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Alternative Control Technologies Document - US Environmental

Alternative Control Technologies Document NOx Emissions from Utility Boilers Emission Standards Division U. S. Environmental Protection Agency Office of Air and Radiation Office of Air Quality Planning and Standards Research Triangle Park, North Carolina 27711 March 1994 EPA-453/R-94-023

  • Page 2: TABLE OF CONTENTS
  • Page 4: TABLE OF CONTENTS (Continued)
  • Page 6: LIST OF TABLES
  • Page 8: LIST OF TABLES (Continued)
  • Page 10: LIST OF TABLES (Continued)
  • Page 12: LIST OF FIGURES (Continued)
  • Page 14: LIST OF FIGURES (Continued)
  • Page 16: LIST OF FIGURES (Continued)
  • Page 18: LIST OF FIGURES (Continued)
  • Page 20: LIST OF FIGURES (Continued)
  • Page 22: LIST OF FIGURES (Continued)
  • Page 24: equipment vendors, and Federal, Sta
  • Page 26: emissions. These characteristics in
  • Page 28: NOx emissions are considered to be
  • Page 30: EMISSION LEVELS FROM CONVENTIONAL
  • Page 32: NOx emissions in the range of 0.4 t
  • Page 34: Fluidized bed combustion is an inte
  • Page 36: gives the NOx emissions for the FBC
  • Page 38: Low NOx burners are designed to del
  • Page 40: minimized because NH3 is a pollutan
  • Page 42: EMISSIONS FROM COAL-FIRED BOILERS W
  • Page 44: oilers with uncontrolled NOx levels
  • Page 46: As shown in table 2-4
  • Page 48: , applying SNCR to pre-NSPS tangent
  • Page 50: the results indicate approximately
  • Page 52:

    Table 2-5

  • Page 54:

    presents a summary of the cost effe

  • Page 56:

    2-32

  • Page 58:

    2-34

  • Page 60:

    Figure 2-2

  • Page 62:

    shows the NOx control cost effectiv

  • Page 64:

    shows the NOx control cost effectiv

  • Page 66:

    and ranges from a low of $1,500 per

  • Page 68:

    2-44

  • Page 70:

    level (lb/MMBtu)

  • Page 72:

    The pre-NSPS tangential boilers are

  • Page 74:

    Table 2-8

  • Page 76:

    presents a summary of expected NOx

  • Page 78:

    Table 2-9

  • Page 80:

    CONTROL COST technology EFFECTIVENE

  • Page 82:

    2-58

  • Page 84:

    $14,200 per ton for natural gas-fir

  • Page 86:

    shows the NOx control cost effectiv

  • Page 88:

    shows the NOx control cost effectiv

  • Page 90:

    delaying the mixing of fuel with th

  • Page 92:

    Control Boiler efficiency

  • Page 94:

    2-70

  • Page 96:

    Table 2-11

  • Page 98:

    summarizes the impacts from SNCR an

  • Page 100:

    3.0 OVERVIEW AND CHARACTERIZATION O

  • Page 102:

    . 1 Generating capability is the ac

  • Page 104:

    Figure 3-2.

  • Page 106:

    Figure 3-3.

  • Page 108:

    Figure 3-4.

  • Page 110:

    3-86

  • Page 112:

    3-88

  • Page 114:

    frequently affect regional use patt

  • Page 116:

    . 5 The ASTM classification for hig

  • Page 118:

    and (4) mineral impurities, or coal

  • Page 120:

    presents sources and analyses of va

  • Page 122:

    are shown in tables 3-1 and 3-2. Co

  • Page 124:

    . 9 Fuel oils are graded according

  • Page 126:

    . 10,11

  • Page 128:

    vary in composition across the Unit

  • Page 130:

    . 12 Prior to distribution, however

  • Page 132:

    Figure 3-5. Simplified boiler schem

  • Page 134:

    combustion in boilers having staged

  • Page 136:

    Figure 3-6.

  • Page 138:

    Figure 3-7.

  • Page 140:

    3-116

  • Page 142:

    oilers generally emit relatively lo

  • Page 144:

    Figure 3-8. Single wall-fired boile

  • Page 146:

    Figure 3-9. Circular-type burner fo

  • Page 148:

    3-124

  • Page 150:

    adial spuds that consist of a gas p

  • Page 152:

    . 3.3.2.2.3 Cell. Cell-type wall-fi

  • Page 154:

    shows a natural gas-fired cell burn

  • Page 156:

    3-132

  • Page 158:

    Figure 3-12

  • Page 160:

    shows an arch-fired boiler where pu

  • Page 162:

    . 22 In turbo-fired boilers, air an

  • Page 164:

    3-140

  • Page 166:

    Figure 3-14. Cyclone Burner

  • Page 168:

    Figure 3-15. Firing arrangements us

  • Page 170:

    Figure 3-16. Spreader type Stoker-F

  • Page 172:

    3-148

  • Page 174:

    continuous-cleaning grates. They ar

  • Page 176:

    Figure 3-17. Simplified AFBC proces

  • Page 178:

    3-154

  • Page 180:

    air/combustion gas stream. These so

  • Page 182:

    coal and with the size and type of

  • Page 184:

    flame temperatures, and thereby red

  • Page 186:

    3.3.3.4 Economizers. Economizers im

  • Page 188:

    3-164

  • Page 190:

    oilers; up to 20 percent less air v

  • Page 192:

    3-168 39

  • Page 194:

    3-170

  • Page 196:

    15. Telecon. Rosa, J., Tenneco Gas,

  • Page 198:

    Class and group

  • Page 200:

    4.0 CHARACTERIZATION OF NOx EMISSIO

  • Page 202:

    Figure 4-1. Variation of flame temp

  • Page 204:

    4-180

  • Page 206:

    fuel-lean side of stoichiometry, fe

  • Page 208:

    Figure 4-2a. Comparison of fuel NOx

  • Page 210:

    Figure 4-3. Fuel nitrogen oxide to

  • Page 212:

    Figure 4-4. Fuel-bound nitrogen-to-

  • Page 214:

    4-190

  • Page 216:

    other fuel property that correlates

  • Page 218:

    4.2.1.2.2 Cell. Cell-type units con

  • Page 220:

    TABLE 4-1. TYPICAL FUEL NITROGEN CO

  • Page 222:

    4-198

  • Page 224:

    Note: Same Btu input.

