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Leiden University in 2007<br />

<strong>Real</strong> <strong>Life</strong>

Leiden University in ����<br />

<strong>Real</strong> <strong>Life</strong>

Foreword<br />

Leiden University is an international research university which chooses for talent. Conducting outstanding scientific<br />

research is therefore a high priority in Leiden. The practice of science is primarily a matter of curiosity and of acquiring<br />

new knowledge and insights: this is the passion which drives every researcher. This passion is also the basis from which<br />

our lecturers teach their students, because in a research university, education and research are inextricably linked.<br />

Sometimes, new knowledge rapidly leads to relevant applications. However, it more frequently takes a number of years<br />

before a fundamental step contributes to products or processes which enhance our prosperity, our wellbeing and our culture.<br />

It is with this aim in mind that Leiden physicists strive to link even the most difficult fundamental research to real life,<br />

whether this involves car catalysators or cancer cells. Drug researchers probe our cells for biomarkers for disturbances, so<br />

that a timely and individually tailored diagnosis can be made of conditions such as diabetes and neurodegenerative diseases.<br />

Leiden University is also a societally-oriented university. We are part of the social environment, and we are fully aware of and<br />

interested in the problems and needs of our society. We see it as our task to seek answers and solutions to these problems<br />

from a scientific perspective. Migration research, for example, has demonstrated that European migration history is an<br />

exciting laboratory with numerous – at times bizarre – experiments from which a great deal can be learned, even today.<br />

The findings of the research into terrorism and the application of law in the area of international terrorism are very relevant<br />

for a safer world.<br />

The extent to which the work of Leiden’s researchers is valued, acknowledged and respected is apparent from the many<br />

awards and subsidies won by Leiden scholars in ����. These awards are both laudable and necessary for a university which<br />

chooses to compete with the best universities in Europe. We are able to congratulate one such researcher, archaeologist<br />

Wil Roebroeks, who is the eleventh Leiden professor to be awarded the Spinoza Prize since its inception in ����. Of the<br />

�� winners of this prize, �� per cent have come from Leiden. Roebroeks was awarded this prestigious prize for his innovative<br />

�<br />

observations on early hominins and the development of human society. A further example is the million euro subsidy won<br />

against fierce competition by Leiden biologists, which will enable them to develop medicines to combat age-related diseases<br />

of bones and joints.<br />

This Yearbook, published on the occasion of the ��� rd Dies Natalis, presents a picture of a year of scientific practice in<br />

Leiden. We want to show you where we are concentrating our efforts. Naturally, this is by no means a complete picture; it is<br />

no more than a glimpse of what we are capable of. But this selection of Leiden’s scientific achievements is rich and varied,<br />

just as our university is rich and varied: from religious studies to linguistic research into dying languages, from research into<br />

Neanderthals to age-related diseases, and from brain research to the issue of child abuse in the Netherlands.<br />

We hope you will enjoy reading about these fine achievements by Leiden’s scholars.<br />

Prof. Paul F. van der Heijden<br />

Rector Magnificus/President of the Executive Board<br />

Leiden University

Contents<br />

Our brains are active, even when we are not �<br />

From Allah to Zen: studying religions in Leiden ��<br />

‘Some terrorists are only interested in their fifteen minutes of fame’ ��<br />

Ageing is not a disease ��<br />

The immigration issue: Europe has to choose ��<br />

Neanderthals probably had some form of language ��<br />

Biologists discover fossilised orchid, giant peccary and tree of heaven ��<br />

In Bach’s oeuvre, the construction and the emotion are in perfect balance ��<br />

Dying, comatose and forgotten languages ��<br />

Repair it if you can ��<br />

Child abuse finally taken seriously ��<br />

Physics for real life ��<br />

The rebirth of the Law Faculty ��<br />

It’s not the pill but health that matters in Pharmacology ��<br />

China is booming ��<br />

Art historical research combined with scientific techniques ��<br />

Appendix<br />

NWO laureates ��<br />

Students ��<br />

Personnel ��<br />

Executive Board, Deans of Faculties ��<br />

Finance ��<br />

Addresses ��<br />

Colophon ��<br />

�<br />

08<br />

01<br />

Bivas-Benita and Batenburg win C.J. Kok Prize<br />

Pharmacologist Maytal Bivas-Benita and mathematician Joost Batenburg are proclaimed discoverers of the year 2006 by the Faculty of Science.<br />

They each receive the C.J. Kok Prize 2006. Bivas-Benita is honoured for her research into DNA vaccination via the lungs. In the near future, DNA vaccines<br />

will be able to provide protection against, inter alia, tuberculosis. Batenburg receives the C.J. Kok Prize for his study Puzzelen in 3D, on the<br />

calculation of the structure of three-dimensional images from cross-sections. He gained his PhD through his study of the most effective calculation<br />

methods; these will be of use both to physicists and diamond cutters.

12<br />

01<br />

Our brains are active,<br />

even when we are not<br />

Adolescents cannot plan, and they drink too much. Their behaviour is often risky and impulsive. This opinion,<br />

long held by parents, is now endorsed by scientists. Is this behaviour caused by their hormones? ‘No, it’s the<br />

brain,’ says developmental psychologist Dr Eveline Crone. In adolescents, a specific part of the brain, the part<br />

that governs rational behaviour, is not yet fully developed.<br />

No matter how good adolescents may be at their studies or playing the piano, their powers of reasoning are not yet able to<br />

cope with emotions and impulses. This is something Eveline Crone can be sure of: she uses MRI scanning techniques to<br />

study the brains of children and young people between the ages of � and �� years old. Two years ago she set up the Brain<br />

and Development Laboratory for her research group within the Faculty of Social and Behavioural Sciences. Her research<br />

attracted considerable interest, and she won a number of significant scientific prizes; in ����, she was awarded a Vidi subsidy,<br />

and was invited to become a member of the prestigious Young Academy. Her research has significant societal implications.<br />

She questions, for example, whether the Study House is the most appropriate learning environment for adolescents,<br />

and whether young people should be subject to the same penalties as adults. The lack of awareness of this issue on the part<br />

of the general public is one of the reasons why Leiden University together with the LUMC will in ���� be competing for the<br />

Academic Year Prize for popularising research, with a submission on the subject of ‘the adolescent brain’.<br />

Crone is one of the researchers of the Leiden Institute for Brain and Cognition (LIBC). This institute was set up eighteen<br />

months ago as an interdisciplinary partnership between researchers from four faculties: the Medicine/LUMC, Social and<br />

Behavioural Sciences, Arts and the Faculty of Science. The research group has been set up along interdisciplinary lines to<br />

reflect the fact that cognition is about language, but also about emotion. It is about the adolescent brain, but also about<br />

Alzheimer’s; about people, but also about animals. It is even about robots. Cognitive psychologist Prof. Bernhard Hommel is<br />

working on a robot which can handle uncertainty and which also has the ability to think. His theory is based on event coding,<br />

which states that perception, recognition and actions are intrinsically linked in the human brain. Mathematicians and<br />

computer specialists are needed to analyse all the data.<br />

Cognitive scientists have to learn to understand one another’s language and to anticipate one another’s questions, is the<br />

maxim. Psycho- and neurolinguist, Prof. Niels Schiller, who came to Leiden last year from Maastricht, sees himself as the<br />

New facts about gunpowder ship disaster<br />

During the explosion of the ship loaded with gunpowder in Leiden in 1807, Professor Jean Luzac, Professor at the Faculty of Arts, was fatally injured<br />

whilst standing at the front door of the house of a friend, physicist J.A. Bennet. This is evidenced by a note written by a salvage worker that has<br />

been discovered in the Dutch National Archive in The Hague. Arti Ponsen, member of the University staff and amateur historian, presents new facts<br />

about the disaster that occurred on the Steenschuur in 1807. Since that time, no one at the National Archive had sought information about the calamity.<br />

Ponsen is joint author of Het fataal evenement. De buskruitramp van Leiden in 1807, a compilation of articles about the gunpowder disaster.<br />

�<br />

12<br />

01<br />

Dr Eveline Crone Prof. Bernard Hommel<br />

link between linguists and psychologists, and as translator of the specialist jargon of the two fields. At the start of ����,<br />

Schiller, who conducts research into language production, set up a Language and Cognition group, which has already<br />

generated a number of new ideas for interdisciplinary research.<br />

Dr Serge Rombouts, director of the LIBC, teaches researchers to work with functional MRI. This is the force behind cognition<br />

research: the super-fast development in imaging techniques, particularly MRI. Prof. Mark van Buchem, neuroradiologist<br />

and one of the founders of the LIBC, can still recall the euphoria when in the early nineties his colleagues first<br />

began to appreciate the potential of fMRI: it was actually possible to see the brain working! By making an MRI scanner sensitive<br />

to the oxygen concentration in the blood, it was possible to make parts of the brain visible which were activated during<br />

a particular task. However, it soon became clear that it was first necessary to determine what constitutes normal cognition,<br />

before deviations from the pattern could be established. Co-operation with psychologists and linguists was not only interesting,<br />

it was also necessary. For the linguists, the path to the scientists and MRI scanners in the LUMC was vital because of the<br />

opportunities there for testing hypotheses directly and making the link with medical research. The new �Tesla MRI<br />

scanner, which was christened in September ����, can create even better and more detailed images of the brain. This may<br />

make it possible for conditions such as Alzheimer’s to be diagnosed at an early stage, even before any cognitive impairment<br />

has been signaled. The LUMC has created the new C.J. Gorter Center for High Field MRI around this so-called ultra high<br />

field scanner, which is one of only very few in the world.<br />

Within a year of the foundation of the LIBC, the partnership is already bearing fruit. It is always an exciting moment when major<br />

research subsidies are awarded. At the end of ����, NWO awarded the first Vidi subsidy to linguist Dr Claartje Levelt, who is<br />

involved in the design of a language production model for babies and toddlers. Cognitive psychologist Ingrid Christoffels was<br />

awarded a Veni subsidy to conduct research into switching from one language to another: how does the brain maintain control<br />

over this process? In the division of Vidi subsidies in ����, four of the eight Leiden awards went to LIBC research. Crone received<br />

a subsidy for her adolescent brain research, Dr Bernet Elzinga for research into the genetic susceptibility to stress, Dr Karin<br />

Roelofs for the project on ‘Social anxiety, the brain and stress hormones’ and Serge Rombouts for the development of a completely<br />

new type of fMRI. His aim is to use this to demonstrate how medicines intervene in the brain and in brain functioning.<br />

Equipment for Malawi<br />

A ship carrying 30 m 3 of PCs, printers, fax machines and a complete telephone exchange leaves for Malawi. The goods’ destination is the newly<br />

founded Catholic University of Malawi (CUM). Menno Welling, anthropologist, archaeologist, PhD candidate at CNWS, Malawi expert and, in addition<br />

to all this, chosen by the CUM as dean of the Faculties of Education and Social Sciences, collected the goods for this new Malawian university via<br />

his Mlambe foundation. Students, mainly from the Archaeology programme, checked and repaired the equipment. At Mlambe’s request, Microsoft<br />

Nederland agreed to provide licences for operating systems for the donated PCs.

A frontal view of three ‘resting state’ networks in the brain. Areas of similar colour show strong connectivity at rest.<br />

27<br />

01<br />

Woordenboek der Nederlandsche Taal online<br />

The Woordenboek der Nederlandsche Taal<br />

goes online, and is accessible to everyone,<br />

free of charge. This historic dictionary is a<br />

product of the Institute for Dutch Lexicology.<br />

See http://gtb.inl.nl.<br />

03<br />

02<br />

‘Unilocation’ LUMC complete<br />

The LUMC opens the doors of new buildings<br />

for the public: the Research Building and<br />

the Education Building, both designed by<br />

EGM architects. This makes the LUMC<br />

‘Unilo cation’ complete.<br />

��<br />

08<br />

02<br />

Prof. Niels Schiller Dr Serge Rombouts<br />

Rombouts, fMRI specialist and Alzheimer’s researcher, combines his technical and methodological inventiveness with the subject<br />

matter of the research. He had heard of the problem: it often takes weeks for the effect of pills to treat depression, a psychosis<br />

or another psychological or neurological condition to become apparent. Pharmacologists have no solution for this. They are<br />

dependent on advanced, but nonetheless indirect methods. Rombouts had at some point studied the influence of cortisol on the<br />

brain, and recognised the opportunities this offered. But to carry out further work in this area, he needed to explore a new type<br />

of fMRI: the resting state fMRI. With this technique, the results of a scan are not dependent on the patient being assigned particular<br />

tasks; instead, images are made of the whole brain at rest. ‘Relax, don’t fall asleep,’ patients are instructed. The effects of the<br />

medicines themselves can be measured, without the patient having to carry out any tasks. Rombouts works together with other<br />

researchers, including psychiatrists from the LUMC and pharmacologists from the Leiden Centre for Human Drug Research.<br />

Prof. Joop van Gerven, neuro-psychopharmacologist, is enthusiastic about the prospects, and already sees fMRI as having a particular<br />

relevance for pharmacology.<br />

Resting state fMRI can be a very useful instrument for particular applications, but it is also interesting in itself. It is based on a<br />

new view of the brain. Rombouts: ‘The dominant view is that the brain reacts primarily to stimuli from the environment. The<br />

rest is background noise, or is irrelevant. But there is a different view, which is gaining increasing credence. According to this view,<br />

the background noise is not noise at all. We can see the intrinsic operations of the brain, and there is a definite pattern to these<br />

operations. There is even a well-ordered network between related areas of the brain. And this noise may well say more about the<br />

functioning of the brain than the increased activity caused by carrying out a task.’<br />

Work on cognition research is not restricted to post-doc researchers. Students, too, can learn the ins and outs of fMRI research.<br />

Psycho- and neurolinguist Niels Schiller has even involved high school pupils in this research: within the Lapp-Top project, an<br />

educational programme for talented and motivated senior high school students, pupils have themselves tested an aphasia patient<br />

and analysed the data acquired as part of their final year assignment. Such experiments pose no problems for high school pupils:<br />

their learning skills are more than adequate for the task.<br />

Paul van der Heijden Rector Magnificus<br />

Dies Natalis 2007. Rector Magnificus Prof. Douwe Breimer transfers the rectorship to Prof. Paul van der Heijden. Van der Heijden had been Rector<br />

Magnificus of the University of Amsterdam (UvA) since January 2002. He is professor of Employment Law at the Faculty of Law and a member of<br />

the Royal Netherlands Academy of Arts and Sciences. He continues to be Crown-appointed member of the SER. Van der Heijden studied law at the<br />

UvA and gained his doctorate in 1984 at Leiden University with his dissertation A fair trial in social law? Prior to his appointment at the UvA, he<br />

worked at Leiden and Groningen Universities, and was a judge at the Courts of Law in Amsterdam.

From Allah to Zen:<br />

studying religions in Leiden<br />

The Faculty of Religious Studies attracts an increasing and diverse student population. This reflects the fact that in<br />

recent years religion has grown in importance, a trend which the Faculty has embraced wholeheartedly. As well as<br />

programmes in Religious Studies, the Faculty also offers bachelor’s and master’s programmes in World Religions<br />

and Islamic Theology. The Faculty has newly appointed professors in Islam in the West and in Buddhism, and a<br />

new chair in Judaism. These changes make it possible for religion to be studied in a wider context.<br />

The growing interest in religion is wholly related to the events of �� September ����. Leiden University had, however,<br />

already started the new programme in World Religions some years previously. In ����, the Islamic Theology programme<br />

was introduced, which has the potential to make a contribution to the integration of Muslims in Dutch society.<br />

In November ����, Dr Maurits Berger was appointed Professor of the Sultan of Oman Chair in Oriental Studies. This<br />

new chair has been made possible by a substantial donation by the Sultan of Oman, Qaboos bin Said. The sultanate has<br />

previously established chairs at the Universities of Harvard, Cambridge, Melbourne and Georgetown. Prof. Berger will be<br />

focusing on education and research in the field of Islam in the present-day Western world. According to Dean Prof. Willem<br />

B. Drees, his arrival will mean an enormous impetus for the programmes in Islamic Theology and World Religions.<br />

American Jonathan Silk, Professor of Buddhism, is a further newcomer to the Faculties of Religious Studies and Arts.<br />

His particular field of interest is the practical aspects of Buddhism, including translations of early scripts and the lives of<br />

the authors of these texts. ‘I hope that the introduction to Buddhism will appeal to a broad public,’ says Silk.<br />

The appointment of a Professor of Judaism is expected shortly, although there was in fact no budget available for this<br />

post. The Faculty considers this chair so crucial for its programmes that it organised a rather unorthodox method of fundraising:<br />

a sponsored dinner. On �� March, a kosher gala dinner was held in the Leiden Pieterskerk. The evening<br />

was dedicated to Judaism as a living tradition. Drees: ‘Strengthening the study of Judaism will benefit all the Faculty’s<br />

programmes. This is the only way that comparative research can highlight the similarities and differences, as well as<br />

the interaction between religions. Now that we also study other religions than Christianity in our Faculty, the name of<br />

08<br />

02<br />

Anissimova wins Education Prize<br />

‘Every student learns differently.’ This is how lecturer in Russian, Larissa Anissimova,<br />

explains why she uses a variety of different methods in each lecture. During<br />

the Dies Natalis, Anissimova receives the Education Prize awarded annually by<br />

the Leiden Student Council (LSR). Teaching and didactics are her passion. ‘She is a<br />

source of inspiration to other lecturers’, says LSR Chairman Sophie Hogerzeil.<br />


��<br />

Prof. Maurits Berger<br />

Faculty of Theology is no longer appropriate. We have therefore taken the decision to change the name to Faculty<br />

of Religious Studies.’<br />

It is clear that religion is again a hot topic and plays a comprehensive role in social debates. A sombre note has been<br />

struck by politician Geert Wilders’ call for the Koran to be banned. Prof. Bas ter Haar Romeny, who delivered his inaugural<br />

lecture in September ����, said on this subject: ‘Whatever Geert Wilders may contend, the Old Testament contains just as<br />

many atrocities as the Koran. The Bible also talks of stoning people and hacking off their limbs. But there is not a single<br />

Christian, even from the most orthodox groups, who would dream of stoning another person for committing blasphemy.<br />

If you confront Christians with these passages from the Bible, they often find them embarrassing or they ask whether they<br />

might not in fact be extracts from the Koran.’<br />

The research carried out by Romeny and others in the Faculty of Religious Studies gives us an insight into how people<br />

respond to sacred texts. The source texts of world religions are ages old, but in more recent times and in new situations they<br />

are re-read and used as guidelines. You are not likely to become a terrorist just by reading the Koran, is Romeny’s conviction.<br />

‘You only become a terrorist by ascribing a particular significance to a particular situation.’<br />

Romeny conducts research into the Old Testament in Eastern Christian traditions. ‘By studying the ancient texts of Eastern<br />

Christianity – these are often written in such little-known languages as Armenian, Syrian and Ethiopian – we gain a better<br />

understanding of the history of the early Christians. One of the surprising outcomes of this research is that church schisms<br />

and religious conflicts arose not only out of theologically different viewpoints, but that ethnic and political motives also<br />

played a role.’<br />

Prof. Willem B. Drees Prof. Jonathan Silk Prof. Bas Ter Haar Romeny<br />

In ����, Romeny received the EURYl Award amounting to � �.� million from the European Science Foundation. This award<br />

is made annually to �� potential world leaders in the field of science. Romeny had previously been awarded a Pioneer sub-<br />

sidy worth almost the same amount. The new subsidy will be used to conduct research into developments in the religious<br />

and ethnic identity of Assyrian, Coptic and other Christian migrants who came to Europe.<br />

21<br />

02<br />

Skeleton under Academy Building<br />

Whilst working in the Gewelfkamer (a room with an impressive vaulted ceiling),<br />

restorers of the Academy Building come across the skeleton of a man, together with<br />

two skulls, these in all probability having been of patrons or father confessors to<br />

the White Nuns. Prior to 1581, the Academy Building was the chapel to these nuns’<br />

cloister. Prominent people were buried in this chapel, which was built in 1507.

