in outward appearance, is
the chemical solutions, as all openings
a 22-in. red enameled cube, fitted with a
are upward and covered with stoppers
three-point suspension for nanging over
when the device is in the set position.
the risk. The interior contains a tumbler
Its operation and maintenance are very
with a capacity of six gallons of each of
simple. It is only necessary to set the
the- two Foamite- solutions. The tumbler
Lowe release and refill the extinguisher
is set eccentrically on trunnions, and pre
after the fire.
vented from rotating by the Lowe release.
At the first flash of fire, the heat
actuated device, operated on a rate of
A new helve hammer, radically different
in design from other hammers of this
class, is an addition to the line of the
Beaudry Company, Inc., Everett, Mass.
The hammer has no rubber bumpers,
being cushioned entirely by air, which is
ideal for cushioning purposes and is the
The hammer consists of a well designed,
semi-enclosed frame, upon the
rear of which is an adjustable yoke supporting
the helve at its pivoted end.
Within the frame is the air compressor
cast in one piece with the helve actuating
cylinder, the piston of which connects
with the helve. A rotary valve
operated by the treadle, is located between
the two cylinders for controlling the
FIG. 9—Fire extinguisher for dip tanks.
rise principle, causes the release to trip
the trigger holding the tumbler. The
tumbler rotates, permitting the two solutions
to combine in the mixing chamber
and expand to eight times their volume in
The Firefoam generated has unusual
extinguishing value, and drops directly
from the mixing chamber to the dip tank.
By cutting off the supply of oxygen
necessary to support combustion, it puts
the fire out and keeps it out. As the
blanket of Firefoam stands up long after
the fire is extinguished, there is no possibilitv
FIG. 10—Beaudry air-cushioned helve
The construction of the machine permits
the operator to deliver the lightest
tap or heaviest blow at full speed, which
means practically doubling the daily production.
The force of the blow is regulated
as heretofore by simply more or less
pressure on the foot treadle. This varia-
,u Forging- Stamping - Heat Treating
tion does not change the speed of the
hammer, but simply the force of the blow
and enables the operator to obtain light,
quick blows which are so essential to
finishing any forging.
The helve is designed for belt or motor
drive. When belt driven, tight and loosepulley
and belt shifter form part of theunit,
the belt being shifted to the loose
pulley only for long stops. When motor
driven, the tight pulley is replaced by a
gear engaging the pinion of the motor
which is supported upon a bracket secured
to the hammer frame which allows
the hammer to be placed in any location
desired, independent of line shafts. The
crankshaft runs in bronze ring-oiling bear-
iiiihiiiiiiii iiiiiiiiii iiiiiiiiiiinii iiiiiiiiiiiiiiiiiiiiiiiiiiiiiiiiiiiiiiiiiiiiiiiiiiiiiiiiiiiiiiiiiiiiiiiiiiiiiiiiiiiiiiiiiiiiiiiiiiiiiiiiiiiiiimiiiiiiiiiiiiiiiiiiimiiiiiiimmuiiio
Walter X. Crafts has recently become associated
with the American Chain Company, as works manager
of the Reading Steel Casting Company, Reading, Pa.
For the past live years he has been general manager
of the Canadian Electric Steel Company, Ltd., of
Montreal, and during the war period was general superintendent
of the Toronto plant of the British Forgings,
Ltd., the largest producer of electric furnace steel
Dr. Zay Jerferies was the speaker at the monthly
meeting of the Pittsburgh Chapter, American Society
for Steel Treating at the Fort Pitt Hotel, Pittsburgh,
Tuesday. December 2. his subject being "More About
Steel" Dr. Jeffries is head of the research bureau of
the Aluminum Company of America. Cleveland.
Y E. Hillman, director of research at the Crompton
e\: Knowles Loom Works. Worcester. Mass., delivered
a paper on the evening of December 19 on "The Evolution
of the Blast Furnace and the Manufacture of
Pig Iron from Iron Ore" at a joint meeting of the
American Society for Steel Treating and the American
Chemical Society at the rooms of the Providence Engineering
Society. Providence, R. I.
Martin H. Schmid, metallurgical engineer of the
United Alio}- Steel Corporation. Canton, Ohio, has
been appointed assistant general manager of sales of
the alloy divison of the company, effective December
1. He was graduated from Lehigh University in 1907
with the degree of mechanical engineer and for two
years was engaged in power plant work.
E. B. Rogers, formerly superintendent of the Samson
Tractor Company. Janesville, Wis., has been appointed
superintendent of the Midwest Forgings Company.
Chicago Heights, 111., succeeding R. C. Rowan,
who resigned to engage in other business.
Dr. Waldemar Dryssen has been appointed chief
engineer of the furnace equipment department and
the forge and hammer welding department of the
Blaw-Knox Company. Blawknox, Pa.
FIG. 11—Air compressor and actuating
cylinder of Beaudry hammer.
ings, thereby insuring efficient lubrication.
When adjusting the dies for different
thicknesses of work four nuts are loosened
on the pivot yoke and the hand wheel on
the top of the machine is turned the
proper amount to raise or lower the yoke
after which the four nuts are tightened.
The connecting rod of the helve is adjusted
by a turnbuckle. These adjustments
the operator makes without help.
The pivot of the helve consists of hardened
steel centers, easy of adjustment,
and affords means for entirely eliminating
side play of the dies so that they may
always register with each other, thereby
giving perfect alignment, which makes
them very satisfactory for the work.
John H. Hall, Metallurgist of the Taylor-Wharton
Iron & Steel Company, High Bridge, N. J., and G. R.
Hank, superintendent of the same company, gave addresses
on the subject of manganese steel before the
members of the Industrial Club, Bethlehem, Pa., at a
Marcus A. Grossman is affiliated with the United
Alloy Steel Corporation, Canton, Ohio, in charge of
the research division.
Charles Kachel, for 14 years superintendent of the
Bossert Corporation, Utica, N. Y., has retired from the
sheet metal stamping business and will make his home
in Miami, Fla. He expects to organize a sales organization
in that city.
Henry W. Darling, for more than 30 years treasurer
of the General Electric Company, has resigned
and on January 1 will be succeeded by R. S. Murray,
who has been assistant treasurer of the company since
1910. In accepting the resignation of Mr. Darling as
treasurer, the Board of Directors elected him a vice
president with such duties as shall be assigned to him
by the president.
George Urick, 40 years old, superintendent of the
open-hearth department of the Duquesne steel works,
Carnegie Steel Company, Pittsburgh, was found dead
in the attic of his home in Duquesne, Pa. Mr. Urick
according to a report to the coroner's office, hanged
W. Lucien Scaife, aged 71, a former manufacturer
of Pittsburgh, died in his home December 5. He formerly
was chairman of the board of directors of the
Scaife Foundry & Machine Company, Pittsburgh, and
was one of the first trustees of Carnegie Institute of
L. Leslie Helmer, general manager of the Cumberland.
Md., works of N. & G. Taylor Company,
Philadelphia, manufacturers of tin plate, died of
typhoid fever at his residence on December 24, aged
47 years. John M. Read, formerly assistant general
manager, has been advanced to the position of general
Arc Welding and Cutting Manual, by General Electric
Company staff; cloth; 127 pages, 8xl0y>. This
has been given the designation Y-2007 and was issued
to acquaint the uninformed in a general way with
some of the applications of arc welding, and to provide
a simple and logical method by which one may
acquire a certain familiarity with the manipulation of
the electric welding arc and its characteristics.
The volume is profusely illustrated with photographs,
diagrams and charts explanatory of the text.
It is divided into three parts, the first devoted to general
information on arc welding, the second to a training
course for operators, and the third giving a number
of applications for arc welding. The manual
should prove very valuable in practically all industries
and trades. It is being distributed at a nominal
Structural Metallography, by H. B. Pulsifer; cloth;
210 pages, 6x8^4; 146 illustrations; published by the
Chemical Publishing Co., and distributed by Forging-
Stamping-Heat Treating. Price $5.00, postpaid.
The purpose of this rather abundantly illustrated
book is to give beginners an introductory text, which
shall present as clearly as possible the principles, the
scope and significance of metallography.
One of the aims of this book is to provide students
with illustrations of metal structures, to explain how
these structures can be discovered and pictured, to
tell something about their origin and to summarize
the property changes dependent on structure.
A list of texts and articles covering the most important
and comprehensive contributions on the subject
of metallography is included. Contents: 1—Introduction,
2—Metal Structures and Testing, 3—The Solidification
of Metals, 4—Smoothing and Etching Metal
Surfaces, 5—Photomicrography, 6—Some Properties
of Metals and Simple Structures, 7—The Pure Metals,
8—The Iron-Carbon Series, 9—The Iron-Carbon Series
(continued), Iron and Steel Castings, 10—Transformations
and Treatments, 11—Worked Metal and
12—The Major Alloys.
Forging- Stamping - Heat Treating
The Collins Manufacturing Company, Lewistown,
Pa., is running full at its local plant, with production
on a basis of about 1,300 doz. axes per week. The
company recently succeeded to the plant and business
of the Mann Axe & Tool Company, Mann's Narrows,
The Pressed Steel Tank Company, Milwaukee,
manufacturer of steel barrels, drums and other containers,
acetylene cylinders, annealing pots, pressure
tanks, etc., has issued $500,000 first (closed) mortgage
serial gold bonds, the proceeds to be used to facilitate
the enlargement of production and business generally.
The plant is situated in West Allis and consists of six
acres with buildings of 200,000 sq. ft. of floor space.
Fixed assets were appraised March 15, 1924 at $1,257,-
535. Herman O. Brumder is president.
The Gibb Instrument Company, Bay City, Mich.,
has changed its name to the Gibb Welding Machines
Company. The change is in name only and not in personnel,
and was made to better describe the company
and its products.
The Endicott Forging and Manufacturing Company,
Inc., Endicott, N. Y., have under construction a
new brick building 50 x 130 feet.
The Parish Manufacturing Company, Chestnut
Street, Reading, Pa., manufacturer of automobile axles,
frames, etc., has acquired about 10 acres near the
northern city limits, and contemplates the early erection
of a new plant to increase its present output about
50 per cent. The company is occupying the former
shops of the Philadelphia and Reading Railway Company.
The Continental Axle Company, Edgerton, Wis.,
affiliated with the Highway Trailer Company, same
city, is erecting a steel foundry as an addition to its
automobile, truck, tractor and trailer axle and spring
works. The portions of the plant badly damaged by
fire some time ago also are being repaired and inquiry
is being made for some new machinery. J. W. Menhall
is general manager.
Allen Specialty Company, Chicago, has changed its
name to the American Automotive Accessories Corporation,
and increased its stock from $100,000 to
The United States Stamping Company, Moundsville,
W. Va., manufacturer of enameled wares, is remodeling
its plant Xo. 2, which will be devoted exclusively
to the manufacture of a single coat gray
The Painter-Bundy Tool Company, Box 1162, Fort
Worth, Texas, has been incorporated with capital
stock of $150,000 to manufacture drilling and fishing
tools. Its main plant is at Fort Worth and branch
plant at Wichita Falls, Texas. Special attention will
be given to a new rotary bit and core drill. M. A.
Bundy is president.
The Murray Body Corporation, Detroit, has been
formed with a capital of $12,300,000 to take over and
consolidate the R. G. Wilson Body Company, J. C.
Widman Company, and the Towson Body Corporation,
all operating local plants for the manufacture of
closed automobile bodies. The new company will be
affiliated with the J. W. Murray Manufacturing Company,
Detroit, manufacturers of automobile sheet steel
products, of which J. W and J. R. Murray are heads.
The corporation will operate four individual plants,
and has plans for expansion. Allen Shelden will be
president and Gordon Fairgreaves, heretofore manager
of the Towson ^Body Company, general manager. A
bond issue of $4,000,000 is being arranged.
The Hughes Steel and Equipment Company, now
at Allegan, Mich., will move to Holland, Mich., where
it will occupy the former Gunsey Willow Company
factory. The Hughes company manufactures steel
36 Forging- Stamping - Heat Treating
The Horni Signal Manufacturing Corporation,
Newark, X. J., care of Isador Stern, 20 Branford
Place, registered agent, has leased the building at 153-
55 Frelinghuysen Avenue, for a new plant to manufacture
traffic signal lamps and other electric signal devices.
The company was chartered recently with a
capital of $500,000 by Paul P Horni and Charles Milbauer.
The last noted has been elected president.
Standard Guage Steel Company, Beaver Falls, Pa.,
manufacturer of finished steel specialties, announce the
removal of its Chicago office to 547 Webster Building,
327 S. LaSalle Street, in charge of S. A. Dinsmore,
district sales manager.
The Ford Motor Company is adding departments
for manufacturing truck radius rods and running board
brackets to its Hamilton, < >., plant. This plant has
been manufacturing Ford wheels chiefly and daily production
is 12,000 wheels. The company is understood
to be planning an assembly plant in Hamilton just east
of the present site.
Power Transmission Machinery — W A. Jones
Foundry and Machine Company. Catalog Xo. 31. Covers
shaft hangers, pillow blocks, couplings, collars,
belt tighteners, mule stands, bench legs, etc.; all items
are well illustrated, listed, dimensioned, tabulated, etc.
The very latest data on a completely rounded out line
of quality transmission appliances.
Sprocket Wheels and Chain Belting — W. A. Long
Foundry and Machine Company. Catalog No. 32.
Covers a full line of sprocket wheels and chain belting,
as well as chain tighteners, elevator boots, buckets,
bolts, hand wheels, etc., illustrations, listing prices and
complete specifications on all items shown.
Electric Hoists — Shepard Electric Crane & Hoist
Company, has issued a catalog illustrating and describing
the floor operated hoists that this company makes.
The various types and forms are briefly portrayed with
excellent illustrations showing the hoist in operation
and a view of the product itself. Data, price lists and
dimensions are included in the catalog.
Welding and Cutting Apparatus — Oxy-acetylene
and oxy-hydrogen welding and cutting apparatus are
described and illustrated in a catalog issued bv the
Burdett Manufacturing Company. Chicago. 111. Torches,
mixers, tips, regulators and other accessories are
shown and the many uses of the products are also
Electric Furnaces — The Electric Heating Apparatus
Company, Newark. N. J., has published a pamphlet
describing its line of electric furnaces. The
work is well illustrated with many views of installations
and the characteristics and dimensions of the
various types of furnaces are listed.
Electric Ovens — The F. A. Coleman Companv,
Cleveland, recently issued a folder describing and
illustrating one of its installations at the plant oi the
Ferro Machine & Foundry Company. Cleveland. The
oven is of the continuous electric type for drying pasted
and blackened cores.
Welding Eelectrode — The General Electric Company,
Schenectady. N. Y., has issued a booklet describing
a new type of welding electrode. Details are
given on electrode construction and characteristics.
Results of tests on welded cast iron specimens and
deposited metal specimens are described, and oscillograms
demonstrating arc stability are reproduced. Instructions
for the use of the electrodes are given as are
specifications of standard sizes.
Rotary Furnaces — The W. S. Rockwell Companv,
has published a pamphlet describing rotary furnaces
with automatic charging and discharging mechanism
for continuous heat treating of metal products of size
and shape which will permit a slow rolling action,
The special features of this system when used for the
heat treatment of castings in malleable iron, steel and
various alloys also is described and illustrated.
Tumbling Mills — Whiting Corporation, Harvey,
111. Catalog Xo. 174. Three standard types of tumbling
mills are described and illustrated and also small
tumblers for brass work, dry and water cinder mills.
A cleaning department layout for an average gray iron
foundry of 50 tons capacity is given.
Hydraulic and Hydro-Pneumatic Presses — Metalwood
Manufacturing Company, Leib and Wight
Streets, Detroit. Catalog, 88 pages, 8y2xl\ in. A
wide variety of hydraulic and hydro-pneumatic arbor
and forcing presses, broaching, forcing and forming
presses, straightening presses, metal forming presses,
vulcanizing presses and plastic material forming presses
are described and illustrated. Capacities, dimensions
and other essential data are given. Information
is given on the Hele-Shaw pump unit and accumulators
and other accessory equipment. There are more
than 100 illustrations.
Welding and Cutting—Bastian Blessing Company,
Chicago, 111. Catalog No. 32. Covers "Rego" welding
and cutting equipment of all kinds, and is fully
Electrical Equipment for Cranes — General Electric
Bulletin Xo. 48732. This is an attractive, 35-page
leaflet, well illustrated with photographs, diagrams,
tables and charts. It discusses the subject thoroughly,
with particular reference to crane motors and control,
brakes, etc. Information is given on operating characteristics,
and types of standard motors are listed,
together with other valuable data.
CCL Apparatus — "Measuring C02 Electrically" is
the title of Catalog No. 32 recently issued by the
Brown Instrument Company, Philadelphia, Pa. The
principle of operation of the electric C02 meter is given
together with a description of the various units entering
into the construction of complete apparatus. Numerous
types of indicators and recorders suitable for
different applications of the meter are illustrated and
Heat Insulation — "High Temperature Insulation"
is the title of a booklet compiled by Celite Products
Company, Chicago, 111. The subject of heat insulation
as applied to industrial equipment is covered in a comprehensive
Arc Welding Generators — The Allan Manufacturing
and Welding Company, Buffalo, N. Y., have
mailed out leaflets showing various types of generators
and transformer arc welders. Short descriptions tell
the story of the products.
umiiiiiiiiiiiimiiiiiiiiiiiiiiiiiiiimiiiiiiiiiiiiiiiiiiiiiiiiiiiiiiiiiiiiiiiiiiiiiiiiiiiiiiiiiiiii i mini iiiiiuiiiiiiiii iiiiii:
I rarging-Sraniping-BGarlipa^ |
= Vol. XI PITTSBURGH, PA., FEBRUARY, 1925 No. 2 =
A v o i d i n g W a s t e i n t h e S h o p
EFFICIENT operation depends upon a number of factors and it would be
no small task to decide which is the most important. A well laid out
plant with modern equipment would naturally give the impression that
it is the last word in efficiency, but how often is this advantage offset by a
poor organization or incompetent men?
Incompetency is reflected in the amount of waste materials and the rejection
of defective products. In some cases the nature of the product may be
such that any attempt at economizing in material would increase the manufacturing
cost beyond the saving effected in materials. Any plant handling
large quantities of material should give serious consideration to preventing
and minimizing waste.
Inadequate inspection of raw materials often leads to an excessive waste
during manufacturing operations, and if defective products are allowed to
pass final inspection, will result in dissatisfied customers.
Many large plants have organized a special department to make a study
of manufacturing methods for the purpose of preventing excessive waste, salvaging
scrap and to increase efficiency wherever possible. For example, the
substitution of upset forgings for parts formerly machined from bar stock
greatly reduces material and machining costs. By carefully designing blanking
dies with reference to the width of the stock, a considerable amount of
stock can be saved.
The heat treating department is frequently overlooked when the question
of manufacturing efficiency is up for discussion. Good tool steels are
ruined by inadequate heat treating facilities, with the result that many hours'
time are lost through the idleness of expensive equipment caused by faulty
These are just a few examples of how efficiency may be increased. By
careful planning, it is possible in many other ways to decrease manufacturing
costs and reduce material waste to a minimum.
niiiiiiuiiiiiiiii mn i iiiiiiiiii iiiliiiiilin iiiiiuiiiiiiiii i iiiiiiiiiiiiiiiiiiiiiiiiiiiiiiiiiiiiiiiiniii r<
38 Forging - Stamping - Heat Treating
U s i n g a n A p p r a i s a l for C o s t P u r p o s e s
An Appraisal for Cost Purposes Is Essential in the Forging In
dustry Because of the Large Investment Required—
Great Variety of Equipment Necessary
T H E majority of appraisals are made with the intention
of using the reports for making financial
statements, for adjusting accounting records or
perhaps for disposing of assets, with little or no consideration
for their possibilities in cost work. In the
forging industry these possibilties stand out strongly,
particularly because of the large investment required
nnd also because of varying types and sizes of equipment
used. With such equipment it is absolutely
necessary to establish some sort of hourly rates for
both overhead and profit. In our plant we use the
hourly machine rate system, which we believe is the
most accurate yet devised, and for this work an appraisal
properly reported is of great additional value.
One of the first items encountered in distributing
overhead is depreciation, carried as an item of cost in
our hourly overhead rate per hammer. It is impossible
to correctly distribute the total depreciation of
a forge plant over the various departments and thence
to different groups of hammers according to some
arbitrary percentage basis and it therefore becomes
necessary to compute depreciation separately on
buildings and appurtenances, machinery, furnaces,
power plant equipment, cranes and all other classes
of equipment per department and per group.
The next problem we have in properly allocating
certain expenses to different department and production
centers is establishing percentage bases per department
and per hammer group for those items
which vary in accordance with asset valuation or in
accordance with some percentage made up with asset
valuation as a factor. Here again the appraisal furnishes
a basis for obtaining the correct relation of
values per department and per production center, as
it is clearly an error to base any figuring of this nature
on book records showing actual purchase prices of
machines. For cost purposes there is no reason why
a hammer purchased in 1916 should carry lower overhead
and interest rates than one of the same type and
size purchased in 1924 at a considerably higher price.
The last use we have in mind, but by no means
the least, is for the purpose of figuring interest on
investment as a basis for profit rates per hammer per
hour. The averaee jobbing forge plant is selling service
or use of certain types of equipment—steam hammers,
board hammers or upsetters—rather than material
plus labor and overhead, and the profit estimated
per job should certainly bear some relation to
the interest on investment required to carry the individual
hammer or upsetter together with its corresponding
share of auxiliary equipment and departments.
This is especially true in a plant using all
three types of equipment. Steam hammers require
a boiler plant, coal storage, coal handling apparatus.
etc.. representing a much higher investment than
board hammers of similar sizes, while upsetters are
*Assistant to General Manager. Dominion Forge & Stamping
By A. W. HOLLAR*
very expensive in themselves and their values stand
out prominently in an appraisal even without their
share of the repair and other departments. In the
matter of profit it is also well to consider both those
forgings made by two or more operations in different
units and those made from different grades of steel
with varying base prices. In the case of multiple
operations in different production centers the error
in figuring profit on a percentage of cost is multiplied
|by the number of production centers involved. The
question of different profits on different grades of steel
can be discussed at length, but we shall content ourselves
with asking whether you are interested mainly
in obtaining profit in proportion to the direct material
cost or in proportion to the service your equipment
It was for the purpose of checking cost figures
and assuring ourselves of the correct relation of our
production centers with respect to each other, that we
recently ordered a new appraisal. In addition to the
standard form submitted by the appraisal company
we requested a report designed to take care of our
requirements for cost work. This extra report means
only a little more clerical work in the office of the
appraisal company and not very much extra field
work, providing, of course, the field men receive complete
instructions upon their arrival on the job. A detailed
outline with all necessary notes as to individual
cases was given to the field manager and the following
is a copy of that portion applying to land, sidings
Land—Two plots, one north and one south side Seminole
Railroad Sidings—Coal sidings Nos. 3, 4, 5 and 6. Oil
siding Xo. 2. Stock sidings Nos. 1, 7 and crossover.
Wide gauge tracks (boiler plant).
Buildings—Construction, by buildings. Outside crane
runway from Building No. 4 to be included with
Building No. 4. Tunnel and pits to be included
with buildings wherever possible.
Plumbing and Sewerage—By buildings as much
as possible, balance lump sum.