  • Page 226:

    Figure 4-6. Effect of mill pattern

  • Page 228:

    4-204

  • Page 230:

    for natural gas of 1,000 Btu/scf. A

  • Page 232:

    TABLE 4-2. UNCONTROLLED/BASELINE NO

  • Page 234:

    the wall units and the typical emis

  • Page 236:

    TABLE 4-3. UNCONTROLLED/BASELINE NO

  • Page 238:

    4.3.1.3 Oil-Fired Boilers. Table 4-

  • Page 240:

    shows typical, low, and high uncont

  • Page 242:

    Table 4-5 shows typical, low, and h

  • Page 244:

    4-220

  • Page 246:

    56. Wagner, J. K., Rothschild, S. S

  • Page 248:

    TABLE 5-1. NOx EMISSION CONTROL TEC

  • Page 250:

    5-226

  • Page 252:

    changes may be rather easily implem

  • Page 254:

    that serve the lower burners. The B

  • Page 256:

    presents data from four utility boi

  • Page 258:

    Figure 5-1a. Typical opposed

  • Page 260:

    Overfire air can be applied to tang

  • Page 262:

    direct a percentage of the total co

  • Page 264:

    5.1.2.1.2 Tangentially-fired boiler

  • Page 266:

    and are typically referred to as cl

  • Page 268:

    5.1.2.3 Performance of Overfire Air

  • Page 270:

    The table contains two tangentially

  • Page 272:

    levels for tangential boilers due t

  • Page 274:

    Figure 5-4. Controlled Flow/Split F

  • Page 276:

    achieved by the dual register desig

  • Page 278:

    , is similar to the CF/SF burner. 1

  • Page 280:

    , the burner is equipped with fixed

  • Page 282:

    The RO-II burner consists of a sing

  • Page 284:

    shows the key components of the bur

  • Page 286:

    17 Nitrogen oxide control is achiev

  • Page 288:

    15 Typically, in the LNCB design, t

  • Page 290:

    5-266

  • Page 292:

    5-268

  • Page 294:

    Figure 5-11a. Typical fuel and air

  • Page 296:

    Figure 5-12a. Low NOx Concentric Fi

  • Page 298:

    5-274

  • Page 300:

    educe the slagging and tube corrosi

  • Page 302:

    , the PM burner system uses a coal

  • Page 304:

    parameters cannot be altered in a c

  • Page 306:

    Table 5-4

  • Page 308:

    Table 5-4 continued

  • Page 310:

    5-286

  • Page 312:

    normal boiler operation than the sh

  • Page 314:

    shows trends in controlled NOx leve

  • Page 316:

    to a controlled level of 0.4 lb/MMB

  • Page 318:

    Table 5-5

  • Page 320:

    Table 5-5 continued

  • Page 322:

    Figure 5-15. NOx emissions from new

  • Page 324:

    5-300

  • Page 326:

    5-302

  • Page 328:

    0.39 lb/MMBtu. Two wall units repor

  • Page 330:

    , the NOx decreased as load decreas

  • Page 332:

    shows a schematic of a wall-fired b

  • Page 334:

    . 55 For LNCFS Level I, CCOFA is in

  • Page 336:

    5-312

  • Page 338:

    Table 5-6

  • Page 340:

    Table 5-6 continued

  • Page 342:

    5-318

  • Page 344:

    0.34 lb/MMBtu. At lower loads, the

  • Page 346:

    shows that short-term controlled NO

  • Page 348:

    LNB + OFA systems. The performance

  • Page 350:

    Short-term averages of NOx emission

  • Page 352:

    presents a simplified diagram of co

  • Page 354:

    5-330

  • Page 356:

    To complete the combustion process,

  • Page 358:

    5-334

  • Page 360:

    zone be reduced and an equivalent a

  • Page 362:

    shows an example of a co-firing app

  • Page 364:

    combustibles from the furnace befor

  • Page 366:

    All three boilers burn bituminous c

  • Page 368:

    75 percent load. The reburn system

  • Page 370:

    The one co-firing application on ta

  • Page 372:

    and reburn technology are provided

  • Page 374:

    BF pattern, including the degree of

  • Page 376:

    presents data for BOOS, LEA, and co

  • Page 378:

    5-354

  • Page 380:

    fans are located between the FD fan

  • Page 382:

    presents data for FGR applied to on

  • Page 384:

    TABLE 5-11. PERFORMANCE OF OFA + LE

  • Page 386:

    5.2.4.1.1 Wall-fired boilers. As wi

  • Page 388:

    . 83 Combustion in a ROPM TM burner

  • Page 390:

    schematically illustrates the inter

  • Page 392:

    pokers have skewed, flat tips perfo

  • Page 394:

    , can fire natural gas or oil. 84

  • Page 396:

    , was developed to improve the NOx

  • Page 398:

    , is also available for wall-fired

  • Page 400:

    5-376

  • Page 402:

    Figure 5-30. Low NOx Swirl Tertiary

  • Page 404:

    Figure 5-31. Pollution Minimum TM b

  • Page 406:

    5-382

  • Page 408:

    zones, thereby maintaining the NOx

  • Page 410:

    Reduction

  • Page 412:

    Alamitos 6 had higher uncontrolled

  • Page 414:

    Table 5-13

  • Page 416:

    . Results are given for one tangent

  • Page 418:

    educed the NOx emissions to 0.43 lb

  • Page 420:

    As shown in figure 5-32

  • Page 422:

    , for the ammonia-based SNCR proces

  • Page 424:

    As shown in figure 5-33

  • Page 426:

    , in the urea-based SNCR process, a

  • Page 428:

    . 95 The solution is injected into

  • Page 430:

    SNCR systems except that the pressu

  • Page 432:

    As shown in figure 5-35

  • Page 434:

    , the gas temperature can greatly a

  • Page 436:

    NOTE: This figure is representative

  • Page 438:

    Figure 5-37. Ammonia salt formation

  • Page 440:

    5-416

  • Page 442:

    Table 5-14

  • Page 444:

    Table 5-14 continued

  • Page 446:

    Table 5-14 continued

  • Page 448:

    5-424

  • Page 450:

    5-426

  • Page 452:

    0.21 lb/MMBtu at minimum load depen

  • Page 454:

    and 5-39 for coal-fired and for nat

  • Page 456:

    5-432

  • Page 458:

    given in table 5-15.

  • Page 460:

    Two of the boilers are bubbling bed

  • Page 462:

    Figure 5-40. Relative effect of tem

  • Page 464:

    Figure 5-41

  • Page 466:

    shows several SCR configurations th

  • Page 468:

    , the flue gas passes through the a

  • Page 470:

    5-446

  • Page 472:

    Figure 5-43. Typical configuration

  • Page 474:

    Figure 5-44. Example of optimum tem

  • Page 476:

    5-452

  • Page 478:

    Figure 5-45. Configuration of paral

  • Page 480:

    5-456

  • Page 482:

    Figure 5-46. Effect of temperature

  • Page 484:

    application experience with medium-

  • Page 486:

    velocity, and catalyst condition. O

  • Page 488:

    presents the results from pilot-sca

  • Page 490:

    Figure 5-47a. Extruded catalyst NOx

  • Page 492:

    Figures 5-48a

  • Page 494:

    and 5-48b show performance results

  • Page 496:

    Figure 5-49a. T1O2 corrugated plate

  • Page 498:

    5-474

  • Page 500:

    NOx emissions on fossil fuel-fired

  • Page 502:

    . The predicted NOx reduction for L

  • Page 504:

    5.4 REFERENCES

  • Page 506:

    18. Donais, R. E., et al. 1989 Upda

  • Page 508:

    41. Letter and attachments from San

  • Page 510:

    64. Hunt, T., et al. Selective Non-

  • Page 512:

    85. Lisauskas, R. A., and C. A. Pen

  • Page 514:

    104. Mansour, M. N., Nahas, S. N.,

  • Page 516:

    125. Rummenhohl, V., Weiler, H., an

  • Page 518:

    TABLE 5-4. PERFORMANCE OF LNB RETRO

  • Page 520:

    Utility

  • Page 522:

    TABLE 5-5. PERFORMANCE OF LNB ON NE

  • Page 524:

    TABLE 5-6. PERFORMANCE OF LNB + OFA

  • Page 526:

    Utility

  • Page 528:

    Utility

  • Page 530:

    Utility

  • Page 532:

    Utility

  • Page 534:

    Basic equipment

  • Page 536:

    TABLE 5-14. PERFORMANCE OF SNCR ON

  • Page 538:

    TABLE 5-14. PERFORMANCE OF SNCR ON

  • Page 540:

    TABLE 5-14. PERFORMANCE OF SNCR ON

  • Page 542:

    TABLE 5-14. PERFORMANCE OF SNCR ON

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    TABLE 5-14. PERFORMANCE OF SNCR ON

  • Page 546:

    TABLE 5-14. PERFORMANCE OF SNCR ON

  • Page 548:

    Table LIV

  • Page 550:

    . TABLE 5-14. PERFORMANCE OF SNCR O

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    TABLE 5-14. PERFORMANCE OF SNCR ON

  • Page 554:

    TABLE 5-14. PERFORMANCE OF SNCR ON

  • Page 556:

    Figure 80

  • Page 558:

    TABLE 5-14. PERFORMANCE OF SNCR ON

  • Page 560:

    TABLE 5-14. PERFORMANCE OF SNCR ON

  • Page 562:

    TABLE 5-14. PERFORMANCE OF SNCR ON

  • Page 564:

    Figure 82

  • Page 566:

    TABLE 5-14. PERFORMANCE OF SNCR ON

  • Page 568:

    TABLE 5-14. PERFORMANCE OF SNCR ON

  • Page 570:

    Figure 84

  • Page 572:

    TABLE 5-14. PERFORMANCE OF SNCR ON

  • Page 574:

    TABLE 5-14. PERFORMANCE OF SNCR ON

  • Page 576:

    Total capital cost,

  • Page 578:

    Figure 86

  • Page 580:

    TABLE 5-14. PERFORMANCE OF SNCR ON

  • Page 582:

    TABLE 5-14. PERFORMANCE OF SNCR ON

  • Page 584:

    TABLE 5-14. PERFORMANCE OF SNCR ON

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    TABLE 5-14. PERFORMANCE OF SNCR ON

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    TABLE 5-14. PERFORMANCE OF SNCR ON

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    TABLE 5-14. PERFORMANCE OF SNCR ON

  • Page 592:

    TABLE 5-14. PERFORMANCE OF SNCR ON

  • Page 594:

    Figure 90

  • Page 596:

    TABLE 5-14. PERFORMANCE OF SNCR ON

  • Page 598:

    TABLE 5-14. PERFORMANCE OF SNCR ON

  • Page 600:

    TABLE 5-14. PERFORMANCE OF SNCR ON

  • Page 602:

    TABLE 5-14. PERFORMANCE OF SNCR ON

  • Page 604:

    Figure 94

  • Page 606:

    TABLE 5-14. PERFORMANCE OF SNCR ON

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    TABLE 5-14. PERFORMANCE OF SNCR ON

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    TABLE 5-14. PERFORMANCE OF SNCR ON

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    TABLE 5-14. PERFORMANCE OF SNCR ON

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    TABLE 5-14. PERFORMANCE OF SNCR ON

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    TABLE 5-14. PERFORMANCE OF SNCR ON

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    TABLE 5-14. PERFORMANCE OF SNCR ON

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    TABLE 5-14. PERFORMANCE OF SNCR ON

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    TABLE 5-14. PERFORMANCE OF SNCR ON

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    TABLE 5-14. PERFORMANCE OF SNCR ON

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    TABLE 5-14. PERFORMANCE OF SNCR ON

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    TABLE 5-14. PERFORMANCE OF SNCR ON

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    TABLE 5-14. PERFORMANCE OF SNCR ON

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    TABLE 5-14. PERFORMANCE OF SNCR ON

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    TABLE 5-14. PERFORMANCE OF SNCR ON

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    TABLE 5-14. PERFORMANCE OF SNCR ON

  • Page 638:

    Figure 104

  • Page 640:

    TABLE 5-14. PERFORMANCE OF SNCR ON

  • Page 642:

    TABLE 5-14. PERFORMANCE OF SNCR ON

  • Page 644:

    TABLE 5-14. PERFORMANCE OF SNCR ON

  • Page 646:

    TABLE 5-14. PERFORMANCE OF SNCR ON

  • Page 648:

    TABLE 5-14. PERFORMANCE OF SNCR ON

  • Page 650:

    Total capital cost,

  • Page 652:

    Figure 108

  • Page 654:

    TABLE 5-14. PERFORMANCE OF SNCR ON

  • Page 656:

    TABLE 5-14. PERFORMANCE OF SNCR ON

  • Page 658:

    TABLE 5-14. PERFORMANCE OF SNCR ON

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    TABLE 5-14. PERFORMANCE OF SNCR ON

  • Page 662:

    TABLE 5-14. PERFORMANCE OF SNCR ON

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    TABLE 5-14. PERFORMANCE OF SNCR ON

  • Page 666:

    Table 13 (cont.)

  • Page 668:

    TABLE 5-14. PERFORMANCE OF SNCR ON

  • Page 670:

    TABLE 5-14. PERFORMANCE OF SNCR ON

  • Page 672:

    Figure 112

  • Page 674:

    TABLE 5-14. PERFORMANCE OF SNCR ON

  • Page 676:

    TABLE 5-14. PERFORMANCE OF SNCR ON

  • Page 678:

    Figure 114

  • Page 680:

    TABLE 5-14. PERFORMANCE OF SNCR ON

  • Page 682:

    TABLE 5-14. PERFORMANCE OF SNCR ON

  • Page 684:

    TABLE 5-14. PERFORMANCE OF SNCR ON

  • Page 686:

    Figure 118

  • Page 688:

    TABLE 5-14. PERFORMANCE OF SNCR ON

  • Page 690:

    TABLE 5-14. PERFORMANCE OF SNCR ON

  • Page 692:

    TABLE 5-14. PERFORMANCE OF SNCR ON

  • Page 694:

    TABLE 5-14. PERFORMANCE OF SNCR ON

  • Page 696:

    Figure 122

  • Page 698:

    TABLE 5-14. PERFORMANCE OF SNCR ON

  • Page 700:

    TABLE 5-14. PERFORMANCE OF SNCR ON

  • Page 702:

    TABLE 5-14. PERFORMANCE OF SNCR ON

  • Page 704:

    Cost effectiveness, $/ton

  • Page 706:

    TABLE 5-14. PERFORMANCE OF SNCR ON

  • Page 708:

    Total capital cost,

  • Page 710:

    Figure 124

  • Page 712:

    TABLE 5-14. PERFORMANCE OF SNCR ON

  • Page 714:

    TABLE 5-14. PERFORMANCE OF SNCR ON

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    TABLE 5-14. PERFORMANCE OF SNCR ON

  • Page 718:

    TABLE 5-14. PERFORMANCE OF SNCR ON

  • Page 720:

    TABLE 5-14. PERFORMANCE OF SNCR ON

  • Page 722:

    Figure 128

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    TABLE 5-14. PERFORMANCE OF SNCR ON

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    TABLE 5-14. PERFORMANCE OF SNCR ON

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    TABLE 5-14. PERFORMANCE OF SNCR ON

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    TABLE 5-14. PERFORMANCE OF SNCR ON

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    TABLE 5-14. PERFORMANCE OF SNCR ON