Mosque and synagogue side by side in Paramaribo.<br />

18<br />

03<br />

Exchange agreement with Japanese Institute<br />

Dean of the Faculty of Arts, Prof. Geert Booij, and Prof. Haruki Ii, Director of the<br />

National Institute for Japanese Literature (NIJL) in Tokyo, sign an exchange<br />

agreement. The objective is closer collaboration in the area of research and<br />

improved access to collections. The NIJL is one of Japan’s leading institutes<br />

for providing access to and research into literary source material.<br />


��<br />

19<br />

03<br />

‘Some terrorists are only interested<br />

in their fifteen minutes of fame’<br />

The Netherlands is one of the few countries in the world which has the promotion of the international legal<br />

order in its constitution and has a reputation internationally as a ‘protector of international law.’ The Leiden<br />

Law Faculty carries out extensive research in this field, thereby contributing to our close involvement in the<br />

international rule of law.<br />

‘Is there a cohesive worldwide vision of international terrorism and a coherent strategy for combating and preventing it?’<br />

This was one of the key questions at a conference held in Leiden in April ����, organised by the Grotius Centre of the<br />

Department of International Public Law at Leiden’s Faculty of Law and Campus The Hague.<br />

Thirty-five experts from ten different countries came together at the Old Poelgeest conference centre just outside Leiden.<br />

One of the initiators, Prof. Nico Schrijver, Professor of International Public Law, described the aim of the conference as<br />

follows: ‘We wanted to take stock of where we are now, five years after �� September. What can we learn from the strategies<br />

which have been followed so far? What has worked and what has not? What agreements should and can countries make on<br />

the legal frameworks for combating international terrorism?’<br />

The conference was organised at the request of the Ministry of Foreign Affairs, and was opened by Minister Maxime<br />

Verhagen. He had just returned from Washington where he had held discussions with Condoleezza Rice on such issues<br />

as Guantánamo Bay. Verhagen mentioned the forthcoming conference on international terrorism, and was asked by Rice<br />

to keep her informed of the findings of the conference. ‘The Netherlands has the attention of the US,’ was the conclusion<br />

drawn by Schrijver.<br />

The attacks on the World Trade Centre, the Pentagon, Bali, London and Madrid were committed by international terror-<br />

ist networks. This is not war in the classical sense. There is no recognisable army, and no state boundaries are threatened.<br />

Instead, it is a system of values which is under attack. ‘The present law on warfare is not always adequate to tackle these<br />

international networks,’ explains Schrijver. On the one hand, there are in some instances problems in rounding up or<br />

extraditing those suspected of international terrorism. On the other hand, we do not want the law to sanction people<br />

Roof construction of Academy Building appears to be original<br />

The original oak timber roof construction of the Academy Building, dating back to 1507, is still largely intact. This is the conclusion of structural<br />

engineers now that the building has been examined during renovation work. The Academy Building caught fire on 11 November 1616. A report<br />

written by the University’s curators or governors describes the severity of the fire: nothing of the Academy Building remained standing apart from<br />

the staende muyrwerck (standing walls), and the auditorium philosophicum (the present gewelfkamer with its vaulted ceiling). Apparently, the roof<br />

was entirely destroyed, or so it was always thought. But that is obviously not the case.

Four young members of the Hofstad group on trial, suspected of terrorism.<br />

19<br />

03<br />

Studying until midnight<br />

During exam periods, students can now study<br />

until midnight in the University Library (UB).<br />

The opening hours are also extended<br />

at weekends.<br />

20<br />

03<br />

Hendrik Lenstra Academy Professor<br />

Mathematician Prof. Hendrik Lenstra is to be appointed Academy Professor as of<br />

1 September. The Royal Netherlands Society for Arts and Sciences (KNAW) pro -<br />

vi des academy professors with the opportunity to devote themselves to innovative<br />

research and education for a period of five years. ‘I shall be enjoying my second<br />

youth,’ says Lenstra. In 1999 he was also awarded the prestigious Spinoza Prize.<br />


��<br />

Prof. Nico Schrijver Prof. Bob de Graaff<br />

being arrested without due cause. ‘But,’ says Schrijver, ‘if you know that one lightning-fast action could prevent an attack in<br />

another country, then you would be mad not to do it, but then within agreed legal frameworks.’<br />

One of the conclusions of the conference was that law in the area of international terrorism may be very fragmented,<br />

but that there is nonetheless extensive legislation on the subject. Schrijver: ‘It is not actually necessary to develop new laws.<br />

It is more a matter of applying laws which are already in existence and making sure the activities within these fields of law<br />

complement one another.’ The most serious shortcoming in the law is the inadequacy of the resources for preventing international<br />

terrorism. Extensive discussions were therefore held during the conference on the issues of countries where there is<br />

no sound government. Such countries appear time and time again to be breeding grounds for international terrorism. The<br />

Dutch government has made development aid in this field a priority, for example by helping these countries to establish an<br />

adequate constitutional state.<br />

And if all countries of the world were to have a sound constitutional government, would that remove any fears about terror-<br />

ist attacks? Prof. Bob de Graaff, who has been Professor of Terrorism and Counter-Terrorism at Leiden University/Campus<br />

The Hague since � February ����, does not subscribe to this view. Some terrorists are mainly interested in their ‘fifteen minutes<br />

of fame’, and if possible, even a little more, in De Graaff’s opinion. ‘Much of the research into terrorism is focused on<br />

the so-called root causes: what historic injustices, what social inequality, what prior government actions have led to the barbaric<br />

acts committed by the terrorists? This is certainly legitimate research and should be continued,’ says the Netherlands’<br />

first professor of terrorism. But he also believes that too little research is carried out in the Netherlands into the needs of<br />

young people for self-expression as an explanation for radicalisation and terrorism. Some terrorists are primarily after a<br />

place in the mainstream of history. They are not just seeking attention for their cause, but also for themselves.<br />

In ����, De Graaff set up the Centre for Terrorism and Counter-Terrorism (CTC) at Campus The Hague. The CTC focuses<br />

on the interdisciplinary study of terrorism and counter-terrorism, whereby contributions from political science, criminology<br />

and history are studied in relation to one another. The CTC also aims to make a contribution to improving the quality of the<br />

analyses carried out by the various government authorities involved in terrorism prevention.<br />

01<br />

04<br />

Dummy eggs for gulls<br />

Behavioural biologist, Anne Vollmer, Msc, begins her research into the nesting<br />

of gulls in the city of Leiden. The reason for this is the nuisance factor of gulls<br />

experienced by Leiden and other towns and cities. Vollmer studies the favourite<br />

nesting places of the gulls; she replaces some of their eggs with dummies, and<br />

studies the gulls’ reactions.

10<br />

04<br />

Ageing is not a disease<br />

More and more people are living to an old age: a very old age. But there are considerable differences within the<br />

human species: one person may die of a heart attack at ��, while another will live to ��. In Leiden, a globally<br />

unique combination of doctors, geneticists, molecular epidemiologists and evolutionary biologists are working<br />

on this issue.<br />

What can be done to ensure that everyone remains healthy throughout the ageing process? And, directly related to this: why<br />

does one person live to a much older age than another? These are the questions on which the Leiden scientists are focusing.<br />

They are studying animal models – particularly fruit flies and butterflies – as well as human populations: cohorts of Leiden<br />

residents aged �� and over, very elderly Dutch brothers and sisters, but also old people in Ghana, with a pre-Western lifestyle,<br />

and their partners and children.<br />

One of the most recent insights into ageing is that the conditions in the period before an organism reaches maturity are<br />

crucial for health and mortality at an older age. In ����, Professor of Geriatric Medicine, Rudi Westendorp, and evolutionary<br />

biologist, Bas Zwaan, set up an extensive European Network of Excellence, known as <strong>Life</strong>Span. Their aim is to find an<br />

answer to such questions as: what is the biology behind the effects of ‘early influences late’? And are these effects reversible?<br />

Leiden’s molecular epidemiology department, under Prof. Eline Slagboom, is also taking part in the study.<br />

The European partners all contribute their own specific expertise, cohorts of humans and animal models: one has generations<br />

of well-researched twins on offer, the other honey bees. Experiments with animal models are crucial to test the findings<br />

arising from observations on humans.<br />

An important theme of the research is: how do humans and animals handle their energy reserves? In periods of hunger, does<br />

the body invest in physical maintenance, or, instead, in procreation? In simple organisms, the role of the insulin-signaling<br />

system which regulates energy distribution appears to be the prime determinant. An important question is whether this system<br />

also plays a role in the link between development and ageing.<br />

University lends a helping hand to Afghanistan<br />

The Afghans Khair Mohammed Khairzada and Qudsia Zohab arrive in Leiden to spend a year studying. Khairzada (30) works as an archaeologist<br />

for the Afghan Ministry of Information and Culture. He is studying computer programmes and English, and will also take in-depth courses in<br />

archaeological excavation techniques and in the ancient history of Afghanistan. Zohab (24) works in the National Museum in Kabul. She will<br />

learn computer skills, and will also follow a study in textile and clothing conservation. ‘In this way we can help Afghanistan with knowledge and<br />

skills,’ says supervisor Dr Willem Vogelsang. More Afghans will come to Leiden in a year’s time.<br />


��<br />

Longevity in humans is apparently �� to �� per cent genetically determined.<br />

12<br />

04<br />

Pre-University College awards 48 diplomas<br />

The second group of pupils graduate at the Pre-University College. 48 diplomas<br />

are presented, three pupils having dropped out. On 31 October 2005, 51 pupils<br />

from the final year of high school started the course. The pupils have followed a<br />

varied, 18-month programme, divided between five courses touching on disciplines<br />

from almost all the different faculties.

15<br />

04<br />

Prof. Rudi Westendorp Dr Bas Zwaan Prof. Eline Slagboom<br />

The reaction of the human body to food and famine is a further subject for research. The cohorts of the so-called ‘famine<br />

winter’ of World War II and the Ghanaian population provide interesting material for examination. As Westendorp says, ‘In<br />

a short space of time we have created a mismatch between our modern diet and our genes, which evolved in barren times.<br />

Such a mismatch is also apparent at individual level. If you do not have enough food while in the uterus, and then in later<br />

life you have a surplus of food, this has enormous adverse effects on your health, and even on the health of your children. A<br />

study in India demonstrated that mothers who were relatively small and who became overweight as a result of rapid changes<br />

in food conditions, had overweight children whose blood sugar levels were disrupted.’ Zwaan: ‘Carriers of particular genes<br />

suffer more from this than others. If you know which people are affected, you can provide them with lifestyle advice or, if<br />

necessary, resort to medical intervention. It is not a hopeless situation.’<br />

Longevity in humans is apparently �� to �� per cent genetically determined, and the Leiden research project is also study-<br />

ing the ‘gene’ aspect. In December, three PhD researchers completed the first phase of the extensive Leiden Lang Leven<br />

study. This project, too, was a joint venture between the fields of biology, population genetics and medicine. It enabled the<br />

researchers to lay a solid foundation on which the <strong>Life</strong>Span project could be based. Their aim was to see whether a number<br />

of candidate genes from the insulin signaling system of simple animal models correspond with human genes. Indeed, they<br />

found that in humans different genes appear to influence cognition, cholesterol metabolism, and age-related conditions such<br />

as cardio-vascular diseases. But there is no one-to-one relation between the model and human genes. Over the course of<br />

evolution, the genetic apparatus of humans has become too complicated for this. If only for this reason, intervening in a pair<br />

of genes, so that the C. elegans worm can live five times longer than in the natural environment, for example, will not work.<br />

Ageing is not a disease, and people do not die of old age itself. Westendorp has therefore always preferred to regard diseases<br />

of older people as simply that, and advocates investing in research and treatment. There is now evidence that these new<br />

clinical insights are achieving a breakthrough. A telling sign of this about-turn came in October, when LUMC surgeon Prof.<br />

Cock van de Velde received a subsidy of � � million from the Dutch Cancer Society for research into breast cancer in women<br />

aged �� and older, a thus far forgotten group. Van de Velde: ‘Contrary to the way it is portrayed in the media, breast cancer is<br />

primarily a disease of older women.’<br />

100 th anniversary of Tinbergen’s birth<br />

Leiden University commemorates the 100 th anniversary of the birth of Prof. Niko Tinbergen, appointed professor in Leiden in 1947, with a lecture<br />

and the opening of an exhibition. Biologist Tinbergen (15 April 1907 - 21 December 1988) was one of the founders of the study of the science of<br />

animal behaviour (ethology). In 1949, he pursued his career in Oxford. In 1973, Tinbergen, together with Karl von Frisch and Konrad Lorenz, was<br />

awarded the Nobel Prize for Physiology or Medicine for their research into animal behaviour. He also wrote several fine children’s books. Pièce<br />

de résistance: Tinbergen’s toga came to light during the clear-out of the Academy Building prior to the renovation.<br />


��<br />

The immigration issue:<br />

Europe has to choose<br />

‘Successful immigrants are a gift for the receiving country; it’s rather like being presented with a road<br />

network or a dike system,’ the Leiden immigration historian Prof. Pieter Emmer wrote in his discussion<br />

of Paul Scheffer’s Country of arrival. Such comments stand out in a period in which migrants are<br />

more often regarded as problems than as gifts.<br />

It is no coincidence that this statement (in the Volkskrant of � October ����) was made by a migration historian. His<br />

perspective extends further than only recent immigration history. Emmer does not avoid the issue of the immigration<br />

and integration of Turks and Moroccans, which in his opinion has failed in recent decades. But he warns that this negative<br />

experience may have an disproportionately strong effect on our view of immigration. A clear insight into the total history<br />

of European migration may help us avoid misconceptions.<br />

The weighty Enzyklopädie Migration in Europa, which was published in the autumn of ����, offers such an insight. The<br />

editors of the encyclopaedia include not only two Berlin migration historians, but also two Leiden specialists in the field:<br />

Prof. Pieter Emmer and Prof. Leo Lucassen. German and Dutch scientists have worked closely together on this extensive<br />

academic project. It was the first joint project by the NIAS (Netherlands Institute for Advanced Studies) in Wassenaar and<br />

the Wissenschaftskolleg (Institute for Advanced Study) in Berlin. The editors were supported by Leiden historians Dr Marlou<br />

Schrover and Dr Corrie van Eijl.<br />

Marlou Schrover embarked on her own Vici project in ����. She was awarded a subsidy of � �.�� million to investigate the<br />

differences between the male and female immigrants who have entered the Netherlands in the past sixty years.<br />

European migration history has proven to be a fascinating laboratory with countless – sometimes bizarre – experiments,<br />

from which the lessons now have to be learned, explains Lucassen. Many of the encyclopaedia’s entries demonstrate the -<br />

long-term - effects of choices relating to acceptance and exclusion. The encyclopaedia offers no ready-made solutions for<br />

immigration and diversity; instead it highlights the consequences of choosing particular paths.<br />

20<br />

04<br />

Leiden University’s own hot air balloon baptised<br />

Leiden University’s hot air balloon, the PH-LEI,<br />

is officially named by Professors Peter Kes and<br />

Jan van Ruitenbeek of the Faculty of Science.<br />

The balloon can be booked by anyone fancying<br />

a flight; see www.ballon.leidenuniv.nl.