Heating Piping—Radiation per building to be
shown separately in value and square feet heating
surface. Main heating lines, returns and
connections to be lump sum.
Electric Lighting and Wiring—Lighting per building.
Trunk lines and connections to be lump
Sprinkler and Fire Protection Piping—Per building.
Balance (outside lines, etc.) lump sum.
Ventilating System—Per building.
As will be noted, we have two separate sections of
land, one being vacant and the other section being
entirely used by our various buildings and storage
spaces. The two values are given separately, making
it easy to charge the proper land value to each build-
ing in accordance with the floor space occupied. The unoccupied
section is charged to our general department.
The railroad sidings are valued and grouped together
in such a manner that they are readily charged
to the department served. The values of buildings
and their appurtenances are given in the same manner
as in any appraisal and it should not be difficult
to charge each building to the department served, or
in the case of two or more departments occupying
the same structure it should not be difficult to charge
each department in proportion to the floor space occupied.
If the amounts involved are large it is advisable
to pay particular attention to such items as trunk
lines and connections for electric light wiring; and
main lines, returns and connections for heating piping.
The main heating lines (trunk lines, returns and connections)
are chargeable to the boiler plant as they
are a part of the investment required to supply heat
to the various buildings. The same idea applies to
trunk lines for electric lighting. They are chargeable
to the electrical power plant. Under heating piping
the radiation per building in square feet of heating
surface was requested for the purpose of establishing
a basis for distributing that portion of boiler plant
chargeable to heating.
On land, railroad sidings and buildings, the appraisal
company furnished a report in accordance
with outline given above, but did not make any attempt
at departmentalization. It is a simple matter
for us to divide up these items by departments and
we do not feel it worth while to have the appraisal
company go to this expense. The important work is
allocating machines to various departments regardless
of their location in the plant and in reporting other
items of equipment, such as transmission, piping and
wiring in such a manner that each department can be
charged with its correct share. The following are a
few examples of equipment requiring special notation:
Continuous annealing furnace located in our upsetter
department is noted as belonging to the heat treating
department; motor generator and frequency changer
sets in the electrical department used for operating
blower motors are noted as belonging in furnace department;
one 5-ton electrical crane charged one half
to upsetters and one-half to steam hammers; and another
crane of the same size charged entirely to the
stock handling department. On power wiring the
main feed lines to starters are charged to the electrical
department, while the balance remains in the department
served. Furnace air and fuel oil lines (feed
lines) are charged to furnace department, balance, departmental.
All trucks, boxes, trays, etc., are noted
as belonging in the stock handling department.
The final summary or extra report as referred to
previously furnished by our appraisal company shows,
therefore, land in two plots, railroad sidings in four
values, buildings and appurtenances by buildings and
equipment per department. The equipment per department
is not merely one total, of course, but is
tabulated as machinery, foundations, motors, transmission,
belting, power wiring, piping, cranes and
hoists, etc. When this summary was received it remained
for us to distribute the land in accordance
with the area occupied, place the sidings in proper
departments and charge each department with its
proportionate share of buildings in order to arrive at
the investment represented by each of the following
departments: No. 11 steam hammer, No. 22 board
hammer, No. 33 upsetters, No. 66 heat treat, straight
rorging- Stamping - Heat Treating
en, No. 44 cold trim, No. 55 grind and tumble, No. 77
die and blacksmith, No. 88 stock handling, No. 46 furnace
department (oil tanks and blowers), No. 45 boiler
plant, No. 70 repair department, No. 78 electrical department,
No. 99 general.
Although this work is more or less new, our appraisers
followed instructions very carefully as evidenced
by the fact that only 3 per cent of the total
equipment is charged to general and not more than 13
per cent of our total valuation is represented by the
general department after adding its share of land and
From this asset distribution, yearly departmental
depreciation can be figured, using individual rates
which both appraisers and auditors now generally
agree will apply on the various items. Following are
itemized values of one production department and
their corresponding depreciation figures after certain
similar items were grouped together for the purpose
of saving time.
Buildings and appurtenances 34,730
Machinery foundations 10,928
Mechanical transmission 1,694
Belting . . 339
Electric power circuit
Power piping 9,010
Water mechanical piping
High pressure air piping
Low pressure air piping
Fuel oil piping
Lubricating oil piping
Exhaust and blower piping
Cranes and hoists 3,916
Overhead tracks and trolleys
Trucks and scales
Benches, tables and racks
Stock and scrap trays
Tote boxes and barrels
Office mechanical devices
Departmental value $235,119
Buildings and appurtenances $ 695
Machinery foundations 656
Mechanical transmission 85
Electric power circuit
Low pressure air piping
Minor and fuel oil piping 31
Departmental Rolling Cranes, Trucking Permanent Benches, Furniture stocks hoists tables depreciation and equipment tools fire and and apparatus tanks tracks racks $ 12,423
40 Forging - S tamping - Heat Treating
Under "value" the entire number of classifications
are purposely shown and it will be noticed, as explained
earlier, electric power circuit, fuel oil piping
and trays and barrels are not shown in this productive
flepartment, but are charged respectively to the electrical,
furnace and stock handling departments.
The next step is to divide the three forging department
assets into groups or production' centers.
Because of the class of our work our three types of
units are made up of steam hammer, press, foundations
and furnace; board hammer, foundation and
furnace; upsetter, foundation, motor and furnace.
There are several units charged with two furnaces
and in the case of board hammers all presses are
grouped in the cold trim department, whether physically
located there or in the board shop. Here again
the appraisers noted to which unit each press, foundations,
furnace and upsetter motor belonged, making
it easy to arrange the items together. The land,
buildings and miscellaneous equipment in these three
departments can be distributed over the groups on
percentage bases and depreciation figured in the same
manner as before. These depreciation figures per
group and per department can be used in overhead
distribution as desired, but since there has been considerable
public discussion on this point, we will be
glad to explan our system to anyone interested, as our
overhead rates contain only earned depreciation and
therefore automatically take care of irregular operation.
The results of the asset distribution as outlined
above furnish plenty of information for the ourpose
of charging different departments with expenses
which vary in accordance with asset value, but in
order to arrive at hourly interest rates per hammer
it is necessary to distribute the indirect or non-productive
departments so that the entire value may be
borne by production centers. Our steam hammers,
board hammers and upsetters constitute our producing
departments and therefore they must receive their
share of all the other departments in proportion to
availability. This distribution is obtained by what is
known as the step methods. First, the electrical department
is charged to all others on the basis of connected
horsepower. The boiler plant is divided into
one portion for manufacturing and another for heating.
The value for manufacturing is charged on the
basis of service rendered (a percentage figured out
by our engineering department on the basis of steam
used per hour by each department) and the heating
is distributed in accordance with square feet of radiation.
The remaining departments, including die and
blacksmith, are taken care of in a similar manner with
the exception of cold trim, which is charged entirely
to the board shop.
The indirect departments now shown with the
steam hammers, boards and upsetters can be charged
to their respective groups by the use of various percentages.
For instance, that portion of the electrical
department charged to upsetters can be distributed
on the basis of connected horsepower per upsetter
group, while in the steam and board shops it can be
charged on the basis of weight produced per hour per
group. After the total investment has been distributed
to the production centers the interest is figured on
the total of each group and is then divided by the
number of probable yearly hours per group. One of
our production centers made up of two hammers of
the same size has a total reproductive valuation of
$230,000 after complete distribution has been made as
outlined. On a single shift basis each of these machines
should run 1,550 hours per year, making 3,100
hours for the group. At 6 per cent the interest per
year is $13,800, which when divided by 3,100 hours
results in an hourly rate of $4.45 for this particular
size and type of machine. The exact multiple of this
figure to use must of course be left to the individual,
.but by comparing possible yearly sales with total investment
it will be found that 6 per cent on the investment
is equivalent to a little over one-half that per
cent on sales.
A. D. F. I. Elects President
Mr. S. 1. Marshall, president and treasurer of the
Endicott Forging & Manufacturing Company, Endicott.
X. V.. was elected president of the American
Drop Forging Institute for the ensuing year at a meeting
of the institute held at
the Seaview Country Club,
Absecon, N. J., January 6
Mr. Marshall has been
active in the work of the institute
during the past year
and it was largely through
his efforts that the many
splendid papers presented
at the Industrial Meeting
held in Pittsburgh last October
In 1915, Mr. Marshall organized
the Endicott Forging
& Manufacturing Company,
and for 10 years prior
S. J. Marshall t0 tHat was secretary and
treasurer of the Globe Malleable
Iron & Steel Company. He was also connected
with H. II. Franklin Manufacturing Company of Syracuse
for three and a half years.
The retiring president, Mr. M. E. Pollak, president
of the Pollak Steel Company, Cincinnati, Ohio, devoted
a great amount of effort to revive interest in
the work of the Institute, which was reorganized early
last year. That his efforts were successful is indicated
by the substantial increase in membership during
his presidency. The office of the institute is located
at 1001 Union Bank Bldg., Pittsburgh, Pa. Mr.
W. T. Johnson is secretary, Mr. Donald McKaig,
treasurer, and Mr. J. M. Wright, general counsel.
Quenching Media for Heat Treating
The Bureau of Standards, Washington, is determining
the predominating factors in aqueous quenching
solutions, so that predictions can be made as to
the solution and its concentration. Motion pictures
of samples, during actual quenching, on which regular
cooling curves are being obtained, have been taken
by using a suitable glass quenching tank. Apparatus
is now being designed and built for pressure quenching
as a means of getting increased rates of cooling
for given solutions, and for making emulsions of oil
and water without the use of air.
Forging - Stamping - Heat Treating
H e a t T r e a t i n g S t e e l Electrically
Use of Electric Heat Does Not Call for New Methods of Applica
tion—Practically All Uncertainties Connected with
THOUSANDS of tons of steel are produced annually
for use where particularly severe conditions
have to be met. In order that steel (castings included)
may possess the best physical qualities of
which it is capable, some form of heat treatment is
usually necessary. Results from untreated, high
priced, high grade steels may be no better than low
grade steels, properly heat treated.
These changes, although governed by the same
definite laws, must be obtained by giving to such steel
its own best cycle of heat treatment.
Improvement of the physical properties of steel is
generally secured by heating to or through the critical
range. Hence, location of the critical points in the
thermal scale is necessary. In general, quenching
from temperatures much higher than the critical range
will give a hardened steel but with a coarser grain
than if the quenching had occurred more closely to the
critical point; and of course it is understood that the
finer the grain, the stronger the steel.
It is evidently important, then, to apply and abstract
heat according to heating and cooling curves
of the steel under treatment — giving due consideration
to the critical temperatures. Otherwise the value
of the steel will not be completely available.
Heat Generation in Electric and Fuel
Proper Application of Heat Are Removed
By E. F. COLLINS*
In the electric furnace, heat generation can be kept
nicely balanced against heat absorption by the charge.
The importance of this fact cannot be over-emphasized,
since the problem of heat absorption is of first
importance in all heating furnaces. It goes without
saying that efficient generation or development of
heat units by chemical oxidation means little, unless
the Btu. released are in a minimum constant proportion
to the Btu. absorbed in doing useful work. Hence
the rate of heat generation and heat absorption must
be skillfully controlled to guarantee proper heat absorption
All Btu. that fails to be absorbed by the charge is
simply wasted, no matter how efficient the burners
and resulting combustion may be, and in this lies a
very definite handicap where rate of generation to absorption
cannot be properly governed as with fuel firing.
If the heating fluid be the product of combustion,
as in a fuel fired furnace consisting largely of CO,,
water vapor and nitrogen, then currents and eddies
exist in the combustion chamber, due to changes in
densities depending in part on variation in temperature.
These gases have a continuous flow and practical
results are obtained by removing as much heat
as possible from such streams while they are passing
through the furnace to the stack. This aim is accom-
plished more or less satisfactorily by designs which allow
the charge to be swept and enveloped so far as
possible by the stream of hot gases.
Complete and properly regulated envelopment is
necessary to a uniform or high rate of heat absorption,
which in turn is dependent upon heat conductivity
of the charge, its mass and the area of surface contact.
If only parts of the body lie in the stream or if
the streams vary in velocity or temperature, we may
expect non-uniform heating of that body. It should
be remembered that in fuel-fired furnaces, especially
where forced draft is used, that these currents of hot
gases have a cyclonic violence and continuously shift
The foregoing brings up some points of practical
importance in the quenching and heating process.
The careful operator should, therefore, for the best
results be furnised with an electric furnace. Pyrometer
or temperature control, secured automatically,
may be used to limit and control the temperature of
the heating chamber to values of 25 deg. to 100 deg.
above the temperature to which the charge is to be
heated, thus securing a floating effect while the charge
is passing its critical points and so avoiding excessive
strains and distribution in heating. For it must be
remembered that negative and positive expansions
lie adjacent to each other at the critical temperatures
and, therefore, heating at a high rate at or near criticals
is to be avoided, especially where variable section
are encountered in the steel part under heat treatment.
Non-simultaneous passing of the criticals for each section
will produce warpage and, with too wide differences,
cracks and ruptures, in the process of heating
just as surely as will improper quenching.
Electric Heat-Treating Furnaces.
It is being rapidly and conclusively demonstrated
that electric heat offers advantages equal to or greater,
in reheating and general heat treatment of steel, than
those secured in melting and refining. A striking expansion
in the use of the electric resistance furnace for
the heat treatment of steel has taken place in the
past five years and progress in the demands of industry
is sure, hence forth, to require the "over all"
economy and high quality which accompany the use
of electric heating for such processes as, (1) annealing;
(2) carburizing; (3) hardening; and (4) tempering
or drawing of steels.
It is being daily demonstrated that the electric furnace
for reheating, when properly designed and used
on steels having uniform characteristics such as may
be had from the electric melting furnace, can show
an advance in uniformity and quality over the usual
steel product of the present day fuel-fired furnace.
Furthermore, furnaces are available for any and all
tonnage requirements and of such simple and dependable
design that their continuity of operation equals
"Consulting Engineer, Industrial Heating Department, Gen
that of any fuel-fired furnace, while the advantage of
eral Electric Company, Schenectady, N. Y.
42 Fbrging-Stamping - Heat Treating
low upkeep cost usually is on the side of the electric
furnace. To this may be added automatic control of
temperatures, duplication of heating cycles, reduction
in defective heat-treated parts, and usually many other
influencing factors which work in the direction of a
reduced "over all" cost of production in favor of the
electric heat-treating furnace.
The Metallic Resistor Furnace.
Important heat-treating processes, in which the
metallurgist should be interested, and for which the
metallic resistor electric furnace is peculiarly adapted,
will be enumerated and briefly described so that the
working field for such type of furnace may be clearly
indicated. We may, for convenience, consider elec-
the carbon content, and the spread of the critical range
The committee of the American Society of Testing
Materials has recommended the following range in
Carbon Content Annealing Temp. Range
Per Cent Degrees Fahr.
Less than 0.12 1607 to 1697
0.12 to 0.25 1544 to 1598
0.30 to 0.49 1399 to 1544
0.50 to 1.00 1454 to 1499
The length of time steel should be held at the annealing
temperature varies with the size and shape of
the piece. It is important that the piece be heated
through uniformly at the annealing temperature.
Where quality of output is the watchword, modern
heat treatment is not attempted without first carrying
out correct annealing treatments as a proper foundation
for subsequent processes.
--_ r — 7SC J^c- 77S°C
Case Hardening With Electric Furnace.
Case hardening, applied to low carbon (below 0.25
per cent) dies, is merely the outgrowth of the old
cementation process, as used in making crucible steel.
Here, however, instead of carburizing the metal
through and through, the process ceases after carburizing
to a greater or lesser depth below the surface.
The modern case hardening operation is not as simple
as the crucible process. A furnace should be available
whose heat is easy to regulate and maintain at a
fixed uniform distribution during the whole carburizing
process. It should be equipped with a pyrometer,
and automatic regulation of temperature is a valuable
asset. Carburization may be effected in several ways
but we will restrict ourselves to the pack hardening in
boxes containing the carburizing material with which
the parts to be treated are surrounded. For practical
purposes, work is usually heated to at least 1560 deg.
F., and may even be brought to temperatures of 1850
to 1900 deg. F. High temperature gives speed to the
process but is objectionable, due to coarsening the
grain of the steel and a tendency to distort the work.
A good carburizing temperature (1560 deg. F.), has
the advantage of altering the core but little, unless the
process is unduly prolonged. The time of exposure
depends upon the size of the work, the depth of carbon
penetration desired, the per cent of carbon required
in the case, the carburizing agent used, the temperature
used, etc. Published tests on a ^-inch steel blank
(carbon 0.15 per cent), show the following results of
penetration with temperature and a carbon content on
the surface of 0.85 to 0.90 per cent with a penetration
of 0.050 inches for a particular carburizer:
Forging - Stamping - Heat "Beating
that carbon is in solid soluton with the iron, and from Time of Exposure
such assumption explains all heat-treating phenomena. in Hours Penetration in Inches for Deg. F.
All theories concerning hardening, however, are
1550° 1650° 1800°
united as to the necessity of heat control. Hence the
J4 008 .012 .030
electric furnace may be used successfully for heating
1 018 .026 .045
high-carbon steel dies which are to be hardened by
quenching. No doubt can exist in the mind of the operator
of the electric furnace as to the exact time when
the die block, be it large or small, has reached an
absolutely uniform temperature throughout; wherefore,
other things being normal, successful hardening
can only be thwarted by improper quenching.
2 035 .048 .060
3 045 .055 .075
4 052 .061 .092
6 :. .056 .075 .110
8 062 .083 .130
High temperature and long exposure tend to render
work brittle, partly because of prolonged exposure
to high temperature and partly because of relative in
The electric furnace is ideally suited for annealing, crease in cross section of hardened area compared to
in the ordinary tool room. It is likewise suited to any the soft core.
heating requirements where the charges do not re The above remarks lead one to the conclusion that
quire more than 1,800 deg. F. Some of its advantages the electric furnace has important advantages for the
over fuel-fired unmuffled furnaces are as follows: (1) carburization stage of the case hardening process,
radiant heat; (2) satisfactory heat distribution; (3) where it is evident that close regulation and control of
automatic control of temperatures if desired, (4) prac temperature, as well as uniform delivery and distributically
non-oxidizing atmosphere, if desired; (5) tion of heat, are essential for the best results. Uni
small amount of heat given off to the room; (6) no formity of product requires that each part of the
products of combustion or obnoxious gases given off charge be subjected as nearly as possible to the same
to heating chamber or room; (7) ratio of heat genera heat cycle, whether it be near the center of the cartion
to heat absorption by charge correctly mainburizing box or near its outer walls. It has already
tained; (8) uniform and complete penetration of heat been stated that the electric furnace, with its auto
through the charge without overheating of corners, matic control, will bring each part of a charge of
fins or surfaces; (9) ability to repeat desired heat material to the same temperature through the control
cycles, giving uniformity of product; (10) a reduction. by a surface couple on that charge. Furnaces may be
generally, in labor; (11) a better overall economy and designed to give practically the same heat in each car
the production of higher quality product at the same burizing box constituting the furnace charge, even
or slightly higher cost or the same quality at a lesser though the control is actuated from a pyrometer on a
single box. In other words, uniform heating conditions
exist throughout the heating chamber.
Remarks already made concerning the use of the
electric furnace for hardening high-carbon steel dies
apply equally to heating for the quench of carburized
Tempering and Drawing.
The temper should be drawn on all hammer dies,
to relieve strains and to give resilliency or spring, resulting
in better wearing qualities. An oil or air tempering
bath electrically heated is a most satisfactory
tool, and the hardened dies should immediately go
into it even before the die is quite cooled from the
hardening operation. The temperature of the oil bath
should be about 400 deg. F. In other words, hardened
steel is "tempered" by being reheated to about 400
deg. F., where it loses considerable brittleness and yet
little of its hardness, making it suited for dies and
metal cutting tools; reheated to 480 deg. F., it is less
brittle and suited for use in rock drills, stone cutting
tools, etc.; at 525 deg. F., it is suited to dental and
surgical instruments, hack saws, etc.; at 570 deg. F.,
the maximum usually employed, it may be used for
wood saws, springs, etc. Sudden cooling after tempering
does not effect hardness or softness of steel;
hence, when taken from the oil bath, it may cool either
rapidly or slowly.
Electric furnaces for heat treating drop forged dies
and metal cutting tools are usually of the box type.
These furnaces operate at temperatures up to and including
1850 deg. F., and may be obtained with automatic
control as previously described.
A furnace suited to heating large dies and cutters
at temperatures not exceeding 1850 deg. F., with automatic
temperature control, by test has shown the fol-
44 Fbrging-Stamping - Heat Treating
lowng performance, compared with a similar oil-fired
furnace on the same work :
chamber ... 30" x 36" x 22" High
held 1450 Deg F.
Fuel or power to
hold at 1400 deg.
F 8.04 Kwh.
Cost per hour to
hold 1400 deg. F.
at $1.25 $0.10
Amount of steel
heated per hr. . . 84 pounds
Fuel or power for
heating steel .. . 13.35 Kwh.
Cost fuel or power
per hour $0,167
Cost per pound
heating steel.... $0,199
28" x 24" x 20" High
1400 Deg. F.
1.65 gal. per hr.
at $0.06 $.099
1.9 gal per hour
or tunnel type, of either vertical or horizontal construction.
All furnaces may be well heat lagged without
danger to refractories and at the same time secure
low thermal capacity resulting in quick heating.
As an exhibit demonstrating the inherent suitability
of electric heat for almost entirely eliminating the
decarburization and scaling of 1.10 carbon steel during
heat treatment, an instructive record of carefully
observed results is shown in Curves Figs. 1 and 2.
The parts on which these observations were made
were of 1.10 carbon steel round, y in. diameter and 2
The furnaces used were (1) a gas furnace fired with
city gas and, (2), an electric metallic resistor furnace
of the direct heat type.
The temperature to which steel was heated ranged
from about 14130 deg. F. to about 1550 deg. F., and
work was quenched following its heating, to harden.
Fig. 2 (d)
FIG. 2—Gas furnace and electric furnace. Tests for surface and under surface decarburization with 1.10 carbon steel.
These results may be surprising to those who base
their calculations solely on relative Btu. costs for oil
and electricity. Were the upkeep costs included, the
difference in favor of electric furnaces would increase,
since, in the past six years, the upkeep of this furnace
has been practically nothing.
The foregoing applies to the electric furnace for
heating processes in producing drop forged dies and
metal cutting tools. A much greater field for the electric
furnace lies in the heat treatment of drop forgings.
Here we meet again the annealing, hardening by
quenching, case hardening, and tempering or drawing
processes. The metallic resistor furnace is here again
ready to demonstrate its superiority in heating processes
involving 1850 deg. F. or less. The designs of
furnaces must comply with methods of handling a production
having volume and tonnage. Electric heat can
be utilized with practically all types of furnaces, such
as car bottom type, pusher type, conveyor type, box
Scale in Electric vs. Gas.
Let us first look at Curve Sheet b, Fig. 1, where
diameters, after hardening, are shown for different
temperatures and for different spaces of time, beginning
with five minutes in the furnace. Observations
were made for a heating period of five minutes, increasing
by 10 minutes up to 110 minutes.
The original dimensions of round 1.10 C. steel stock
were 0.751 in. diameter by 2 in. long before heating.