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    TABLE 5-14. PERFORMANCE OF SNCR ON

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    TABLE 5-14. PERFORMANCE OF SNCR ON

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    TABLE 5-14. PERFORMANCE OF SNCR ON

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    TABLE 5-14. PERFORMANCE OF SNCR ON

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    TABLE 5-14. PERFORMANCE OF SNCR ON

  • Page 744:

    TABLE 5-14. PERFORMANCE OF SNCR ON

  • Page 746:

    BOILERS

  • Page 748:

    TABLE 5-14. PERFORMANCE OF SNCR ON

  • Page 750:

    TABLE 5-14. PERFORMANCE OF SNCR ON

  • Page 752:

    TABLE 5-14. PERFORMANCE OF SNCR ON

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    TABLE 5-14. PERFORMANCE OF SNCR ON

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    TABLE 5-14. PERFORMANCE OF SNCR ON

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    TABLE 5-14. PERFORMANCE OF SNCR ON

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    TABLE 5-14. PERFORMANCE OF SNCR ON

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    TABLE 5-14. PERFORMANCE OF SNCR ON

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    TABLE 5-14. PERFORMANCE OF SNCR ON

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    TABLE 5-14. PERFORMANCE OF SNCR ON

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    TABLE 5-14. PERFORMANCE OF SNCR ON

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    TABLE 5-14. PERFORMANCE OF SNCR ON

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    TABLE 5-14. PERFORMANCE OF SNCR ON

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    TABLE 5-14. PERFORMANCE OF SNCR ON

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    TABLE 5-14. PERFORMANCE OF SNCR ON

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    TABLE 5-14. PERFORMANCE OF SNCR ON

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    TABLE 5-14. PERFORMANCE OF SNCR ON

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    TABLE 5-14. PERFORMANCE OF SNCR ON

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    TABLE 5-14. PERFORMANCE OF SNCR ON

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    TABLE 5-14. PERFORMANCE OF SNCR ON

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    TABLE 5-14. PERFORMANCE OF SNCR ON

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    TABLE 5-14. PERFORMANCE OF SNCR ON

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    TABLE 5-14. PERFORMANCE OF SNCR ON

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    TABLE 5-14. PERFORMANCE OF SNCR ON

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    TABLE 5-14. PERFORMANCE OF SNCR ON

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    TABLE 5-14. PERFORMANCE OF SNCR ON

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    TABLE 5-14. PERFORMANCE OF SNCR ON

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    TABLE 5-14. PERFORMANCE OF SNCR ON

  • Page 804:

    6.6 REFERENCES

  • Page 806:

    TABLE 6-4. DESIGN AND OPERATING CHA

  • Page 808:

    TABLE 6-8. COSTS FOR NGR APPLIED TO

  • Page 810:

    TABLE 6-13. COSTS FOR SNCR APPLIED

  • Page 812:

    7.0 ENVIRONMENTAL AND ENERGY IMPACT

  • Page 814:

    7-790

  • Page 816:

    7-792

  • Page 818:

    7-794

  • Page 820:

    prior to the retrofit and the decre

  • Page 822:

    levels of 50 to 214 ppm. The corres

  • Page 824:

    7-800

  • Page 826:

    presents UBC and boiler efficiency

  • Page 828:

    7-804

  • Page 830:

    Lawrence 5, the UBC decreased from

  • Page 832:

    summarizes the PM and THC emissions

  • Page 834:

    Table 7-4

  • Page 836:

    presents a summary of CO, UBC, and

  • Page 838:

    7.2 EFFECTS FROM COMBUSTION CONTROL

  • Page 840:

    THIS PAGE INTENTIONALLY LEFT BLANK.

  • Page 842:

    7-818

  • Page 844:

    producers that may have upper limit

  • Page 846:

    As table 7-6

  • Page 848:

    shows, the potential impacts can be

  • Page 850:

    Data are shown for one coal-fired,

  • Page 852:

    one mole of CO if the CO bound in u

  • Page 854:

    TABLE 7-8. SUMMARY OF CARBON MONOXI

  • Page 856:

    Fuel TABLE 7-9. SUMMARY OF AMMONIA

  • Page 858:

    7-834

  • Page 860:

    7.4 REFERENCES

  • Page 862:

    10. Letter and attachments from Har

  • Page 864:

    34. Makansi, J. Fuel biasing Lowers

  • Page 866:

    52. Questionnaire Response from Hes

  • Page 868:

    Utility

  • Page 870:

    Utility

  • Page 872:

    Utility

  • Page 874:

    Utility

  • Page 876:

    TABLE 7-5. SUMMARY OF CARBON MONOXI

  • Page 878:

    Results shown for a normalized stoi

  • Page 880:

    A.1 METHODOLOGY

  • Page 882:

    variable components. Fixed O&M cost

  • Page 884:

    For a 100 MW wall coal-fired boiler

  • Page 886:

    A.2 LNB APPLIED TO COAL-FIRED WALL

  • Page 888:

    A-1. Presented in the table are uti

  • Page 890:

    Figure A-1

  • Page 892:

    A-13

  • Page 894:

    A.2.4 Indirect Cost

  • Page 896:

    From this, the basic system cost al

  • Page 898:

    A-19

  • Page 900:

    A.5 LNB + AOFA APPLIED TO COAL-FIRE

  • Page 902:

    A-2. Presented in the table are uti

  • Page 904:

    Figure A-2

  • Page 906:

    A-27

  • Page 908:

    A.6 NATURAL GAS REBURN APPLIED TO C

  • Page 910:

    A-3. As shown, the total capital co

  • Page 912:

    A.7 OPERATIONAL MODIFICATIONS (LEA

  • Page 914:

    A.8 LNB APPLIED TO NATURAL GAS- AND

  • Page 916:

    A-4. All three points reflect total

  • Page 918:

    , suggests that the total capital c

  • Page 920:

    A.8.5 Fixed O&M

  • Page 922:

    A.10 SNCR

  • Page 924:

    where:

  • Page 926:

    A total of 15 case studies were dev

  • Page 928:

    where:

  • Page 930:

    Fuel Boiler Type c d

  • Page 932:

    A.13 APPENDIX REFERENCES

  • Page 3: TABLE OF CONTENTS (Continued)
  • Page 5: TABLE OF CONTENTS (Continued)
  • Page 7: LIST OF TABLES (Continued)
  • Page 9: LIST OF TABLES (Continued)
  • Page 11: LIST OF FIGURES
  • Page 13: LIST OF FIGURES (Continued)
  • Page 15: LIST OF FIGURES (Continued)
  • Page 17: LIST OF FIGURES (Continued)
  • Page 19: LIST OF FIGURES (Continued)
  • Page 21: LIST OF FIGURES (Continued)
  • Page 23: 1.0 INTRODUCTION
  • Page 25: 2.0 SUMMARY
  • Page 27: thermal NOx formation. However, the
  • Page 29: Table 2-5
  • Page 31: 2-1 summarizes the uncontrolled and
  • Page 33: subpart D and subpart Da are in the
  • Page 35: TABLE 2-2. NOx EMISSION LEVELS FROM
  • Page 37: the boiler at the lowest level of e
  • Page 39: or pulverized coal; however, most o
  • Page 41: 2.5 SUMMARY OF PERFORMANCE AND COST
  • Page 43: . The table includes the NOx reduct
  • Page 45: 0.45 lb/MMBtu (50 to 60 percent red
  • Page 47: NSPS boilers
  • Page 49: controlled NOx emissions from the c
  • Page 51: lower than 1991 dollars; therefore,
  • Page 53:

    control

  • Page 55:

    Figure 2-1

  • Page 57:

    shows the NOx control cost effectiv

  • Page 59:

    For wall boilers, the cost effectiv

  • Page 61:

    2-37 control cost effectiveness for

  • Page 63:

    2-39 control cost effectiveness for

  • Page 65:

    (cycling) 100 MW 100 (baseload) MW

  • Page 67:

    2-43

  • Page 69:

    a peaking-duty boiler (10 percent c

  • Page 71:

    . The table includes the NOx reduct

  • Page 73:

    With reburn on pre-NSPS tangential

  • Page 75:

    level (lb/MMBtu) Applicable boiler

  • Page 77:

    eduction across the load range. For

  • Page 79:

    control

  • Page 81:

    presents a summary of the cost effe

  • Page 83:

    2-59

  • Page 85:

    2-61 control cost effectiveness for

  • Page 87:

    2-63 control cost effectiveness for

  • Page 89:

    2-65

  • Page 91:

    Table 2-10

  • Page 93:

    summarizes the impacts from combust

  • Page 95:

    were no reported effects on the nat

  • Page 97:

    Other possible effects

  • Page 99:

    Limited data were available for ins

  • Page 101:

    Figure 3-1.

  • Page 103:

    As shown in figure 3-2

  • Page 105:

    , most of the coal-firing capabilit

  • Page 107:

    . 3 Oil is predominantly used in Fl

  • Page 109:

    . 4 Fuel economics and environmenta

  • Page 111:

    3-87

  • Page 113:

    3-89

  • Page 115:

    Table 3-1

  • Page 117:

    3-93

  • Page 119:

    TABLE 3-2

  • Page 121:

    3.2.1.2 Bituminous Coal. By far the

  • Page 123:

    Kinematic Viscosity,

  • Page 125:

    No. 6 fuel

  • Page 127:

    3-103

  • Page 129:

    12 5

  • Page 131:

    hot water and steam. The physics an

  • Page 133:

    . These subassemblies include the f

  • Page 135:

    The design and operating conditions

  • Page 137:

    , the fuel-air mixture in a tangent

  • Page 139:

    , the burners in this furnace desig

  • Page 141:

    3-117

  • Page 143:

    envelope, or fireball, each of the

  • Page 145:

    shows the burner arrangement of a t

  • Page 147:

    . 19 To burn fuel oil at the high r

  • Page 149:

    3-125

  • Page 151:

    Figure 3-10. Opposed Wall-Fired Boi

  • Page 153:

    Figure 3-11. Cell Burner for Natura

  • Page 155:

    3-131

  • Page 157:

    tangentially-fired systems, but hav

  • Page 159:

    Figure 3-12. Flow Pattern in an Arc

  • Page 161:

    Figure 3-13. Cross Section of Turbo

  • Page 163:

    3-139

  • Page 165:

    3.3.2.3 Cyclone-Fired. Cyclone-fire

  • Page 167:

    , fuel and air are burned in horizo

  • Page 169:

    shows the single-wall firing and op

  • Page 171:

    . 25 The thin bed of fuel on the gr

  • Page 173:

    3-149

  • Page 175:

    The atmospheric FBC (AFBC) system s

  • Page 177:

    is similar to a conventional utilit

  • Page 179:

    energy through both heat transfer t

  • Page 181:

    extracts most of the system's energ

  • Page 183:

    forced-draft, primary-air, induced-

  • Page 185:

    outed to a reheater located in the

  • Page 187:

    drain to the furnace bottom. In thi

  • Page 189:

    . 36 Furnaces firing coals with low

  • Page 191:

    Figure 3-19

  • Page 193:

    shows the comparative sizes of coal

  • Page 195:

    3.5 REFERENCES

  • Page 197:

    33. Ref. 6, p. 9-20.

  • Page 199:

    Classification by

  • Page 201:

    The first reaction (equation 4-1) i

  • Page 203:

    . 41 If the system is fuel-rich, th

  • Page 205:

    equivalence ratios, and thus premix

  • Page 207:

    nitrogen during coal devolitization

  • Page 209:

    . 47 However, the percentage of fue

  • Page 211:

    . 48 Note, however, that most of th

  • Page 213:

    shows that fuel NOx formation corre

  • Page 215:

    4-191

  • Page 217:

    quickly mixed with the burning fuel

  • Page 219:

    urner assembly, heat transfer to co

  • Page 221:

    , significant contributions from th

  • Page 223:

    furnace volumes than boilers origin

  • Page 225:

    . 52 As a result, less thermal NOx

  • Page 227:

    illustrates the impact of operating

  • Page 229:

    load), and firing subbituminous coa

  • Page 231:

    4.3.1.1 Coal-Fired Boilers. Table

  • Page 233:

    4-2 shows typical, low, and high un

  • Page 235:

    4.3.1.2 Natural Gas-Fired Boilers.

  • Page 237:

    4-3 shows typical, low, and high un

  • Page 239:

    TABLE 4-4. UNCONTROLLED/BASELINE NO

  • Page 241:

    4-217

  • Page 243:

    TABLE 4-5. NOx EMISSION LEVELS FOR

  • Page 245:

    4.4 REFERENCES

  • Page 247:

    combustion controls can be used sim

  • Page 249:

    This chapter describes NOx control

  • Page 251:

    5.1 COMBUSTION CONTROLS FOR COAL-FI

  • Page 253:

    initial NOx level; therefore, highe

  • Page 255:

    Reduction

  • Page 257:

    approximately 40 percent and consis

  • Page 259:

    all the air and fuel are introduced

  • Page 261:

    Figure 5-2a. Conventional overfire

  • Page 263:

    5-239

  • Page 265:

    Figure 5-3. Tangential boiler windb

  • Page 267:

    5-243

  • Page 269:

    Reduction

  • Page 271:

    5-247

  • Page 273:

    primary combustion zone, thereby es

  • Page 275:

    is an internally-staged design whic

  • Page 277:

    Figure 5-5. Internal Fuel Staged TM

  • Page 279:

    Figure 5-6. Dual Register Burner-Ax

  • Page 281:

    5-257

  • Page 283:

    5-259

  • Page 285:

    5-261

  • Page 287:

    5-263

  • Page 289:

    5-265

  • Page 291:

    zone. During firing, the lower fuel

  • Page 293:

    was designed for turbo, down-fired,

  • Page 295:

    . 18 The fuel and air nozzles are d

  • Page 297:

    . 18 This technique changes the air

  • Page 299:

    5-275

  • Page 301:

    5-277

  • Page 303:

    5-279

  • Page 305:

    longer flames of some LNB will tend

  • Page 307:

    Table 5-4 continued

  • Page 309:

    There are two tangentially-fired un

  • Page 311:

    5-287

  • Page 313:

    Figure 5-14. Short-term controlled

  • Page 315:

    For the pre-NSPS boiler retrofit wi

  • Page 317:

    ange of 0.75 to 1.2 lb/MMBtu and we

  • Page 319:

    Table 5-5 continued

  • Page 321:

    The tangentially-fired boilers have

  • Page 323:

    , the NOx emissions for three tange

  • Page 325:

    5-301

  • Page 327:

    5-303

  • Page 329:

    Figure 5-16. NOx emissions from new

  • Page 331:

    Figure 5-17. Advanced OFA system wi

  • Page 333:

    Figure 5-18. Low NOx concentric fir

  • Page 335:

    5-311

  • Page 337:

    possible with CCOFA, providing bett

  • Page 339:

    Table 5-6 continued

  • Page 341:

    The uncontrolled and controlled NOx

  • Page 343:

    5-319

  • Page 345:

    Figure 5-19. NOx emissions from tan

  • Page 347:

    superheat steam temperatures. To ma

  • Page 349:

    TABLE 5-7. PERFORMANCE OF LNB + OFA

  • Page 351:

    5-327

  • Page 353:

    5-329

  • Page 355:

    zone must be above 980 oC (1,800 oF

  • Page 357:

    As shown in figure 5-21

  • Page 359:

    , reburning may be applicable to cy

  • Page 361:

    5-337

  • Page 363:

    penetration or under-penetration co

  • Page 365:

    Reduction

  • Page 367:

    5-343

  • Page 369:

    Figure 5-23. Controlled NOx emissio

  • Page 371:

    5-347

  • Page 373:

    emitted from natural gas and oil-fi

  • Page 375:

    Reduction

  • Page 377:

    In general, the higher the baseline

  • Page 379:

    , FGR involves extracting a portion

  • Page 381:

    Reduction

  • Page 383:

    5.2.3 Overfire Air

  • Page 385:

    These units were typically operated

  • Page 387:

    Figure 5-25. ROPM TM burner for nat

  • Page 389:

    Figure 5-26. Dynaswirl TM low NOx b

  • Page 391:

    5-367

  • Page 393:

    Figure 5-27. Internal Staged Combus

  • Page 395:

    Figure 5-28. Primary Gas-dual Regis

  • Page 397:

    Figure 5-29. Axial Control TM Flow

  • Page 399:

    5-375

  • Page 401:

    The Swirl Tertiary Separation TM (S

  • Page 403:

    . 85 In this design, the internal s

  • Page 405:

    . 83 The burners are available for

  • Page 407:

    5-383

  • Page 409:

    5.2.4.3 Performance of Low NOx Burn

  • Page 411:

    presents data for LNB on natural ga

  • Page 413:

    approximately 0.14 lb/MMBtu at full

  • Page 415:

    Table 5-13 concluded

  • Page 417:

    5-393

  • Page 419:

    fuel utility boilers are selective

  • Page 421:

    Figure 5-32. Ammonia-based SNCR. 93

  • Page 423:

    NH3 is a pollutant and can also rea

  • Page 425:

    Figure 5-33. Urea-based SNCR. 92

  • Page 427:

    Figure 5-34. High-energy SNCR proce

  • Page 429:

    5-405

  • Page 431:

    concentrations of NOx lower the rea

  • Page 433:

    Figure 5-35. General effects of tem

  • Page 435:

    educe the effectiveness of SNCR.

  • Page 437:

    shows that at an ammonia-to-NOx rat

  • Page 439:

    , given sufficient concentrations o

  • Page 441:

    content may not be as much a factor

  • Page 443:

    Table 5-14 continued

  • Page 445:

    Table 5-14 continued

  • Page 447:

    There are 2 coal-fired, 2 oil-fired

  • Page 449:

    5-425

  • Page 451:

    5-427

  • Page 453:

    5-429 reduction vs. Molar N/NO rati

  • Page 455:

    oilers, respectively. As shown in t

  • Page 457:

    for effective reagent use.

  • Page 459:

    emissions

  • Page 461:

    ange depends upon the type of catal

  • Page 463:

    . 115 5-439

  • Page 465:

    Figure 5-41. Possible configuration

  • Page 467:

    5-443 118

  • Page 469:

    5-445

  • Page 471:

    however, aqueous ammonia is safer t

  • Page 473:

    shows a typical configuration for a

  • Page 475:

    shows examples of relative optimum

  • Page 477:

    The precious metal catalysts are ty

  • Page 479:

    . 124 Honeycomb catalysts are manuf

  • Page 481:

    5.3.2.2 Factors Affecting Performan

  • Page 483:

    , the conversion of SO2 to SO3 is t

  • Page 485:

    or breaking over time, or from foul

  • Page 487:

    Reduction

  • Page 489:

    California Edison has a commercial

  • Page 491:

    and 5-47b show NOx removal and NH3

  • Page 493:

    Figure 5-48a. V/Ti catalyst ammonia

  • Page 495:

    Figures 5-49a

  • Page 497:

    and 5-49b show the performance resu

  • Page 499:

    5-475

  • Page 501:

    TABLE 5-17. PERFORMANCE OF LNB + OF

  • Page 503:

    The addition of SNCR reduced NOx an

  • Page 505:

    9. Lisauskas, R. A., et al. Develop

  • Page 507:

    29. Vatsky, J. NOx Control: The Fos

  • Page 509:

    53. Questionnaire response from Jea

  • Page 511:

    75. Questionnaire response from Kan

  • Page 513:

    94. Cato, G. A., Maloney, K. L., an

  • Page 515:

    114. Heck, R. M., Bonacci, J. C., a

  • Page 517:

    Utility

  • Page 519:

    TABLE 5-4. PERFORMANCE OF LNB RETRO

  • Page 521:

    TABLE 5-5. PERFORMANCE OF LNB ON NE

  • Page 523:

    TABLE 5-6. PERFORMANCE OF LNB + OFA

  • Page 525:

    TABLE 5-6. PERFORMANCE OF LNB + OFA

  • Page 527:

    Utility

  • Page 529:

    Utility

  • Page 531:

    Utility

  • Page 533:

    TABLE 5-14. PERFORMANCE OF SNCR ON

  • Page 535:

    TABLE 5-14. PERFORMANCE OF SNCR ON

  • Page 537:

    TABLE 5-14. PERFORMANCE OF SNCR ON

  • Page 539:

    TABLE 5-14. PERFORMANCE OF SNCR ON

  • Page 541:

    TABLE 5-14. PERFORMANCE OF SNCR ON

  • Page 543:

    TABLE 5-14. PERFORMANCE OF SNCR ON

  • Page 545:

    TABLE 5-14. PERFORMANCE OF SNCR ON

  • Page 547:

    TABLE 5-14. PERFORMANCE OF SNCR ON

  • Page 549:

    Table 4 (cont.)