Albanian refugees from Prizren, Kosovo, reach the border to Albania at Morina, �� April ����.<br />

26<br />

04<br />

Pre-selection in HBO Public Administration programme<br />

The best Public Administration students from the Haagse Hogeschool can prepare themselves for the Leiden University master’s course during their<br />

HBO (Higher Professional Education) training. The Hogeschool and the University sign a covenant for this. The implementation of Leiden University’s<br />

bachelor’s-master’s system means that it is difficult for HBO Public Administration students to move on to the Leiden Public Administration master’s<br />

degree programme. The principal cause of this is that grants are no longer being given for the elimination of any deficiencies. The Haagse Hogeschool<br />

and Leiden University have solved this problem by including a major portion of the linking programme in the HBO training in a special minor.<br />


��<br />

08<br />

05<br />

Prof. Pieter Emmer Prof. Leo Lucassen<br />

Migration is a perennial issue, and one which is often typified by problems. Political mobilisation of anti-immigration sentiments,<br />

as we have witnessed in recent years in Dutch politics, was a more frequent occurrence in past times. But never before<br />

have such sentiments led to the formation of new political parties. Europe has to make a choice, in Emmer’s opinion. Every<br />

country of the European continent is currently witnessing a decline in population. This has never been the case in the past.<br />

If Europe, discouraged by the problematic integration of Moroccans and Turks, chooses to refuse entry to immigrants from<br />

other continents, the result will be future shortages in the working population. This will in turn have adverse consequences<br />

for the future prosperity of the country.<br />

Leiden University’s Institute of History has a long tradition of comparative research into migration and historic patterns of<br />

acceptance and exclusion. The expertise in this field is focused within the research group on Migration, urban history and<br />

social cohesion. Leo Lucassen and Prof. Wim Willems jointly occupy the chair in Social history with the emphasis on migration<br />

and integration. Marlou Schrover and Corrie van Eijl are also members of this research group. The contributions of<br />

these five researchers played a crucial role in the realisation of the migration encyclopaedia.<br />

The encyclopaedia also includes articles by six other Leiden researchers. The titles of their contributions give a good indication<br />

of the diversity of the subjects addressed. Dr Jessica V. Roitman wrote about the Sephardic Jews in Europe, Dr Raymond<br />

Fagel wrote about Spanish merchants in the Netherlands, Dr Martin Bossenbroek devoted his contribution to Western and<br />

Central European soldiers in the Dutch colonial army, and Dr Cátia Antunes discussed the presence of British merchants in<br />

Portugal. These four authors are all affiliated to the Institute for History. In addition, Prof. Erik-Jan Zürcher (Languages and<br />

Cultures of the Middle East) contributed an article on Greek Orthodox and Muslim refugees and deportees in Greece and<br />

Turkey from ����. And, finally, Dr Johannes Oversloot (Russian Studies) wrote the entry on Russian migrant workers in the<br />

construction of the Soviet Union in the fifties.<br />

Leiden migration research is not limited to the Arts Faculty. Two years ago, theologian Prof. Bas ter Haar Romeny from the<br />

Faculty of Religious Studies was proclaimed one of the �� potential world leaders in their scientific field. He received the EURYl<br />

Award of � �.� million to carry out research into the migration of Christian minority groups from the Middle East to the West.<br />

Video debate Leiden-Austin<br />

Maartje van der Woude, LLM, lecturer in Criminal Law and Criminology, is carrying out an experiment with video conferencing. Four Leiden students<br />

engage in discussion with five students at the LBJ School of Public Affairs of the University of Texas in Austin from 19.30 to 21.00 hrs on the subject<br />

of the ‘crimmigration’ crisis. ‘Crimmigration’ is the interweaving of criminal law and immigration law in the fight against terrorism. The students<br />

quickly forget that their partners in the discussion are thousands of miles away. Van der Woude leads the discussion. ‘I am convinced that you should<br />

offer your teaching material in different ways. One of those ways is to discuss it.’

15<br />

05<br />

Dr Marlou Schrover Dr Belle Derks<br />

Prof. Erik-Jan Zürcher<br />

Many Eastern Christians live as refugees in Western Europe or North America. By comparing their situation in different<br />

countries, Romeny hopes to gain more insight into such issues as the influence of the settlement climate in the host country<br />

on the identity and the success of migrants. His research provides evidence of how important it is for refugees to have their<br />

own ethnic identity. Syrian Christians who have fled to the West are, for example, often unsure whether they are Aramaic<br />

or Assyrian. In many instances they are from the south-east of present-day Turkey, but they do not feel in any way Turkish.<br />

They are frequently faced with the question: ‘What nationality are you, then?’, which forces them to find an answer that fits<br />

more or less into our categories of ethnic communities and nationalities.<br />

Research into identity is also being conducted in the Faculty of Social and Behavioural Sciences. Psychologist Dr Belle Derks<br />

has studied how people who belong to a group with low social status, which is the case for many ethnic minority groups,<br />

can be motivated to improve their social position. This works best, Derks discovered, if they have the experience of being<br />

respected, for example, specifically on the grounds of their status as immigrants. In February ����, Derks obtained her PhD<br />

based on this research.<br />

The Institute for Immigration Law at the Faculty of Law studies the conflicts between the fundamental rights of immigrants<br />

and the legitimate concerns of states wishing to regulate migration. Professor of Immigration Law, Prof. Piet Boeles, and Dr<br />

Joanne van der Leun have published widely on this subject. Boeles, now emeritus professor, in the summer of ����, shortly<br />

before his retirement expressed some criticism of European asylum policies. Every summer, hundreds of desperate people<br />

risk the crossing to mainland Europe, and Spain, Italy and Malta pay the price for Fort Europe. The EU member states are<br />

currently studying the proposals put forward by the European Commission to halt the stream of asylum-seekers coming<br />

to Europe. Boeles does not expect very much to come of these plans. ‘It is no more than political gesturing. It is possible to<br />

make agreements about the distribution of the problems, but the will to do it is lacking. Politically, there are always points to<br />

be scored by adopting a strict attitude towards asylum-seekers.’ As Pieter Emmer said: ‘Europe has to take a choice.’<br />

Debate Back from Afghanistan<br />

SPIL, the study association for political scientists in Leiden together with periodical Vrij Nederland organises the debate Back from Afghanistan,<br />

on the question as to whether the Netherlands should prolong her mission in Afghanistan. Taking part in the discussion are several politicians and<br />

experts, including Dr Willem Vogelsang from Leiden University, as well as a variety of representatives from the media. Top Dutch soldiers who have<br />

served in Uruzgan mention a lack of progress in the rebuilding of the country, corruption and a glaring lack of competence in local administrators.<br />

Is there then any point in continuing the mission?<br />


��<br />

Neanderthals probably had<br />

some form of language<br />

Leiden University plays a key role in Neanderthal research. This was emphasised last year with the award of<br />

the Spinoza Prize to Prof. Wil Roebroeks in recognition of his pioneering research. The jury report cites him<br />

as an innovative and original scientist who does not shun debates in his field. He is guided by his own interpretations<br />

and observations, rather than by prevailing assumptions.<br />

Until recently, it was assumed that the Neanderthals were a very primitive branch of human evolution. The fact that their<br />

culture stagnated over a period of thousands of years was taken as an indication of their inability to adapt intellectually.<br />

‘But the truth is rather more subtle,’ according to Roebroeks, because recent research, mainly in Leiden, has brought to light<br />

what he calls the paradox of the Neanderthals. ‘On the one hand they had simple technology which scarcely changed over<br />

an unusually long period of time, yet on the other hand they were also experienced hunters of large prey, able to survive in a<br />

broad range of habitats.’ The Leiden research group has invested heavily in discovering these patterns and in investigating the<br />

differences and similarities between the archaeology of the Neanderthals and that of modern man – a contemporary of the<br />

Neanderthals for part of the last ice age. The group is now hoping to develop new approaches to interpret these conclusions.<br />

The Neanderthals were more robust than modern man. Their build was much more thick-set and sturdy than modern man<br />

and they were far stronger. According to Roebroeks, the cause of their apparently low level of cultural development in comparison<br />

to modern man can be found in the greater energy requirements of the Neanderthals. This may explain a great deal<br />

of their spatial behaviour, including their hunting activities. Roebroeks: ‘The Neanderthals hunted very large prey: the massive<br />

bulls, horses and rhinos, the real giants of the various species. These animals are not easy to hunt, but if you do manage<br />

to catch one, you really have got something. In relative terms, it takes a lot of time and energy to catch the smaller species<br />

and so the return on your time is much less. The Neanderthals were very driven hunters of large prey, and they employed<br />

‘modern’ techniques in processing prey. They were also very flexible, since they roamed in a broad spectrum of habitats.’<br />

The habitats of the Neanderthals were very diverse during the hundreds of thousands of years of their existence, which<br />

included ice ages and interglacial periods. They roamed in landscapes varying from tundra to forests and all variations in<br />

between, just like modern man. As they were hunters of large prey, they were forced to keep on the move. They were, in<br />

24<br />

05<br />

Jan van Os draws Jill Smythies Prize<br />

Jan Van Os (1942) receives the prestigious<br />

Jill Smythies Prize awarded by the Linnean<br />

Society in London for his botanical illustrations<br />

of flora and scientific articles, published by the<br />

National Herbarium of the Netherlands.

Prof. Wil Roebroeks: ‘Neanderthals were more robust than modern man.’<br />

01<br />

06<br />

Maartje van den Heuvel Curator of Photography and Photographics<br />

Maartje van den Heuvel, MA, is now Curator of Photography and Photographics in the Special Collections section of the University Library.<br />

She succeeds Ingeborg Leijerzapf, who has taken early retirement. Until the beginning of this year, Maartje van den Heuvel was co-ordinator<br />

of the Master’s Photography programme of AKV/St. Joost (Avans Hogeschool) in Breda. As freelance curator and critic, she sets up exhibitions<br />

in the Nederlands Fotomuseum and the Dordrecht Museum, and she writes for Foto, Archis and Camera.<br />


��<br />

fact, extremely nomadic. ‘This explains why the remains of fires were found at excavation sites, but no hearth stones which<br />

would make the fires more effective; nor were there any huts. Modern men often, but not invariably, went for a broader<br />

spectrum of prey and had very different views of the costs and benefits of their spatial behaviour. They were probably able to<br />

stay longer in one place, so that ‘investments’ in such activities as the building of huts and rough hearths were worthwhile,’<br />

Roebroeks contends. ‘You can put your time into improving the efficiency of the techniques for hunting prey or into how to<br />

handle the prey once it has been caught. The Neanderthals probably did the first. They had tools which could be used for a<br />

wide range of purposes. Modern man had, in black and white terms, a different tool for each activity, with each implement<br />

being carefully designed. Neanderthals used one simple implement for everything.’<br />

It is Roebroeks’ assumption that the Neanderthals compensated their simple technology with very detailed knowledge of<br />

the natural environment. ‘The problem is that this leaves no direct traces behind; there are no fossil remains. All we know is<br />

that they were very experienced at hunting large prey.’ It is well-known that Neanderthals took care of wounded or invalided<br />

members of their group, even though they were unable to hunt and so were no longer productive. These people probably<br />

played a role in detailed knowledge transfer. Roebroeks is unwilling to go so far immediately as to claim that Neanderthals<br />

had a language. ‘The problem is that language is a complex aggregate of different elements and that it does not fossilise. My<br />

gut feeling is that the Neanderthals probably did have a form of language since language is a very efficient medium for building<br />

up knowledge.’<br />

01<br />

06<br />

Marika Keblusek Director of Scaliger Institute<br />

Prof. Marika Keblusek takes up post as Director of the Scaliger Institute. Keblusek<br />

(1965) was professor extraordinary in the History of Publishing and The Book<br />

Trade at the University of Amsterdam. At the same time, at the History of Art<br />

department she was involved in research into collections, including the Leiden<br />

University collections, and in particular those of the University Library.

10<br />

06<br />

Biologists discover fossilised orchid,<br />

giant peccary and tree of heaven<br />

This year, Leiden researchers have been involved in the discovery of three new species: a million-year-old<br />

fossilised orchid, a giant land mammal from the Amazon area and a tree of heaven in Vietnam. Leiden biologists<br />

have also been awarded a subsidy worth � � million via the Smart Mix programme, a joint project of the<br />

Ministries of Economic Affairs and Education, Culture and Development, for the development of medicines<br />

to combat age-related diseases.<br />

‘Taxonomists often believe that journals such as Nature and Science are not interested in their work,’ says Dr Barbara<br />

Gravendeel, an evolutionary biologist and orchid specialist working at the Leiden location of the National Herbarium.<br />

With her research she has proved the taxonomists wrong. On �� August this year, Nature not only published an article by<br />

Gravendeel, et al, on the oldest find of a fossilised orchid, the journal immediately made it the cover story. The photo on<br />

the front cover included a bee of an extinct species Proplebeia dominicana, which was encapsulated in amber dating back ��<br />

to �� million years. On its back the insect has a fragment of pollen of a fossilised and also extinct species of orchid, named<br />

by the authors Meliorchis caribea. The bee was the pollinator of the orchid.<br />

Evolutionary biology is concerned with the study of the evolution of species. This can be done by comparing the genetic<br />

material or the morphological characteristics of living and fossilised organisms. Besides establishing specific origins, evolutionary<br />

biologists research the general mechanisms by which biological evolution takes place. It is an interdisciplinary<br />

field. Zoologists and botanists are interested in the evolution of a specific species; paleontologists and geologists study fossil<br />

species in order to answer questions about the speed and nature of evolution, and geneticists unravel the molecular basis of<br />

changes in external characteristics over time.<br />

The success of Gravendeel’s publication in Nature was preceded by a publication by Dr Hans Slabbekoorn and Ardie den<br />

Boer-Visser in the journal Current Biology. Slabbekoorn, a behavioural biologist, attracted world-wide interest in his<br />

research into the song of the great tit, which resulted in radio broadcasts in countries as far apart as England, Ireland, India<br />

and Canada. He discovered that great tits in the city change their repertoire under the influence of traffic noise and other<br />

urban disturbances. He analysed how these changes in song came about. Do the great tits raise the frequency of their songs?<br />

International students organise ‘Cultural Festival’<br />

International students present themselves and their countries with a Cultural Festival. In the garden of the Oude UB (formly the University Library)<br />

there are dozens of stalls that the students have set up displaying typical aspects of their country’s life. One dance group follows the other on<br />

a large podium (Chinese, Romanian Indonesian, Argentinian, Arabian), with as pièce de résistance a funky disco with some Dutch female students<br />

in national costume. The festival has been organised by the International Student Network Representation (ISN-r). If the event is successful –<br />

which from the number of enthusiastic visitors it obviously is – it will be repeated every year.<br />


��<br />

A bee of the Proplebeia dominicana genus encapsulated in amber, with a fragment of pollen on its back from the fossilised orchid Meliorchis caribea.<br />

12<br />

06<br />

Rotating professorship in applied arts<br />

For a period of 18 months, the History of Art department will have a rotating professorship in applied arts. Three renowned experts in this field will<br />

succeed one another as visiting professor: Dr Reinier Baarsen, Curator of Furniture at the Rijksmuseum, Dr Christian Witt-Dörring, independent art<br />

historian in Vienna and Curator of the Neue Galerie in New York (the museum for early 20 th century German and Austrian art) and Deon Viljoen, art<br />

dealer specialising in Cape furniture from the 18 th and 19 th century, and in 17 th , 18 th and 19 th centuries furniture and works of art from early European<br />

trading settlements in South-East Asia. The chair will be financed by TEFAF Maastricht, organising body of the international TEFAF art and antiques fair.