The decreased diameter after quenching is assumed
to indicate the amount of scale formed and which is
snapped off in the quench. Note that this decrease in
diameter is about equal at approximately 1430 deg. F.
in the gas furnace, and at 1560 deg. F. in the electric
furnace with equal time of heating, while almost twice
as much scale is formed in the gas furnace at 1560 deg.
F., as in the electric under the same conditions.
Hardness in Electric vs. Gas.
The hardness rises to a maximum for work done
in the electric furnace when a temperature of 1425 deg.
F. is used (see Fig. 1), and a slight falling-off occurs
at increased temperatures, due perhaps to the
increased solution of "hard carbide" and to the formation
of greater amounts of "austenite". There is no
decrease of hardness for long periods of heating, which
means that the decarbonization is almost inappreciable.
To be sure, we note that hardness occurs in a
shorter period with higher temperature, but this is not
the maximum hardness obtainable. We see that 20
minutes is required for maximum hardness for 1430
deg. F., whereas, for lower temperatures, the work was
heated for a longer period. The reason that the gas
heated stock does not reach an equally high degree of
hardness may be due to the effect of some decarburization.
In no case could there be detected with the micro-
" scope any measurable area of totally decarburized surface
metal, except those heated to 1560 deg. F. in the
gas furnace for the longer periods. Hence to get an
exact comparison on the cross section, Rockwell hardness
numbers were determined (1) at the surface; (2)
at a depth of ^-in. and 3/16-in. below the surface; and
(3) at the center.
In the electric furnace, the maximum hardness is
practically constant, even through the long periods of
heating. The adjacent underlying zone is always
shown to be less hard. At 1560 deg. F. an exception
is noted in that the interior metal increases in hardness
and ultimately exceeds the surface hardness. This
may be explained as resulting from surface decarburization
shown as shaded area in Fig. 2, a, c and d.
In the gas furnace, the surface decreases in hardness
as does the underlying stock at 1480 deg. F.,
but at a greater rate. In much greater quantity we
find decarburizaton over that in the electric furnace,
yet at lower temperatures. The decrease in diameter
corresponds to the area on the curve and under the
Finally, we note that, in the gas furnace, the decrease
of diameter and increase of decarburization
have reached surprisingly high values at a temperature
of 1560 deg. F.
Here the "overall" cost of metal heating when done
electrically may be touched upon briefly. Let us see
what the cost of the heat treating operating really is,
in proportion to the total cost of manufacture. A few
representative products in table form run about as
follows: Electricity 1 per cent per kwh.:
die block 110
£ et O — H.
The average cost of electricity for the heat treatment
of these parts is thus .86 of one per cent of the
total factory cost. Assuming that the cost of oil for
doing the same heating were only one-half this
amount, costs would be equalized if an advantage of
.43 of one per cent were realized by the electric process.
Whether that advantage comes from increased
quality, increased production, decreased floor space,
better working conditions, ability to duplicate results,
temperature control, uniformity of product, decrease in
rejects, decrease in labor, or some other element entering
into the total cost of production, matters not.
Fortunately for electric heating, when these conditions
are all taken at their increased value, due to the electric
process, the balance is in increasing numbers
found to be on the side of the electric.
The author feels that no comment is necessary to
lead one to decide from the above the relative merits
of each furnace for metallurgical work.
There has been no attempt in this paper to put
forth any new heat-treating process. Well known and
accepted process specifications have in part been described
only that the completeness with which the
electric furnace is able to meet such conditions might
be more clearly presented.
The use of the electric furnace does not call for
new methods of manipulation of present heating processes,
but rather fits itself into standard and generally
accepted heat-treating requirements admirably, removing
practically all uncertainties connected with the
proper application of heat; and eliminates almost entirely
the handicaps inherent in fuel-fired furnaces.
Test Sheets for Welding Qualities
Certain lots of sheets which give unsatisfactory
welds, apparently on account of the evolution of gas
as the molten weld metal freezes, are encountered by
manufacturers of oxy-acetylene welded sheet steel
products. The Bureau of Standards, Washington, is
analyzing satisfactory and unsatisfactory sheet steel,
submitted by a tube manufacturer, to determine if
there is any difference in the gas content of these two
grades of welding steels. Similar samples have been
promised by a manufacturer of welded steel barrels.
Bell Laboratories Formed
The Bell Telephone Laboratories, Inc., was organized
on January 1, 1925, for the purpose of carrying
on development and research activities. The newcompany
is jointly owned by the American Telephone
& Telegraph Company and the Western Electric Company,
Inc., and has taken over the personnel, buildings
and equipment of the research laboratories of
these two companies, which were formerly operated
as the Engineering Department of the Western Electric
Laboratory space in the form of a new building
covering: almost a quarter of a city block will be added
to the 400,000 sq. ft. at present in service in the group
of buildings at 463 West Street, New York City. At
the date of incorporation, the personnel numbered approximately
3,600, of whom about 2,000 are members
of the technical staff.
46 forging- Stamping - Heat Treating
M e t a l S t a m p i n g a n d S o m e o f Its F o r m s
Uniformity in Shape and Design, Rapid Rate of Production, Com
paratively Low Cost and Elimination of Machine Work
T H E art of metal stamping is an old one, although
it is only in recent years that it has taken its logical
place in industry. It is an important factor
now in the manufacturing of this country, but present
development and experimental work will make its
use far reaching in the future.
To describe it in an elementary w^ay — the art of
metal stamping is the process of cutting and forming
shapes from flat stock — steel, brass, copper, aluminum,
and other metals — by means of dies or tools
designed for the work and operated in various types
of punch presses.
It is safe to say that the average layman has no
conception of the extent to which metal stampings
are used in our every day life. The insignificant little
collar button is a metal stamping, and going to the
other extreme we have the pressed steel freight car.
Cooking utensiles, telephones, bicycles, automobiles,
adding machines, electrical and radio devices, washing
machines, and an almost unlimited number of other
articles have pressed metal parts or metal stampings
in some form or other.
The advantages of the metal stamping are many.
Innumerable shapes or forms may be manufactured in
quantities at a rapid rate and at a comparatively low
cost. With the properly designed tool equipment
parts may be made in unlimited quantities, each one
uniform in shape and design; and where required, to
remarkably close limits.
In recent years the engineer and designer have
given first thought to the stamping where before a
forged or cast part may have been used. This is particularly
true where a saving in weight is desirable,
for in most instances the stamped part, though equally
strong, is lighter than a corresponding cast or forged
form. And this reduction in weight means a lowering
of costs and a further saving in packing and shipping
expense. Light gauged metals may be ribbed and
formed so as to make a very strong construction. A
similar result is obtained in a drawn or shell shaped
part due to the shape and the fact that the action of
the drawing dies has a tendency to toughen the metal.
Most stamped shapes may be so designed that little or
no machining will be required before use. It does
not necessarily follow that all cast parts may be produced
as stampings, but there have been many that
have been redesigned at a tremendous saving and for
the same reason this form of construction is being considered
more and more.
Manufacturers of electrical goods and stoves were
perhaps among the first to make use of stampings to
any great extent, but it was the automobile that
brought the industry to its present prominence. Here
was a product for which there was an increasing de-
Are Among Advantages of Metal Stampings
By H. JAY*
mand and yet a need for lower costs to put machines
within the reach of everyone. Starting with a very
few pressed parts at first we find the present car design
an example of pressed metal engineering carried
to its fullest possibilities. The late war also brought
many opportunities for pressed metal development.
The demand then was for huge quantities of material
to be produced almost over night. Steel helmets,
booster casing, fuse sockets, etc., were among some
of the parts that would never have been produced in
the quantities and designs required if it hadn't been
for this most versatile method of manufacture.
FIG. 1—Common type of blanking die for cutting a
little dog or plunger.
And it is readily seen why the automobile engineer
has turned to the stamping for use in his highly productive
field. The cast brake drum and axle housing,
the forged windshield bracket and clutch and brake
pedals, with very little change in design, can and
have been produced as stampings on a very economical
basis and at a decided saving in weight. Fenders,
oil pans, hoods, bodies, frames, hub caps, parts for the
motor clutch and transmission are all some form of
pressed metal. Producing these parts with such ra
*Sales Engineer, The Acklin Stamping Company, Toledo, pidity and at such a saving in material and labor, the
Ohio. Paper presented to the Seniors in Mechanical Engineering advantages from a cost and production viewpoint are
at Cornell University and the University of Pennsylvania.
Given a stamped part to produce, the first problem
is to make the proper selection of tools and material.
This selection is dependent upon the probable number
of pieces required, the finish if any, tolerances, shape,
etc. The tool and die design is an important link in
the chain, for improperly designed tools means expensive
upkeep and poor workmanship and slow production.
Under almost identical conditions the same
kind of metal will act differently in one drawn part
than it will in another, so that the tool designer's
work is an important one. This is one reason why the
art is so interesting — and costly at times to those
working on a competitive basis—for each job is practically
a new problem in itself.
There are so many different classes of stamping
work that it would be rather difficult to attempt to
describe all of them at one sitting. Some forms, such
as the collar button, shoe eyelet, etc., are produced
entirely automatically, the raw stock being fed into
the press at one end and after passing through successive
steps in the die, coming out a finished piece.
Other parts of a nature that would not permit automatic
control are put through various press operations
at a surprising rate. Some of the larger types — automobile
frames and freight car ends, for example, are
handled by cranes in hydraulic presses of upwards of
3 or 4,000 tons capacity. A study of a few of the common
forms of pressed metal parts and the design of
the dies or tools might be interesting.
The simplest form of tool is the blanking die for
cutting flat pieces, such as washers or gusset plates.
The tool operated in a punch press consists of two portions;
the male part generally called the punch and
the female portion the die — although it is common
practice to refer to the complete tool as a die. The
stock to be cut quite naturally is placed between the
punch and the die and as the punch descends the shearing
action between the two cuts the blank.
FIG. 2—Where a clean square edge is desired, the rough
blank is put through a shaving or burnishing operation.
Fig. 1 shows a common type of blanking die for
cutting a little dog or plunger. The punch holder C
is mounted in the ram of the press and to it is fitted
the punch A. The die B is mounted on the die shoe
D which in turn is held stationary on the bed of the
press. The stock E is feed from right to left and at
each stroke of the press a blank is cut falling through
the die and the bed of the press. The wastage between
blanks is kept to a minimum by means of the
stop G which properly locates the stock between each
Forging- Stamping - Heat Treating
cut. A certain amount of clearance is allowed between
the punch and the die to obtain the best cutting action.
This clearance is dependent upon the metal thickness,
being approximately 15 thousandths of an inch on
a side in this case for steel one-quarter inch thick.
This clearance is all in the die, the punch corresponding
to the outline of the blank desired. For this reason
the stock clings to the punch as it ascends after each
stroke, but it is removed by the stripper plate F, located
in a fixed position around the punch. A blank
FIG. 3—Compound die for piercing and blanking in
a single operation.
cut in this manner is apt to be distorted somewhat
due to the shearing action, but this distortion may be
removed by flattening between two surfaces mounted
in a press in the same manner as in blanking.
It is evident that in blanking stock, in the manner
just described, a clean cut, square edge cannot be obtained
due to the clearance in the die. The stock in
being cut is sheared clean and true for about one-third
of the thickness and then practically torn apart for
the remainder. The thumb sketch in Fig. 1 shows
this condition in a slightly exaggerated way. This
ragged condition on the edge of the cut blank becomes
more pronounced as heavier stock is used, but it is not
objectionable for ordinary use. Where a cleaner or
more square edge is necessary for the sake of obtaining
accuracy in an assembly of stamped parts, a shaving
or burnishing operation is added. The tool for this
purpose is somewhat similar to a plain blanking die;
the essential difference being in the decreased clearance.
A shaving operation cuts away a few thousands
of stock; whereas a burnishing operation sharpens a
blanked edge by ironing out the metal by brute force
between a closely fitting punch and die, although removing
a certain amount of stock. The part shown
in Fig. 2, being cut from five-eighths thick stock, came
from the blanking die quite ragged; but a burnishing
operation leaves an edge that was quite comparable
with an expensive machining operation.
Another type of flat work is a reinforcement plate
for holding an automobile hood latch in place. This
part is used in the construction of a popular make of
FIG. 4—Progressive die used for piercing, countersinking
automobile and is required in large quantities. A compound
type of die is used, this being one that blanks
the piece and pierces all the holes in one operation—a
finished piece being produced with each stroke of the
In Fig. 3 showing the complete die, the upper portion
contains a cutting edge A, which corresponds to
the outline of the blank allowing clearance as in the
plain type of blanking die. The punches B for the
small holes are also in this portion of the die and
after being properly located are held in place by the
punch holder. This punch holder may be readily removed
so that duplicate punches may be inserted as
wear and breakage occur.
FIG. 5—Forming die. In addition to shaping the part, it
shears off part of the stock to give a sharp knife-like edge.
The lower portion consists of the shoe D on which
is mounted the plug E which serves as a punch for the
blank and in addition is the die for the small punches
above. The stripper F removes the strip from the
punch as the press ascends and the knock-out pad G
removes the stamping from the small punches.
Forging- Stamping - Heat Treating
This is a very practical type of die for quantity
production for it is capable of producing upwards of
15,000 pieces daily. To operate satisfactorily the small
holes should be located far enough away from the
edge of the blank — at least once and one-half metal
thickness — so that the die construction will not be
Another type of small stamping is the little plate
that serves as the catch for an automobile door lock.
The countersinking required for the wood screws
eliminates the possibility of using the compound type
of die previously described, so that a progressive or
step type is used as shown in Fig. 4. The material,
hot rolled strip steel, is fed into the first operation die
from right to left in strips wide enough for the blank
and allowing sufficient stock on the sides to hold the
strip together after the blank is cut. Otherwise, small
pieces of scrap falling off the strip would clog up the
die and slow up production. A and B are indexing
gauges used in starting the strip which is handled to
the best advantage in eight to 10 foot lengths. A is
held in place on the first stroke of the press, locating
the material for the first step, the piercing of the two
small holes by the punches C. A is then released
and the stop B locates for the countersinking on the
next stroke of the press by the punches D. Then in
the next stroke the blank is cut with the punch E,
roughly gauging from a stop at F and accurately locating
the stock with little pins in the punch which
fit into the countersunk holes before the blank G is
actually cut. At each successive stroke thereafter one
blank is cut, falling through the die and out of the
way, and the piercing and countersinking are performed
on two other portions of the strip.
To finish the plate it is put through another tool
shown in Fig. 5. This is known as a forming die and
in addition to shaping the part actually pinches off a
bit of the stock to give the sharp knife edge required.
After the stamping is formed it is carried up with the
punch on the up stroke of the press and is removed by
a striper plate not shown in the sketch. The press
being inclined the stamping falls away from the tool
of its own accord in time to permit the insertion of
the next blank. A set of tools of this type is suitable
for large production on a very economical basis. The
first operation is capable of producing approximately
20,000 pieces in a 10-hour day and the second operation
approximately 12,000, at a combined cost of considerably
under a cent per piece including material.
(Continued next month.)
Stamping Plant Starts Operations
The Geometric Appliance Corporation, 27 Sixth
fr. ' • Vrooklyn, N. Y., incorporated August 20,
1924, with a capital of $200,000. The company started
business January 2, 1925, and will specialize in the
scientific heat treatment of metals by a special process,
and the manufacture of patented hair curlers,
can openers, surgical instruments and other metal
stamping and die work. Thomas H. Ross, president,
has patented several products to be manufactured,
and has developed the new heat treating process after
-5 years of experimentation. George Macaulay is vice
president, and George E. Nace, secretary-treasurer.
Forging - Stamping - Heat Treating
B i b l i o g r a p h y o f M a n g a n e s e S t e e l
(Bibliographies accompany several of the references
mentioned below. See the second, eleventh, and twelfth
references under Hadfield; the second reference under
Hibbard; and references under Burnham, Desch, Hopkinson,
Mars, and Ruemelin.)
Books and Periodical Literature.
LAcier au manganese, 1908. (In Le Genie civil, v.
52, p. 288-290.)
Angerer, V. Designing Manganese Steel Track
Work. 1915. (In Railway Age Gazette, v. 59, p. 341-
Gives brief history and uses of manganese steel in railroad
Armstrong, P. A. E. Manganese Steel Welding.
1916. (In Electric Railway Journal, v. 47, p. 1144-1146.)
Describes the Strohmenger process for welding manganese
Arnold, J. O., and Read, A. A. Chemical and Mechanical
Relations of Iron, Manganese, and Carbon.
1910. (In Journal of the Iron and Steel Institute, v. 81,
Arnold, J. O., and Read, A. A. Chemical Relation of
Carbon and Iron. 1894. (In Journal of the Chemical
Society, v. 65, p. 788-801.)
Gives analysis of manganese steel, p. 798-801.
Barrett, W. F. On the Physical Properties of a
Nearly Non-Magnetisable (Manganese) Steel. 1887.
(In Report of the British Association for the Advancement
of Science, v. 58, p. 610.)
Barrett, W. F., and others. Researches on the Electrical
Conductivity and Magnetic Properties of Upwards
of One Hundred Different Alloys. 1902. (In Journal
of the Institution of Electrical Engineers, v. 31, p. 674-
The same, abstract. 1903. (In Minutes of Proceedings
of the Institution of Civil Engineers, v. 151, pt. 1,
Includes 18 varieties of manganese alloys.
Barton, Larry J. Manganese Steel Made in Electric
Furnace. 1922. (In Iron Age, v. 109, p. 4-8, 109.)
Discusses melting practice for castings, use of manganese
steel scrap, deoxidizing with manganese ores, and heat treatment.
Beliaeff, Sergius S. Cored Structure in Quenched
Manganese Steel. 1922. (In Chemical and Metallurgical
Engineering, v. 27, p. 1086.)
Sample quenched in water from 1850° F., was etched with
3 per cent nital to develop its structure.
Bidwell, George L. Beater Rolls and Hydration
Problems. 1922. (In Paper, v. 30, No. 7, p. 53-54, 56.)
The same. 1922. (In Paper Trade Journal, v. 74,
pt. 2, No. 15, p. 191, 193.)
Discusses the use of manganese steel beater and washer
bars in paper manufacture.
Blue, A. A. Carbonizing Manganese Steel. 1921.
(In Forging and Heat Treating, v. 7, p. 413-415.)
Deals with the advantages of using higher manganese content
in steels for carbonizing purposes.
Blue, A. A. Distortion Produced in Casehardening.
1922. (In American Machinist, v. 56, p. 915-916.)
Deals with the effect of casehardening on manganese steel.
•Technical Librarian, Carnegie Library, Pittsburgh, Pa.
By e. h. McClelland*
Brearley, Harry. Case-Hardening of Steel; an Illustrated
Exposition of the Changes in Structure and Properties
Induced in Mild Steels by Cementation and Allied
Processes. Ed. 2. 1921. Longmans.
Treats of manganese steel, p. 78-79, 144.
Bronson, C. B. Heat Treatment as Applied to Railroad
Materials. 1919. (In Journal of the American
Steel Treaters' Society, v. 1, p. 336-341.)
Deals with manufacture, heat treatment, and tests of manganese
Burgess, Charles P., and Aston, James. Observations
upon the Alloys of Iron and Manganese. 1909. (In
Electrochemical and Metallurgical Industry, v. 7, p. 476-
Burnham, Thomas H. Special Steels; a Concise
Treatise on the Constitution, Manufacture, Working,
Heat Treatment and Applications of Alloy Steels;
Chiefly Founded on the Researches Regarding Alloy
Steels of Sir Robert Hadfield, and with a Foreword by
Him. Pitman. 1923. (Pitman's Technical Primer
"List of papers by Sir Robert A. Hadfield on manganese
steel," p. 167-168.
Treats of manganese steel, p. 91-100.
Campbell, Howard. Grinding Manganese-Steel Castings.
1923. (In American Machinist, v. 58, p. 783-786.)
Presents some interesting methods and equipment.
Campredon, Louis. Proprietes physiques et mecaniques
des aciers extra-doux ou fers fondus. 1890.
(In Le Genie civil, v. 17, p. 276-277, 358-359.)
Discusses the physical and mechanical properties of manganese
Carpenter, H. C. H., and others. Seventh Report to
the Alloy Research Committee: On the Properties of a
Series of Iron-Nickel-Manganese-Carbon Alloys. 1905.
(In Proceedings of the Institution of Mechanical Engineers,
v. 69, p. 857-1041.)
Gives a summary of the work of previous investigators, and
describes preparation, heat treatment, and chemical, mechanical,
and micrographical properties of the alloys.
Carr, Bradley Sayre. Manufacture of Manganese
Steel Castings. 1918" (In Machinery, v. 25, p. 182.)
Abstract of article in "Armour Engineer."
Cast-Steel Wheel with Manganese Tread and Flange.
1916. (In Electric Railway Journal, v. 48, p. 69-71.)
The same. 1916. (In Foundry, v. 44, p. 457-460.)
Chicago's Experience with Solid and Insert Manganese
Special Track Work. 1914. (In Electric Railway Journal,
v. 43, p. 970-980.)
History of experience in the use of manganese steel, with
accounts of individual installations.
Cone, Edwin F. High-Manganese Steel for Locomotives.
1924. (In Iron Age, v. 114, p. 824-825.)
Davis, Z. T Manganese Steel Cutting. 1923. (In
Journal of the American Welding Society, v. 2, No. 3,
Dejean, M. P. Sur la classification des aciers au
nickel et des aciers au manganese. 1917. (In Comptes
rendus hebdomadaires des seances de l'Academie des
Sciences, v. 165, p. 334-337.)
50 Fbrging-Stamping - Heat Treating
Ucsch, Cecil H., and H'hyle, Samuel. The Influence
of Manganese on the Corrosion of Steel. 1914. (In
West of Scotland Iron and Steel Institute, v. 21, p. 176-
The same, abstract. 1914. (In Journal of the Iron
and Steel Institute, v. 90, p. 386.)
Discusses corrosion of manganese steels in 5 per cent
sodium chlorid solution.
Contains a bibliography of 18 references.
Difficulties in the Manufacture of Manganese Steel
Castings. 1914. (In Electric Railway Journal, v. 43, p.
Diller, H. E. Casting Manganese Steel. 1924. (In
Foundry, v. 52, p. 245-249, 298-302.)
Describes method of casting, testing and working.
Diller, H. E. Specializes Manganese Steel. 1923.
(In Foundry, v. 51, p. 891-897.)
The same. 1923. (In Iron Trade Review, v. 73, p.
Dubois, R. Recherche des causes de la desagregation
du ferro-manganese expose a l'air libre. 1901. (In Bulletin
de l'Association Beige des Chimistes, v. 15, p. 281-
Discusses the action of weathering on ferro-manganese.
Dupuy, Eugene L., and Portcvin, Albert M. Thermo-
Electric Properties of Special Steels. 1915. (In Journal
of the Iron and Steel Institute, v. 91, p. 306-335.)
Test results made on four special manganese steels, p.
Garrison, F. Lynwood. New Alloys and Their Engineering
Applications. 1891. (In Journal of the Franklin
Institute, v. 132, p. 54-65, 111-129, 223-240.)
Treats of manganese steel, p. 127-129, 223-228.
The same, abstract. 1891. (In Journal of the Iron
and Steel Institute, v. 40, p. 302-309.)
Treats of manganese steel, p. 305-306.