  • Page 551:

    TABLE 5-14. PERFORMANCE OF SNCR ON

  • Page 553:

    Natural gas- and oil-fired

  • Page 555:

    TABLE 5-14. PERFORMANCE OF SNCR ON

  • Page 557:

    TABLE 5-14. PERFORMANCE OF SNCR ON

  • Page 559:

    TABLE 5-14. PERFORMANCE OF SNCR ON

  • Page 561:

    Total capital cost,

  • Page 563:

    TABLE 5-14. PERFORMANCE OF SNCR ON

  • Page 565:

    TABLE 5-14. PERFORMANCE OF SNCR ON

  • Page 567:

    TABLE 5-14. PERFORMANCE OF SNCR ON

  • Page 569:

    TABLE 5-14. PERFORMANCE OF SNCR ON

  • Page 571:

    TABLE 5-14. PERFORMANCE OF SNCR ON

  • Page 573:

    TABLE 5-14. PERFORMANCE OF SNCR ON

  • Page 575:

    TABLE 5-14. PERFORMANCE OF SNCR ON

  • Page 577:

    TABLE 5-14. PERFORMANCE OF SNCR ON

  • Page 579:

    TABLE 5-14. PERFORMANCE OF SNCR ON

  • Page 581:

    TABLE 5-14. PERFORMANCE OF SNCR ON

  • Page 583:

    TABLE 5-14. PERFORMANCE OF SNCR ON

  • Page 585:

    Figure 88

  • Page 587:

    TABLE 5-14. PERFORMANCE OF SNCR ON

  • Page 589:

    TABLE 5-14. PERFORMANCE OF SNCR ON

  • Page 591:

    Table 8

  • Page 593:

    TABLE 5-14. PERFORMANCE OF SNCR ON

  • Page 595:

    TABLE 5-14. PERFORMANCE OF SNCR ON

  • Page 597:

    TABLE 5-14. PERFORMANCE OF SNCR ON

  • Page 599:

    Figure 92

  • Page 601:

    TABLE 5-14. PERFORMANCE OF SNCR ON

  • Page 603:

    TABLE 5-14. PERFORMANCE OF SNCR ON

  • Page 605:

    TABLE 5-14. PERFORMANCE OF SNCR ON

  • Page 607:

    TABLE 5-14. PERFORMANCE OF SNCR ON

  • Page 609:

    BOILERS

  • Page 611:

    Figure 96

  • Page 613:

    TABLE 5-14. PERFORMANCE OF SNCR ON

  • Page 615:

    TABLE 5-14. PERFORMANCE OF SNCR ON

  • Page 617:

    Figure 98

  • Page 619:

    TABLE 5-14. PERFORMANCE OF SNCR ON

  • Page 621:

    TABLE 5-14. PERFORMANCE OF SNCR ON

  • Page 623:

    TABLE 5-14. PERFORMANCE OF SNCR ON

  • Page 625:

    Figure 100

  • Page 627:

    TABLE 5-14. PERFORMANCE OF SNCR ON

  • Page 629:

    TABLE 5-14. PERFORMANCE OF SNCR ON

  • Page 631:

    Figure 102

  • Page 633:

    TABLE 5-14. PERFORMANCE OF SNCR ON

  • Page 635:

    TABLE 5-14. PERFORMANCE OF SNCR ON

  • Page 637:

    TABLE 5-14. PERFORMANCE OF SNCR ON

  • Page 639:

    TABLE 5-14. PERFORMANCE OF SNCR ON

  • Page 641:

    Figure 106

  • Page 643:

    TABLE 5-14. PERFORMANCE OF SNCR ON

  • Page 645:

    TABLE 5-14. PERFORMANCE OF SNCR ON

  • Page 647:

    TABLE 5-14. PERFORMANCE OF SNCR ON

  • Page 649:

    TABLE 5-14. PERFORMANCE OF SNCR ON

  • Page 651:

    TABLE 5-14. PERFORMANCE OF SNCR ON

  • Page 653:

    TABLE 5-14. PERFORMANCE OF SNCR ON

  • Page 655:

    Figure 110

  • Page 657:

    TABLE 5-14. PERFORMANCE OF SNCR ON

  • Page 659:

    TABLE 5-14. PERFORMANCE OF SNCR ON

  • Page 661:

    TABLE 5-14. PERFORMANCE OF SNCR ON

  • Page 663:

    TABLE 5-14. PERFORMANCE OF SNCR ON

  • Page 665:

    Table 13

  • Page 667:

    TABLE 5-14. PERFORMANCE OF SNCR ON

  • Page 669:

    TABLE 5-14. PERFORMANCE OF SNCR ON

  • Page 671:

    TABLE 5-14. PERFORMANCE OF SNCR ON

  • Page 673:

    TABLE 5-14. PERFORMANCE OF SNCR ON

  • Page 675:

    TABLE 5-14. PERFORMANCE OF SNCR ON

  • Page 677:

    TABLE 5-14. PERFORMANCE OF SNCR ON

  • Page 679:

    TABLE 5-14. PERFORMANCE OF SNCR ON

  • Page 681:

    TABLE 5-14. PERFORMANCE OF SNCR ON

  • Page 683:

    Figure 116

  • Page 685:

    TABLE 5-14. PERFORMANCE OF SNCR ON

  • Page 687:

    TABLE 5-14. PERFORMANCE OF SNCR ON

  • Page 689:

    TABLE 5-14. PERFORMANCE OF SNCR ON

  • Page 691:

    TABLE 5-14. PERFORMANCE OF SNCR ON

  • Page 693:

    Figure 120

  • Page 695:

    TABLE 5-14. PERFORMANCE OF SNCR ON

  • Page 697:

    TABLE 5-14. PERFORMANCE OF SNCR ON

  • Page 699:

    TABLE 5-14. PERFORMANCE OF SNCR ON

  • Page 701:

    TABLE 5-14. PERFORMANCE OF SNCR ON

  • Page 703:

    TABLE 5-14. PERFORMANCE OF SNCR ON

  • Page 705:

    TABLE 5-14. PERFORMANCE OF SNCR ON

  • Page 707:

    TABLE 5-14. PERFORMANCE OF SNCR ON

  • Page 709:

    TABLE 5-14. PERFORMANCE OF SNCR ON

  • Page 711:

    TABLE 5-14. PERFORMANCE OF SNCR ON

  • Page 713:

    TABLE 5-14. PERFORMANCE OF SNCR ON

  • Page 715:

    TABLE 5-14. PERFORMANCE OF SNCR ON

  • Page 717:

    TABLE 5-14. PERFORMANCE OF SNCR ON

  • Page 719:

    Figure 126

  • Page 721:

    TABLE 5-14. PERFORMANCE OF SNCR ON

  • Page 723:

    TABLE 5-14. PERFORMANCE OF SNCR ON

  • Page 725:

    TABLE 5-14. PERFORMANCE OF SNCR ON

  • Page 727:

    TABLE 5-14. PERFORMANCE OF SNCR ON

  • Page 729:

    TABLE 5-14. PERFORMANCE OF SNCR ON

  • Page 731:

    TABLE 5-14. PERFORMANCE OF SNCR ON

  • Page 733:

    TABLE 5-14. PERFORMANCE OF SNCR ON

  • Page 735:

    TABLE 5-14. PERFORMANCE OF SNCR ON

  • Page 737:

    TABLE 5-14. PERFORMANCE OF SNCR ON

  • Page 739:

    TABLE 5-14. PERFORMANCE OF SNCR ON

  • Page 741:

    TABLE 5-14. PERFORMANCE OF SNCR ON

  • Page 743:

    TABLE 5-14. PERFORMANCE OF SNCR ON

  • Page 745:

    TABLE 5-14. PERFORMANCE OF SNCR ON

  • Page 747:

    TABLE 5-14. PERFORMANCE OF SNCR ON

  • Page 749:

    TABLE 5-14. PERFORMANCE OF SNCR ON

  • Page 751:

    TABLE 5-14. PERFORMANCE OF SNCR ON

  • Page 753:

    TABLE 5-14. PERFORMANCE OF SNCR ON

  • Page 755:

    TABLE 5-14. PERFORMANCE OF SNCR ON

  • Page 757:

    TABLE 5-14. PERFORMANCE OF SNCR ON

  • Page 759:

    TABLE 5-14. PERFORMANCE OF SNCR ON

  • Page 761:

    TABLE 5-14. PERFORMANCE OF SNCR ON

  • Page 763:

    TABLE 5-14. PERFORMANCE OF SNCR ON

  • Page 765:

    TABLE 5-14. PERFORMANCE OF SNCR ON

  • Page 767:

    TABLE 5-14. PERFORMANCE OF SNCR ON

  • Page 769:

    TABLE 5-14. PERFORMANCE OF SNCR ON

  • Page 771:

    TABLE 5-14. PERFORMANCE OF SNCR ON

  • Page 773:

    TABLE 6-21. COSTS FOR LNB + AOFA +

  • Page 775:

    TABLE 5-14. PERFORMANCE OF SNCR ON

  • Page 777:

    TABLE 5-14. PERFORMANCE OF SNCR ON

  • Page 779:

    TABLE 5-14. PERFORMANCE OF SNCR ON

  • Page 781:

    TABLE 5-14. PERFORMANCE OF SNCR ON

  • Page 783:

    TABLE 5-14. PERFORMANCE OF SNCR ON

  • Page 785:

    TABLE 5-14. PERFORMANCE OF SNCR ON

  • Page 787:

    TABLE 5-14. PERFORMANCE OF SNCR ON

  • Page 789:

    TABLE 5-14. PERFORMANCE OF SNCR ON

  • Page 791:

    TABLE 5-14. PERFORMANCE OF SNCR ON

  • Page 793:

    TABLE 5-14. PERFORMANCE OF SNCR ON

  • Page 795:

    TABLE 5-14. PERFORMANCE OF SNCR ON

  • Page 797:

    TABLE 5-14. PERFORMANCE OF SNCR ON

  • Page 799:

    TABLE 5-14. PERFORMANCE OF SNCR ON

  • Page 801:

    TABLE 5-14. PERFORMANCE OF SNCR ON

  • Page 803:

    TABLE 5-14. PERFORMANCE OF SNCR ON

  • Page 805:

    TABLE 5-14. PERFORMANCE OF SNCR ON

  • Page 807:

    TABLE 6-4. DESIGN AND OPERATING CHA

  • Page 809:

    eUncontrolled NOx levels of 0.70 lb

  • Page 811:

    TABLE 6-13. COSTS FOR SNCR APPLIED

  • Page 813:

    In coal-fired boilers, an increase

  • Page 815:

    7-791

  • Page 817:

    Carbon monoxide emissions are prese

  • Page 819:

    7-795

  • Page 821:

    There are four applications of LNB

  • Page 823:

    7-799

  • Page 825:

    7-801

  • Page 827:

    7-803

  • Page 829:

    88.1 percent at full load and from

  • Page 831:

    TABLE 7-3. SUMMARY OF TOTAL HYDROCA

  • Page 833:

    decreased from 0.04 to 0.023 gr/scf

  • Page 835:

    TABLE 7-4. SUMMARY OF CARBON MONOXI

  • Page 837:

    7-813

  • Page 839:

    TABLE 7-7

  • Page 841:

    Data from the two Broadway units sh

  • Page 843:

    Five natural gas-fired units report

  • Page 845:

    energy required for the NOx reducti

  • Page 847:

    TABLE 7-6. SUMMARY OF POTENTIAL IMP

  • Page 849:

    7-825

  • Page 851:

    7-827

  • Page 853:

    7.3.1.2 Fluidized Bed Units. Table

  • Page 855:

    summarizes CO, NH3 slip, and THC em

  • Page 857:

    . Two of the pilot units are coal-f

  • Page 859:

    during the initial period (2,000 to

  • Page 861:

    7-837

  • Page 863:

    Response to Section 114 information

  • Page 865:

    43. Letter and attachments from Wel

  • Page 867:

    54. Letter and attachments from Coo

  • Page 869:

    Utility

  • Page 871:

    Utility

  • Page 873:

    Utility

  • Page 875:

    Utility

  • Page 877:

    Utility

  • Page 879:

    APPENDIX A

  • Page 881:

    The equation to calculate an indire

  • Page 883:

    where:

  • Page 885:

    With annualized capital costs of $5

  • Page 887:

    Total Capital

  • Page 889:

    Figure

  • Page 891:

    A-1 presents the plot of the data a

  • Page 893:

    A-14

  • Page 895:

    A.3 LNB APPLIED TO COAL-FIRED TANGE

  • Page 897:

    A.4 LNB + AOFA APPLIED TO COAL-FIRE

  • Page 899:

    From this, the basic system cost al

  • Page 901:

    Variable

  • Page 903:

    Figure

  • Page 905:

    A-2 presents the plot of the data a

  • Page 907:

    fuel. As discussed relative to boil

  • Page 909:

    Total Capital

  • Page 911:

    typical sulfur and calorific conten

  • Page 913:

    MW, HR, and CR are as previously de

  • Page 915:

    Reference

  • Page 917:

    Figure A-3

  • Page 919:

    A-40

  • Page 921:

    A.9 LNB (TANGENTIALLY-FIRED), LNB +

  • Page 923:

    A.10.3 Retrofit Cost

  • Page 925:

    A.11 SCR

  • Page 927:

    The equation for estimating the cos

  • Page 929:

    A-50

  • Page 931:

    A.12 COMBINATION CONTROLS - LNB + S

  • Page 933:

    12. Letter and attachments from All

Denver-Boulder-Greeley-Ft Collins-Loveland, CO

Denver-Boulder-Greeley-Ft Collins-Loveland, CO

Administrative Record File, Industri-Plex Site: January 31

Administrative Record File, Industri-Plex Site: January 31

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Kennebunkport, York County: ME0101184: W002626-5L-ER ...

California Research

California Research

New Mexico Hazardous Waste Authorization Records

New Mexico Hazardous Waste Authorization Records

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Beede, Removal Action Administrative Record File Addition and ...

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Draft Residual Risk Assessment for the Oil and Gas Production and ...

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Supplemental Draft Environmental Impact Statement for National ...

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Permit No. 3-1521 - US Environmental Protection Agency

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Evaluation of PM2.5 Emissions and Controls at Two Michigan Steel ...

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FMP Template Sample - US Environmental Protection Agency

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Grants Mining District 5-Year Plan - Updated June 2013 - US ...

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Reducing Wasted Food at Federal Facilities - US Environmental ...

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Guadalupe Generating Station Final Cultural Resourse Report - US ...

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Feasibility Study of Anaerobic Digestion of Food Waste in St - US ...

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SMM Webinar Green Sports and Venues as Environmental Stewards

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Imazapyr and Imazapyr salts (Pc Code 128821) - US Environmental ...

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Report PDF - US Environmental Protection Agency

Enbridge request for extension for Morrow Lake and Morrow Lake ...

Enbridge request for extension for Morrow Lake and Morrow Lake ...

Early Warning Report: Main EPA Headquarters Warehouse in ...

Early Warning Report: Main EPA Headquarters Warehouse in ...

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Reckitt Benckiser's Reply Brief in Support of its Motion for an ...

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Siemens NHPA fact sheet July 2013 - US Environmental Protection ...

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Report PDF - US Environmental Protection Agency

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