Dr Barbara Gravendeel Prof. Michael Richardson<br />

Do they drop the lowest notes, or select other songs? This last option appeared to be the case: the tits have two different<br />

sets of songs in their repertoire, one for the city and one for the forest.<br />

This year, researchers from the Leiden Centre for Environmental Sciences (CML) were involved in the genetic analysis of a<br />

new giant land mammal. This mammal was discovered by the Brazilian biologist Marc van Roosmalen in the area of the Rio<br />

Aripuanã in the south-east of the Amazon basin. The new species, the giant peccary (Pecari maximus), belongs to the genus<br />

of ‘pigs from the New World’ (Tayassuidae). Articles on this discovery were published by the researchers, including Dr Hans<br />

de Iongh and Dr Pim van Hooft, in the German journal Bonner Zoologische Beiträge on �� October.<br />

On �� December ����, Dr Hans Nooteboom of the National Herbarium of the Netherlands and Vietnamese PhD researcher<br />

Hoang Van Sam published an article in the Herbarium’s botanical journal Blumea, in which they described a new type of<br />

tree of heaven, termed by the scientists Ailanthus vietnamensis.<br />

The project ‘A new generation of efficient biomedical research tools’ led by developmental biologist Dr Michael Richardson,<br />

this year received � �� million from the Smart Mix fund. He and other biologists, chemists and pharmacologists from Leiden<br />

University will be working together with other scientific institutions and businesses to develop medicines to combat agerelated<br />

diseases of bones and joints. They will be using zebra fish as the prime model organism, both to discover illness<br />

factors and to test new medicines. Richardson: ‘Zebra fish are ideal candidates to use as a model for the disease. Zebra fish<br />

are a fraction of the cost of mice or rats, they are easy to keep and can also be genetically manipulated.’<br />

Richardson also supported one of the two Leiden nominations for the ���� Academic Year Prize, an initiative of the NRC<br />

Handelsblad, NWO (Netherlands Organisation for Scientific Research) and KNAW (Royal Netherlands Academy of Arts and<br />

Sciences) aimed at popularising science and research. Biology student, Freek Vonk, is co-author of a high-profile article in<br />

Nature about reptile toxin. Vonk, who is frequently referred to as the new Steve Irwin, wants to produce a documentary to<br />

communicate the results of this publication to a broad public.<br />

15<br />

06<br />

First university open-air pop festival FrisPop<br />

The University Sports Centre is the venue for the open-air pop festival FrisPop for<br />

students of Leiden University and the Hogeschool Leiden. In addition to several<br />

bands and DJ ErickE, student associations also provide musical presentations. SLS<br />

Wonen, the student housing corporation, which celebrates its 50 years’ existence,<br />

is the principal sponsor. The festival will become an anual event.<br />


��<br />

In Bach’s oeuvre, the construction and<br />

the emotion are in perfect balance<br />

It took Prof. Ton Koopman ten years to record all the Bach cantatas on CD with the Amsterdam Baroque<br />

Orchestra and Choir. The conclusion of the project in ���� preceded the three hundredth anniversary of the<br />

death of Bach’s teacher, Diederich Buxtehude (���������). This was, in Koopman’s view, a good opportunity to<br />

perform and record all this composer’s collected works.<br />

Since then, ten CD’s of Buxtehude’s works have appeared, prompted by the anniversary of his death, although this was<br />

not the only reason. Koopman’s real motivation in recording Buxtehude’s music was that he was convinced that qualifying<br />

Buxtehude as the predecessor of Bach meant that he was not given the recognition he deserved. ‘Buxtehude’s music is in all<br />

respects unique, literally one-off, and of the highest quality,’ according to Koopman.<br />

Koopman is Professor of Historical Performance Practice at the Leiden Faculty of Creative and Performing Arts. He is<br />

conducting research into how the composer wanted his music to sound. Koopman’s prime concern is the authenticity of<br />

the performance of a musical opus. ‘The music should sound as the composer intended it to sound. And it should reflect the<br />

time in which he lived, with the instruments which were available at that time. A composer composes for the people whom<br />

he knows. If Mozart was composing an opera, he would go into the town to listen and talk to the singers who would perform<br />

his work, to get a feel for what they were like. Only then would he compose for them. Bach, too, who for much of his<br />

life was affiliated to the Thomaskirche in Leipzig, knew the people for whom he wrote his music. And he was also familiar<br />

with their musical instruments.’<br />

Just as for the Bach recordings, the historically informed recording of Buxtehude also requires academic research to be<br />

able to reconstruct how his music sounded in its own time. Koopman is assisted in this research by students and fellow<br />

musicologists. The students study musical tracts from the time of Buxtehude to examine what they contain in the way of<br />

useful information. There are some ��� such tracts remaining, in Latin, German, Italian, French, English and Dutch. In his<br />

research, Koopman makes maximum use of the individual linguistic knowledge of his students. ‘The students were sometimes<br />

less satisfied with what they found than I was. Their findings are often very valuable, although they do not always see<br />

that themselves.’<br />

19<br />

06<br />

Fenestra Disability Centre in Plexus<br />

The Disability Centre that is to be housed in Plexus is to bear the name Fenestra.<br />

This was announced during the start of the Impuls Digitaal Project, a project<br />

through which students with a handicap (physical or mental) and a member of staff<br />

can together come up with ICT solutions for educational problems that confronting<br />

the student.

In this painting by Johannes Voorhout (circa ����), the figure beside the woman with the lute is thought to be Buxtehude.<br />

26<br />

06<br />

Campus The Hague trains civil servants<br />

Campus The Hague has once more secured the assignment to provide the intro-<br />

duction programme for Rijkstrainees (civil service trainees). More than 150 young<br />

graduates will follow this programme whilst continuing their work as policy officers<br />

or staff officers at a ministry. The Campus has been providing this educational<br />

programme since 2001.<br />


��<br />

Prof. Ton Koopman<br />

What is in Koopman’s opinion the most significant difference between Bach and Buxtehude? Koopman: ‘Bach is for me<br />

without doubt number one. He is absolutely the top. Bach is a superior architect; he can construct and is also able to convey<br />

emotion. Other composers have a different balance of these skills. Bach fits within a particular musical tradition and is its<br />

greatest exponent, but Buxtehude is one of the people who created this tradition. Bach was very impressed by Buxtehude.<br />

He had intended to spend four weeks in Lübeck to take part in a performance of Buxtehude’s music and was so captivated<br />

by it that he stayed much longer. Bach copied Buxtehude’s music by hand. Not so long ago a fragment of music was discovered<br />

in Weimar by the �� year-old Bach who had copied a complicated work by Buxtehude. This gave us an important additional<br />

source of a poorly surviving opus.’<br />

‘Something similar once happened with Monteverdi,’ Koopman recounts. ‘Nikolaus Harnoncourt transcribed some of his<br />

almost forgotten music. And with the music of Marc-Antoine Charpentier, who after years of silence was again brought<br />

to public light by William Christie. Great but forgotten composers from the past simply need unconditional support to<br />

achieve a revival.’<br />

The Buxtehude Year in ���� concluded in November with a Buxtehude Festival in The Hague and in Leiden. An academic<br />

symposium was held at the Royal Conservatory in The Hague, led by Prof. Christoph Wolff (Harvard University) and<br />

Ton Koopman. Wolff is recognised as the world’s leading authority in the field of Bach and his predecessors. Koopman is<br />

unparalleled in his experience with the practical performance of the music of Bach and his predecessors and in his knowledge<br />

of historical performance practice in general. Koopman and other Dutch academics have achieved an outstanding<br />

reputation internationally in this field. The finale of the festival and of the Buxtehude commemorative year took place<br />

in the Hooglandse Church in Leiden on �� November, with a performance by the Amsterdam Baroque Orchestra and<br />

Choir directed by Koopman. Seldom have art and science together reached such a pinnacle of performance as during this<br />

Buxtehude Festival.<br />

17<br />

07<br />

New Visitors’ Centre on Stationsweg<br />

Benthem Crouwel Architekten BV in Amsterdam has designed the new Visitors’<br />

Centre Leiden (VCL). The University Visitors’ Centre that is currently located in the<br />

Central Station will be amalgamated in this VCL. Some 20 partners will participate<br />

in the new VCL, including the City Council, museums, theatres and the hotel and<br />

catering trades.

11<br />

08<br />

Dying, comatose and<br />

forgotten languages<br />

Leiden linguists are at the very forefront of their field in describing languages which may be on the verge of<br />

dying out. Their aim is to preserve such languages for science, although this is small comfort for those whose<br />

language has already been lost. Time is pressing because there are a large number of languages under threat of<br />

extinction. In addition, linguists are often involved in trying to breathe new life into disappearing languages.<br />

Of the �,��� languages which are spoken throughout the world, more than two-thirds have not been described; this represents<br />

a corpus with an enormous potential. The prognoses are that �� to ��% of these �,��� languages will disappear in the<br />

course of this century. Both for the speakers and for scientists, this represents a disaster of enormous proportions. With each<br />

language that dies out, our knowledge of the phenomenon of language, and above all our ability to think in different ways,<br />

diminishes. The group which will be most affected includes precisely those small to medium-sized languages which have not<br />

yet been described. This leads Leiden linguists to the conclusion that research into these languages is of the utmost importance.<br />

A good example of an area with a very complicated language map is the former Portuguese colony of East Timor. In the<br />

past, East Timor was inhabited by two streams of migrants. For a long time it was thought that Papua peoples from New<br />

Guinea represented the oldest stream, but recent research by Dr Aone van Engelenhoven into Makuva, a forgotten language,<br />

has cast doubts on this theory. He believes that the Austronesian population group, originating from Taiwan, was there<br />

first. He discovered by chance that although Makuva may well no longer be a living language, it is far from extinct: ‘It is a<br />

language in coma. Archaeologists claim that the Austronesians forced the Papua-speakers out. This would be the reason that<br />

there are only four Papua languages left in East Timor. It all seems plausible, because on a particular mountain in East Timor<br />

one Papua language has been completely hemmed in by Austronesian. On the other hand, Makuva is an Austronesian language<br />

which has been dropped by its speakers in favour of the Papua language Fataluku.’<br />

Van Engelenhoven is descended on his mother’s side from a clan of story-tellers from the island of Leti, which lies close to<br />

East Timor. As a result of this particular bond with the country, he applied for and was given official permission to learn the<br />

language. He was welcomed on Leti as the prodigal son, and was instructed in the skills of his tribe: the telling of folk tales.<br />

Dutch Open Youth Chess Championship Finale<br />

The final of the Dutch Open Youth Chess<br />

Championship, between two Leiden students,<br />

ends in a draw. Physics student Bas van<br />

Opheusden is champion, with Bram van der<br />

Velden, classics student, in second place.<br />

13<br />

08<br />

Leiden University goes halal<br />

With effect from today, the main University<br />

restau rants will serve halal products. The halal<br />

snacks have been introduced because of an<br />

increasing demand from students for meat<br />

products that are suitable for Muslims.<br />


��<br />

14<br />

08<br />

Dr Aone van Engelenhoven Student Fleur Wensveen<br />

This skill came in useful in his research on East Timor where his tribe originally came from, according to the stories. Many<br />

Austronesian cultures are permeated with taboos. Even the word taboo itself is Austronesian. ‘Some of the taboos have the<br />

effect of hampering the research,’ says Van Engelenhoven. ‘As a researcher you don’t automatically get to hear what is or may<br />

be interesting; instead you have to ask the right questions. That can be difficult if you don’t actually know what you should<br />

be asking about.’<br />

Fleur Wensveen, bachelor’s student in the department of Languages and Cultures of Africa, developed a number of<br />

teaching materials for the Yaaku tribe in Kenya. The language of the Yaaku has almost completely disappeared. The Yaaku<br />

project is part of one of the Leiden applications for the ���� Academic Year Prize, an initiative of the NRC Handelsblad,<br />

NWO and the KNAW to popularise scientific research. The plan behind the application was to bring linguistic and cultural<br />

research in general and the issue of disappearing languages in particular to the attention of a broad public. The<br />

team’s aim was to set up a mobile exhibition and to develop an educational programme. The present plan is to achieve<br />

this aim with the help of other funds.<br />

Leiden has a long tradition of research into ‘unusual’, so-called minor languages. If you want to learn about and study indigenous<br />

languages from areas further east than the Middle East, further south than the Sahara and further west than Ireland,<br />

you need to be in Leiden.<br />

But other non-Western languages are also well represented. Rif Berber is the most commonly spoken Moroccan language<br />

in the Netherlands, with a quarter of a million native speakers. It is one of the three Berber languages of Morocco, and is<br />

characterised by broad differences in dialect. These differences have this year for the first time been mapped – literally - in a<br />

language atlas by Dr Mena Lafkioui. Lafkioui conducted fieldwork in ��� villages among �� tribes in the Mountainous Rif<br />

area of northern Morocco, the area of Morocco which has been least studied by linguists. Berber languages are spoken from<br />

North Africa (Morocco, Algeria, Libya and Egypt) to Burkino Faso. They belong to the family of Afro-Asiatic languages.<br />

The most widely spoken Berber language is the South Moroccan Tashelhiyt, which is spoken by some �� million people.<br />

Adelaar receives honorary doctorate<br />

Prof. Willem Adelaar receives an honorary<br />

doctorate from the San Marcos University in<br />

Lima, Peru. Adelaar is a specialist in native<br />

American languages and cultures, and in<br />

particular those of the Andes.<br />

01<br />

09<br />

First Dorrestein, then Grünberg<br />

During this academic year, Renate Dorrestein is Leiden University’s guest writer.<br />

Her programme includes giving a course in literary writing, carrying out research<br />

with students into the value of reading, and taking part in two public interviews.<br />

She is to give the Albert Verwey Lecture in November. Arnon Grünberg will succeed<br />

her in 2008.

A rock painting depicting the kind of boat which brought the Austronesians to East Timor.<br />

01<br />

09<br />

Rietje van Dam Vice-Rector Magnificus<br />

Prof. Rietje van Dam has been appointed as the new Vice-Rector Magnificus of Leiden University. She succeeds Prof. Ton van Haaften. Prior to<br />

this, Van Dam was Professor of Biochemistry and Biotechnology at the Dutch Open University. In her position on the Executive Board she will be<br />

responsible for the Education and Human Resource Management portfolios. At the Open University, where she was Rector, she participated in<br />

various international projects in the areas of education and educational development. She is a member of the Supervisory Board of Akzo Nederland<br />

BV and Unilever Nederland. During the five-year period 1998 to 2003, she was a member of the Scientific Council for Government Policy.<br />


��<br />

01<br />

09<br />

Prof. Harry Stroomer<br />

Dr Asghar Seyed-Gohrab<br />

Prof. Harry Stroomer, the man responsible for making Leiden into a centre for Berber studies, has been working on a<br />

dictionary of Tashelhiyt since ����. There are major differences between the Berber languages: Rif Berber is as different from<br />

Tashelhiyt as French is from Spanish, for example. ‘This atlas of Rif Berber for the first time demonstrates how complicated<br />

the language situation is in the north of Morocco,’ says Stroomer. ‘In the south, there is not so much variation, but the further<br />

north you go, the greater the variation becomes.’ Stroomer has been awarded a subsidy to develop a Dutch-Rif Berber<br />

dictionary. This is particularly relevant in the Netherlands because of the large number of Rif Berber speakers.<br />

There is more news about Leiden dictionaries. Three Iran specialists, Dr Asghar Seyed-Gohrab, Dr Gabrielle van den Berg<br />

and Drs Marjolijn van Zutphen, have produced a Persian-Dutch dictionary. ‘There are some ��,��� Iranians and ��,���<br />

Afghans living in the Netherlands who are also Persian speakers. This dictionary is primarily intended for them,’ explains<br />

Seyed-Gohrab. Persian is an Indo-European language and is therefore closer to Dutch than Arabic. But as a result of the long<br />

cultural bond with the Arab world, Persian is written in Arabic script. Four letters have been added to this script to represent<br />

sounds which are not present in Arabic. Persian has been studied in Leiden for a long time. The first Persian dictionary was<br />

made as early as ����, by Franciscus Raphelengius, who was intrigued by the similarities with Dutch: at that time, Persian<br />

was still thought to be a Semitic language. Scaliger completed Raphelengius’ dictionary in ����. This dictionary played a role<br />

in the discovery of Indo European. It was only at the end of the eighteenth century that the existence of this language family<br />

was systematically proven, under the influence of the study of Sanskrit.<br />

The Arts Faculty is home to a large number of specialist departments which are all exceptional in their field, and where toplevel<br />

research is carried out. Leiden linguists play a prominent role in international debates. The Spinoza prize has twice been<br />

awarded to linguists from Leiden in recognition of the excellence of their research.<br />

Sjoerd Verduyn Lunel new Sience Dean<br />

Prof. Sjoerd Verduyn Lunel becomes the new<br />

Dean of the Faculty Science. Mathematician<br />

Verduyn Lunel has worked in Leiden as a<br />

professor for the last eight years. He succeeds<br />

Prof. Frans Saris.<br />

01<br />

09<br />

Tim de Zeeuw Director-General of ESO<br />

Astronomer Tim de Zeeuw takes up his duties as Director-General of the European<br />

Organisation for Astronomical Research in the Southern Hemisphere, (ESO). He<br />

is the second Leiden professor of Astronomy to occupy this position; Harry van<br />

der Laan preceded him (1988-1992). Earlier this year, De Zeeuw was awarded an<br />

honorary doctorate by the prestigious University of Chicago.

03<br />

09<br />

Repair it if you can<br />

Within the human body, numerous cells are constantly engaged in repair and replenishment activities. Every<br />

minute, bone marrow alone produces ��� million red and ��� million white blood cells. Medical specialists are<br />

increasingly taking advantage of the natural characteristics of cells to repair the function of damaged tissue, or<br />

to replace tissue and organs.<br />

Research into regenerative medicine is currently experiencing such momentum and involves so many different areas of<br />

specialisation that the LUMC has set up a theme group to conduct further research in this field. This group is made up of<br />

experts from a number of different clinical and fundamental specialisations, including surgery, cardio-vascular diseases,<br />

orthopaedics, endocrinology, nephrology, immunohaematology, gastro-intestinal diseases, gene therapy and molecular cell<br />

biology. ‘There are two possible routes for regenerative medicine,’ explains haematologist Prof. Wim Fibbe. Fibbe, a specialist<br />

in stem cell therapy, is the head of this group. ‘The technique, known as ‘tissue engineering’, uses a combination of cells and<br />

carriers, called scaffolds, that form a framework for the cells to attach to and develop. This technique can only be carried out<br />

in collaboration with technical universities. The current programme in the LUMC focuses on cellular therapy, in particular<br />

on stem cells.’<br />

The best known source of stem cells is the bone marrow. In ����, the world’s first bone marrow transplant was carried out<br />

in Leiden. Forty years later, bone marrow cells are used in the LUMC in a variety of experimental treatments of serious tissue<br />

damage. A research project typically starts with a pilot study, and if this proves to have potential, it is followed by a randomised<br />

trial using a placebo. Such a trial was conducted with patients who had serious circulatory problems, and who were<br />

no longer suitable candidates for a by-pass operation. These patients had their own bone marrow injected into the heart.<br />

The randomised study produced some good results, and it is now in its final phase.<br />

In addition to haematopoietic (blood forming) stem cells, the bone marrow also contains ‘mesenchymal stem cells’, which are<br />

able to differentiate into other tissue lineages, including bone and cartilage. What is so special is that these cells are also able to<br />

modulate immune responses. In the LUMC, mesenchymal stem cell therapy is already being applied to prevent rejection following<br />

stem cell transplantation in children. The hope is that this will also help in auto-immune diseases, such as Crohn’s disease.<br />

Winsemius’ choice is for an ‘attacking’ university<br />

Guest speaker at the opening of the academic year is alumnus Dr Pieter Winsemius. Speaking about choosing talent: ‘Top talent thrives in an<br />

environment that encourages the belief that even after ten falls the eleventh attempt succeeds. Top talent is prepared to be foolhardy, to follow<br />

a course that the wise would not choose. And this happens mainly when the great masters are prepared to lead the way. The person who chooses<br />

talent has the courage to be hard on those who should function as a source of inspiration, and on students who do not perform. Choosing means<br />

especially not doing certain things. Whoever chooses talent, chooses an ‘attacking’ university.’<br />


��<br />

Isolation of the islets of Langerhans. In November, for the first time in the Netherlands, these islets were transplanted into a diabetes patient at the LUMC.<br />

03<br />

09<br />

Medal for oarsman Jaap Schouten<br />

Law student Jaap Schouten wins bronze in the<br />

lightweight men’s single sculler at the World<br />

Rowing Championships in Munich. He is now in<br />

training for the 2008 Olympic Games in Peking.<br />

03<br />

09<br />

Robin Straaijer wins Young Scholars Award<br />

Drs. Robin Straaijer, PhD candidate in the VICI<br />

project The Codifiers and the English Language<br />

wins the Young Scholars Award for his lecture<br />

Towards a quantification of prescriptivism at<br />

the Third Late Modern English Conference.