George, Howard H. Correct Welding Procedure Retains
Qualities of Manganese Steel. 1924. (In Electric
Railway Journal, v. 63, p. 611-613.)
Use of arc welding prolongs life of manganese steel special
work from one to five years.
Gilbert, N. J. Effect of Certain Elements on the
Properties of Steel. 1919. (In Journal of the American
Steel Treaters' Society, v. 1, p. 349-359.)
Compares properties of manganese steels with other steels.
Grard, Charles Albert Marie. L'acier; aviation—
automobilisme; constructions mecaniques sanctions de la
Deals with the properties, forging, and heat treatment of
common and special steels.
Treats of manganese steel, p. 208-211.
Groos, A., and Varinois, Maurice. Traite theorique
et pratique de cementation; trempe, recuit et revenu.
Ed. 2, rev. and enl. 1921.
Manganese steel is discussed, p. 33-34.
Guillet, Leon. Aciers au manganese. 1903. (In
Bulletin de la Societe d'Encouragement pour lTndustrie
Nationale, v. 105, p. 421-448.)
The same, abstract translation. 1904. (In Stahl und
Eisen, v. 24, pt. 1, p. 281-285.)
Lengthy article on the mechanical properties, critical points
and metallography of manganese steel.
GuUlet, Leon. Les aciers speciaux; preface de Henrv
Le Chatelier. 2v. in 1. 1904-05.
Includes researches on the structures and physical properties
of manganese steel, p. 47-77.
Guillet, Leon. Nouvelles recherches sur les aciers au
manganese. 1904. (In Revue de metallurgie, v. 1,
memoires, p. 89-91.)
Further researches on manganese steels, and states that
these steels cannot be used without quenching, as the hardness
of troostite-martensite structure is insufficient for practical
Guillet, Leon. Quaternary Steels. 1906. (In Journal
of the Iron and Steel Institute, v. 70, p. 1-141.)
Treats of the constitution, mechanical properties and influence
of treatment on manganese steels, p. 6-7, manganesechromium
steels, p. 101-109, manganese-silicon steels, p. 109-
114. Contains numerous photomicrographs.
Guillet, Leon. Recherches sur les aciers au manganese.
1903. (In Le Genie civil, v. 43, p. 261-264,
Hadfield, Robert A., and others. Contribution to the
Study of the Magnetic Properties of Manganese and of
Some Special Manganese Steels. 1917. (In Proceedings
of Royal Society of London, Series A, v. 94, p.
Hadfield, Robert A. Experiments Relating to the
Effect on Mechanical and Other Properties of Iron and
Its Alloys Produced by Liquid Air Temperatures. 1905.
(In Journal of the Iron and Steel Institute, v. 67, p. 147-
Contains a bibliography of 76 references, p. 206-210. Includes
consideration of various alloys containing manganese.
Hadfield, Robert A. Heating and Cooling Curves of
Manganese Steel. 1913. (In Journal of the Iron and
Steel Institute, v. 88, p. 191-202.)
Hadfield, Robert A., and Friend, J. Newton. Influence
of Carbon and Manganese upon the Corrosion of
Iron and Steel. 1916. (In Journal of the Iron and Steel
Institute, v. 93, p. 48-76.)
Considers manganese steel.
Hadfield, Robert A. Iron Alloys with Special Reference
to Manganese Steels. 1893. (In Transactions
of the American Institute of Mining Engineers, v.
23, p. 148-196.)
Hadfield, Robert A., and Hopkinson, B. Magnetic
and Mechanical Properties of Manganese Steel. 1914.
(In Journal of the Iron and Steel Institute, v. 89, p.
Hadfield, Robert A., and Hopkinson, B. Magnetic
Properties of Iron and Its Alloys in Intense Fields.
1910. (In Journal of the Institution of Electrical Engineers,
v. 46, p. 235-306.)
Discusses magnetic properties of alloys in general, p. 253-
258, and iron manganese alloys, p. 263-269.
Hadfield, Robert A., and others. Magnetic Mechanical
Analysis of Manganese Steel. 1921. (In Proceedings
of the Royal Society of London, Series A, v. 98,
The same, abstract. 1921. (In Journal of the Iron
and Steel Institute, v. 103, p. 462.)
Hadfield, Robert A. Manganese-Steel Rails. 1914.
(In Transactions of the American Institute of Mining
Engineers, v. 50, p. 327-339.)
The same, abstract. 1914. (In Engineer, v. 118, p.
Hadfield, Robert A. Manganese-Steel, with an Abstract
of the Discussion upon the Papers; ed. by James
Forrest. 1888. Institution of Civil Engineers.
Treats of manganese in its application to metallurgy.—
Some newly discovered properties of iron and manganese. Reprinted
from the "Minutes of proceedings of the Institution
of Civil Engineers."
Hadfield, Robert A. On Manganese Steel. 1888.
(In Journal of the Iron and Steel Institute, v. 33, p
Gives history, manufacture and properties of manganese
steel. Contains a bibliography, p. 76-77.
Hadfield, Robert A. Results of Heat Treatment on
Manganese Steel and Their Bearing upon Carbon Steel.
1894. (In Journal of the Iron and Steel Institute, v. 45,
"Bibliography," p. 177-180.
Hall, John H., and others. Heat Treatment of Cast
Steel. 1920. (In Transactions of the American Institute
of Mining and Metallurgical Engineers, v. 62, p
Treats of high-manganese carbon steel, p. 381-388.
Hall, John H. Manganese Steel. 1915. (In Journal
of the Society of Chemical Industry, v. 34, pt. 1, p.
The same. 1915. (In Journal of Industrial and Engineering
Chemistry, v. 7, p. 94-98.)
The same, condensed. 1915. (In Foundry, v. 43,
Discusses properties, manufacture, moulding, etc., of manganese
Hall, John H. Manganese Steel Castings. 1913.
(In Iron Age, v. 91, pt. 1, p. 712-713.)
Treats of foundry methods and heat treatment.
Hall, John H. Pearlitic and Sorbitic Manganese
Steels. 1922. (In Iron Age, v. 110, p. 786-788.)
Treats of castings of about 1 per cent manganese, some
of the literature on the subject and their heat treatment and
Hand, S. A. Manganese Steel and Methods of Machining
It. 1921. (In American Machinist, v. 54, p.
Discusses briefly the heat treatment and methods of
Harbord, Frank William, and Hall, J. W Metallurgy
of Steel. Ed. 7, rev. 2 v. 1923. Griffin. (Metallurgical
Treats of manganese steel, v. 1, p. 400-403.
Hibbard, Henry D.- Discovery of Manganese Steel.
1922. (In Blast Furnace and Steel Plant, v. 10, p. 450.)
The same. 1922. (In Brass World and Platers'
Guide, v. 18, p. 339.)
The same. 1922. (In Iron Trade Review, v. 71,
Research Narrative No. 35, of the Engineering Foundation.
Hibbard, Henry D. Manufacture and Uses of Alloy
Steels. 1915. (In United States Bureau of Mines.
Bulletin No. 100.
Treats of manganese steel, p. 22-34.
"Bibliography," p. 34-36.
The same. 1916. (In Railway Review, v. 58, p.
281-284, 304-305, 345-346, 371-375, 680-683, 840-844.)
Manganese steel, p. 371-375.
Heat Treatment of Manganese Steel. 1924. (In
Engineering, v. 118, p. 411.)
Hilpert, S., and others. Ueber die magnetischen
Eigenschaften von Nickel und Manganstaehlen. 1912.
(In Stahl und Eisen, v. 32, pt. 1, p. 96-104.)
The same. 1912. (In Zeitschrift fuer Elektrochemie,
v. 18, p. 54-64.)
The same, translation. 1912. (In Journal of the
Iron and Steel Institute, v. 86, p. 302-310.)
Discusses the influence of heat treatment on magnetic properties
of manganese steels.
forging- Stamping - Heat Treating
Hopkinson, B., and Hadfield, Robert A. Research
with Regard to the Non-Magnetic and Magnetic Conditions
of Manganese Steel. 1914. (In Transactions of
the American Institute of Mining Engineers, v. 50, p.
"Bibliography," p. 494-497.
Howe, Henry M., and Levy, Arthur G. Are the Deformation
Lines in Manganese Steel Twins or Slip
Bands? 1915. (In Transactions of the American Institute
of Mining Engineers, v. 51, p. 881-896.)
Howe, Henry M. Heat-Treatment of Steel. 1893.
(In Transactions of the American Institute of Mining
Engineers, v. 23, p. 466-541.)
Presents results of experiments on toughening manganesesteel
by sudden cooling, p. 467-476. •
Howe, Henry M. Manganese-Steel. 1891. (In
Transactions of the American Society of Mechanical
Engineers, v. 12, p. 955-974.)
The same, abstract. 1891. (In Journal of the Iron
and Steel-Institute, v. 40, p. 309-311.)
Gives results of tests and various uses of manganese steel.
Howe, Henry M. Manganese Steel. 1893. (In
Tournal of the Franklin Institute, v. 135, p. 114-128,
Howe, Henry M. Metallurgy of Steel, v. 1. 1895.
Manganese steel is discussed, p. 48, 361-365.
Hozvc, Henry M. Note on Manganese-Steel. 1893.
(In Transactions of the American Institute of Mining
Engineers, v. 21, p. 625-631.)
Howe, Henry. M. Role of Manganese. 1917. (In
Proceedings of the American Society for Testing Materials,
v. 17, pt. 2, p. 508.)
The same. 1917. (In Engineering and Mining Journal,
v. 104, p. 467-468.)
The same, abstract. 1917. (In Iron Age, v. 100, pt.
The same, condensed. 1917. (In Iron Trade Review,
v. 60, p. 1401-1402.)
Discusses mechanical properties of manganese steel.
Improved Manganese Steel. 1915. (In Machinery,
v. 21, p. 450.)
Improved steel possessing the characteristic hardness of
the regular manganese steel, but which contains less manganese.
Jacobs, F. B. Grinding Manganese Steel Castings.
1921. (In Foundry, v. 49, p. 767-770.)
Discusses the method and reasons for grinding.
Johnson, F. E. Manganese Steel. 1910. (In Journal
of the Association of Engineering Societies, v. 45,
The same, abstract. 1911. (In Engineering Review,
v. 24, p. 173.)
The same, abstract. 1911. (In Foundry, v. 37, p.
Paper read before the Utah Society of Engineers.
Johnson, R. M. Manganese Steel Grinding. 1920.
(In Grits and Grinds, v. 11, No. 10, p. 2-8.)
The same. 1920. (In Foundry, v. 48, p. 659-661.)
The same. 1920. (In Iron Trade Review, v. 66, p.
Killing, Erich. Beitraege zur Frage der Manganausnutzung
im basischen Martinofen. 1920. (In Stahl
und Eisen, v. 40, pt. 2, p. 1545-1547.)
Discusses experiments on conditions necessary to secure
the most effective use of the manganese additions.
52 Forging- Stamping - Heat Treating
Lake, E. F. Manganese Steel and Some of Its Uses.
1907 (In American Machinist, v. 30, pt. 1, p. 700-702.)
Discusses its advantages over carbon steel for rails, vaults,
Laic. E. F Effect of Mass on Heat Treatment.
1919. (In Proceedings of the Steel Treating Research
Society, v. 2, No. 2, p. 11-19. 31.)
Discusses mechanical properties of manganese steel as influenced
by various heat treatments, p. 14.
Ledebur. A. Ueber Manganstahl. 1893. (In Stahl
und Eisen, v. 13, p. 504-507.)
Levin, M'., and Tammann, G. Lleber Mangan-Eisenlegierungen.
1905. (In Zeitschift fuer Anorganische
Chemie, v. 47. p. 136-144.)
The same, abstract translation. 1908. (In Revue de
metallurgie, v. 5, pt. 1, memoires. p. 537-539.)
Gives results of experiments of the heating and cooling
curves of manganese-iron alloys.
Machine Shop without Cutting Tools. 1909. (In
American Machinist, v. 32, pt. 2, p. 893-897.)
Deals with appliances used in building burglar proof safes
of manganese steel which can only be machined by grinding.
McKcc, Walter S. Manganese-Steel Castings in the
Mining Industry. 1916. (In Transactions of the American
Institute of Mining Engineers, v. 53, p. 437-450.)
The same, condensed. 1915. (In Iron Age v 96
pt. 2, p. 1362-1365.)
The same, without discussion. 1915. (In Iron Trade
Review, v. 57. p. 1077-1081.)
Considers their characteristics, some of their uses, foundry
practice and heat treatment.
McKce, Walter S., and Blake. J. M. Manganese
Steel Castings in the Mining Industry. 1921. (In Transactions
of the Canadian Institute of Mining and Metallurgy
and of the Mining Society of Nova Scotia, v. 24
Gives the chemical and physical properties, heat treatment
McKcc, Walter S. The Manufacture of Manganese
Steel Castings. 1917. (In Transactions of the American
Foundrymen's Association, v. 25, p. 403-426.)
The same. 1917. (In Foundry, v. 45, p. 141-146.)
The same. 1917. (In Iron Trade Review, v. 60, p
Discusses the difficulties encountered in making alloy castings,
and application of manganese steel to various kinds of
Making Manganese Steel bv the Open-Hearth Process.
1919. (In Iron Trade Review, v. 65, p. 1701-1705.)
Making Manganese Steel Castings Machineable
1912. (In Foundry, v. 40, p. 271.)
Method of softening the castings by heat treatment.
Manganeisenhaltige I.egierungen und Ihre Herstellun"und
Yerwendung. 1912. (In Elektrochemische Zeitschrift,
v.19, p. 131-133.)
Includes use of ferromanganese, etc., in manganese steel.
Manganese Steel for Burglar-Proof Safes. 1899.
(In Journal of the Franklin Institute, v. 147, p. 491.)
Manganese Steel Products. 1909. (In Iron Age v
84, pt. 1," p. 984-987.)
Deals with the progress of the Potter process of rolling
Manganese Steel Track-Work Specifications. 1915.
(In Electric Railway Journal, v. 45, p. 1118.)
Manufacture of Manganese Steel Castings. 1913.
(In Iron Trade Review, v. 52, p. 1404-1411.)
Discusses the practice of the Edgar Allen American
Mars. G. Die Spezialstaehle; Ihre Geschichte, Eigenschaften,
Behandlungen und Herstellung. Ed. 2, rev.
Contains bibliographical foot-notes.
Treats of manganese steel, p. 287-331.
Mesnager, A. Essais d'aciers speciaux sur les chemins
de fer et tramways. 1921. (In Le Genie civil, v.
79, p. 155.)
Discusses advantages of Hadfield steel (12 per cent manganese)
for railway parts exposed to heavy wear.
Metcalf, William. Steel; a Manual for Steel Users.
Treats of the properties of steel, effect of impurities, theory
and methods of hardening, tempering, annealing, etc. Manganese
steel, p. 33-35.
Mukai, Tctskichi. Studien ueber chemisch-analytische
und mikroskopische Untersuchungen des Manganstahls.
Not in Carnegie Library of Pittsburgh.
New Track Appliances. 1913. (In Railway and
Engineering Review, v. 53, p. 955-957.)
Committee report to the Roadmasters' and Maintenance
of Way Association on manganese steel appliances.
Onnes, Kamerlingh, and others. On the Influence of
Low Temperatures on the Magnetic Properties of Alloys
of Iron with Nickel and Manganese. 1921. (In Proceedings
of the Royal Society of London, Series A, v.
99, p. 174-196.)
Osmond, F Sur la cristallographie du fer. 1900.
(In Annales des mines, v. 196, memoires, p. 110-165.)
Discusses the structure of manganese steel, p. 138-139.
Pennington, H. R. Welding Frogs and Crossings
with Manganese Steel. 1922. (In Railway Review, v.
70, p. 153-157.)
The same. 1922. (In Engineering and Contracting,
v. 57, p. 152-154.)
Discusses the qualities of manganese steel and methods of
using it in welding operations.
Portevin, A., and Le Chatelier, Henry. Sur les aciers
au manganese. (In Comptes rendus hebdomadaires des
seances de TAcademie des Sciences, v. 165, p. 62-65.)
Gives results of the effect of very slow cooling on manganese
steels of different percentages of manganese.
Potter, W S. Manganese Steel. 1909. (In Journal
of the Western Society of Engineers, v. 14, p. 212-
The same, abstract. 1909. (In Iron Trade Review,
v. 44, p. 584-587.)
Deals with the physical properties and heat treatment, and
gives results of a series of tests to determine the coefficient of
fr.ct.on between chill cast and steel-tired wheels, and Bessemer
and manganese steel rails.
Potter, W S. Manganese Steel, with Especial Reference
to the Relation of Physical Properties to Micros
ructure and Critical Ranges. 1914. (In Transactions
jyhe75Amencan Institute of Mining Engineers, v. 50, p.
Recent Solid Manganese Steel Crossings. 1915. (In
Electric Railway Journal, v. 45, p. 711-712 )
for*pTcia7tracdk worT"^1"6 °f man*— ^l "stings
Revillon, L. Les aciers speciaux. (1907.) Masson.
(Encyclopedic scientifique des aide-memoire.)
Concise review of their physical and chemical properties,
methods of working and uses.
Treats of manganese steel, p. 65-82, also of nickel-manganese,
manganese-silicon and manganese chromium steels.
Rhodes, J. B. A Development of a High-Grade Alloy
Steel at Low Cost. 1915. (In Journal of the American
Society of Naval Engineers, v. 27, p. 911-915.)
The same. 1915. (In Iron Age, v. 96, p. 1553-1554.)
Discusses high grade castings and forgings of a manpanese-copper-nickel
steel showing superior static properties
and developed at a low cost.
Roberts, H. W. Relative Life of Manganese and
Open-Hearth Rail on Curves. 1918. (In Electric Railway
Journal, v. 52, p. 697.)
The same, abstract. 1918. (In Engineering and
Contracting, v. 50, p. 479.)
Gives results of tests showing manganese rails to wear
about seven times as long as open-hearth.
Rolled Manganese Steel Rail. 1908. (In Railroad
Age Gazette, v. 45, p. 1536-1538.)
Rouelle, Jean Baptiste Celestin. L'aciers; elaboration
et travail. 1922. (Collection Armand Colin. Section de
Outlines methods of manufacturing steel and special steels,
and deals with testing, heat treatment, shaping and working.
Treats of manganese steel, p. 87-89.
Rudhardt, Paid. Les metaux utilises la technique
moderne et leur traitement rationnel. Ed. 2. 1920.
Treats very briefly of manganese steel, p. 153.
Ruemelin, G., and Fick, K. Beitraege zur Kenntnis
des Systems Eisen-mangan. 1915. (In Ferrum, v. 12,
Discusses the physical and chemical properties, and contains
numerous foot-note references.
Sauveur, Albert. Manganese Steel and the Allotropic
Theory. 1914. (In Transactions of the American Institute
of Mining Engineers, v. 50, p. 501-514.)
Sauveur, Albert. Metallography and Heat Treatment
of Iron and Steel. Ed. 2. 1916. Sauveur.
Treats of manganese steel, p. 343-346.
Schneider et Cie. L'acier au manganese. 1909. (In
Revue de metallurgie, v. 6, memories, p. 551-561.)
Treats of the properties and applications.
Schuler, E. J. Manganese Special Work Welding.
1924. (In Engineering and Contracting (Railways), v.
61, p. 419-420.)
Selleck, Theodore G. Practical Talks on Case-Hardening.
1919. (In Journal of the American Steel Treaters'
Society, v. 1, p. 325-335.)
Gives table of carbonizing efficiency of various steels, including
manganese, p. 335.
Shaner, E. L. Making Manganese Steel by the Open-
Hearth Process. 1920. (In Foundry, v. 48, p. 63-66.)
Discusses how steel containing 12 per cent manganese is
made by open hearth process.
Sirovich, G. Deoxidation of Steel by Silico-Manganese.
1919. (In Journal of the Iron and Steel Institute,
v. 99, p. 662.)
Brief abstract from Metallurgia Italiana, 1918, v. 10, p.
Spring, La Verne Ward. Non-technical Chats on
Iron and Steel and Their Application to Modern Industry.
Treats of manganese steel, p. 235-236.
Fbrging-Stamping - Heat Treating
Springer, J. F. Manganese Steel. 1910. (In Cassier's
Magazine, v. 39, p. 99-116.)
Deals with properties and tests of manganese steels.
Stadler, A. Einfluss des Mangans auf die mechanischen
und strukturellen Eigen schaften niedriggekohlten
Flusseisens gewoehnlicher Handelsqualitaet. 1913. (In
Zeitschrift fuer Anorganische Chemie, v. 81, p. 61-69.)
Stone, S. R. Manganese Steel for Machinery Parts.
1913. (In Iron Age, v. 91, pt. 1, p. 140-142.)
Discusses the variety of service in which such castings have
been used to advantage.
Stoughton, Bradley. The Metallurgy of Iron and
Steel. Ed. 3. McGraw. 1923.
Discusses manganese steel, p. 435-437.
Strauss, Jerome. Characteristics of Some Manganese
Steels. 1923. (In Transactions of the American
Society for Steel Treating, v. 4, p. 665-708.)
Gives a brief history of iron-manganese alloys, and discusses
the mechanical, electrical and magnetic properties, and shows
the relation of microstructure to mechanical properties in a
series of steels.
Strauss, Jerome. Properties of Manganese Steels.
1920. (In Proceedings of the Steel Treating Research
Society, v. 2, No. 11, p. 14-19, 47.)
Short review of the physical and mechanical properties as
influenced by various heat treatments.
Strong, J. B. Manganese Construction in Track
Work. 1920. (In Official Proceedings of the St. Louis
Railway Club, v. 25, No. 5, p. 47-55.)
The same, abstract. 1920. (In Engineering and Contracting,
v. 54, p. 499.)
The same, abstract. 1920. (In Railway Review, v.
69, p. 928.)
Strong, J. B. Rolled Manganese Steel Rails. 1909.
(In Railway and Engineering Review, v. 49, p. 214-215.)
Taritqi, N. Neues Verfahren zur Venvertung stark
Siliciumhaltiger Eisen- und Mangan-Mineralien. 1913.
(In Chemiker-Zeitung, v. 37, p. 511-512.)
Way Engineer. Welding Manganese Steel. 1916.
(In Electric Railway Journal, v. 48, p. 27-28.)
Brief discussion of P. A. E. Armstrong's and W. S. Potter's
Welding Manganese Steel. 1923. (In Journal of
the American Welding Society, v. 2, No. 6, p. 39-56.)
Questions asked the bureau of information of the American
Welding Society on electric welding of rails, and giving
the opinion of competent engineers on the subject.
Wickhorst, M. H. Tests of Manganese Steel Rails.
1918. (In American Railway Engineering Association,
v. 19, p. 472-491.)
The same, abstract. 1918. (In Iron Age, v. 101, pt.
1, p. 560-561.)
The same, abstract. 1918. (In Railway Age, v. 64,
Gives a report of the behavior of manganese steel rails
under service conditions.
Zerhansen, F R. How Manganese Steel Castings
are Made. 1914. (In Foundry, v. 42, p. 132.)
The same, abstract. 1914. (In Machinery, v. 20, p.
Details of molding, melting and pattern making.
54 Forging- Stamping - Heat Treating
H E A T T R E A T M E N T and M E T A L L O G R A P H Y of STEEL
A P r a c t i c a l C o u r s e in t h e E l e m e n t s o f
PART 3 — STRUCTURE OF METALS*
A pure metal of almost any kind, whether iron,
gold, copper, tungsten, etc., when polished, etched and
examined under the microscope, looks very much like
Fig. 29. (If cold worked, the network will be more
or less elongated.) In fact, the various pure metals
look so much alike, under the microscope, that it is
difficult to tell them apart.
All metals are crystalline. This fact has a great
deal to do with their physical properties. When a
molten metal solidifies, its atoms arrange themselves
in orderly groups, somewhat like a crowd of soldiers
assembling for parade, and tend to form themselves
naturally into small solid bodies of regular geometrical
shape, such as cubes, octahedrons')-, etc. Such
bodies are called "crystals", and the mass which they
make up is said to be "crystalline" A crystal grows
from a small beginning, by the building on of more
atoms from the adjacent liquid, each atom taking its
regular place in the pattern, like bricks in a wall. The
pattern taken by iron atoms is cubical, and the crystals
of iron, if allowed to grow without outside interference,
would be cubes. But, during solidification, many
crystals start to form at different points, all according
to the same pattern, but each choosing its own direction
for its lines of formation. Each crystal continues
to grow until it meets one of its neighbors, and its
boundaries are therefore determined by chance, rather
than bv the natural tendency of the crvstal.
*The author wishes to acknowledge his indebtedness to the
following references for material contained in this section, and
to recommend them to the student for further readine. Ref. 7
(Rosenhain) Chapter IV. Ref. 8 (Sauveur) Chapter IV.
fAn octahedron is an eight sided solid.
The author is Chief Metallurgist, Naval Aircraft Factory,
United States Navy Yard. Philadelphia. Pa.
Copyright, 1924, by H. C. Knerr.
P h y s i c a l M e t a l l u r g y
This action has been very clearly illustrated by
Rosenhain (Ref. 7) as shown in Fig. 30. The progressive
steps, (a), (b), (c), (d), (e), represent the
gradual growth of 7 crystals, which finally meet, as
in (e), so that their outlines or a section through them
would look like (f). For simplicity, Rosenhain has
shown only a single layer of blocks, all in one plane.
In a mass of liquid, the little blocks would build up in
layers as well as in rows, and the layers of one crystal
would not be parallel to the layers of its neighboring
crystals. The direction of the lines or planes of formation
of a crystal is called its "orientation". We seldom
find two crystals in one specimen oriented alike.
What one sees in a polished and etched specimen
of a pure metal under the microscope, is a slice or
cross section through a mass of these solid, irregular
crystals. The network of lines represents merely the
boundaries of the crystals.
Crystals occur in many kinds of material in nature,
and we are used to thinking of them as bodies of
regular and symmetrical shape. It should be kept in
mind that it is the internal construction and not the
external shape, that makes a body a crystal.
Crystals which have formed under such conditions
that they have been able to assume the shape natural
to their type (such as perfect cubes, for instance), are
called "idiomorphic" crystals. Those which have been
hindered in their growth, so that they have taken their
shape from their surroundings (as in most metal specimens),
are called "allotriomorphic" crystals. Metallurgists
have adopted a shorter term than the latter,
which is equally good, and call these imperfect crystals
simply "crystalline grains", or just "grains".
This should not be confused with the term "grain",
sometimes applied to metals, especially wrought iron,
because of the fibrous appearance of the fracture,
which resembles the grain of wood. In this sense
metal has no real grain, although the distribution of
certain inclusions, impurities or flaws, often produces
a condition which amounts to almost the same thing.
Hot or cold working also tends to set up a condition
resembling the grain of wood, by tending to orient the
grains parallel to the direction of working.
When a mass of molten metal, such as a newly
poured ingot, cools slowly, crystals start to form at
those points which first reach the freezing temperature
FIG. 29a—(Above) Pure gold, cast, lightly etched. (50x.)
29b—(Below) Gold containing 0.20 per cent lead. (lOOx.)
of the pure metal. This is generally at the inner surface
of the mold. These crystals grow inward, until
they meet other crystals, and may attain quite a large
size, see Fig. 31. Hot working breaks up these large
crystalline grains, and if properly done, entirely eliminates
this ingot structure, reducing the metal to a
mass of crystalline grains of microscopic size, oriented
in all directions. If the molten metal solidifies fairly
rapidly, crystals start to form at a great number of
points, and do not have time to grow far, so that the
crystalline structure is also fine in this case.
The crystals of metals have the peculiar property
of being able to grow while the metal is in a solid
state. This may take place much below the melting
point, although a fairly.high temperature is usually
necessary. Such grain growth is due to the absorbtion
of some of the crystals by their neighbors, so that
the total number of crystalline grains is reduced as
their average size is increased. In passing across the
boundary from the crystal which is being absorbed,
into the one which is absorbing it, the atoms take the
orientation of the growing crystal, and become a part
of it. The arrangement or pattern of the atoms of iron
undergoes changes at certain temperatures. This
causes modifications in the crystalline state and cor
forging- Stamping - Heat Treating
responding changes in the structure and properties of
the metal. These points will be discussed more fully
further on, but are mentioned here to make it clear
that the history of a specimen, its rate of cooling and
its mechanical and thermal treatment, must be taken
into consideration when studying its grain structure
under the microscope.
When a pure metal is lightly etched, the grain
boundaries are at first revealed, giving the appearance
of a network, as shown in Fig. 29a, but if the
etching is somewhat deeper, the areas enclosed by the
lines take on a different appearance, some being dark
and others light, with variations between. Moving the
specimen so as to change the direction in which the
light strikes it, will cause the grains to change in brilliance,
bright ones becoming dark, and dark ones
bright. This is due to the different orientation of the
grains. Deeper etching has removed the smooth layer
from the surface of the grains, and exposed the very
minute facets produced by the crystalline structure.
These facets result from the lines or planes along
which the atoms have arranged themselves in crystallizing.
They are therefore parallel to each other in
any one crystal, but those of different crystals lie at
different angles to the polished surface of the specimen.
This causes some of the crystalline grains to
reflect more light into the microscope than others,
and therefore to appear brighter. Changing the angle
at which the light strikes them, causes them to reflect
a greater or less amount into the microscope.
FIG. 30.—Illustrating progressive stages in growth of crystalline
Fig. 32 shows a photomicrograph of a specimen oi
nearly pure iron, lightly etched (the black specks are
non-metallic inclusions). Fig. 33 shows a similar material
in which the lustre due to the different orientation
of various grains has been brought out by deeper
50 Forging - Stamping - Heat 'Beating
The faceted surface of etched grains is clearly illustrated
in Fig. 34, which shows an exceptionally large
So far we have discussed pure metals. It is well
known that the addition of small amounts of certain
elements to a pure metal (as for instance of carbon to
iron), causes great changes in its properties. From
the metallurgists standpoint, such additions are classified
as "impurities" or "alloying elements", according
to whether their influence on the metal is good or bad.
When the metal is molten, these foreign materials
either dissolve in the metal without chemical change, or
combine chemically with a small part of it, This chemical
compound then dissolves in the molten metal. In either
case we have an ordinary liquid solution.
When the liquid cools and solidifies, the added
element or the chemical compound which it has
formed, may remain dissolved in the crystals of the
original metal as a "solid solution", or it may be rejected
and form a seperate constituent between the
grains of the original metal. ( iften both of these effects
take place, some of the foreign element remaining
in solid solution and the balance being rejected as a
FIG. 31.—Crystal growth in a slowly cooled ingot, showing
large grains which form planes of weakness. (Stoughton.)
A solid solution has the same characteristic qualities
as a liquid solution, which were discussed in Chapter
I, the only difference being that the mass is solid
and. in metals, crystalline. The solvent and solute
may vary in proportion, and are so completely merged
that they cannot be distinguished under the highest
magnification. The appearance under the microscope
of a solid solution is >imilar to that of a pure metal,
although the alloy may have a tendency to increase
or decrease the size of the grains.
In case the added element or its compound is rejected
from solution, during the process of solidification,
its presence is quite evident under the microscope
as illustrated in Figs. 29b, 35 and 36.
The insoluble material, whether element or compound,
is not as a rule, rejected in a solid mass between
the crystalline grains, but unites mechanically
with a certain amount of the metal to form what is
known as a "eutectic alloy' A "eutectic" allov (meaning
"most fusible), is one that has the lowest melting
point of any combination of the two materials. The
eutectic constituent of any pair of materials always
has a definite composition and a definite melting point.
(Freezing and melting point are equivalent). This
will be further discussed in Chapter VI.
An allov containing only two elements, such as lead
and tin, or iron and carbon, is called a "binary alloy",
and the whole range of alloys between two such elements
is known as a "binary system". Where there
FIG. 32.—Photomicrograph of nearly pure iron, lightly etched
(500 diameters). (By Huester, in author's laboratory.)
FIG. 33.—Nearly pure iron more deeply etched than Fig.
32, showing light and dark effect due to different orientation
of the grains. FIG. 35.—Alloyed material or impurity
rejected to grain boundaries. (Aluminum—copper alloy.)
FIG. 36.—Alloyed material (carbon constituent in low carbon
steel) rejected as islands between grains. 500x.
are three elements the alloy is called "ternary", and
if four, "quaternary". Alloys of more than two or
three elements are referred to as complex alloys. Such
alloys follow, in general, the same laws as have been
discussed for simple or binary alloys.
Iron Carbon Alloys.
Iron forms a great variety of alloys, both simple
and complex. They are so numerous and so important
that metallurgy is often divided into two great classes—"ferrous",
including all the alloys of which iron is
the major constituent, and "non-ferrous", including
all the rest. The most important ferrous alloys are
those of iron and carbon. Alloys of iron containing
from about .05 per cent to 1.70 per cent carbon are
classed as steel, and those containing from about 2.25
per cent to 5.0 per cent as cast iron. These boundaries
are approximate, and it is in fact, quite difficult
to draw any sharp distinction between the commercial
products known as iron, steel and cast iron.
Iron forms a chemical compound with carbon,
whose formula is Fe3C, and which therefore contains
6.67 per cent carbon by weight. This, in the solid
state, is a hard, brittle, crystalline substance. It is
known as "iron carbide" or "cementite", and is chiefly
responsible for the hardening qualities of steel. As
carbon is added to liquid iron, this carbide is formed,
and it will go into solution in increasing amounts
with increasing temperature, up to about 1823 deg. C.
(3313 deg. F.) at which the molten iron will take up
FIG. 34.—Faceted surface of deeply etched grain, highly magnified.
6.67 per cent of its weight of carbon, and would therefore
consist entirely of liquid cementite.
The cooling and solidification of such a solution,
with the accompanying crystallization of various constituents,
is a rather complex matter, the discussion
of which will be taken up in Chapter VI. It will suffice
at this stage to describe the effects of small, and
gradually increasing amounts of carbon, upon the
structure of iron carbon alloys, and also the effects of
certain other alloys and impurities.
In describing the manufacture of wrought iron it
was shown that this material consists of practically
carbonless iron, containing included particles of slag,
which are rolled out to thread-like inclusions during
the process of hot working. Before the structure of
metals was studied under the microscope, it was generally
supposed that wrought iron was fibrous, like
wood, and that this characteristic gave the metal many
valuable properties. If a piece of wrought iron is bent
and broken, it certainly shows a fibrous appearance.
However, examination of properly prepared longi
Fbrging-Stamping - Heat Treating
tudinal and transverse sections under the microscope,
reveals the fact that the metal itself is not fibrous but
crystalline, and that the fibrous appearance is due to
the elongated particles of slag. Fig. 37 shows a longitudinal
section (parallel to direction of rolling),
through a specimen of wrought iron. The crystalline
grains are practically carbonless iron (ferrite), and the
dark streaks are slag particles, which, as will be noted,
sometimes run right through the crystalline grains.
Fig. 38 shows a transverse section (across direction of
rolling), through the same specimen, the slag particles
FIG. 37.—Wrought iron, longitudinal section, showing grain
structure. Black streaks are slag inclusions. (500x.) FIG.
38.—Same as Fig. 37, but transverse section. 500x. (By
Huester, author's laboratory.)
in this case being seen endwise. The grains themselves
are not elongated but are about as wide one
way as another. It will be noted that, aside from the
streaks of slag, the microstructure of wrought iron is
practically the same as that of the nearly pure iron
shown in Fig. 32. The presence of the slag streaks is,
in fact, the distinguishing characteristic of wrought
iron, under the microscope.
Specimens of nearly pure iron (not wrought iron)
were shown in Figs. 32 and 33. The presence of less
58 Fbrging-Stamping - Heat Treating
than about 0.05 per cent of carbon in iron is not evident
in its microstructure, for this amount is apparently
held in solid solution by ferrite at room temperature.
It should be mentioned here that in the present discussion
we are considering specimens which have been
allowed to cool slowly from above the critical temperature,
so as to eliminate such effects on the structure
as would be caused by quenching the metal or by cold
FIG. 39.—Steel containing about 0.20 per cent carbon, annealed.
(500x.) FIG. 40.—Steel containing about 0.40 per
cent carbon, annealed. (500x.) (By Downes, in author's
laboratory). FIG. 41.—Steel containing about 60 per cent
carbon, annealed. (500x.)
A slowly cooled steel specimen which contains
about 0.20 per cent carbon will show grains of ferrite,
interspersed with small dark areas, as in Fig. 39. If
the carbon content is about .40 per cent it will be
noted that the dark areas represent about y2 of the
total area (Fig. 40) and if 0.60 per cent they will cover
about 2/3 of the entire area, the ferrite grains now
having the appearance of a net-work between the darker
areas I Fig. 41). If the carbon content is .85 to .90
per cent the entire area will be composed of the dark
constituent. See Fig. 42. Close examination of the
dark constituent will show that it is made up of many
thin layers or laminations of two different materials,
so that it resembles mother-of-pearl. This constituent
is called "pearlite". An exceptionally large and clear
example is shown in Fig. 43. The smooth light areas
are free ferrite.
Pearlite is composed of alternate layers of ferrite
and cementite. Above certain temperatures, all the
carbide or cementite in steel goes into solid solution in
FIG. 42 Steel containing about .90 per cent carbon, annealed.
(500x.) FIG. 43.—Exceptionally large formation of pearlnc.
'H. (500x.) >,juux.,» Smooth omootn white wmte islands are _ free ferrite grains. ,
FIG 44.—Steel containing about 1.20 per cent carbon, annealed.
the ferrite, as will be described later. At lower temperatures
its solubility decreases, and it finally separates
out completely, in thin curved plates, combining
mechanically during its separation with alternate
layers or plates of ferrite, and in such a proportion
that the amount of carbon in the pearlite is about 0.85
per cent to .90 per cent. This fact affords a convenient
means of estimating the carbon content in a
piece of plain carbon steel. The specimen is first heated
to a fairly high temperature, above the critical
range, say to 1650 deg. F. and slowly cooled, as by
letting it cool down with the furnace. It is then polished
and etched. The carbon content may now be
estimated within say, plus or minus .05 per cent in
low carbon steels or .10 per cent in high carbon steels
by estimating the proportion of pearlite present in the
microsection, and applying the following simple formula:
P X -85 _ c
where P = per cent pearlite in area
C = per cent carbon.
All the carbon present in slowly cooled steel containing
not over .85 to .90 per cent carbon is in the pearlite.
If the carbon content is greater than .90 per cent,
the excess will be rejected to the grain boundaries of
the pearlite as a net-work of free cementite, as shown
in Fig. 44. In this case, an estimate of the carbon content
may be made with the aid of the following formula
.85 P 6.67 Cm
+ = C
= per cent pearlite in area.
per cent cementite in area.
= per cent carbon in the steel.
(It will be remembered that cementite contains 6.67
per cent carbon.)
These rules apply only to annealed steels and do
not apply to alloy steels which contain carbide forming
elements, such as chromium, tungsten, etc., as in
these less than .85 per cent will be needed to make
the steel all pearlite. A detailed discussion of methods
of estimating the amounts of certain constituents
in steel and iron, from their microstructure, is given
by Sauveur—Ref. 8.
Typical structure of cast steel is illustrated in Fig.
45, which shows part of three large grains. The carbon
content of this specimen was about .40 per cent.
Note that the ferrite has been rejected partly to the
grain boundaries and partly within the grains themselves,
along the crystalline planes. The dark constituent
is pearlite. Steel having this structure is
comparatively weak and brittle and must be refined
by heat treatment or hot working to give it the best
Ordinary steel may be regarded as an alloy of two
elements, iron and carbon, and therefore as a binary
alloy. In addition to iron and carbon, all commercial
steels contain traces of certain other elements, such
as phosphorus, sulphur, silicon and manganese, but
in amounts so small that they are not regarcjed as
alloys. Phosphorus and sulphur are classed as impurities,
because of their tendency to cause brittleness,
weakness and unreliability, and they are seldom allowed
to exceed about .05 per cent. Silicon and manganese
are introduced as scavengers during manufacture,
because of their deoxidizing action and their
ability to take up gases. Manganese also has the
property of combining with sulphur to form the compound,
manganese sulfide MnS, which is less harmful
to the steel than sulphur. Ordinary steels usually
contain from a trace to .30 per cent silicon and .30
per cent to .80 per cent manganese.
The properties of such steels are determined mainly
by their carbon content, and they are therefore
Forging- Stamping - Heat Treating
called "carbon steels''. Carbon steels may be classified
roughly as follows:
Less than .05% (practically carbonless steel)
.05 to .15. . .Very mild or dead soft steel.
.15 to .30.. .Mild or machinery- steel.
.30 to .60. .Medium carbon or forging steel.
.60 to 1.20. . .Tool steel, various grades.
.25 and over. Very high carbon or extra hard steel
FIG. 45.—Cast steel containing about .40 per cent carbon.
Note coarse grains and ingotism. (lOOx.) (By Huester, in
author's laboratory.) FIG. 49.—Malleable iron (partly
malleablized). Black areas graphite; white, ferrite; gray,
These classifications are of a general nature only.
In specifying steel for any particular purpose, the carbon
content must be held between closer limits, especially
in the three latter classes.
Steels to which certain elements have been added
in sufficient quantities to have a pronounced effect in
improving the physical properties, are called "alloy
steels" Some of the commoner alloying elements
used for this purpose are nickel, chromium, vanadium.
tungsten, molybdenum and also silicon and manganese.
(The last two in much larger amounts than in
ordinary carbon steel.) When one such alloy is added
the steel is referred to by the name of the alloying
element, such as "nickel steel", or "chromium steel",
etc. Such steels are ternary alloys, and their properties
vary with the amount of carbon present as well as
with the amount of the alloying element. Two alloying
elements are often used, making a quaternary
alloy (there being present four important elements in
all—iron, carbon and the two alloys). Examples of
FIG. 46.—White cast iron. (SOOx.) Bright areas, carbide;
dark areas, pearlite. FIG. 47.—Gray cast iron, polished
but not etched. Dark areas, graphite plates. (lOOx.) FIG.
48.—Same specimen as Fig. 47, etched. Black areas, graphite;
white, ferrite; gray, pearlite and phosphide eutectic
this nature are "chromium-vanadium steel", "nickelchromium
steel", etc. Steels containing three or more
alloys are manufactured for special purposes, especially
for high grade tools.
Each alloying element has important and characteristic
effects upon the properties of the steel, and upon
its behavior under heat treatment. They either go into
solid solution with the ferrite, or combine with some
of the carbon present to form carbides, or both. They
therefore, as a rule, produce no new constituent which
can be distinguished under the microscope from the
Fbrging-Stamping- Heat Treating
usual constituents of carbon steel. Their influence so
far as the microstructure is concerned, lies chiefly
in their effects upon the structure produced in the
steel by heat treatment. This matter will be taken
up in Chapter VII.
Cast iron contains much more carbon than steel,
generally from 2.50 to 4.00 per cent. When the metal
FIG. 50— (a) Manganese sulfide globules (gray) in low carbon
steel. (500x.) (b) Manganese sulfide inclusions elongated
by rolling. (500x.) FIG. 51.—Intercrystalline quenching
cracks, due to high sulphur. (SOOx.)
is molten, the carbon goes completely into solution
in the iron (either as carbon or the carbide Fe3C). If
the metal is cooled fairly rapidly to the solid state,
the carbon separates from solution in the form of carbide,
Fe3C, as in steel, some of it forming pearlite
with a portion of the iron, and the rest forming a net
work or ground mass of cementite. This produces the
extremely hard and rather brittle material known as
white cast iron," from the white and shining appearance
of its fracture. The microstructure of a piece
of white cast iron is shown in Fig. 46. The bright
areas are cementite and the dark areas pearlite:
If, however, the metal is allowed to cool and solidify
slowly, some of the carbide will decompose into
iron and graphite, according to the formula, Fe3C =
3Fe + C. (Graphite is one of the forms of the element
carbon) and the graphite will be distributed
through the mass in the form of tiny curved plates
or flakes. This is ordinary "gray cast iron". If a piece
is broken, the fracture will follow along the graphite
plates, as they have little tenacity. This produces the
characteristic gray appearance and accounts for the
comparative brittleness and lack of Juctility of ordinary
cast iron. The presence of silicon promotes the
formation of graphitic carbon.
Some of the carbon usually remains in the combined
state, producing cementite and pearlite. If
the specimen is polished but not etched, the graphite
only will be revealed as shown in Fig. 47. Etching
will then bring out the pearlite. See Fig. 48.
If white cast iron is given a suitable long annealing
treatment, some or all of the carbide will break
down into iron and graphite, but in this case the
graphite will collect into small, nearly round globules,
which have not the weakening effect that the graphite
plates have in gray cast iron. The presence of silicon
aids this reaction. Carbon produced in this way is
called "temper carbon". Some of the carbon is usually
oxidized out in the process. The metal now consists
of a mass of ferrite grains, interspersed with
particles of graphite and is comparatively ductile and
malleable. It is called malleable iron.
Fig. 49 shows the microstructure of a partly malleablized
specimen, The free carbide has decomposed,
leaving rounded masses of graphite (black), surrounded
by carbonless iron or ferrite (white) which are, in
turn, imbedded in a ground mass of pearlite (gray).
Such material is stronger but not so malleable as fully
Macroscopic examination as a means of studying
impurities has been discussed. More minute study of
certain impurities under the microscope is often valuable.
The small quantity of phosphorus which is present
in steel forms the phosphide of iron, Fe3P, which goes
into solid solution with the ferrite, and is therefore not
visible in the microstructure. Carbonless iron will
take up as much as 1.7 per cent phosphorus in this
way. Cast iron may contain relatively large quantities
of phosphorus and more than the ferrite can take up.
The presence of carbon tends to throw the phosphorus
out of solution, causing it to form a ternary eutectic
of iron carbide (Fe3C) iron phosphide (Fe3P) and iron
(ferrite), somewhat resembling pearlite in appearance.
This constituent can be recognized and studied under
the microscope by the method of heat tinting, described
in the section on etching.
Sulphur has a strong tendency to combine chemically
with manganese, at high temperatures, forming
manganese sulfide, MnS. One of the purposes of
adding manganese to steel is to take up the sulphur
in this way. The manganese sulfide separates out in
Forging - Stamping - Heat Treating
the form of small round globules, some of which
float to the top of the ingot while others are entrapped
when the metal solidifies. Hot working elongates the
globules in the direction of forging or rolling. They
may be recognized under the microscope, by their gray
color, Fig. 50 a and b. These small particles have little
effect on the strength of steel, unless they are present
in excessive quantities. From the atomic weights
it is evident that 55 parts of manganese are required
to combine with 32 parts of sulphur. Actually more
FIG. 52.—Banded or ghost line structure. (lOOx.) (a) Probably
due to phosphorus, (b) Probably due to sulphur.