18<br />

09<br />

Prof. Wim Fibbe<br />

Dr Eelco de Koning<br />

In November, the LUMC announced that for the first time in the Netherlands islets of Langerhans had been transplanted<br />

into a diabetes patient. These islets are the insulin ‘factories’ in the pancreas. In patients who are suffering from type � diabe-<br />

tes, the immune system destroys these islets. The LUMC is the only hospital in the Netherlands which is permitted to isolate<br />

the islets of Langerhans from the pancreas for transplantation. Conditions are very strict; the islets of Langerhans may only<br />

be isolated in special sterile environments.<br />

Transplantation of these islets is a significant new treatment option for a selected group of Dutch patients with type � diabe-<br />

tes and complications, but it is not the end of the story, says endocrinologist Dr Eelco de Koning. It is a step on the way to<br />

more advanced forms of cell therapy. Here, too, mesenchymal stem cells may offer a solution, by suppressing the immune<br />

system, but also by providing blood cells for the transplanted islets, or even by making insulin-producing cells. Gene therapy<br />

specialists from the LUMC are working on this last option. But the more specialised stem cells from the pancreas itself also<br />

offer perspectives. De Koning: ‘We put them into a culture, and see that they make a kind of islet and produce insulin.’<br />

These types of cells come from donors, but immunologist Dr Bart Roep now wants to take crucial cells from the immune<br />

system of the patients themselves, cultivate them in a special environment in the lab and then reintroduce them into the<br />

patient. The idea is that they will restore the immune balance so that the patient starts producing insulin again. Just before<br />

Christmas, Dr Roep was awarded a Vici subsidy to carry out this research.<br />

Until recently, it took five to ten years for fundamental research to be translated into clinical treatment. This process is now<br />

accelerated. As a consequence, clinical trials are based on relatively little preclinical data. Take, for example, the use of bone<br />

marrow cells in cardiac repair. Fibbe: ‘While some of the trials suggested beneficial effects of cellular therapy, other stud-<br />

ies showed none. Subsequent clinical studies require more detailed knowledge of the underlying mechanisms. In a process<br />

called reversed translation, we go back to animal experiments to identify mechanisms that will then be retranslated into new<br />

clinical trials. Clinical practice is ahead of our understanding of the underlying concept, and we try to obtain a beneficial<br />

outcome, irrespective of the underlying mechanisms. �� years ago, stem cell transplantation became a clinical reality without<br />

detailed knowledge of haematopoietic stem cells. The same process is happening today.’<br />

ICLON starts LAPP-Top for Teachers<br />

Teaching methodologists at the ICLON are collaborating with the University’s faculties in developing the LAPP-Top for Teachers programme.<br />

With this programme they are responding to the call for extra opportunities for top teachers. As of January, a group of first-rate VWO<br />

(pre-university) teachers will follow a course of tutorials, acquaint themselves with new and trend-setting research, and will work together on<br />

a publication. In this way ICLON intends to make teaching more challenging and thus more attractive for those who are still unsure about<br />

embarking on a teaching career.<br />


��<br />

Child abuse finally taken seriously<br />

The little girl from Nulde, the girl known as the ‘Maasmeisje’, toddler Savanna: Child abuse has become a<br />

‘hot item’ in recent years. Problems of paedophilia and child pornography are hitting the news with increasing<br />

frequency. Every year, the number of children who are abused is much higher than had previously been<br />

assumed. But not all children suffer long-term psychological damage as a result. These are the findings of two<br />

research projects carried out by the Departments of Child and Education Studies and Psychology.<br />

Prof. Rien van IJzendoorn of the Centre for Child and Family Studies, carried out a national research project on behalf of<br />

the Ministry of Justice and the Ministry of Health, Welfare and Sport into the extent and nature of abuse of children and<br />

young people up to �� years of age. The objective was to gain insight into the true extent of the problem. The report generated<br />

by this research, the National Prevalence Study of Abuse of Children and Young People, is the first Dutch study into the<br />

prevalence of child abuse. The report was presented to Minister Rouvoet of Youth and Family Affairs on �� April and was<br />

submitted the same day to the Lower House, together with appropriate policy recommendations. In the research report, the<br />

number of children who are abused is estimated to be ���,��� annually, a figure which is much higher than had previously<br />

been assumed.<br />

Dr Bernet Elzinga, researcher in clinical, neurological and health psychology at the Leiden Institute of Brain and Cognition<br />

(LIBC) is involved in the issue of child abuse from a very different perspective. She received a Vidi subsidy this year for her<br />

research into the long-term consequences of child abuse. Not all children who have suffered emotional, physical and/or<br />

sexual abuse later develop psychological problems, such as depression or alcohol addiction. Elzinga suspects that genetic vulnerability<br />

plays a role here. ‘Some people are by nature vulnerable, while others are more resilient.’ Elzinga’s research focused<br />

on a neuropsychological model based on animal research. This model assumes that abuse can influence the structure and<br />

function of particular areas of the brain, particularly if the brain is still in a developmental stage. Based on a so-called diathesis<br />

stress model, these effects are expected to occur particularly in those persons who are (genetically) sensitised. She<br />

will use brain scans to compare the brains of patients who have a history of abuse and who have developed a psychological<br />

disorder, with the brains of people who have suffered similar abuse, but have not suffered any psychological problems. She<br />

will also investigate whether there are any differences between people with particular genetic profiles. If this research demon-<br />

18<br />

09<br />

Gerard Unger presents the Leiden letter<br />

Prof. Gerard Unger, Professor of Typographical Design, presents the Leiden letter,<br />

which he was commissioned to design exclusively for Leiden University by the<br />

Academic Historical Museum. The letter is to be used in the design of four historical<br />

texts that are to be immortalised at various locations and in various different<br />

materials in the Academy Building.

Savanna was abused, neglected and – at the age of three – murdered.<br />

28<br />

09<br />

Piet Schrijvers wins OIKOS public prize<br />

The public prize of the OIKOS, the National Graduate School in Classical Studies, is<br />

awarded to Piet Schrijvers, Emeritus Professor of Latin Language and Literature.<br />

Schrijvers is active as a translator and essayist. The prize was established to<br />

honour scholars who in an outstanding manner bring the Classics to the attention<br />

of a broad public.<br />


��<br />

28<br />

09<br />

Prof. Rien van IJzendoorn Dr Bernet Elzinga<br />

strates that genetic sensitivity indeed plays a role, this will hopefully offer some new insights into the treatment of depression<br />

and other disorders resulting from child abuse. Genetic sensitivity is not a life sentence, nor is it a disaster scenario for which<br />

there is no treatment. ‘No single victim of child abuse, whether genetically sensitised or not, is automatically doomed to suffer<br />

anxiety and depression for the rest of his or her life.’<br />

The Department of Child and Education Studies, of which Van IJzendoorn’s Child and Family Studies research group is<br />

part, has an excellent reputation. The department even achieved first place in the Guide to Higher Education ����, based<br />

on student assessments.<br />

In the opinion of Van IJzendoorn, child abuse has for too long not been taken seriously enough, which has severely<br />

hampered child protection. He hopes that last April’s research will result in the surveys being repeated so that it can be<br />

established whether government policies, a change in the composition of society or a change in the attitude of parents,<br />

for example, has any influence on the number of cases of child abuse. In the US, the national government has for decades<br />

financed the National Incidence Studies, which served as the model for the Leiden research.<br />

In other areas, too, child protection is being taken increasingly seriously: in October ����, for example, a majority of<br />

members of the Lower House indicated that they wanted internet providers to be forced to block websites dealing in child<br />

pornography. In the same month, Minister Hirsch Ballin reached agreement with his European colleagues that it would in<br />

future become a criminal act not only to be in possession of child pornography, but also to view child pornography.<br />

Van IJzendoorn’s opinion is clear: ‘There are occasions when the rights of the child outweigh the rights of adults. It is high<br />

time that mistakes made in the past were put right; child abuse should be taken seriously, in the scientific world, in policies<br />

and in practice.’<br />

Exhibition ‘Hidden Women’<br />

Opening in the Museum Ons’ Lieve Heer op Solder in Amsterdam is the exhibition Verborgen Vrouwen (Hidden Women) about the until now hidden<br />

role of independent religious women in the Middle Ages and the Golden Age. The exhibition has been organised by the Warnar team, under the<br />

leadership of Literary Historian Geert Warnar; in June 2006 the team achieved second place the 2006 Academic Year Prize final. Despite missing<br />

the first prize of € 100,000, the team managed to acquire funding of almost double that amount, which was sufficient to finance the exhibition, a<br />

documentary, a special event, concerts, debates, a book and a website.

Physics for real life<br />

The specially conditioned test chamber of physicist Dirk Bouwmeester and the realistic pre-industrial setup<br />

of physicist Joost Frenken appear to be two different worlds. But they share one common characteristic which<br />

applies to the whole of physics research in Leiden: the desire to link the most difficult fundamental research to<br />

real life. Whether this is car catalysators or cancer cells, minuscule mirrors or nano-scale data storage systems.<br />

The ‘coldest place on earth’, as Leiden was referred to in ���� when the legendary Kamerlingh Onnes liquefied Helium-�,<br />

will become even colder if quantum physicist Dirk Bouwmeester has his way. Bouwmeester, celebrated and lauded for his<br />

challenging experiments, was tempted back to Leiden in February ���� to take up the position of Professor of Quantum<br />

Optics and Quantum Physics. He combines this position with his professorship at the University of California in Santa<br />

Barbara. What Bouwmeester wants is to demonstrate quantum behaviour in macroscopic, and therefore tangible, objects. In<br />

his experiments he uses a minuscule mirror linked to an equally minuscule leaf spring. This behaviour has so far only been<br />

demonstrated in separate atoms or molecules or clouds of such atoms or molecules. Quantum behaviour can only be studied<br />

at extremely low temperatures. Bouwmeester therefore devised a new method of cooling the mirror to a temperature of<br />

�.��� Kelvin (-��� degrees Celsius), by making use of the power which light can emit if it is reflected on an object. In Leiden<br />

he will combine optical cooling with more conventional cooling methods; in this way he hopes to be able to lower the temperature<br />

to one-millionth Kelvin. The absolute zero point is by definition established at � Kelvin (-���,�� degrees C.) and is<br />

unattainable.<br />

Whereas Bouwmeester pushes laboratory conditions to the extreme with his ultra-cold temperatures and vibration-free<br />

islands, surface physicist Joost Frenken works as far as possible under real-life conditions. Frenken, who develops microscopes<br />

with which he can scan a surface at atomic level, was this year awarded the prestigious Jacob Kistemaker Prize by the<br />

Foundation for Fundamental Research into Materials (FOM). He is scientific leader of the project on Nano Imaging under<br />

Industrial Conditions (NIMIC). Together with colleagues from Delft, his research group will be developing new microscopes<br />

which can make the movements of atoms visible in a real life environment: in factories, to research catalysis processes,<br />

or in hospitals, within cancer research. In March, NIMIC received a SmartMix subsidy from the Ministries of Economic<br />

Affairs and Education, Culture and Science, intended to stimulate economic, societal and cultural innovation. Dr Marcelo<br />

Ackermann gave a foretaste of the possibilities in November when he obtained his PhD with distinction based on his dis-<br />

02<br />

10<br />

Pieter Isaacsz, forgotten artist rediscovered<br />

In Frederiksborg Castle near Copenhagen there is an exhibition of works by the<br />

Dutch-Danish painter Pieter Isaacsz (1568-1625). Art historian Dr Juliette Roding<br />

discovered the forgotten artist in the late 1980s whilst carrying out research for<br />

her dissertation. Isaacsz had long been overlooked because of his dual nationality.<br />

This is the first time that so many of his works have been exhibited together.<br />


��<br />

Sheared foam in an experiment by Martin van Hecke.<br />

15<br />

10<br />

Wim van den Doel Interim Dean at Faculty of Arts<br />

Prof. Wim van den Doel has been appointed Interim Dean of the Faculty of Arts.<br />

Van den Doel has been Professor of General History in Leiden since 2003. His first<br />

task will be to give shape to the restructuring of the faculty, among other things by<br />

funding a graduate school. Van den Doel succeeds Prof. Geert Booij.

17<br />

10<br />

Prof. Dirk Bouwmeester<br />

Prof. Joost Frenken<br />

sertation on heterogeneous catalysis. He was the first person to be able to research the catalysis process of a car catalysator<br />

at a realistic temperature and pressure rather than under the usual icy laboratory conditions. He discovered that this process<br />

works very differently from how chemists had thought, including Nobel Prize winner for chemistry in ����, Gerhard<br />

Ertl. Chemists always regarded a thin oxide layer on the catalysator as disadvantageous for the process of catalysis. However,<br />

Ackerman discovered how such a layer comes about, and shows that it actually ensures that the catalysator functions properly.<br />

Now it can be determined precisely what atomic structure causes a catalysator to work well or poorly.<br />

Dr Tjerk Oosterkamp also works with scanning probe microscopes. He uses this method to study biological material which<br />

he images at nanoscale. In ����, together with LUMC oncologist Prof. Susanne Osanto, he received a subsidy from KWF, the<br />

Dutch Cancer Society, to research the relationship between cancer and thrombosis. In December ����, he was announced<br />

as one of the winners of the first series of research subsidies awarded by the European Research Council. The ERC, founded<br />

in February, is a new initiative of the European Union, intended as a significant step in the direction of a European Research<br />

Area. With his ERC grant of � �.� million, Oosterkamp intends to research the characteristics of a cell not on, but under the<br />

surface. His aim is to penetrate to the cell nucleus, and to produce three-dimensional images of the structure. To achieve<br />

this, he will be developing two new techniques for his scanning microscope; his aim is to refine and combine echography<br />

and nuclear magnetic resonance, techniques which are daily practice within a hospital environment, to achieve atomic resolution.<br />

Biophysicist Dr Irena Ivanovska is also working on the building blocks of real life. She received a Veni subsidy for<br />

research into the physical aspects of stem cell differentiation.<br />

There is nothing more common than shaving foam, mayonnaise or grains of rice. But the behaviour of these substances is<br />

still shrouded in mystery. Dr Martin van Hecke is researching how these materials flow, become smooth or form lumps. He<br />

is combining this with research into the microscopic organisation of disordered materials. He, too, brings together the minor<br />

and the major. In November he received a major subsidy from the Foundation for Fundamental Research on Matter to collaborate<br />

with a national consortium in this new field. Prof. Wim van Saarloos is investigating the theoretical dimensions of<br />

the research. Last November, Van Saarloos was appointed a fellow of the American Physical Society (APS). This is a great<br />

honour as only a half of one per cent of the members of the APS are offered a fellowship.<br />

Israeli Minister Isaac Herzog lectures on Zionism<br />

The Israeli Minister of the Diaspora Isaac Herzog gives the lecture Zionism in<br />

Practice in the Faculty of Religious Studies. This lecture is the first of the series of<br />

evening lectures on Zionism organised by the Center for Information and Documentation<br />

Israel and Leiden University. This lecture covers the different movements<br />

within Zionism and the international reactions to them.<br />


��<br />

17<br />

10<br />

Prof. Jan Zaanen Prof. Carlo Beenakker<br />

Electrical current, preferably with as little resistance as possible, is traditionally a field in which fundamental and applied<br />

research, and theoretical and experimental research come together, although there is sometimes a gap of years between being<br />

right and being accepted as such. Theoretician and Spinoza winner Prof. Jan Zaanen is studying the collective quantum<br />

behaviour of electrons, for example, and is endeavouring to find an answer to a twenty-year-old puzzle: how can superconductivity<br />

exist at high temperatures? In ����, Zaanen predicted a kind of highway in high temperature superconductors<br />

along which electrons could move without meeting any resistance. He named these highways stripes. For two decades a true<br />

scientific war has been waged on the subject, but in March of this year an article appeared in the journal Science reporting<br />

that scientists from Cornel had demonstrated the indisputable existence of these stripes using scanning miscroscopy.<br />

The very newest fascination of physics, graphene which can be made with a pencil and some Scotch tape, apparently has<br />

very special electronic characteristics. Graphene is a layer of graphite, the thickness of a single atom. Prof. Carlo Beenakker,<br />

theoretician and also Spinoza winner, demonstrated in Nature Physics in February that the material may well have applications<br />

in semi- or superconductivity in microelectronics.<br />

Whereas the nano-industry uses trial and error to make devices ever smaller and more reliable, fundamental scientists often<br />

contribute to a bottom-up approach: first understand how something works in a single molecule, and then develop it further.<br />

Prof. Jan van Ruitenbeek and his research group demonstrated that it is possible to attach a reliable electronic contact<br />

to the very smallest molecule, hydrogen. Starting this year, he has been heading a major new FOM programme for atomic<br />

and molecular nanophysics. And PhD researcher Sander Otte, together with a research team from IBM, devised a method<br />

for determining the magnetic stability of an individual atom. In August he published an article on the subject in Science.<br />

His findings pave the way for the development of data storage systems at nanoscale, which – for the time being,<br />

theoretically – can store ��,��� times as much data as the present-day hard discs.<br />

Glistening gold on the Academy Building tower<br />

An enormous mobile crane moves up the Rapenburg. It swings into action to lift the clock faces up to the tower of the Academy Building, where<br />

they are returned to their accustomed position. The clock faces had been badly weathered, but are now restored to their former glory, with the figures<br />

and hands having been re-gilded with gold leaf. The use of gold leaf was essential, as gold paint cannot withstand the rigours of the weather.<br />

But there is more gold to be seen on the tower: the weathervane in the form of Minerva (goddess of wisdom and war, complete with spear in<br />

hand), instrument-maker Samuel van Musschenbroek’s wind direction indicator and the crown have also been treated to a new layer of gold leaf.