FIG. 53.—Solid non-metallic impurities. Very "dirty" steel.
Longitudinal section through rolled bar. Polished but not
mangane'se is needed to insure that all the sulphur
is taken up. In case there is excess sulphur, it combines
with some of the iron, forming iron sulfide,
FeS. This is yellow or brown in color, low in strength,
and tends to form a film or envelope around the ferrite
grains, thereby greatly weakening the metal. The
low melting point of this material (FeS) is the probable
cause of the well known brittleness ("red shortness")
of steel high in sulphur when heated to forging
temperature. Such steel is also likely to crack in heat
treatment. Fig. 51 is a photomicrograph of a piece
62 Forging-Stamping-Heat Treating
which cracked apparently from this cause. It was
found to be high in sulphur in the vicinity of the
crack, due to segregation.
Small quantities of impurities, such as are generally
found in good steel, have no serious effect on the
physical properties so long as the steel is homogeneous,
that is, uniform in composition throughout. But
impurities have a tendency to collect in certain portions
of an ingot or casting on cooling, and these
portions may then contain so large a proportion of
impurities as to be very weak and unreliable. Forging,
rolling or heat treating, or the strains of service
are likely to cause a fracture to start at such a weak
point which will spread through the piece until failure
occurs. Quite often these segregated areas are
associated with the size and form of the grains in the
original ingot, and are greatly elongated when the
metal is rolled or forged. This latter condition is
known as "banded" or "ghost line" structure. Examples
are shown in Fig. 52. Segregations of Phosphorus
and sulphur tend to produce such a condition,
and it is often accompanied by local decarburization.
Metal showing this type of structure is likely to fail
Molten steel is never entirely free from small particles
of slag or other non-metallic impurities such as
oxides, or grains of sand, etc., which remain suspended
in the metal in much the same way that particles
of dust float about in the air. The term "solid nonmetallic
impurities" used to describe these inclusions,
has been abbreviated to the word "sonims". Steel of
good quality contains few sonims, but some times
they are present in great numbers, in which case the
steel is said to be "dirty". Sonims, like other impurities,
frequently segregate, causing local points of
weakness. It is not advisable to use such steel where
resistance to repeated stress is called for, as in the
working parts of engines, for example.
Sonims are most readily detected in specimens
which have been polished but not etched. A final gentle
polishing by hand is advisable to remove any surface
film of metal which may have been smeared over
the inclusions when polishing on the disk. An example
is shown in Fig. 53. Sometimes the sonims fall
out in polishing, leaving pits.
Minute flaws or fissures, such as tiny blowholes
which have been flattened out but not welded up in
rolling, are an occasional source of weakness in steel,
and may sometimes be detected in a carefully polished
but unetched specimen.
Endicott Forging Enlarges Plant
The Endicott Forging & Manufacturing Company,
makers of drop forgings, Endicott, N. Y., have contracted
for a brick building, 50x130 feet, for heat treating
and die storage, and a 50x96-foot steel addition
to their present forge shop. Three heat treating furnaces
have been purchased and the Binghamton Foundry
& Construction Company will supply' the steel for
the die storage racks. Two or three board hammeis
will also be added to the forge shop equipment. These
additions will require an expenditure of from $50,000
Research on Sponge Iron Progressing
Experimental work in the production of' sponge
iron, conducted by the Department of the Interior at
the Seattle, Wash., experiment station of the Bureau
of Mines, has advanced to the point where it is believed
that industrial applications of the process can
be safely considered for the production of sponge iron
as a metallurgical reagent for the precipitation of copper,
lead, and numerous other metals from solution.
In those regions remote from larger iron and steel
making centers and where electric energy can be had
at a comparatively cheap rate, sponge iron can also be
converted into iron and steel products by melting in
the electric furnace.
If a piece of iron oxide is completely reduced at
such a low temperature that no sintering or fusion
takes place, then the piece of metallic iron formed has
the same size and shape as the original piece of oxide.
On account of the removal of oxygen, the structure is
finely porous, exposing a large surface of iron, and
the apparent density is less than that of the original
iron oxide. The material is called "sponge iron."
When sponge iron is used as a metallurgical reagent
in the precipitation of metals from a solution,
the precipitation reaction takes place with greater
speed than if the precipitating reagent is a massive
form of iron, such as scrap or pig iron, and hence the
use of sponge iron proportionately increases plant
capacity'. Sponge iron is likely to be of increasing importance
in the hydrometallurgy of low-grade copper
and complex ores. Its production insures a permanent
and reliable source of metallic iron—a very important
consideration to the Pacific region, in view of the
small scrap iron supply and great distance from ironproducing
centers. It is probable that the future success
of large-scale leaching and precipitating processes
for copper and lead depends largely upon a supply of
cheap sponge iron.
In the process developed through the co-operation
of the Bureau of Mines and the University of Washington,
almost any type of iron ore can be used for the
production of sponge iron. Experiments at the Seattle
station showed that similar results are obtained
with magnetite, hard and soft hematite, limonite, and
sintered hematite. It is probable that sponge iron
will be made from such by-product materials as flue
dust, pyrite cinder, various slags of high-iron content,
and iron-oxide sludge.
The process developed by the Bureau of Mines
consists of passing a mixture of iron ore and coal
through a rotating kiln heated at one end to a temperature
sufficient to convert iron oxide to metallic
iron, then discharging and cooling the product and
passing it through a magnetic separator to remove
the sponge iron from the residual coke and siliceous
During the past year a furnace using the Bureau
of Mines process was operated commercially at Silver
City, Utah, producing about three tons of sponge iron
daily. Further tests of the process on a fairly large
commercial scale are much to be desired, to give the
data necessary for further refinements in kiln and improvements
in economy of operation.
Details of these investigations are given in Serial
2656, by Clyde E. Williams, Edward P. Barrett and
Bernard M. Larsen, copies of which may be obtained
from the Department of the Interior, Bureau of Mines,
Washngton, D. C.
P r o p e r t i e s o f H i g h R e s i s t a n c e
A l l o y s
This Paper Contains a Summary of the Important Physical Con
stants of the Well Known High Resistance Alloys
T H E recent advances in the art of electrical heating
have stimulated research in the field of high-resistance
alloys. In the last 10 years many new
combinations of the metals have been suggested as
resistor materials and some of them have rendered
very satisfactory service. The new alloys are for the
most part binary and ternary mixtures of the more
common metals. A review of the literature discloses a
considerable amount of information on the specific resistances
of these alloys and also on their temperature
coefficients between room temperature and 100 deg. C.
Little information will be found, however, on the same
electrical properties at the high temperatures at which
the material is required to operate.
The present paper gives, in an attempt to supply
this need, a summary of these important physical constants
for some of the well-known high-resistance alloys.
The attempt to use ,the high-resistance alloys as
elements in base-metal thermocouples for the measurement
of temperature was only a natural ste2 in the
development. In the second division of the paper
some old and some new information has therefore been
included on the electromotive forces which may be expected
from various combinations of these materials.
It has already been stated that high-resistance alloys
are produced by alloying metals with one another
in binary or ternary combinations. It does not follow,
however, that all such combinations give materials of
high specific resistance.
When two or more metals are melted together they
may behave on freezing in two characteristically different
ways. When in the molten state the constituents
of the alloy are of course minutely dispersed in
one another. On freezing they may remain minutely
dispersed so that even in a microscopic section the constituents
cannot be differentiated. These combinations
are known as "solid solutions." The second class of
alloys comprises those which on freezing permit the
two or more constituents to freeze separately from one
another. They no longer remain in solution in the
solid state. The microscope can distinguish the separate
constituents. These alloys form what is known
as "eutectic mixtures" with one another. The metals
may, however, in certain concentrations form intermetallic
compounds with one another and the compound
thus formed may dissolve and subsequently
freeze either as a solid solution or as a eutectic mixture
with the pure metal which is present. Since these
intermetallic compounds are in general hard and brittle
materials no great concentrations can be carried
*A paper presented at the Twenty-seventh Annual Meeting of
the American Society for Testing Materials, held at Atlantic
City, N. J., June, 1924.
tRussell Sage Laboratory, Rensselaer Polytechnic Institute;
also Research Division, Driver Harris Co.
tRussell Sage Laboratory, Rensselaer Polytechnic Institute.
That Are Used for High Temperatures
By M. A. HUNTERf and A. JONES*
in any alloy which has subsequently to be reduced to
The electrical properties of these two classes of
alloys are very different from one another. In a solid
solution the electrical resistance of the resulting alloy
bears no relation to the resistances of the components.
It is in all cases very materially higher than either.
The temperature coefficient of electrical resistance is
also changed. Whereas the individual constituents
have temperature coefficients approximately equal to
0.004 per deg. C, the temperature coefficient of the
solid solutions drops very rapidly with increasing con-
.„ |4-1 -. £
200 400 600 800 1000
Temperature, deg. Cent.
FIG. 1 — Showing the variation of Electrical resistance of
nickel and certain nickel alloys at various temperatures.
Values plotted are given in Table I, chemical compositions in
centrations of the added component. In some cases
it drops to zero and may even in special cases become
negative. In eutectic mixtures, however, no such radical
variations are produced. The electrical resistances
of these alloys approximate in the main to the mean of
the electrical resistances of the components while the
temperature coefficient, if it drops at all, does so to
only a slight degree.
It is therefore evident that high-resistance alloys
belong in the class of solid solutions. It is further to
be noted that such combinations will yield alloys with
temperature coefficients which are considerably lower
than the pure metals from which they are made.
M Fbrging-Stamping - Heat Treating
Materials Used for High-Resistance Alloys.
The metallic combinations which are commerciallyavailable
for high-resistance materials are made in
general from nickel, iron or copper, melted in binary
or ternary combinations with manganese or chromium.
All of these metals are comparatively cheap, are available
in sufficient quantity for commercial production
and resist oxidation satisfactorily over the range of
temperature which limits their use. For the purpose
of classification we may divide the various alloys into
Group A. — Materials of high resistance available
for units running at temperatures below 500 deg. C.
Group B. — Materials of high resistance for units
running at temperatures above 500 deg. C.; and
Group C.—Materials having special properties other
than high resistance used in units at room temperature.
Grade C and Grade D. Intentional additions of manganese
in the two latter affect to a considerable degree
the electrical properties of the material.
The specific resistance of nickel can be increased
by the addition of metals which form solid solutions
with it. The commonest additions are copper and
iron. Among the nickel-copper alloys are monel and
Advance, the former having a preponderating amount
of nickel, the latter of copper. Among the nickel-iron
alloys used, the most important are Alloy No. 141 and
Alloy No. 193, the former having an excess of nickel,
the latter an excess of iron.
The variations in resistance of samples of these
materials at various temperatures and their specific
resistances at 20 deg. C. are given in Table 1. The
chemical compositions of the wires used in these observations
are given in Table II.
The values given in Table I, with the exception of
TABLE I—VARIATION IN RESISTANCE OF A NUMBER OF MATERIALS WITH TEMPERATURE
Expressed as the ratio of resistance at the various temperatures to resistance at 20 deg. C.
For complete chemical compositions, see Table II.
Specific Resistance at 20 deg. C, Ohms per Mil-Foot
58.6 64 84
TABLE 11.—CHEMICAL COMPOSITIONS OF THE MATERIALS REPORTED IN TABLE I.
The analysis given for alloy No. 193 is an approximate analysis only. The other values given are t
samples used to obtain the results detailed in Table I.
Material Nickel Copper Iron Carbon Manganese Silicon Chromium
Electrolytic Nickel 99.80 0.25 0.15
Grade A Nickel 98.85 0.24 0.65 0.08 0.08 0.03
Grade C Nickel 96.15 0.40 0.89 0.22 2.10 0.18
Grade D Nickel 94.10 0.16 0.74 0.08 4.75 0.13
Monel 68.10 27.66 2.40 1.16 1.50 0.11
Advance 44.00 54.00 0.45 ... 1.16
Alloy No. 141 69.33 0.16 28.86 0.22 1.30 0.13
Alloy No. 193 30.00 .... 67.00 0.22 1.00 .. 2
Group A.—Alloys for Use Below 500° C.
The alloys in this group have nickel as their major
component. Nickel alone has usually been considered
to be unsatisfactory by reason of its low specific resistance
at room temperature. Nickel has, however,
two valuable properties which render it useful as a resistor
material. It resists oxidation at elevated temperatures
better than any of the commoner metals.
It has further a high temperature coefficient of electrical
resistance, the effect of which on the electrical
resistance at high temperature is indicated in subsequent
Nickel can be obtained commercially in several
grades. The purest obtainable is electrolytic nickel
and following in order of lesser purity are Grade A,
those for Advance, are plotted as a function of the
temperature in Figs. 1 and 2. These curves are characteristic
of the various grades of nickel and monel
metal. Slight variations in composition will of course
change the actual values for the resistance at any temperature,
but the trend of the curve remains the same.
The change in slope of each curve is due to the fact
that at the corresponding temperature the metal is
changing from the magnetic to the non-magnetic condition.
The transformation points as obtained from
the curves are as follows:
Grade A Nickel 350 Deg. C.
Grade C Nickel 320 Deg. C.
Grade D Nickel 275 Deg. C.
Monel Metal 93 Deg. C.
Forging- Stamping - Heat Treating
TABLE III.—VARIATION IN RESISTANCE OF ALLOYS OF NICKEL AND CHROMIUM WITH TEMPERATURE
Expressed as the ratio of resistance at the various temperatures to resistance at 20 deg. C.
deg. Cent. N(J_ s
Nichrome III I Nichrome IV
No. 6 No. 1 No. 4 No. 11* No. 10 No. 13 Mean B D1
20 1.000 1.000 1.000 1.000 1.000 1.000 1.000 1.000 1.000 1.000 1.000 1.000
300 1.055 1.034 1.047 1.037 1.057 1.040 1.039 1.043 1.034 1.027 1.026 1.025
400 1.066 1.047 1.063 1.051 1.068 1.051 1.053 1.056 1.046 1.036 1.032 1.036
500 1.073 1.060 1.071 1.063 1.075 1.060 1.063 1.066 1.060 1.045 1.041 1.042
600 1.071 1.058 1.074 1.061 1.074 1.058 1.062 1.065 1.055 1.036 1.034 1.032
700 1.072 1.060 1.077 1.062 1.077 1.063 1.065 1.068 1.056 1.032 1.030 1.028
800 1.074 1.066 1.088 1.068 1.086 1.072 1.073 1.075 1.063 1.033 1.031 1.028
900 1.082 1.076 1.100' 1.094 1.096 1.083 1.083 1.088 1.074 1.038 1.032 1.030
1000 1.097 1.090 1.118 Specific Resistance 1.104 1.112 at 20 deg. 1.098 O, Ohms 1.099 per Mil-Foot 1.103 1.090 1.049 1.046 1.040
567 599 595 553 575 620 629 633
Percentage of Chromium
14.10 14.45 15.40 15.60 15.70 15.80 16.20 17.47 18.18 18.70 18.95
•Plotted in Fig. 3 as typical of Nichrome III. ' Plotted in Fig. 3 as typical of Nichrome IV.
The values given for Advance in Table 1 indicate a
peculiar property in this metal. The temperature coefficient
is negative over the lower ranges of temperatures,
increases slowly between 200 and 400 deg. C.
and rapidly thereafter. Not all samples of Advance,
however, give negative temperature coefficients in the
lower range. The presence of impurities in the metal
may yield a material with a low positive coefficient
over this lower range. But the rapid rise in temperature
coefficient in the higher ranges of temperature is
general in all cases.
Alloy No. 141 is peculiarly susceptible to heat treatment.
A sample of the material when slowly cooled
after annealing gives a much lower specific resistance
and a higher temperature coefficient than one which
has not been so treated. The values reported in Table
I are for the second heat on wire which was slowly
cooled after being taken up to 1000 deg. C. After this
treatment the wire appears to be stable for further
cycles of heat. Slight variations in the impurities also
have a very considerable effect. Therefore, while this
alloy is excellent as a high-resistance material, it is
difficult to reproduce in commercial production.
Alloy No. 193, as will be seen from Table I, is an
exceedingly good resistor up to 500 deg. C. and has
received in consequence wide application. The resistance-temperature
curve for this material is plotted in
Group B.—Materials Available for Temperatures
In Excess of 500° C.
The second group includes all those alloys which
are essentially combinations of nickel, iron and
chromium in various proportions. Most of these alloys
have been worked under a patent granted to Marsh
in February, 1906, which has now expired. These
alloys are remarkable in that they possess very high
specific resistances and resist oxidation at high temperatures
to a very rrtarked degree. The specific
resistances and temperature coefficients at room tern-
TABLE IV. — VARIATION IN RESISTA MCE OF NIC1 SEL-IR1 UN- CHROMi UM ALLU Yb WITH 11 iMftKj VlUKfc,
Expressed as the ratio of resistance at the various temperatures to resistance at 20 deg. C.
For complete chemical com] positions, see table V.
Nichrome II Other Alloys
deg. Cent. No. 2 No. 3 No. 8 No. 12 No. 9 No. 7* No.lf No. 2 No. 3 No.4J
Specific Resistance at 20 deg. C, Ohms per Mil-foot.
•Plotted in Fig. 3 as typical of Nichrome. trotted in Fig. 3 as typical of Nichrome II. ^Plotted in Fig. 2.
66 Fbrging-Stamping - Heat Treating
perature have been known for some time but information
on these points at the temperatures of operation is
meager or entirely lacking. It has generally been assumed
that the temperature coefficient of the alloy was
uniform throughout the whole range of temperatures
used, an assumption which, as will be seen from the
following tables, is very far from the truth.
For convenience in classification the alloys are divided
into three sub-groups:
1. Nickel-chromium alloys.
2. Nickel-iron-chromium alloys.
3. Iron-chromium alloys.
\ A 4 Y
* Alii %**'
200 400 600 600 1000
Temperature, deg. Cent.
FIG. 2—Showing the variation of electrical resistance of several
alloys at various temperatures.
Alloy No. 193 and Monel values plotted are given in Table I,
chemical compositions in Table II.
Nickel-Iron-Chromium Alloy.—Values plotted are for Alloy
No. 4, Table IV; for chemical composition see Table V.
Iron-Chromium Alloy.—Values plotted are for Alloy No. 1,
Table VI; for chemical composition see text.
The simplest and best combination is the binary
alloy of nickel and chromium. Alloys containing as
high as 25 and 30 per cent of chromium have been made.
It is commercially practicable to make alloys containing
15 and 20 per cent of chromium. In general it may
be said that the resistance to oxidation bears a direct
relation to the amount of chromium in the wire. This
is certainly true for chromium contents up to 20 per
cent and probably holds for higher percentages. For
temperatures below 1000 deg. C. alloys of the Nichrome
III class containing 15 per cent of chromium
have given good service. For the range between 1000
deg. C. and 1100 deg. C. alloys of the Nichrome IV
class, containing 18 to 20 per cent of chromium, are
advisable. While these alloys may be used for short
periods at temperatures above 1100 deg. C. their life
under these conditions is exceedingly short.
The variations in resistance of some of these nickelchromium
wires and their specific resistances at room
temperatures are given in Table III. Typical resistance-temperature
curves are plotted in Fig. 3. These
results indicate an interesting peculiarity which seems
to be inherent in all nickel-chromium wires. In the
case of the Nichrome III alloys (15 per cent chromium)
the resistance-temperature curve rises at a uniform
rate up to 500 deg. C. From 500 to 700 deg. C,
the curve runs practically parallel to the temperature
axis, indicating a zero temperature coefficient over this
range. Above 700 deg. C. the resistance rises sharply
again. In the Nichrome IV series (18 to 20 per cent
chromium) the same general trend is followed except
that between 500 and 700 deg. C. the wire has a marked
negative temperature coefficient. This can be readily
seen in Fig. 2 on which the values for the two representative
nickel-chromium wires are plotted.
The reason for this change in slope of the resistance
temperature curve at 500 deg. C. is not at present understood.
It is not a magnetic transformation point
since the materials themselves are non-magnetic at
room temperatures. In the absence of a better explanation
we may conclude that it is due* to a change
in the molecular configuration of the elements in the
Of all the alloys in this class, the alloy known as
Nichrome has received the most extended application.
This alloy contains approximately 60 per cent of
nickel, 26 per cent of iron and 12 per cent of chromium.
TABLE V.—CHEMICAL COMPOSITIONS OF THE NICK
EL-IRON-CHROMIUM ALLOYS REPORTED
IN TABLE IV.
All values are per cent.
Alloy Nickel Iron Chromium Manganese
No. 2 59.29 28.70 10.75 1.54
No. 3 59.02 27.86 10.90 1.54
No. 8 59.57 26.97 11.05 1.69
No. 12 .... 61.75 24.97 11.45 1.19
No. 9 62.00 24.35 11.70 1.46
No. 7 61.20 24.88 12.05 1.44
No. 1 .... 19.5
No. 2 69.35 10.53 17.95 1.58
No. 3 53.58 13.77 31.35 0.00
No. 4 27.62 48745 21.10 0.85
It has a higher specific resistance than a straight nickel-chromium
alloy and a somewhat higher temperature
coefficient. It resists oxidation satisfactorily at temperatures
up to 900 cleg. C. For temperatures in excess
of this, it should be replaced by a nickel-chromium
alloy substantially free from iron.
Nichrome II is a nickel-iron-chromium alloy of intermediate
composition. It has less iron and more
chromium than Nichrome.
Attempts have been made from time to time to
diminish the nickel content of this class of materials.
But under these conditions, to maintain the high re-
Fbrging-Stamping- Heat 'Beating
sistance to oxidation it becomes necessary to increase
proportionately the chromium content.
tent is relatively high. The alloys withstand oxidation
fairly well but they are inferior to the nickel-
The electrical properties of this group of alloys are chromium alloys. Another radical objection observed
given in Table IV. The chemical compositions of the was that the wire under continued heating tended to
wires used in these observations are given in Table V. increase permanently in length.
Typical resistance-temperature curves are plotted in
TABLE VI. — VARIATION IN RESISTANCE OF IRON-
CHROMIUM ALLOYS WITH TEMPERATURES
Expressed as the ratio of resistance at the various
temperatures to resistance at 20 deg. C.
deg. Cent. No. 1* No. 2
20 1.000 1.000
300 1.129 1.132
400..- 1.175 1.174
500 1.225 1.235
600 1.278 1.283
700 1.316 1.322
800 1.338 1.341
900 1.357 1.355
1000 1.375 1.365
•Plotted in Fig. 2 as typical of iron-chromium alloy. The specific
resistance at 20 deg. C. of alloy No. 1 was 583 ohms per
The iron-chromium alloys have up to the present
received but little attention. Some of these materials,
however, have been introduced on the market so that
some mention should be made of them. The alloys
contain approximately 7 per cent of iron and 22 per
^ S 1.08
1 ° 1-04
Temperature, deg. Cent.