20<br />

10<br />

The rebirth of the Law Faculty<br />

You may think you work in a dynamic research environment. You may even consider that yours is among the<br />

best studies in the country, but it is more important that the outside world endorses this opinion. At the Law<br />

Faculty this is the case, as the visitation reports by external experts demonstrate. After a rather painful reorganisation,<br />

the rebirth of the Law Faculty is now complete.<br />

The visitation committee awarded an average of �.� on a scale of � to the legal research carried out at the E.M. Meijers<br />

Institute. The Institute has five research programmes:<br />

� ������� ����������<br />

� ��� ������ �� ������ �����������<br />

� �������� ��� ���� �� ��� �� � ����� �� ���������� ������������<br />

� ������ �������� ��� ��� ���� �� ���<br />

� �������� ������ ������<br />

In the view of the committee, a particular strength of the Faculty is that current societal issues are core to all five programmes.<br />

The breadth of the expertise present in the Faculty is a further noteworthy feature, which makes it possible<br />

for complex research questions to be studied from different perspectives and disciplines. This breadth of research also<br />

enhances the quality of the Faculty’s teaching.<br />

The Faculty’s teaching of law and criminology was also given a positive assessment in ����, including the English-language<br />

programmes, the so-called Advanced LL.M. programmes. These have now been accredited.<br />

To those within the Faculty, the fact that the visitation generated only good scores for the law programmes came as no surprise.<br />

Surveys among students had already indicated a growing appreciation of the teaching of law in Leiden. ‘We owe it to our<br />

reputation to continue to be among the top law studies in the Netherlands,’ says Dean of the Law Faculty, Prof. Carel Stolker.<br />

The Faculty enjoyed a significant boost in ���� when, after extensive renovations, the Kamerlingh Onnes Building was ready<br />

for occupation. Since then, the whole Faculty has been located in one building, whereas previously, the law specialists had<br />

been spread across ten different buildings throughout Leiden. Stolker is pleased to have the whole faculty under one roof:<br />

Art History department 100 years old<br />

The Art History department celebrates its<br />

100-year anniversary. In 1907, Prof. Willem<br />

Martin was appointed professor by special<br />

appointment in Art History, and this event<br />

marks the actual birth of the department.<br />

20<br />

10<br />

Former students establish prize<br />

A group of former students from 1957 who had<br />

also been members of the Leidsch Studenten<br />

Corps (Leiden student fraternity) has raised<br />

€ 30,000 for a fund to finance an annual prize<br />

for the best thesis.<br />


��<br />

Prof. Carel Stolker<br />

‘It may seem less important in these times of e-mail and internet, but that is not the case. Faculty members now see one<br />

another almost every day and there is ample opportunity to broach any issues that may need to be discussed. There’s no network<br />

connection in the world which can match that kind of contact.’<br />

A new feature of the Law Faculty is the extra-curricular Talent Programme for enthusiastic and ambitious master’s students<br />

who are particularly interested in research. In this programme, worth �� study points, students learn research skills alongside<br />

their regular master’s of �� study points. There is no need for them to choose between a particular specialisation and a<br />

research master’s; they can do both at the same time. Then they can start writing their thesis.<br />

A further innovation is the introduction of an intensive mentoring scheme, the so-called Leiden Law Practices. Groups<br />

of some �� first-year students are each assigned a professor or senior lecturer as tutor and a more senior student as student<br />

tutor. This type of small-scale and personal approach is designed to counter the massiveness of the popular law programmes,<br />

and the programme in Criminology. Subjects which are addressed during the intensive coaching sessions include,<br />

for example, how to make effective use of the library, the practice of pleading, and exchanging study experiences, both with<br />

fellow students and also with the student tutor, and academic research. The professor or senior lecturer also fulfils the role of<br />

tutor: he or she is available to help students with questions and problems.<br />

As Stolker explains, ‘The aim of the tutor scheme is to reduce the large numbers of students who drop out or who are forced<br />

to stop their studies because of the Binding Study Recommendation – in the first year some thirty per cent. I find it very<br />

hard to believe that all these students are really not suited to studying law! Of course, there are some students who may<br />

have chosen the wrong study. But for others, the problem is that they start studying too late, they are led astray by the many<br />

opportunities for re-sits, or they do too many other things beside their studies. This is the group we want to get a grip on.<br />

So, we make an agreement with the students: we are prepared to invest in you with a mentoring scheme, and in return you<br />

have to invest in your studies. The students have agreed to treat all the first-year tutorials as compulsory, and have committed<br />

to attend them under penalty of not being allowed to take the examination at the end if they skip the tutorials.’<br />

A third feature is the continuing internationalisation of legal research. The Meijers Institute is committed to becoming a meeting<br />

point for foreign scientists. An inspiring example has been set by the Lorentz Centre, the international scientific meeting<br />

point of the Faculty of Science. Throughout the year, the Lorentz Centre is visited by a constant stream of international scientists<br />

attending the many seminars organised by the Faculty or conducting research there over a period of several months.<br />

21<br />

10<br />

Making your own hair gel<br />

During the Science Day, some 150 students and staff of the Faculty of Science do<br />

their utmost to inspire the visitors – and particularly the 1200 or so children – with<br />

enthusiasm for science. One of the most popular activities is the so-called PretLab<br />

(fun lab), where children can carry out experiments such as, for example, making<br />

hair gel.

The library at the heart of the Law Faculty building.<br />

29<br />

10<br />

Rie Schild receives University Medal<br />

Maria Helena Adriana Schild, better known as Rie, is 84 years old. She celebrates her 60th anniversary as unorthodox housekeeper of ‘t Heerenhoeckje,<br />

Rapenburg 110, a male students’ house. In those 60 years she has been like a mother to more than 100 of ‘her boys’. Rie Schild taught<br />

them to be responsible for their own individual duties, such as ensuring an adequate supply of beer or taking care of the household’s finances.<br />

She even tried to cure their bad habits, such as cheekiness, for example. In the presence of some of ‘her boys’, Rector Paul van der Heijden presents<br />

her with the University Medal for her merits.<br />


��<br />

It’s not the pill but health that matters<br />

in Pharmacology<br />

A paradigm shift is currently taking place in drug research, and Leiden scientists are in the front line. The prob-<br />

lem was that the method of one medication for one target protein was far from delivering the desired growth<br />

in medicines, even after the deciphering of the human genome. The solution: change to a systems approach.<br />

The argument behind this is that man is not the sum of his cells, but an integrated network structure. Prof. Meindert<br />

Danhof, pharmacologist and scientific director of the Leiden arm of the Leiden Amsterdam Center for Drug Research<br />

(LACDR), is a firm advocate of this systems approach to pharmacology. ‘You are always on the lookout for materials which<br />

have no effect in healthy people, but which intervene in the process of a disease. You have to understand the disrupted pathways<br />

in the body, and then develop appropriate medicines to deal with them.’ New research areas are making this reversal<br />

possible: genomics for the genes, proteomics for the proteins, and metabolomics for the metabolites, the products of the<br />

metabolic processes in the cell. Consider, for example, an advanced set of instruments to research an enormous number of<br />

molecules, cells and cell particles simultaneously, and computer programmes to analyse all the data, and behold the new<br />

research environment.<br />

It hardly needs to be said that this research is interdisciplinary. Research into sickness and health and into medicines are<br />

two sides of the same coin within the systems approach. Within Leiden University this means close co-operation between<br />

the Faculties of Science (W&N) and Medicine/LUMC. Danhof: ‘The research carried out at the Faculty of Science focuses<br />

primarily on the pre-clinical track. Building a bridge to the Faculty of Medicine/LUMC completes the circle. We want to<br />

extend this co-operation.’ It also means close co-operation with industry. On this subject, he is very brief and to the point:<br />

‘The significance of a product to society is what determines its value. As a pharmacologist, you have to make sure that your<br />

findings reach the market, and particularly at the present moment, companies are ready to leap at fundamental research.<br />

Every month I discuss our portfolio with LURIS.’ LURIS is Leiden University’s technology transfer office.<br />

And then comes co-operation at national level. The trend is towards top institutes and public-private consortia. The reason<br />

for this is that it is crucial to bundle expertise and to work in a uniform way, and because the Netherlands has to compete as<br />

a knowledge country. Here, too, Leiden plays a significant role.<br />

05<br />

11<br />

Leiden jurists to monitor human rights<br />

A team of jurists from Leiden under the leadership of Prof. Rick Lawson has<br />

won a long-term contract from the EU Agency for Fundamental Rights in Vienna.<br />

The team’s task is to report periodically on developments in the area of human<br />

rights in the Netherlands. The Agency for Fundamental Rights was established<br />

at the beginning of 2007.

Prof. Meindert Danhof Prof. Thomas Hankemeier<br />

In ����, it was announced that the new TI Pharma top institute would be located in the Leiden Bio Science Park. TI<br />

Pharma is a partnership of �� academic institutes and �� (bio)pharmaceutical companies, which have together received a<br />

pot of money from the government worth � ��� million. Danhof regards the choice in favour of Leiden as an enormous<br />

opportunity and an important recognition of the prominent place played by the University in the world of international<br />

pharmacological research. In line with the new systems concept, TI chose five areas of disease as the starting point. These<br />

are the five priority diseases established in ���� by the WHO: cardio-vascular diseases, auto-immune diseases, cancer,<br />

infectious diseases and conditions of the nervous system. Danhof: ‘In Leiden, as a result of the co-operation between the<br />

University and the LUMC, we have a great deal of expertise in this field in-house. So Leiden can make a significant contribution<br />

to this research.’<br />

In addition, this year, under the flag of the Netherlands Genomics Initiative, two new major public-private partnerships<br />

have been launched, each of which has been given five years and � �� million to prove itself. Leiden is the coordinator of<br />

the first of these, and the LUMC and Leiden University play an important role in the second.<br />

It was the idea of Prof. Thomas Hankemeier, Professor of Analytical Biosciences at the LACDR, to set up a national consortium<br />

of research institutes and companies to further develop and exploit the new field of metabolomics. His success<br />

became apparent in the autumn of ���� with the formation of the new Netherlands Metabolomics Centre (NMC), over<br />

which he himself holds sway. The key question is: what causes the onset of diseases? In the complex network structure<br />

which constitutes the human body, all processes within a cell, between cells, between organisms, etc., are inter-related.<br />

In a healthy person, the system is in balance, but what causes the system to lose that balance at a certain instance, to<br />

lose the ability to stay within the healthy state? One of the keys is the measurement and identification of all the different<br />

metabolites, of which each cell contains hundreds, and body fluids many more, and the identification of the correlation<br />

and networks of metabolites helping to understand the onset and progression of a disease. The NMC will be developing<br />

suitable tools for this. The aim is to measure the whole metabolome and to find biomarkers for disruptions, so that it will<br />

be possible to enable the early diagnosis of multifactorial conditions predicting the risk, progression and efficiency of<br />

intervention options of diseases such as diabetes and neuro-degenerative diseases.<br />

26<br />

11<br />

Cleveringa Lecture by Arthur Kleinman<br />

Cleveringa chair holder Prof. Arthur Kleinman delivers his Cleveringa Lecture:<br />

Today’s Biomedicine and Caregiving: Are they Incompatible to the Point of Divorce?<br />

Kleinman is a psychiatrist and medical anthropologist and is known worldwide in<br />

the field of intercultural psychiatry and global mental health. He lectures on global<br />

health in an Honours Class at the Faculty of Medicine/LUMC.<br />


��<br />

A paradigm shift is taking place in drugs research.<br />

27<br />

11<br />

Turkish Institute opened<br />

The Turkish Institute has been opened in The Hague. One of the initiators is Prof. Erik-Jan Zürcher, Professor of Turkish Languages and Cultures at<br />

Leiden University. The Institute’s aim is to improve knowledge in the Netherlands about Turkey, this knowledge having been acquired in a scientific<br />

manner. The reason behind the establishment of the Institute is the tidal wave of questions that has overwhelmed Leiden University’s Department<br />

of Languages and Cultures of the Middle East. Zürcher believes that this is demonstrative of the demand for information about Turkey. He emphasises<br />

that the Institute is not an organ to promote Turkey’s joining the EU. The principal source of finance for the Institute is the business world.

27<br />

11<br />

Prof. Bob van de Water Prof. Leon Mullenders<br />

The second new centre is the Netherlands Toxicogenomics Centre (NTC). Leiden champions are Prof. Bob van de Water of<br />

the LACDR and Prof. Leon Mullenders of the LUMC. The first is Professor of Drug Safety Sciences, the second Professor<br />

of Toxicogenetics. The NTC will be developing new techniques which will allow the safety of chemical substances not only<br />

to be determined, but also predicted. There are several reasons why this is necessary. First of all, too little information is still<br />

available, although the deciphering of the human genome has made a difference. Van de Water: ‘We can already see changes<br />

in gene expression after exposure to a chemical substance, which may predict toxicity. But we also want to know what this<br />

means for the cell, and to have a better understanding of the routes which lead to damage. From gene to protein, from protein<br />

to cell, and from the cell to the communication between cells in tissues and organs.’ This is possible now by applying the<br />

whole new arsenal of ‘-omics’ and analytical capabilities in – once again – a systems approach.<br />

The second impetus is that the EU legislation on substances and the use of laboratory animals is becoming stricter. The use<br />

of laboratory animals for testing cosmetics is expected to be banned in the near future, for example. Existing techniques are<br />

almost completely dependent on animal experiments: the systems approach primarily applies to in vitro and computerised<br />

trials. The emphasis in Leiden is on cancer-inducing substances, substances which affect the liver and kidneys, and on the<br />

dangers for embryos and progeny.<br />

Big is beautiful, but small research groups with spin-offs remain essential. Take, for instance, the co-operation between the<br />

research group of Dr Bert de Boer and Dr Pieter Gaillard’s to-BBB company. They have devised a method of enabling medicines<br />

to pass through the blood-brain barrier, by using a carrier protein. In April, the group, together with researchers from<br />

the Amsterdam Academic Medical Centre AMC, received � ���,��� from the STW foundation to use this transport system<br />

in the development of a new medicine to combat HIV.<br />

But there is one bottleneck: people. Danhof: ‘No matter how much money you have, you still need knowledge workers. I get<br />

telephone calls every day from headhunters. TI-Pharma is looking for ��� post-docs and ��� PhD researchers. Everything<br />

stands or falls with well-trained researchers, so we have to start early. Our way of approaching this is by involving high<br />

school pupils in research through the Leiden Lapp-Top project. They get to experience for themselves that research offers an<br />

exciting prospect for the future.’<br />

Science doctorate in 1937 – for a woman<br />

Sixty years ago, in 1937, she gained her PhD at Leiden in palaeontology: Dr Mien Minis-van de Geijn, now 97 years old. In those days it was a<br />

rare occurrence for a woman to obtain a doctorate in a science subject. But studying was the norm in the Van de Geijn family, even for girls.<br />

However, study was taken as a serious matter. ‘You didn’t fall in love, that was for later.’ Other things go unchanged: Minis-van de Geijn lived in a<br />

female students’ house in the Pieterskerkchoorsteeg and had a part-time job. She was later to become director of the Natural History Museum<br />

in Maastricht.<br />


��<br />

03<br />

12<br />

China is booming<br />

China is a potential growth market for Europe. There is now an increasing demand from society for knowledge<br />

about this once impenetrable country. And not only for knowledge about China, but about the whole East Asia<br />

region; as well as the People’s Republic of China, there is also Taiwan, Japan and North and South Korea.<br />

The ���� Olympic Games will be held in China, a development which has not been without its contentions. ‘Those who<br />

are against it consider that the Chinese should first get human rights in their country in order,’ says Professor of Chinese<br />

Language and Literature, Maghiel van Crevel. ‘The supporters, including Chinese human rights activists, believe that the<br />

high level of interest from foreign quarters will be an impetus to create more openness. For China, the Games are in any<br />

event important because the country has felt insulted and ignored as a major civilisation since the nineteenth century. In<br />

addition, since the nineties, human rights in China have become increasingly open for discussion.’ Van Crevel endorses the<br />

view that growing interaction with the international community may well improve the situation, and that it would not have<br />

been constructive to deny China the opportunity to organise the Games.<br />

The call for knowledge about East Asia is reflected in the numbers of students within the Japanese and Chinese departments,<br />

which have witnessed enormous growth. The department of Japanese had already witnessed a major increase in the eighties<br />

when the Japanese economy was flourishing. After the economic bubble burst, interest in the country declined. That growth<br />

in student numbers is now being repeated in the department of Chinese Studies.<br />

Leiden University was in ���� the first university in the Western world to appoint a professor of Chinese and Japanese.<br />

Traditionally, the study of East Asia has been strongly philologically oriented: the country’s culture is studied through knowledge<br />

of the local languages. Language acquisition is therefore also an important element of the studies of Chinese, Japanese<br />

and Korean. In addition to the traditional interest in language, literature, culture, religion and history, in recent decades there<br />

has also been a call for knowledge about East Asia in other fields, such as politics, sociology, economy, international relations<br />

and law. This interest relates to modern East Asia and its interaction with the rest of the world.<br />

Leiden University has striven to focus the study of modern East Asia on recognised ages-old traditions and is therefore<br />

excellently equipped to respond to the requirement for knowledge about this region. The institute which was specifi-<br />

Civil Law in Mandarin Chinese<br />

The Dutch Civil Code has been translated into Mandarin Chinese. Professors Jaap Hijma, Henk Snijders and Hans Nieuwenhuis, inter alia, have<br />

written articles about studies they have made of the background and practice of the most important elements of civil law. These articles have been<br />

translated into Mandarin Chinese and published in Dutch Experience and Re-Codification of Civil Law, a book for jurists in China. Since February<br />

2006 there has been collaboration between the Center for International Legal Cooperation, Leiden University’s Law Faculty and the China University<br />

of Political Science and Law.