ZOO 400 tOO 800
FIG. 3 — Showing the variation of electrical resistance of
nickel-chromium and nickel-iron-chromium alloys at various
Nichrome III.—Values plotted are Alloy No. 11, Table III;
chromium, 15.70 per cent.
Nichrome IV.—Values plotted are for Alloy D, Table III;
Chromium, 18.95 per cent.
Nichrome.—Values plotted are for Alloy No. 7, Table IV; for
chemical composition see Table V.
Nichrome II.—Values plotted are for Alloy No. 1, Table IV;
for chemical composition see Table V.
cent of chromium, the high content of chromium being
necessary to overcome the tendency of the iron to
oxidize. The silicon content sometimes runs as high
as 2 per cent. From the manufacturer's standpoint the
material is hard to draw, especially if the silicon con
Temperature, deg. Cent.
FIG. 4 — Showing thermal electromotive forces of various
metals and alloys against standard platinum.
Observations on the electrical properties of two of
these wires are given in Table VI. The chemical compositions
of the two wires are as follows:
Iron, per cent
Chromium, per cent.
Nickel, per cent
Silicon, per cent
Carbon, per cent
The values obtained for wire No. 1 are plotted in
Group C.—Materials With Special Properties.
The third class of alloys to be considered includes
those materials that have some special properties
which render them useful under restricted conditions.
The fact that pure nickel has a remarkably high temperature
coefficient of electrical resistance is made use
of in the' construction of resistance thermometers.
Again, the fact that advance and manganin have remarkably
low temperature coefficients is applied in the
construction of precision resistances.
Electrical Properties of Pure Nickel.
Two samples of nickel wire were obtained directly
from electrolytic sheet. A section cut from the sheet
was rolled to wire. The material was therefore not
contaminated by impurities which usually enter during
melting. From these wires the following results were
per deg. Cent.
Temperature coefficient is expressed in ohms per deg. C. per
ohm at 20 deg. C, over the range from 20 to 50 deg. C. The
coefficient for No. 1 is equivalent to a value of 0.00629 per ohm
at 0 deg. C.
8 Forging- Stamping - Heat Treating February, 1925
TABLE VII-THERMAL ELECTROMOTIVE FORCES OF VARIOUS METALS AND ALLOYS AGAINST
Cold Junction, 20 deg. C.
N'icke l-Chromium Alloys
Alloys Positive to Platinum
It is, however, not feasible to produce such material
on a commercial scale. The metal must be melted in
large quantities, cast into ingots, forged and drawn
into wire. The effect of manganese additions used
for deoxidation at the end of the melting operation
was found to be as follows:
Manganese Added, Temperature
Per cent Coefficient
The time of melting is a material factor. A succession
of small melts were made in an electric furnace.
For the first melt the furnace required 45 minutes
to reach the melting point of nickel. The second,
third, and fourth melts required progressively shorter
times; the last melt was cast 12 minutes after the introduction
of the cold charge. The following results
were obtained from the separate melts:
Time of Specific
Melting, Resistance, Temperature
Melt No. Minutes Michormcm. Coefficient
1 45 9.75 0.00448
2 20 8.80 0.00462
3 8.67 0.00484
4 8.64 0.00484
5 12 9.12 0.00490
An analysis of the material from melt No. 5 showed
the following constituents: Nickel 99.22 per cent, manganese
0.59 per cent, iron 0.14 per cent, copper 0.03
per cent, and carbon 0.00 per cent. This material
should be somewhat purer than those from the four
preceding melts, since it was exposed for a shorter
time to furnace gases and crucible lining.
TABLE VIII.—THERMAL ELECTROMOTIV
All. ays Negat ive to Platinum
Nickel Alloy! • 1
Copper -Nickel All oys
Advance Advance Advance
(60% Cu, + +
40% Ni) 15% Cr 10% Cr
These experiments indicate the conditions to be observed
in order to secure nickel wire with the highest
possible temperature coefficient of electrical resistance.
The nickel should be the purest available. The additions
of manganese (or magnesium) must be as small
as is compatible with subsequent forgeability. The
time taken to melt should be a minimum in order that
the molten material should be exposed for as short a
time as possible to the effect of the furnace gases. If
these conditions are met, a high-grade nickel wire can
Materials With Zero Temperature Coefficients.
Advance and manganin have been mentioned as
alloys which have special applications as materials for
precision resistances by reason of the fact that they
have temperature coefficients which approximate to
zero over restricted ranges of temperature.
Advance contains as major constituents approximately
55 per cent of copper and 45 per cent of nickel.
An alloy containing these materials only has a pronounced
negative temperature coefficient at 20 deg. C.
The material as commercially produced, however, contains
small amounts of impurities such as iron, manganese,
carbon and silicon which are present either in
the raw materials used or are taken up during the
melting. The general effect of these impurities is
to increase the temperature coefficient of the material.
The extent of this change, as produced by the above
impurities, is now under consideration and will be reported
on at a later time.
Manganin is a ternary alloy having as its major
constituents 84 per cent of copper, 12 per cent of
E FORCE OF VARIOUS COMBINATIONS
20 deg. C.
+ 15% Cr
manganese and 4 per cent of nickel. The effect of
small variations in these constituents is at present under
investigation. It is interesting to note that the
condition of the surface of the wire modifies its temperature
coefficient to a pronounced degree. Wire
made from material of the composition given above
has a negative coefficient over the range from 20 to
50 deg. C. If, however, the wire has been superficially
oxidized either by exposure to moist air or heat, the
manganese is selectively oxidized leaving a metallic
skin of copper on the wire. If this superficial skin is
more than a few thousandths of an inch in thickness,
the wire takes on an appreciable positive temperature
coefficient. As in the case of the advance wire, the
presence of small amounts of impurities in manganin
appears to modify this temperature coefficient. These
phenomena are, however, still being studied and will
not be further discussed here.
Thermal Electromotive Forces of Alloys.
The fact that the various alloys described in the
preceding section give widely varying electromotive
forces renders certain combinations exceedingly useful
as base-metal thermocouples for the measurement
The combinations of iron and advance (constantan)
and of chromel (10 per cent of chromium in nickel)
with alumel (1 to 2 per cent of aluminum in nickel)
are already well known and widely used. The former
gives an e.m.f. of approximately 58 millivolts at 1000
deg. C. and the latter approximately 41 millivolts. The
thermal e.m.f.'s of these materials and of other alloys
of nickel or iron and chromium are given in Table VII,
in which alloys that are positive to a sample of pure
platinum chosen as a standard and alloys that are
negative to the same sample of platinum are listed separately.
The values given in this table have been
plotted in Fig. 4. The alloys of advance (copper 55
per cent, nickel 45 per cent) with chromium, whose
thermal e.m.f.'s against platinum are given in the last
three columns of Table VII, were made with the view
of obtaining a material that would be more resistant to
oxidation than the old advance wire. Among the
nickel-chromium alloys, the 90 per cent nickel-10 per
cent chromium combination gives the highest electromotive
force, but the 80-20 material is good and of
course resists oxidation to a greater degree.
An examination of Table VII reveals some suggestive
combinations for securing electromotive forces
considerably in excess of that given by the first two
well-known couples. Some of these combinations are
given in Table VIII.
The authors desire, in conclusion, to express their
appreciation of the assistance given during the progress
of the work by the technical staff of the Driver-
D'Arcambal Addresses Pittsburgh Chapter
At a meeting of the American Society for Steel
Treating, held in the William Penn Hotel, Pittsburgh,
January 6, A. H. D'Arcambal, metallurgical engineer,
Pratt & Whitney Company, Hartford, Conn., delivered
an address on the "Hardening of Small Tools," illustrated
with a number of interesting lantern slides.
Forging - Stamping - Heat Treating
A. S. S. T. Sectional Meeting
The American Society for Steel Treating held its
winter sectional meeting at the Hotel Sinton, Cincinnati,
Ohio, January 15 and 16, and the attendance was
the best that has been recorded at one of these sectional
meetings. Other chapters besides the Cincinnati
Chapter were well represented.
O. N. Stone, assistant chief engineer of the Van
Dorn & Dutton Company, Cleveland, spoke at the
first session. His subject was "Gearing as a Medium
of Industrial Power Transmission." The speakers for
the afternoon session were R. G. Guthrie, G. W. Quick
and S. J. Rosenberg. Mr. Guthrie, metallurgist of the
industrial gas department of the People's Gas Light
& Coke Company, Chicago, took for his subject,
"Sample Preparation for High Power Photo-Micrography,"
while G. W. Quick and S. J. Rosenberg, Bureau
of Standards, Washington, gave a paper entitled,
"Wear and Wear Testing."
Julian A. Pollak was toastmaster at the informal
banquet held on Thursday night, and the address of
welcome was delivered by Fred A. Geier of the Cincinnati
Milling Machine Company. President W. S.
Bidle of the A. S. S. T. responded, and a technical
paper was delivered by R. H. Smith, vice president of
the Lamson & Sessions Company, Kent, Ohio.
On Friday, the steel treaters inspected many of
the machine plants in and around Cincinnati.
Solution of crossword puzzle which appeared in
the January issue of Forging-Stamping-Heat Treating.
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Ford Engineering Laboratory
The Ford Motor Company, Dearborn, Mich., has
completed what is said to be the finest laboratory in
the country. It is designed for chemical, metallurgical
and affiliated industrial research and experiments,
comprising practically one room in a new building
202x804 feet, approximately two city blocks in length.
The total glass area of the new laboratory proper
aggregates 64,000. sq. ft., or equivalent to 40 per cent
of the total floor space. The mechanical installation
consists of complete equipment for the construction
of an entire automobile, with chemical research apparatus,
physial test machines, equipment for metallurgical
research and investigations, drafting room facilities,
etc. Xo piping or wiring is exposed in the laboratory;
all power lines are under the floor in conduits,
with feed wires fed up through the floor to individual
motor drives. The building will also contain
a comprehensive reference library.
70 Forging- Stamping - Heat Treating
Improved Furnace for Vitreous Enameling
In the vitreous enameling of metal parts one thing
that has often impressed the thoughtful operator is
the very considerable loss of heat due to opening the
doors of a furnace while charging and removing the
work. It is quite certain, too. that aside from the consequent
loss of heat, this periodic opening of the doors
causes a fluctuation in furnace temperature which may
be harmful as well as slowing up the operation of fusing
the enamel, to say nothing of the discomfort and
delay in removing the work from the fork and the
length of time when there is nothing in the furnace.
Possibly these things prompted the development
by Mr. C. C. Armstrong of the Armstrong Manufacturing
Company, Huntington, West Virginia, of an
electrically operated furnace for enameling comparatively
flat pieces whereby the opening and closing of
charging doors is eliminated through the medium of
a conveyor which carries the work through the furnace
from the charging end and discharges it at the
opposite end. It is more accurate to say that the doors
Conveyor type furnace for vitreous enameling.
are continuously open rather than not being opened
at all. That is, they are adjusted to open only sufficiently
to allow the passage of the work in and out
of the furnace, depending upon the height of the pieces
The furnace proper does not differ materially from
the ordinary electrically heated enameling furnace.
The heating chamber is 9 ft. 8 in. long, 30 in. tall and
32 in. in width.
The conveyor is built up from a number of nichrome
"burning bars" 30 in. in length, 1 in. wide by
H in. thick. These blades are fastened vertically in
pairs to cast nichrome links and stand 3y in. apart.
The chain is completed by the use of. connecting links
made from 3/16 in. by y in. nichrome bars which are
movably attached to the cast links by means of nichrome
pins 4g in. in diameter. Three complete
chains support the knife edged nichrome burning bars,
one in the center and one at either end. The conveyor
chain on its passage through the furnace slides over
three nichrome bars 2 in. wide by y2 in. thick extending
from end to end of the heating chamber and supported
on cross bars that rest on a ledge built into the
side walls of the furnace under the side heating ele
ments and in the center on small piers about 12 in.
apart Resting on these same cross bars are two
nichrome plates 10 in. wide, by 3/16 in. thick, extending
the length of the furnace, which cover the heating
elements under the conveyor and protect them from
anything falling on them. The conveyor returns beneath
the furnace through a well insulated tunnel and
over an idler sprocket. The chains and bars comprising
the conveyor are carried over cast steel sprockets
mounted at each end of the furnace, which are made
in the form of a drum to prevent the parts falling
through and to help prevent heat losses.
The set of three of these sprockets (which are 26
in. in diameter), at the discharge end of the furnace
is driven by an electric motor through a speed reducing
mechanism and a speed change box with nine
changes of speed so that the conveyor can be made to
travel at will to allow work to remain from \y2 to 3yi
minutes in its passage through the heating chamber.
The set of sprockets engaging the conveyer at the
charging end is an idling set and is carried on bearings
adjustable longitudinally by spring tension to
compensate for the change in the length of the chain
due to its change in temperature.
The centers of the driving and idling sprockets
over which the conveyor works are 42 in. beyond
either end of the furnace to allow for proper charging
and discharging on a convenient flat surface. At the
discharge end of the furnace well below the center
of the sprockets driving the conveyor is located an
auxiliary conveyor working at double the speed of the
main conveyor on which the work falls as it leaves
the main conveyor after passing through the furnace.
This auxiliary conveyor is constructed of a reinforced
asbestos belt 31 in. in width. This belt is 10 ft. in
length and is covered for 5 ft. of its length next to the
furnace by an insulated tunnel, which serves as a
cooling chamber, giving the work an opportunity to
cool somewhat before it approaches the outer air temperature.
This cooling chamber also serves to retard
the loss of heat through the slightly raised door at
the rear end of the furnace.
In addition to being protected by the usual thickly
insulated doors counterweighted in the usual manner,
there is attached to each door a hood which is adjustable
with the door for height, and which entirely covers
the main conveyor at the discharge end of the furnace
and leaves at the charging end of the furnace
only room enough for feeding in the work to be burned.
Because of its comparative light construction and
its nearly complete protection from contact with the
outside air, the loss of heat due to the passage of the
main conveyor through the furnace has been found to
be relatively unimportant. The temperature of the
furnace is automatically controlled by a Leeds and
Northrup Controlling and Recording Instrument
which makes and breaks the full load of 105 kw. The
power is 250 volts, 60 cycle, 3 phase. Two persons
are required for the operation of the furnace—one to
place pieces on conveyor and one to remove them
from the auxiliary conveyor.
The furnace has been in operation for several
months, enameling steel shells .035 in. thick measuring
7V% in. square by 2%. in. tall. The furnace easily handles
these pieces on first coat work at the rate of
600 pieces per hour. On second and third white coats
and on firing decals the rate is 800 pieces per hour.
The loss due to improper firing is practically negligable,
amounting to under y2 of one per cent in the experience
thus far. Larger shells, 20^ in. square by 4
in. in depth, are handled with satisfactory speed, the
production of these pieces at this time has not been in
sufficient volume to determine accurately what can be
expected in the way of output.
It will be apparent that the furnace is remarkably
successful, both from the standpoint of rapidity of
operation as well as the almost entire absence of loss
due to improper firing. Once the proper speed of the
conveyor and the proper heat of the furnace is found
for a certain part, the results are entirely uniform.
The furnace was built and installed by the Electric
Furnace Construction Company, 1015 Chestnut Street,
Solving the Problem of Die Costs
The shop management frequently encounters difficulties
in satisfying the demand for both economy
and time saving in production. In some cases, for
example, the necessarily limited demand for a product
will not warrant the expense attached to the machining
of a steel die for quantity production; at. the same
time, the demand may be sufficient to make the method
of built-up construction not only very expensive
but a time losing proposition as well.
In instances of this kind, the difficulty can be solved
at times by making the dies of cast iron rather than
of steel. In this manner the high cost of machining
is greatly reduced and at the same time a die is produced
that will take ample care of the manufacturing
needs. This is true particularly of the larger size dies.
An example of the above is shown in the accompanying
illustration of a cast iron die designed and
manufactured by the Buffalo Forge Company, of Buffalo,
for stamping the steel hearths used with their
general repair forges. The object here was to keep
the cost of the die as low as possible. The forge
hearth in question has an overall size of 24 in. x 30
in. and is rectangular in shape. The depth is 5y in.
On two opposite sides is a cut-out section to allow
long bars to lay across the forge and at the same time
to rest in the fire. The four upper corners of the
hearth have a 3 in. radius, while the bottom corners
have a \y2 in. radius.
It has been the practice up to very recently to make
these hearths or bowls of built-up construction. The
great amount of labor and time entailed, however,
made this procedure a costly one. The first operation
under this method was to shear the plate, then notch
the corners and recess the cuts in the side. Followed
by flanging of the sides for the box forming and then
the riveting of angle irons to reinforce the edges. In
the center of the hearth was placed a steel plate, also
for reinforcing purposes.
By employing a die, however, all of the individual
operations are eliminated; a single down stroke of the
press produces the finished hearth. The new forming
die is built-up of six castings made of close grain iron;
three castings comprise the female section and three
the male. The castings for the latter consist of a flat
plate 2 in. thick with the punch fastened to it with
eight bolts, while the pressure ring fits over the punch.
The female section consists of a flat plate \y2 in. thick
to which the forming die itself is fastened. The ejector
plate fits inside the die. The reason for building the
Fbrging-Stamping - Heat 'Beating
die in two sections was due to difficulties in machining
when made in one solid casting. A one-piece section
could only be machined with a vertical mill and this
required the expenditure of considerable time and labor.
By building it in two sections, the machining
operations entailed were of the simplest kind. Another
advantage to be noted is the ease with which
this die can be enlarged if desired without discarding
any of the old castings.
At each corner there is a steel insert fastened in the
die; these inserts were bored and turned in the lathe
and pack hardened. The die was then put on a boring
mill and the corners bored out and the recess cut
for the steel insert. These inserts are held in place
by two bolts each. Because of the great wear and
strain on the corners of the die, it was deemed advisable
to have these inserts in order to prolong the
life of the apparatus. After the inserts were fitted,
the die was put on the planer and the sides finished.
It should be mentioned here as well that there are two
steel inserts in the die at the point where the cut-out
One piece pressed steel forge hearth.
sections in the sides of the hearth are placed. The
sides of this bowl are made 5 deg. taper in order to
facilitate stacking; the stock used is heavy gauge
pickled steel plate.
A single acting press is used for this operation;
pneumatic air cushions operating with an air pressure
of 40 lbs. are used beneath the press to keep the
stock from wrinkling. It is estimated that this die
will be good for 1000 pieces before repairs are necessitated.
In addition to now having a die at a reasonable
cost, which will save considerable time and labor
charges in production, the manufacturer is now enabled
to produce a hearth that is not only more durable
than the older design, but one that is vastly
improved in appearance as well.
Orders received by the General Electric Company
for the three months ending December 31 totalled
$80,009,978, an increase of 7 per cent over the same
quarter in 1923, according to figures made public by
Owen D. Young, chairman of the board of directors.
For the year 1924, orders totalled $283,107,697, as
compared with $304,199,746 for 1923, a decrease of 7
per cent. ,„
Forging - Stamping - Heat Treating wishes to announce
the appointment of F R. Jones and L. R.
Sales as western representatives, with offices at room
1014 Garrick Theater Bldg.. Chicago. 111.
* * *
Maxon Premix Burner Company announced the
consolidation of the Maxon Premix Burner Comparand
the Maxon Furnace & Engineering Company, the
consolidated companies to be operated under the
name of the Maxon Premix Burner Company, Muncie.
Ind. Branch offices will be retained at Pittsburgh
and Chicago and another opened in the east in the
* * *
The Hughes Tool Company, Houston, Tex., manufacturers
of oil well tools and sunnlies, has increased
its capital stock from $300,000 to $2,000,000, in order
to meet the increase in business, and have also announced
a $1,700,000 stock dividend, effective immediately.
The plant of the company was practically
doubled in 1923 and material increases were made in
1924. The program for 1925 includes the operation
of a branch plant at Oklahoma City, Okla., now under
construction, besides increases in its other activities.
* * *
The Anderson Foundry & Machine Company was
recently taken over by the Anderson Engine & Foundry
Company, Anderson, Ind., the main product being
the manufacture of oil engines. The officers and directors
of the new company are E. W. Conney, president
and general manager, formerly with the National
Forge & Tool Company, Irvine, Pa.; Bert McBride,
treasurer, president of the Continental National Bank,
Indianapolis; directors: F. C. Hesch, vice president
Titusville Forge Company, Titusville, Pa.; I. L. May,
president May Supply Company, Anderson, Ind.; J.
E. Greene, president Matthew Addy Company, Cincinnati
; Luther F Pence, Anderson, and Emerson E.
McGriff, Portland, Ind.
* * *
Remington Typewriter Company has absorbed the
Noisless Typewriter Company of Middletown, Conn.,
and in so doing retires five officers of the latter company.
These are : President C. W Colby, Vice Presidents
H. S. Duel and Arthur Hebart, Secretary Joseph
Merriam, and Treasurer E. H. Russell. The Middletown
plant will continue to be operated, but supervision
will be by officers of the Remington company, of
which B. F. Winchell is president.
* * *
The Marion Electric Corporation. Marion. Ind.,
are planning changes and improvements in their recently
purchased building at Eleventh and Adams
Streets, Marion, Ind. The Marion company manufactures
household heating appliances such as curling
irons, hot plates, grills, etc. All of its punch press,
plating, polishing and other machinery is electrically
K * * *
Announcement is made that J. O. Heinze, formerly
with the Heinze Electrical Company, Lowell, Mass.,
and at one time an engineer with the General Motors
Companv, Detroit, will build a plant to manufacture
tractors at Bessemer, Ala., 13 miles south of Birmingham.
A tract of 200 acres has been purchased and
Forging - Stamping - Heat 'Beating
the construction of the plant will be started at once.
The tractor will have three wheels and the engine
will be of the four-cylinder type.
* * *
The Moline Implement Company, Moline, 111., has
been incorporated with a capital of 30,000 shares of
no par common stock, and has purchased from the
Moline Plow Companv the latter's plow factory, assets
and goodwill. The new corporation starts operation
with assets of about $3,000,000 and with practically
* * *
Charles T- Graham, vice president of the Graham
Bolt & Nut'Company. Pittsburgh, Pa., has purchased
a controlling interest in the Gould Coupler Company
and the Gould Storage Battery Company, Depew,
* * *
The Xeverslip Door-Holder Company, 13161 Auburn
Avenue, Detroit, has been organized with capital
stock of $50,000 to manufacture garage door holders
and other hardware products. A site was purchased
and a building 40x40 ft. was erected to be used
for office and assembling. Contracts for stampings
and dies were placed with the Saginaw Stamping &
Tool Company, Saginaw, Mich., and with the American
Bolt Corporation, Detroit, for rods. Production
will begin about February 1. Dedrick F. Stearns is
* * *
The name of the New England Heat Treating
Service Company, Inc., with offices at 112 High Street,
Hartford, Conn., has been changed to the Stanley P.
Rockwell Company. This is a change in name only;
the same management will continue as heretofore. Mr.
S. P. Rockwell is president and Mr. W. D. Fuller,
vice president. The company will represent the Wilson-Maeulen
Company, American Gas Furnace Company,
Rodman Chemical Company and Duraloy Company.
It will conduct laboratories for chemical, physical
and metallographical investigations.
* * *
The Dixie Metal Products Sales Company, Inc.,
with main office and factory at Birmingham, Ala.,
was incorporated for $50,000, $25,100 being paid in, to
manufacture and sell to jobbers the following products:
radiator cabinets and shields, hot air register
cabinets, roof flashings, door handles, etc. D. A.