The eye-catching Bird’s Nest, symbol of the Olympic Games in China. Prof. Maghiel van Crevel: ‘It would not be constructive to stop China hosting the Games.’<br />

04<br />

12<br />

Florian Holsboer to be awarded Leiden honorary doctorate<br />

Prof. Florian Holsboer, Director of the Max Planck Institute of Psychiatry in Munich,<br />

is to be awarded an honorary doctorate during the celebration of the 433 rd Dies<br />

Natalis on 8 February 2008. This is in honour of his valuable services to biological<br />

psychiatry. Leiden Academy Professor Ron de Kloet will act as honorary supervisor.<br />


��<br />

12<br />

12<br />

Prof. Maghiel van Crevel<br />

cally set up to address this area is the Modern East Asia Research Centre (MEARC). The institute is based on a joint Vici<br />

project of the professors of Modern China and Modern Japan.<br />

Many universities have a single scientist within the faculty of social studies or humanities who specialises in East Asia; conversely,<br />

scientists within a department for East Asian studies specialise in one particular area within the humanities or social<br />

sciences. These academics often work in isolation and there is no structure in place for them to work together. As a result,<br />

knowledge becomes fragmented and any co-operation is more by chance than by design. This is not the case in Leiden.<br />

The MEARC is an international centre where excellent scientists from all corners of the world come together to carry out<br />

research, to debate the findings of their research and to disseminate the conclusions among a broad public audience. In<br />

other words, regional experts are not only involved in their own geographic area and experts in a particular field are not<br />

exclusively concerned with that field. As a result, the knowledge generated by all these scientists is cross-border – both literally<br />

and figuratively - and as such is of use to other interested parties.<br />

The MEARC conducts its research based on the concept that mutual relations in the East Asia region are very strong. East<br />

Asian societies cannot therefore be studied in isolation, and comparative research is needed. Similarly, equivalent principles<br />

are applied to the study of the relations between East Asia and other regions, such as Europe.<br />

At the present time, the institute’s researchers are primarily concerned with the history, politics and philosophy of East Asia.<br />

Economy, international relations, sociology and law are also increasingly being studied. This year, for example, a partnership<br />

has been formed with the Van Vollenhoven Institute of the Faculty of Law.<br />

A Chair in Modern Chinese Economy was installed at Leiden University last year, sponsored by Philips. The first holder<br />

of the Chair, Prof. Gong Gang, worked on establishing an Economics Department within the library of the Sinological<br />

Institute. This year, the Philips Chair will be held by Prof. Chu-Chia Steve Lin, who is a professor in the Department of<br />

Economics at the National Chengchi University in Taipei, Taiwan. His programme will include public addresses and lectures.<br />

Student fraternity charts Leiden’s religions<br />

Today the Kosmikos fraternity of the Faculty of Religious Studies presents a book on Leiden’s religions. In celebration of their fifth anniversary,<br />

the members of Kosmikos investigated which religions are practised in Leiden and which ideologies are adhered to. They counted some 35 communities,<br />

varying from Zen to Catholicism and from Baha’i to Islam. The students – participants in the World Religions programme – made in-depth<br />

studies of ten communities: they unravelled the history, attended a service and interviewed members. They also included Sufism in their research<br />

– with a temple in Katwijk – and the Levensstroom in Leiderdorp.

Art historical research combined<br />

with scientific techniques<br />

Leiden art historian Prof. Reindert Falkenburg, together with specialists from the Delft University of<br />

Technology, is currently developing methods whereby centuries old drawings may relinquish more of<br />

their secrets.<br />

On � December, the rectors of Leiden University and the TU Delft signed a covenant: both universities will invest � ���,���<br />

in the CAAS (the Center for Archaeology, Art History and Science). These funds will be geared towards research projects<br />

which have the potential of generating research grants from other sources as well. The development and application of<br />

new methods of art historical and technological research of the Dutch late medieval and early modern drawings from the<br />

Kupferstichkabinett in Dresden is such a project.<br />

The Kupferstichkabinett contains one of the largest and most important collections of drawings and prints in the world.<br />

Among these are some ��� Dutch drawings from the fifteenth, sixteenth and early seventeenth centuries. In the time of<br />

the DDR, this collection was not open for scholars to probe new and advanced methods of research. Now, the collection<br />

of Dutch drawings is among the first to be explored in these ways. Central issues in the current project are problems of<br />

attribution and purpose of individual drawings. Another important question is whether the group of drawings studied here<br />

already formed a coherent body of material before they became part of the collections of the Kupferstichkabinett, and, in<br />

the sixteenth and early seventeenth centuries, served as study and practice material for artists who were trained in a (south<br />

German) workshop that had strong ties with the Netherlands.<br />

In order to investigate these questions, much emphasis is being put on the study of material aspects of the drawings,<br />

including the type of paper that was used.<br />

Paper, in those days, was made by placing paper pulp in a sieve, allowing the excess fluid to drain away and then removing<br />

the dried paper from the sieve. Such a paper sieve was a square wooden framework with a narrow grid of horizontally<br />

stretched copper strands. To make the grid stronger, copper wires were added spaced at about �� millimetres from each<br />

other. Since these wires were not placed absolutely parallel to each other, they have left a unique pattern of chain lines in<br />

13<br />

12<br />

CML and University of Oxford embark on collaboration<br />

Tineke Huizinga-Heringa, Secretary of State for Transport, Public Works and Water Management, and<br />

Grace Padaca, Governor of the Province of Isabela (The Philippines) together deliver the First Louwes<br />

Lecture. This lecture marks the beginning of a long-lasting research programme in the area of water<br />

and food in developing countries, in which the Leiden Institute of Environmental Sciences and the<br />

University of Oxford, Great Britain, will work together.<br />


��<br />

A drawing depicting mythical monsters (circa ���� – ����) from the Kupferstichkabinett in Dresden, ascribed to Hieronymus Bosch.<br />

18<br />

12<br />

Ian Buruma to be Cleveringa Professor<br />

Erasmus Prize winner of 2008, Prof. Ian Buruma, will be the next Cleveringa Profesor and is due to deliver the Cleveringa Lecture in November.<br />

Buruma, of Anglo-Dutch origin, lives in New York, where he is the Henry R. Luce Professor of Democracy, Human Rights & Journalism at Bard<br />

College. He studied Chinese in Leiden and completed his studies at the Nihon University College of Arts in Tokyo, Japan. Initially, he worked as a<br />

documentary film-maker and photographer, after which he became a journalist and writer. This introduced Buruma to all manner of countries and<br />

cultures. He has become a world citizen and opinion leader in the field of human rights and migration.

27<br />

12<br />

Prof. Reindert Falkenburg<br />

the drying pulp, which can be detected and classified with the help of computer-based analyses. Thus, groups of drawings<br />

can be detected based on material analysis, rather than on stylistic (art historical) criteria alone.<br />

Another new method to investigate paper structures is related to the backlighting of drawings. Traditionally, X-ray techniques<br />

have been used to detect such structures; in this project, Delft specialists experiment with a whole variety of light<br />

sources. The aim of these experiments is to develop relatively inexpensive pieces of equipment that can be used in museums<br />

as a valid alternative to X-ray techniques. In addition, efforts are being made to explore new uses of nanotechnology.<br />

The idea is to direct laser impulses which cause acoustic vibrations onto the surface of the paper. These vibrations can be<br />

recorded by a microphone in an airtight space and can be represented in graphic form. Using this method, it will be possible<br />

to determine in minute detail the material composition of the paper and thus to create a more scientific benchmark for<br />

further art historical research.<br />

This collaborative research is now in the process of being extended to the collections of Leiden University itself. With the<br />

help of the curator of prints and drawings in the University Library, Jef Schaeps, MA, a selection has been made of Dutch<br />

sixteenth-century drawings that are comparable to those in the Dresden Kupferstichkabinett and offer the same kind of challenge<br />

to innovative interdisciplinary research.<br />

This is just one example of a happy marriage between studies in the arts and the sciences, which has become feasible<br />

through the creation of this new Centre of Art and Archaeological Sciences. CAAS currently finances some eight different<br />

projects; in the future it hopes to establish itself as a major forum for research collaboratives in these fields in the Universities<br />

of Leiden, Delft, and beyond.<br />

Promising medicine for Duchenne Muscular Dystrophy<br />

The research group led by Prof. Gertjan van Ommen (Human and Clinical Genetics), in collaboration with the Leiden biotech company Prosensa,<br />

has developed a promising RNA medicine to remedy the fatal disease Duchenne Muscular Dystrophy (DMD). DMD occurs in one in 3,500 newborn<br />

boys. Through the loss of muscle strength as the result of a lack of the protein dystrophin, most of the patients end up in a wheelchair by the age<br />

of twelve, and die in young adulthood. Van Ommen et al. have now developed an injectable medicine that restores the production of dystrophin in<br />

what is anticipated to be a significant quantity. The most important benefit is that this appears to be a viable cure for this disease.<br />



NWO laureates in 2007<br />

All thirteen Dutch universities compete for the prizes of NWO (the<br />

Netherlands Organisation for Scientific Research), which awards government<br />

subsidies.<br />

Spinoza Prize<br />

On 28 November, Prof. Wil Roebroeks, Professor of Palaeolithic<br />

Archaeology, was presented with the Spinoza Prize by Minister Ronald<br />

Plasterk. Three other Dutch academics were also similarly honoured.<br />

The Spinoza Prize is the highest scientific prize awarded in the<br />

Netherlands: since 1995 the Netherlands Organisation for Scientific<br />

Research (NWO) has honoured 48 professors with the prize, 11 of<br />

whom were from Leiden University. Each winner receives a sum of<br />

P 1.5 million, sufficient to fund five years’ research of their choice.<br />

Vici grants<br />

On 18 December, the Netherlands Organisation for Scientific Research<br />

(NWO) awarded Vici grants to 3 Leiden researchers: Prof. Corinne<br />

Hofman (Caribbean Archaeology), Prof. Judith Pollmann (History) and<br />

Dr Bart Roep (Immunohaematology and Blood Transfusion, Medicine/<br />

LUMC). In 2007, 30 Vici proposals were honoured. The three Vici winners<br />

bring the number of Leiden grants to 16 out of a total of 168 Vici<br />

grants.<br />

Vici grants are intended for excellent, highly experienced researchers<br />

who have successfully developed an innovative line of research and who<br />

are among the top researchers in their particular field. They also have a<br />

proven record in coaching young researchers. Successful applicants are<br />

awarded grants to a maximum of P 1,250,000 to enable them to build up<br />

their own research group over a period of five years.<br />

Vidi grants<br />

On 10 July the Netherlands Organisation for Scientific Research (NWO)<br />

awarded Vidi grants to 8 Leiden researchers. These were:<br />

• Dr Haico van Attikum (Medicine/LUMC – Toxicogenetics)<br />

• Dr Eveline Crone (Developmental Psychology and Leiden Institute for<br />

Brain and Cognition/LIBC)<br />

• Dr Bernet Elzinga (Clinical and Health Psychology and Leiden Institute<br />

for Brain and Cognition/LIBC)<br />

• Dr Carolien Rieffe (Developmental Psychology)<br />

• Dr Karin Roelofs (Clinical and Health Psychology, Neuropsychology<br />

and Leiden Institute for Brain and Cognition/LIBC)<br />

• Dr Serge Rombouts (Leiden Institute for Brain and Cognition/LIBC,<br />

Medicine/LUMC - Radiology, and Psychology)<br />

• Dr Edward Valstar (Medicine/LUMC - Orthopaedics)<br />

• Dr Alex Yanson (Leiden Institute for Chemistry/LIC - Catalysis)<br />

The Vidi grant is intended for researchers who, having gained their<br />

doctorate, have carried out research at postdoc level for a number of<br />

years. In doing so, they have generated innovative ideas and carried these<br />

through independently to successful development. The researchers are<br />

among the top 10 to 20 per cent of researchers in their particular field.<br />

The grant provides them with the opportunity to develop their own<br />

innovative line of research and to appoint one or more researchers. Each<br />

of them receives a maximum of P 600,000 for new research. This year,<br />

NWO has awarded 83 Vidi grants, 8 of which were to Leiden researchers.<br />

They bring the number of Leiden Vidi grants to 52 out of a total of 479<br />

awarded.<br />

Veni grants<br />

On 3 April, the Netherlands Organisation for Scientific Research (NWO)<br />

awarded 9 Veni grants and on 18 December a further 11 Veni grants to<br />

the following Leiden researchers:<br />

• Dr Bertus Beaumont (Evolutionary Biology & Molecular Microbiology)<br />

• Dr Ilze Bot (Biopharmacy)<br />

• Dr Bert Botma (Linguistics - English)<br />

• Dr Remco Breuker (Korean Language and Culture)<br />

• Dr Elisa Costantini (Astronomy)<br />

• Dr Bleda Düring (Archaeology)<br />

• Dr Kyra Gelderman (Medicine/LUMC - Nephrology)<br />

• Dr Jelle Goeman (Medicine/LUMC - Medical Statistics)<br />

• Dr James Hardwick (Medicine/LUMC - Gastroenterology)<br />

• Dr Larissa van den Herik (International Public Law)<br />

• Dr Irena Ivanovska (Physics)<br />

• Dr Geert Janssen (History)<br />

• Dr Simone Joosten (Medicine/LUMC – Infectious Diseases)<br />

• Dr Alwin Kloekhorst (Comparative Indo-European Linguistics)<br />

• Dr Peter Putman (Clinical, Health and Neuropsychology)<br />

• Dr Marlies Reinders (Medicine/LUMC - Nephrology)<br />


62<br />

• Dr Jante Salverda (Biophysics)<br />

• Dr Louis de Smet (Interface Physics)<br />

• Dr Mattie Tops (Child and Family Studies and Data Theory)<br />

• Dr Leendert Trouw (Medicine/LUMC - Rheumatology)<br />

The researchers receive a maximum of P 208,000 in order to develop<br />

ideas and carry out research for a period of three years. The successful<br />

candidates were selected on the grounds of their notable and original<br />

talent for carrying out innovative scientific research. This year, 180<br />

young scientists, among whom 20 were from Leiden, were awarded<br />

Veni grants. The number of Leiden Veni grants is 79 out of a total<br />

of 747 awarded.<br />

Toptalent<br />

This year, these four researchers from Leiden University and Medicine/<br />

LUMC were awarded a so-called Toptalentsubsidie (top talent grant]) by<br />

the Netherlands Organisation for Scientific Research (NWO) in order to<br />

assist them in gaining their PhD:<br />

• Lucien van Beek (Indo-European Linguistics)<br />

• Ann-Marie Madigan (Leiden Observatory)<br />

• Carolien Stolte (Languages and Cultures of India)<br />

• Aartjan te Velthuis (Medicine/LUMC)<br />

The Toptalent programme was initiated in 2007 to provide talented<br />

final-year students and recent graduates with the freedom to choose the<br />

course of their doctoral research. They receive a maximum of P 180,000<br />

to carry out their research. NWO awarded 41 Toptalent grants.<br />

Mosaic grants<br />

On 4 September, Minister Ronald Plasterk symbolically presented<br />

Mosaic grants to 4 Leiden researchers:<br />

• E. Chabani (Developmental and Educational Psychology)<br />

• Amar Ghisaidoobe (Leiden Institute of Chemistry/LIC)<br />

• Daniil Umanski (Leiden Institute for Brain and Cognition/LIBC)<br />

• Kavita Ziemann (Political Science)<br />

The objective of the Mosaic programme is to promote the influx of ethnic<br />

minority researchers into Dutch universities. Graduates are awarded<br />

grants of P 180,000 to assist in the financing of their doctoral research.<br />

In 2007, some 22 talented ethnic minority graduates received this grant<br />

from the Netherlands Organisation for Scientific Research (NWO). The<br />

total number of Leiden graduates receiving the grant since its instigation<br />

in 2004 is 21 out of a total of 88.<br />

Rubicon grants<br />

On 10 April, the Netherlands Organisation for Scientific Research<br />

(NWO) awarded 33 Rubicon grants and on 21 December a further 29<br />

Rubicon grants to young researchers. Rubicon offers researchers who<br />

have completed their doctorates in the past year the chance to gain experience<br />

at a top research institution outside the Netherlands and researchers<br />

from abroad the opportunity to spend one year conducting research<br />

in the Netherlands. Dr Birgit Abels from Palau (Oceania) and Dr Sarah<br />

de Mul from the United Kingdom, will come to Leiden University to<br />

carry out research. The following seven Leiden researchers will study<br />

abroad for two years:<br />

• Dr Suzanne Bisschop (Max-Planck-Institut, Germany)<br />

• Dr Alex Geurds (University of Colorado, Germany)<br />

• Dr Johan den Hertog (Freie Universität Berlin, Germany)<br />

• Hermen Jan Hupkes, MSc (University of Surrey, GB)<br />

• Dr Petra Kok (Mayo Clinic College of Medicine, USA)<br />

• Esther Lips, MSc (Cancer Research Institute, GB)<br />

• Dr Marit Westerterp (Columbia University, USA)<br />

• Dr Wei Xu (Baylor Institute for Immunology Research, USA)