Thomas is president, D. D. Bentley, vice president,
and J. M. Chapman, secretary.
* * *
The Detroit Die Casting Company, 442 Jefferson
Avenue East, Detroit, plans to manufacture die castings
of various metals, small stampings, dies, tools,
jigs, etc.. having purchased the department of the Detroit
Forging Company which was devoted to this
line. Its factory at 274 Iron Street, a large modern
building, is in full operation. The officers of the company
are the same as those of Davis, Kraus & Miller,
Inc., 440 Jefferson Avenue, Detroit, manufacturers of
automobile trimmings, of which C. H. Davis is president,
Lovell R. Kraus, vice president, and Hugh Miller,
secretary. E. Martin Tallbert is general factory
manager. All purchases for the die casting company
will be made by Davis, Kraus & Miller, Inc.
* * *
The Sani-Safe Manufacturing Corporation, 608
Lexington Bldg., Baltimore, recently organized to
manufacture metal boxes of 24-gage galvanized sheets,
Forging- Stamping - Heat Treating 73
will buy paint-spraying equipment, dies, presses, cabinet
locks, rivets and screws. William E. Smith is
one of the principals.
* * *
affiliated with these companies for approximately 25
T * *
A. T. Rankin, formerly New England representa
The Marion Drop Forge Company, Marion, Ind., tive of the Amco Manufacturing Company, has joined
is said to be considering plans for a one-story addi the sales force of the Oakes Company of Indianapotion,
to be used primarily as a heat treating building,
lis, manufacturers of automobile accessories, and will
and for one crane runway. It is purposed to break have charge of the territory embracing the Middle
ground early in the spring. The cost is reported in Western States.
excess of $25,000.
* + *
* * *
George H. Grundy, manager of the steel sales for
The Herbrand Company, Fremont, Ohio, manu Peter A. Frasse & Company, New York, will go to
facturer of forgings, etc., has awarded a general con Hartford, Conn., to take charge of the tool steel and
tract to the Steinle & Wolf Constrution Company, hot rolled alloy steel department in the old plant of
Fremont, for a one-story steam-operated power plant the Frasse Steel Company, recently sold to the Union
with capacity at 500 hp., for service at its proposed Drawn Steel Company, Beaver Falls, Pa. Under the
terms of the sale, Peter A. Frasse & Company did not
* * *
dispose of this part of the manufacturing business,
The Parish Manufacturing Corporation, Reading, but will continue to anneal and certify tool steel and
Pa., manufacturer of pressed steel automobile frames heat treat alloy steel as well as distribute these prod
and chrome nickel steel specialties, have increased their ucts and the cold drawn products of the Union Drawn
facilities approximately 100 per cent. The new plant
is 200x580 ft., with a 70xl40-ft. wing. The company
specializes in the manufacture of automobile frames,
heat treated. H. S. Lewis is vice president.
* * *
The Standard Forgings Company, Chicago, has recently
been organized for the production of car and
locomotive axles and forgings. George E. Van Hagen
has been made president; E. W. Richey, vice president
and manager of sales; L. C. Ryan, vice president and
treasurer; A. C. Stockton, secretary, and James A.
Cook, assistant manager of sales. The company has
acquired the plant of the Laclede Steel Company, East
St. Louis, 111.
* * *
The Freyer-Carrol Corporation, 427-33 East Avenue,
Perth Amboy, N. J., has been organized to build
commercial bodies and cabs and to do general blacksmithing
work. John A. Carrol is secretary.
Steel Company through the New York, Philadelphia,
and Buffalo warehouses.
* * *
G. V. Bellows has been made manager of maintenance
at the Lansing, Mich., plant of the Auto
Body Company. He succeeds Arthur H. Leonard,
* * *
Eugene Colfax Beck, works manager of the Cleveland
Twist Drill Company, Cleveland, has resigned
after 25 years' service with that organization.
* * *
J. L. Price, formerly connected with the Chicago
Pneumatic Tool Company, as secretary and treasurer
and director, has severed his connections with that organization
to become vice president and general manager
of the Btendix Corporation and president of the
Bendix Brake Corporation.
* * *
William Ruddy has returned to Detroit after 18
months in Paris, where he was engaged in remodel
Mr. John A. Succop has been appointed district
sales manager of the Philadelphia branch office recently
established by the Colonial Steel Company at
522 Drexel Bldg., Philadelphia, Pa. This will supersede
the arrangement formerly in effect with Eining
the factory of Andre Citroen and introducing
* * *
Donald N. Watkins has resigned his position as
superintendent of the blooming mills at the South
Side plant of the Jones & Laughlin Steel Corporation,
Pittsburgh, and has joined the sales force of the General
Refractories Company in its Chicago office. Mr.
wechter & Wyeth as selling agents.
Watkins was formerly editor of Blast Furnace and
* * *
Mr. D. A. Stewart has recently become associated
with the Heppenstall Forge & Knife Company as
* * *
John M. Read, formerly assistant general mana
salesman in the Pittsburgh District. For the past two
ger, has been appointed general manager of the works
years he was connected with the Union Electric Steel at Cumberland, Md., for the N. & G. Taylor Company,
Corporation, and prior to that he was for 13 years dis Philadelphia, manufacturers of tin plate. He suctrict
sales manager for the Sizer Forge Company of ceeds L. Leslie Helmer, who died recently. Mr. Read
Buffalo, N. Y., in the Pittsburgh District.
has been connected with the Taylor Company for the
Irvin E. McGowan
has been made metallurgist
past 15 years.
* * *
and chief chemist for the Sparta Foundry Company, George S. Evans, for the past five years metallui-
Sparta, Mich., manufacturer of individually cast pisgist and superintendent of all the foundries of the
ton rings. Mr. McGowan has been engaged in metal Griffin Wheel Company, Chicago, has resigned to go
lurgical work for the past 17 years, ten of which were with the Mathieson Alkali Company.
spent in the blast furnace industry.
* * *
* * *
O. P. Hanchette, a welding engineer, has been
John B. Cornell has resigned as treasurer of the added to the staff of the Burke Electric Company,
Niles-Bement-Pond Company and Pratt & Whitney Erie, Pa. Mr. Hanchette will be connected with the
Company, 111 Broadway, New York. He has been Cleveland office at 7820 Euclid Avenue, Cleveland.
74 Forging- Stamping - Heat Treating
James S. O'Rourke has been made vice president
in charge of sales of the Murray Body Corporation of
Detroit, the new concern formed by the consolidation
of the C. R. Wilson Body Companv, Towson Body
Company and J. K. Widman & Company, all of Detroit.
Previous to his connection with the Murray
Body Corporation, Mr. O'Rourke was general sales
manager of the J. W. Murray Manufacturing Co.
* * *
C. B. Starr has joined the Robert June Engineering
Management Organization of 8835 Linwood Avenue,
Detroit, Mich. He was assistant mechanical engineer
with the Duff Manufacturing Company of
Pittsburgh, Pa., and later served in the capacity of
sales engineer with the Detroit office of the Wayne
Tank & Pump Company.
* * *
George T. P Klix has resigned as chief engineer of
the C. R. Wilson Body Company, Detroit, to join the
American Body Company, Buffalo. O. J. Crowe, who
has been associated with the purchasing department
of the Wilson Body Company for the last ten years,
goes with Mr. Klix as director of purchases for the
* * *
J. H. Frantz, vice president of the American Rolling
Mill Company, Middletown, Ohio, has been elected
a director of the Pittsburgh, Cincinnati, Chicago &
St. Lous Railroad Company, succeeding William H.
Lee of St. Louis, retired because of advanced age.
* * *
Russell Huff, chief engineer of Dodge Bros, since
1915, now has the title of director of engineering.
Clarence Carson, formerly assistant chief engineer,
has been appointed chief engineer. Mr. Huff is also
a member of the board of directors of Dodge Bros.
* * *
Prof. Michael I. Pupin was elected president of the
American Association for the Advancement of Science
at its seventy-ninth annual meeting held in Washington,
D. C, recently.
* * *
E. W. Harrison of Philadelphia, long identified
with the steel industry, has resumed his connection
with the American Tube & Stamping Company,
Bridgeport, Conn., after a trip abroad and a long vacation.
Mr. Harrison will act as director of sales promotion
and will have offices in the Franklin Trust
Bldg., Philadelphia, after March 30.
* * *
Oscar W. Loew will assume charge of advertising
and sales promotion for the Truscon Steel Company,
Youngstown, Ohio, effective February 1.
» * *
Mr. T. E. Barker, president and manager of the
recently formed Accurate Steel Treating Company,
Chicago, and who is well known in steel treating
circles, has been awarded a founder's membership in
the American Society for Steel Treating. He was
the first chairman of the Chicago Section of the Steel
Treating Research Society in 1917-1918, and for two
years national president of the American Steel Treaters
Societv, and from 1920 to 1921 first vice president
of the American Society for Steel Treating.
* *. *
Announcement has been made by the Detroit Steel
Products Company, Detroit, Mich., of the appointment
of L. T. Miller as purchasing agent to succeed
T. F. Thornton, who recently resigned to take the
presidency of the Roehm Steel Rolling Mills, Detroit.
George Burkhardt, president of the Champion
Welding Company, Buffalo, died recently in a sanitarium
* * *
L. Leslie Hammer, general manager of the N. & G.
Taylor Company, Cumberland, Md., manufacturers of
tin plate, died of typhoid fever at the age of 47 years.
He started work'with the Taylor Company many
years ago as a chemist in the open hearth department.
In 1903 he was made superintendent of the
black plate department and in 1916 became general
manager, also being elected to the board of directors,
becoming assistant secretary-treasurer.
* * *
Daniel Gray Reid, romantic figure of the tin plate
industry and one of the outstanding personalities who
guided the modern steel business in this country
through its formative period, died at his home in New
York. January 17th. Death was due to pneumonia,
but Mr. Reid' had been in ill health since 1918.
* * *
Jonathan R. Jones, a veteran of the steel industry,
and one of the best known figures in the eastern section,
died in Philadelphia, January 3. Although active
until recently, Mr. Jones had been in ill health for the
past two years.
* * *
Frederick C. Riddile, aged 59, general manager of
the Edgewater Steel Company, Pittsburgh, died December
21, in the Columbia Hospital after a week's
* * *
Charles M. Whitmore, head of the production department
of Crompton & Knowles Loom Works,
Worcester, Mass., died recently at his home.
* * *
Robert A. Bruce, formerly head of the research
department at the Hydraulic Steel Company, Cleveland,
died recently in New York, at the age of 53.
* * *
Harry R. Kimmel, chief .hemist of the Marion
Steam Shovel Company, Marion, Ohio, died January
19 at Kalamazoo, Mich., aged 46 years. He was a
graduate of the Case School of Applied Science,
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Feed Water Heaters—A new information leaflet
has just been published by the Griscom-Russell Company,
describing the well-known G-R instantaneous
heater for supplying hot water for boiler feed, heating
systems, industrial processes, etc. This leaflet concisely
outlines the applications, special advantages
and construction specifications of the heater and includes
a complete table of sizes, capacities and
Coal Meters—The Republic Flow Meters Company,
Chicago, has issued a bulletin describing a device
for measuring the volume of coal passing to a
combustion chamber. The meter is based on the fact
that equal volumes of coal have equal weight, within
narrow- limits, regardless of the size of the pieces.
Full description, engineering data and illustrations
February, 1925 Forging- Stamping - Heat Treating 75
Blowers—B. F. Sturtevant Company, Boston 36,
Mass. "Gaso-Fan," a new type of portable blower, is
described in a leaflet just published.
Power Presses—The Niagara Machine & Tool
Works, Buffalo, N. Y. Various presses made by this
company are described in this folder. The arch press,
the trimming press, the inclinable press, double crank
press and the squaring shears are all briefly described
Rodograph—The Bridgeport Brass Co., Bridgeport,
Conn., has issued under the name of Bridgeport
Ledrite Rod-O-Graph a chart from which may be calculated
the gross weight of any number of pieces to
be cut from rods. The shapes may be round, hexagon,
octagon or square. A table of decimal equivalents
accompanies the chart, being printed on the
same page. The sheet is of cardboard and is 9y2x
I9y2. A brass eyelet for hanging is provided. Copies
may be obtained upon request.
Blowers—L. J. Wing Manufacturing Company,
352 West Thirteenth Street, New York City. Bulletin
No. 26A, "Wing Type EM Blower for Burning
with Economy Small Anthracite, Screenings and
Slack," describes and illustrates the advantages of
this type of blower.
Welding and Cutting Equipment—Putting the information
from its large catalog into a booklet that
can be enclosed with a letter, the Bastian Blessing
Company, Chicago, has presented a compact presentation
of the subject of welding and cutting by the use
Welding Flux—The Chemical Treatment Company,
New York, has issued a pamphlet describing a
chemical compound fused at high temperature to insure
complete solution. Its purpose is to furnish a
flux for welding iron and steel which will produce a
soft, ductile weld that can be machined easily.
Universal Turret Lathe—Warner & Swasey Company,
Cleveland, Ohio, has issued a catalog describing
one of its turret lathes. Every point of construction
and operation is covered by description and illustration
and samples of output are shown.
Furnace Gas Recorder—Measuring C02 in the flue
gases of steam generating plants as a check on losses
in combustion is discussed in a catalog of the Brown
Instrument Company, Philadelphia. Attention is
called to lack of study and care in eliminating losses
in combustion and suggestions are made for bettering
conditions in this respect. Methods of applying
the recorder and illustrations of typical installations
Electric Crane Equipment—A bulletin by the General
Electric Company, Schenectady, N. Y., discusses
at some length the various electrical devices used on
cranes. This includes motors and control, brakes and
accessories. Information is given on operating characteristics
and types of standard motors are listed,
with much valuable data.
Sheet Metal Equipment for Schools—Niagara Machine
& Tool Works, Buffalo. Circular No. 103.
Issued to promote sheet metal working courses in
vocational schools. Five plans of sheet metal shops
for large, medium and small classes, one for composite
shop in which sheet metal working is combined with
some other subject, and another for a general shop,
where several subjects are taught, are given. Floor
plans of the shops are shown, and the equipment
recommended is listed and illustrated.
Transmission Machinery—The W. A. Jones Foundry
& Machine Company, Chicago, has issued two
catalogs, one covering power transmission machinery,
and the other sprocket wheels and chain belting. Both
are illustrated and contain engineering data of use to
machine shop engineers.
Sheet Metal Machinery—Magee Sheet Metal Machinery
Company, 3916 Vermont Avenue, Detroit.
Catalog No. 5. The company's wiring and edging machine
is described and illustrated, and several pages
are devoted to the assembling machines, which is
known also as seaming machine or double-seamer.
The wiring and edging unit will complete an operation
which may be run on the edge of a piece ,f sheet
metal in one pass, regardless of the contour or size of
the sheet, or whether it is pressed or flat. Six attachments
for nine operations, wiring, hemming, CJ-ing,
hook-lock, X-lock, Y-lock, Z-lock, plain-lock and
square edge, are described and illustrated. The change
from one gage to another is made by changing rolls
of the attachment.
Automatic Rotary Heat Treating Furnaces—W.
S. Rockwell Company, 50 Church Street, New York.
Bulletin No. 261 describes the automatic rotary furnace
and quenching, coating or coloring tanks. The
equipment is intended for the heat treatment of metal
products, the size and shape of which permit of a slow
rolling action and continuous steam movement. The
furnace is internally fired and has a revolving horizontal
cylinder with a refractory, metallic or combination
spiral lining. Provisions for uniformly applying
heat to the individual piece and for gradually
heating each piece in its automatic stream movement
through the furnace are advantages stressed. Illustrations
are numerous and include installations for
heat treatment of forgings and castings.
Refractories—There has just been issued by the
Botfield Ref:actories Company, 778 Swanson Street,
Philadelphia, Pa., a very useful pocket-size booklet of
interest to all users of fire brick. It contains a number
of helpful fire brick construction suggestions.
Among these are, the proper method of laying fire
brick for thin but firm joints; how to coat furnace
walls and other fire brick construction to protect the
brick and prolong its life; and the method of filling
up holes and depressions with an inexpensive patching
mixture, saving many dollars of new construction
costs; how to lay single ring arches, in which any
one ring or part of fire brick can be replaced without
removing other rings.
Twist Drill Speeds—The Cleveland Twist Drill
Company has issued booklets describing the easy application
of the slide rule principle to determine safe
and economical cutting speeds for drills. In addition
to the tabular presentation of speeds, the jacket of the
scale presents useful hints on the operation of drills.
Oil Circuit Breakers—A new 32-page bulletin,
bearing the number 47495.1, has been issued by the
General Electric Company describing four improved
types of oil circuit breakers. The bulletin is well illustrated
by photographs, tables and diagrams, and details
covering construction, operation, characteristics,
etc., are fully covered. The circuit breaker tvpes described
bear the designations FH-103, FH-203, FH-206
and FH-209, all for controlling and protecting circuits
of large capacity. The capacities of these oil circuit
breakers vary from 2.000 amperes at 15,000 volts and
500 amperes'at 35,000 volts, to 4,000 amperes at 7,500
and 15,000 volts, and 800 amperes at 35,000 volts.
-'«', Forging- Stamping - Heat Treating
T H E C L A S S I F I E D
Li S TINC'NEW AND SECOND.HAND MATERIAL^,
^ j _ ^
Positions Wanted and Help Wanted advertising
inserted under proper headings
free of charge. Where replies are keyed
to this office or branch offices, we request
that users of this column pay postage for
forwarding such replies. Classified ads can
be keyed for the Pittsburgh, New York or
EXECUTIVE—Young man 29 years of age, tech WANTED—Position as manager or superintendnical
graduate with seven years' practical exent of drop forge plant; 16 years' experience,
perience in machine design and engineering, thor covering actual shop practice and including all
oughly acquainted with shop and foundry methods. phases of office and sales work. Can furniBh
Ooupled with this I have served three years as best of references. At present employed; avail
branch manager of large midwestern manufacturable on short notice. Box JPC, care of Forging.
ing company, having complete supervision of office Stamping-Heat Treating.
and sales force. Desire to associate with progressive
manufacturing or sales organization in capa
FORGE SHOP superintendent wishes to connect
with a reliable concern offering better opporcity
of responsibility, where duties of an executive tunities; 40 years old, having practical experience
Will the advertiser of Box 147 kindly call at POSITION nature will be WANTED—Drop required, preferably forge in or the die business sinker in die room and hammer shop; can estimate and
this office for some replies to his advertisement.
end. foreman; Prefer 24 locality years' of experience, Philadelphia 12 years or New as York. fore do all classes of work and handle large force of
man but and not superintendent; essential. Highest know how references. to handle Box men men. Can give A-l references. Box B 0, care of
OPPORTUNITY is open for experienced oil burn and OPS, get care production; of Forging-Stamping-Heat also A-l die designer. Treating. Box 8, Forging and Heat Treating.
er salesman. We are looking for a capable man care of Forging-Stamping-Heat Treating.
SITUATION WANTFD—Young executive, 84
to manage, develop, build and equip small and POSITION WANTED—Inspector and expe
years of age, married, several years' praotlcal
large oil fired furnaces. Must have knowledge to diter, with eight years' experience In ex experience drop forge, foundry and machine shop
suggest to customers designs for particular condipediting and inspecting of materials and ma Practice; thoroughly conversant with modern
tions. Must know oil combustion, application of chinery for by-product coke plants, power usiness and production methods, also general
industrial and boiler plants. Should know low houses, bla-st furnaces, rolling mills, wheel and cost accounting, purchasing, sales, finance and
pressure burners, vacuum or pressure oil feed. To mills, etc. At present am connected with one credit, administration and organization. Not an
a man who can qualify and partially finance him of the large steel companies in the Pittsburgh "efficiency expert," but with very efficient methods
self will offer a generous share or profits in an district on construction. As this work Is about that produce results. At present production mana
established business in Philadelphia. Write Box completed will be open for another position ger and assistant general manager of large shop
HHK, care of Forging-Stamping-Heat Treating, about August 1. I prefer a position which having forge shop, grey iron foundry and machine
will keep me on the road a major portion of shops. Box DDK, care of Forging-Stamping-Heat
WANTED—Experienced POSITIONS hammersmith, WANTED or helper,
time. Box F S H T, care of Forging-Stamp Treating.
on ehape work for steam forging hammer. State ing-Heat Treating.
POSITION WANTED as assistant superintendent
POSITION age, experience WANTED and salary as drop desired forge hi superintend
first letter. YOUNG EXECUTIVE, 82 years of age, married,
or general foreman of drop forge plant; 87
Box ent, 1111, general care foreman of Forging-Stamping-Heat or foreman for drop Treat forge 12 years' practical experience in die and forge years of age, having had 18 years' experience, in
plant, ing. where the services of a first-class man with shop, wishes to connect with reliable firm as supercluding executive positions for the last eight years.
23 years of practical experience would be appreintendent or general foreman. Thoroughly con Have had the best up-to-date practical experience
ciated. Can handle men and get the very best reversant with modern methods of production, hav in die and tool design, also estimating on small
sults as to production. If you are interested would ing held positions of general foreman and superin forgings to 3,000 lbs. Steam hammer work with
be glad to have you write, or personal interview WANTED—By tendent for past technically four years. educated Can give man, A-l position refer direct supervision of entire plant in my last posi
if you wish. Box C L O, care of Forging-Stampence. as factory, Box R production H, care of or Ohioago works Office, manager Forging- with tion. Have always been successful in handling
a Stamping-Heat drop forge plant Treating. where present results are not large force of men. Best references can be fur
POSITION WANTED—Hardener and steel treat
FOREMAN satisfactory. die room, Thoroughly drop forge experienced dies, wants and to connished. Box R R R, care of Forging-Stampinger,
35 years of age, 12 years' experience in die versant make with a change; all details at present of drop general forging, foreman foundry, in Heat Treating. * *
and tool hardening, carbonizing and general heat machine, a large plant steel in fabricating Canada, but and resides mechanical in Detroit; manu WANTED—Position as foreman of drop forge by
treating, 4 years' experience as foreman. Box facturing has two assistants plants, modern and about methods 60 men of under production him; practical drop forge man; oyer 20 years' ex-
W O L, care of Forging-Stamping-Heat Treating. costs, twenty organization, years' experience, management five years and as administra foreman'. Senence, 6 Tears as foreman; up to date on pro-
WANTED—Position as annealing foreman; 15
WANTED—Position tion Box based DK, care on inside of Forging-Stamping-Heat and as actual foreman experience of forge Treating. Loca shop uction methods and oan handle men. At pres
years as foreman in one plant of sheet and tintion At and present salary general secondary foreman to of future forge possibilities
and blackent employed; available on short notice. Box
plate company. Location no object. Box F B Y, Available smith department on short of notice. large ateel Box plant; F O B 34 , yean care of
818, care of Forging-Stamping-Heat Treating.
care of Forging-Staniping-Heat Treating.
age; Forging-Stamping-Heat 15 years' practical Treating. experience, past 6 yeara POSITION WANTED—By mechanic and execu
A GENERAL FOREMAN of a drop forge depart
as foreman; thoroughly experienced in forge and tive, age 50, with over 30 years of tool room
ment manufacturing carpenter and ball pien blacksmith department of steel mills, open hearth experience and of an inventive frame of mind;