Students in 2007-2008<br />

In the 2007-2008 academic year, Leiden University welcomed 3,902 new<br />

first year students, an increase of 242 compared to the previous year.<br />

The total number of students is currently 17,616. The table below shows<br />

which bachelor’s programmes they chose. Pages 64-65 give an overview<br />

of master’s students and programmes. Graduates from all the faculties<br />

and international students are shown on page 66.<br />

Bachelor’s Programmes First Year Students 2007-2008<br />

Archaeology<br />

Archaeology 73<br />

Arts<br />

African Languages and Cultures 6<br />

Arabic, Persian and Turkish Languages and Cultures 44<br />

Art History 88<br />

Chinese Studies 117<br />

Classics 33<br />

Comparative Indo-European Linguistics 10<br />

Dutch Language and Culture 60<br />

Egyptian Language and Culture 7<br />

English Language and Culture 120<br />

French Language and Culture 42<br />

German Language and Culture 13<br />

Hebrew and Aramaic Languages and Cultures 5<br />

History 209<br />

Indian and Tibetan Studies 3<br />

Italian Language and Culture 25<br />

Japanese Studies 124<br />

Korean Studies 9<br />

Languages and Cultures of Indonesia 6<br />

Languages and Cultures of Mesopotamia and Anatolia 3<br />

Latin American Studies 53<br />

Linguistics 23<br />

Literary Studies 22<br />

Nederlandkunde/Dutch studies 24<br />

Russian Studies 12<br />

Slavic Language and Culture 8<br />

Law<br />

Criminology 113<br />

Law 678<br />

Notarial Law 36<br />

Tax Law 52<br />

Medicine/LUMC<br />

Biomedical Sciences 62<br />

Medicine 313<br />

Philosophy<br />

Philosophy 59<br />

Religious Studies<br />

Divinity 13<br />

Islamic Theology 18<br />

World Religions 22<br />

Science<br />

Astronomy 11<br />

Biology 74<br />

Bio-Pharmaceutical Sciences 89<br />

Computer Science 24<br />

<strong>Life</strong> Science and Technology 45<br />

Mathematics 37<br />

Molecular Science and Technology 50<br />

Physics 39<br />

Social and Behavioural Sciences<br />

Cultural Anthropology and Development Sociology 65<br />

Education and Child Studies 248<br />

Political Science 169<br />

Psychology 452<br />

Public Administration 94<br />

Total 3902<br />


64<br />

Master’s Programmes Students 2007-2008<br />

Archaeology<br />

Archaeology 58<br />

Archaeology (two-year master’s) 22<br />

Arts<br />

African Languages and Cultures 5<br />

African Linguistics 5<br />

African Studies (two-year master’s) 22<br />

Arabic, Persian and Turkish Languages and Cultures 11<br />

Art History 27<br />

Asian Studies (two-year master’s) 4<br />

Book and Digital Media Studies 22<br />

Chinese Studies 14<br />

Classics 4<br />

Comparative Indo-European Linguistics 1<br />

Dutch Language and Culture 36<br />

Egyptian Language and Culture 4<br />

English Language and Culture 46<br />

European Union Studies 25<br />

French Language and Culture 11<br />

German Language and Culture 2<br />

Hebrew and Aramaic Languages and Cultures 2<br />

History 99<br />

History: Societies and Institutions (two-year master’s) 20<br />

Indian American Studies 1<br />

Indian and Tibetan Studies 1<br />

Indonesian Studies 9<br />

Islamic Studies 19<br />

Italian Language and Culture 7<br />

Japanese Studies 8<br />

Korean Studies 0<br />

Languages and Cultures of Mesopotamia and Anatolia 1<br />

Latin American and Amerindian Studies (research) 12<br />

Latin American Studies 19<br />

Linguistics 9<br />

Linguistics: Structure and Variation (two-year master’s) 31<br />

Literary Studies 12<br />

Literature (two-year master’s) 12<br />

Middle Eastern Studies (two-year master’s) 11<br />

Nederlandkunde/Dutch Studies 15<br />

Russian Studies 3<br />

Slavic Languages and Cultures 5<br />

Western and Asian Art History (two-year master’s) 14<br />

Creative and Performing Arts<br />

Photographic Studies 26<br />

Law<br />

Criminology 51<br />

Law 507<br />

Notarial Law 36<br />

Tax Law 60<br />

Advanced Studies in Air and Space Law 28<br />

Advanced Studies in European Business Law 12<br />

Advanced Studies in International Tax Law 42<br />

Advanced Studies in Public International Law 19<br />

Medicine/LUMC<br />

Biomedical Sciences 88

Philosophy<br />

Philosophy 6<br />

Philosophy of a specific discipline 5<br />

Philosophy: Rationality (two-year master’s) 1<br />

Religious Studies<br />

Islamic Theology 5<br />

Religious Studies 9<br />

Religious Studies (two-year master’s) 2<br />

World Religions 8<br />

Science<br />

Astronomy 15<br />

Biology 117<br />

Bio-Pharmaceutical Sciences 37<br />

Chemistry 62<br />

Computer Science 26<br />

ICT in Business 66<br />

<strong>Life</strong> Science and Technology 9<br />

Mathematics 13<br />

Media Technology 68<br />

NanoScience 4<br />

Physics 21<br />

Social and Behavioural Sciences<br />

Behavioural Sciences 7<br />

Child and Educational Studies 1<br />

Cultural Anthropology and Development Sociology 27<br />

Education and Child Studies 279<br />

Educational Sciences: Normal and Deviant Patterns of Attachment<br />

and Self Regulated Learning (two-year master’s) 18<br />

International Relations and Diplomacy 45<br />

Political Science 116<br />

Political Science: Institutional Analysis (two-year master’s) 13<br />

Psychology 592<br />

Psychology: Decision Making and Action Control in<br />

Self-Regulation of Human Behaviour (two-year master’s) 36<br />

Public Administration 131<br />

Public Administration: Institutional Change and Reform<br />

(two-year master’s) 5<br />

Teacher Training Programmes 199<br />

Total 3,341<br />

Students per Faculty first year total<br />

Archaeology 73 423<br />

Arts 1,066 3,924<br />

Creative and Performing Arts n/a 26<br />

Law 879 4,021<br />

Medicine/LUMC 375 2,342<br />

Philosophy 59 163<br />

Religious Studies 53 199<br />

Science 369 1,619<br />

Social and Behavioural Sciences 1,028 4,700<br />

Teacher training programmes 199<br />

Total 3,902 17,616<br />


66<br />

International Students in Leiden (2006-2007, excl. PhD).<br />

Total: International 1,377 students Students in Leiden (2006-2007, excl. PhD).<br />

Total: 1,377 students<br />

Diplomas per Faculty 2006-2007 First year Bachelor’s students Doctoral students Master’s students Postgraduate<br />

Archaeology 66 47 11 30<br />

Arts<br />

Creative and Performing Arts<br />

Law<br />

Medicine/LUMC<br />

682<br />

n/a<br />

553<br />

332<br />

364<br />

n/a Master’s<br />

Programmes<br />

Master’s 535<br />

Programmes<br />

69<br />

217<br />

n/a<br />

543<br />

358<br />

543<br />

235<br />

409<br />

409<br />

173<br />

Bachelor’s Programmes<br />

3 Bachelor’s Programmes<br />

197<br />

27 223<br />

Philosophy 14 17 6 54 5 Study Abroad Programme<br />

Religious Studies 30 12 4 54 5 Study Abroad Programme 13<br />

Science<br />

Social and Behavioural Sciences<br />

Teacher training programmes<br />

217<br />

794<br />

144<br />

718<br />

81<br />

286<br />

371<br />

371<br />

111<br />

Exchange Programmes<br />

431<br />

Exchange Programmes<br />

93<br />

Total 2,688 1906 1198 982 329<br />

International Students in Leiden (2006-2007, excl. PhD).<br />

Total: 1,377 students<br />

Master’s<br />

Programmes<br />

543<br />

371<br />

409<br />

Bachelor’s Programmes<br />

Study Abroad Programme<br />

Origin of International Students in Leiden (2006-2007, excl. PhD).<br />

54<br />

Exchange Programmes<br />

Origin of International Students in Leiden (2006-2007, excl. PhD).<br />

Origin of International Students in Leiden (2006-2007, excl. PhD).<br />

Africa 55 54<br />

Russia & the former Soviet Union<br />

Middle East<br />

South and Central America<br />

41 28<br />

Africa 55 54<br />

Russia & the former Soviet Union<br />

Middle East<br />

South and Central America<br />

41 28<br />

North America<br />

North America<br />

Asia<br />

Asia<br />

207<br />

207<br />

248<br />

248<br />

744 Europe<br />

744 Europe

Personnel<br />

Leiden University has a staff of approximately 4,500 (3,202 full time equivalents - fte).<br />

Personnel per faculty in fte as of 1 January 2007*<br />

Academic staff PhD candidates Student assistants Non-academic staff Total<br />

Archaeology 30.0 13.8 2.0 15.7 61.4<br />

Theology 19.6 4.6 0.4 4.0 28.6<br />

Creative and Performing Arts 2.1 1.2 -- 3.8 7.2<br />

Arts 300.3 101.4 15.7 128.1 545.5<br />

Law 130.5 60.6 18.8 101.6 311.5<br />

Social Sciences 211.7 89.1 0.8 129.4 431.0<br />

Philosophy 12.6 5.0 0.5 2.4 20.5<br />

Science 331.3 259.0 3.2 344.9 938.5<br />

The Hague Campus 6.2 -- 0.9 18.5 25.7<br />

Institute of Environmental Sciences 19.9 5.0 0.3 9.5 34.7<br />

ICLON** 24.4 8.5 -- 44.3 77.2<br />

Others 11.2 9.1 -- 32,2 52.5<br />

Central Services*** 2.0 0,8 665.6 668.4<br />

Total 1,101.7 557.5**** 43.5 1,500.1 3,202.7<br />

* The Faculty of Medicine is not shown in this table because virtually all personnel are in the employ of the hospital, not the University.<br />

** Leiden University Graduate School of Teaching.<br />

*** Executive Board, Executive Board Support, University Library, Computerisation, Marketing, Communications, Student Affairs,<br />

Internationalisation, Catering Facilities, Graphic Service and Post Service, Parks and Planted Areas, Property, Security and Environment,<br />

and Research & Development services.<br />

**** The Faculty of Medicine/LUMC has 167.7 fte PhD students, in the employ of LUMC. The total comes to 725.2 fte. The University also has at least<br />

an equivalent number of PhD canidates who are not appointed as such, or not employed by the University (external PhD candidates).<br />

Female professors as % of total as at 1 January 2007<br />

1 Jan 2007 1 Jan 2005 1 Jan 2003<br />

Arts 18.6 18.5 21.2<br />

Law 12.03 8.3 8.7<br />

Social Sciences 32.3 29.4 17.6<br />

Science 4.3 5.9 4.3<br />

Average 14.5 *<br />

14.5 12.1<br />

* This is the highest percentage at a Dutch University.<br />


68<br />

Executive Board, Deans of Faculties as of 31 December 2007<br />

Executive Board<br />

• Prof. Paul van der Heijden<br />

Rector Magnificus and Chairman<br />

• Prof. Rietje van Dam-Mieras<br />

Vice-Rector Magnificus<br />

• Willem te Beest, MSc<br />

Vice-Chairman<br />

Deans of the Faculties<br />

• Faculty of Archaeology<br />

Prof. Willem Willems<br />

• Faculty of Arts<br />

Prof. Wim van den Doel<br />

• Faculty of Law<br />

Prof. Carel Stolker<br />

• Faculty of Medicine/LUMC<br />

Prof. Eduard Klasen<br />

• Faculty of Performing Arts<br />

Prof. Frans de Ruiter<br />

• Faculty of Philosophy<br />

Prof. Pauline Kleingeld<br />

(as of 1 January 2008 Prof. Bert Bos)<br />

• Faculty of Religious Studies<br />

Prof. Willem Drees<br />

• Faculty of Science<br />

Prof. Sjoerd Verduyn Lunel<br />

• Faculty of Social and Behavioural Sciences<br />

Prof. Theo Toonen<br />

(as of 1 January 2008 Prof. Philip Spinhoven)

Finance<br />

Anticipated revenues 2007 in millions of euros*<br />

Government<br />

contribution<br />

305<br />

26<br />

Work for third parties<br />

39 Other revenues<br />

Tuition fees<br />

* Figures from the 2007 budget; the definitive figures were not available at the<br />

time of going to press of the Yearbook 2007.<br />

Anticipated expenses in 2007 in millions of euros*<br />

Income transfers<br />

Debits<br />

Other expenses<br />

19<br />

114<br />

105<br />

Anticipated result in 2007 in millions of euros* -13<br />

53<br />

198<br />

Personnel<br />

expenses<br />

Anticipated expenses in 2007 in millions of euros*<br />

Income transfers<br />

Debits<br />

Other expenses<br />

19<br />

114<br />

105<br />

Anticipated result in 2007 in millions of euros* -13<br />

198<br />

Personnel<br />

expenses<br />


70<br />

Adresses<br />

Leiden University<br />

Rapenburg 70<br />

PO Box 9500<br />

2300 RA Leiden<br />

The Netherlands<br />

+ 31 (0)71 527 27 27<br />

www.leidenuniv.nl<br />

Studielijn<br />

Information about studying in Leiden<br />

Rapenburg 70<br />

PO Box 9500<br />

2300 RA Leiden<br />

The Netherlands<br />

+ 31 (0)71 527 11 11<br />

studielijn@leidenuniv.nl<br />

www.studereninleiden.nl<br />

www.mastersinleiden.nl<br />

Plexus Student Information Centre<br />

Kaiserstraat 25<br />

PO Box 439<br />

2300 AK Leiden<br />

The Netherlands<br />

+ 31 (0)71 527 80 11<br />

informatiecentrum@leidenuniv.nl<br />

www.plexus.leidenuniv.nl<br />

Admissions Office<br />

PO Box 9500<br />

2300 RA Leiden<br />

The Netherlands<br />

+ 31 (0)71 527 72 87<br />

study@io.leidenuniv.nl<br />

www.leiden.edu<br />

Visitors’ Centre<br />

Stationsplein 3c<br />

2312 AJ Leiden<br />

The Netherlands<br />

+ 31 (0)71 527 88 80<br />

visitors@io.leidenuniv.nl<br />

www.visitors.leidenuniv.nl<br />

Leiden’s Latest<br />

Electronic, monthly<br />

www.leidenslatest.leidenuniv.nl<br />

Contact & free subscription:<br />

s.a.dehue@io.leidenuniv.nl<br />

University Library<br />

Witte Singel 27<br />

2311 BG Leiden<br />

The Netherlands<br />

+ 31 (0)71 527 28 14<br />

helpdesk@library.leidenuniv.nl<br />

www.ub.leidenuniv.nl<br />

Campus The Hague, Leiden University<br />

Lange Houtstraat 5-7<br />

2511 CV Den Haag<br />

The Netherlands<br />

p + 31 (0)70 302 10 70<br />

f + 31 (0)70 302 10 80<br />

www.campusdenhaag.nl<br />

Pre-University College<br />

PO Box 9555<br />

2300 RB Leiden<br />

The Netherlands<br />

Wassenaarseweg 52<br />

p + 31 (0)71 527 71 68<br />

f + 31 (0)71 527 71 69<br />

pre@iclon.leidenuniv.nl<br />

www.pre-universitycollege.leidenuniv.nl<br />

Hortus botanicus<br />

Rapenburg 73<br />

PO Box 9516<br />

2300 RA Leiden<br />

The Netherlands<br />

+ 31 (0)71 527 51 44<br />

hortus@hortus.leidenuniv.nl<br />


72<br />

<strong>Real</strong> life<br />

Leiden University in 2007<br />

Editors<br />

Wim van Amerongen<br />

Steven Hagers<br />

Corine Hendriks<br />

Dini Hogenelst<br />

Annegien Lucas<br />

Hilje Papma<br />

Translation<br />

Marilyn Hedges<br />

Photos/illustrations<br />

Wim van Amerongen<br />

Marco Borggreve<br />

Taco van der Eb<br />

Marten Engelse<br />

Ben Grishaaver<br />

Felix Guérain<br />

Marc de Haan<br />

André van Haasteren<br />

Ronald Hoogendoorn<br />

Pim Ras/Hollandse Hoogte<br />

Santiago Ramirez<br />

Frans Schellekens/Hollandse Hoogte<br />

Johan van Triest<br />

Design<br />

Ratio Design, Haarlem<br />

Printers<br />

Drukkerij Groen, Leiden<br />

The Yearbook 2007 is published in Dutch and English.<br />

It is available, free of charge, from Leiden University/ICS:<br />

+ 31 (0)71 527 80 26<br />

info@ics.leidenuniv.nl<br />

8 February 2008

Leiden University<br />

The first University in the Netherlands<br />

Founded on 8 February 1575<br />

University motto: Praesidium Libertatis, Bastion of Freedom<br />

Leiden is a Research University which chooses for talent<br />

12 Honours Classes<br />

Pre-University College<br />

Leiden collaborates with other leading universities<br />

in the League of European Research Universities<br />

51 bachelor’s programmes<br />

98 master’s programmes<br />

17,616 students<br />

4,500 staff members<br />

Budget: 425 million euro<br />


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