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Alternative Control Technologies Document - US Environmental ...

Alternative Control Technologies Document - US Environmental ...

EMISSION LEVELS FROM

EMISSION LEVELS FROM CONVENTIONAL 0.3-0.5 (0.5) 0.3-0.6 (0.5) FOSSIL FUEL-FIRED UTILITY (lb/MMBtu) BOILERS NA NA NA 0.3-0.6 (0.5) 0.2-0.3 (0.25) NA 0.2-0.3 (0.25) 2-6 0.1-0.2 (0.2) NA 0.1-0.2 (0.2) 0.1-0.2 (0.2) level is shown in parentheses. emissions. level is shown in parentheses. NA = Not applicable since there are no boilers in this category. Data not available.

2-1 summarizes the uncontrolled and baseline NOx emission levels from conventional utility boilers. The NOx levels are presented as a range and a typical level. The typical level reflects the mode, or most common value, of the NOx emissions data in the various databases for the different types of boilers. The range reflects the NOx emissions expected on a short- term basis for most boilers of a given fuel and boiler type. However, the actual NOx emissions from a specific boiler may be outside this range due to unit-specific design and operating conditions. Additionally, averaging time has an important impact on defining NOx levels. The achievable emission limit for a boiler increases as the averaging time decreases. For example, a boiler that can achieve a particular NOx limit on a 30-day basis may not be able to achieve that same limit on a 24-hour basis. The tangential boilers are designed with vertically stacked nozzles in the furnace corners that inject stratified layers of fuel and air into relatively low-turbulence areas. This creates fuel-rich regions in an overall fuel-lean environment. The fuel ignites in the fuel-rich region before the layers are mixed in the highly turbulent center fireball. Local peak temperatures and thermal NOx are lowered by the off- stoichiometric combustion conditions. Fuel NOx formation is suppressed by the delayed mixing of fuel and air, which allows fuel-nitrogen compounds a greater residence time in a fuel- rich environment. Tangential boilers typically have the lowest NOx emissions of all conventional utility boiler types. As shown in table 2-1, the coal-fired, pre-NSPS tangential boilers have 2-7

  • Page 1 and 2: Alternative Control Technologies Do
  • Page 3 and 4: TABLE OF CONTENTS (Continued) iii P
  • Page 5 and 6: TABLE OF CONTENTS (Continued) v Pag
  • Page 7 and 8: LIST OF TABLES (Continued) vii Page
  • Page 9 and 10: LIST OF TABLES (Continued) ix Page
  • Page 11 and 12: LIST OF FIGURES xi Page 2-1 NOx Con
  • Page 13 and 14: LIST OF FIGURES (Continued) xiii Pa
  • Page 15 and 16: LIST OF FIGURES (Continued) xv Page
  • Page 17 and 18: LIST OF FIGURES (Continued) xvii Pa
  • Page 19 and 20: LIST OF FIGURES (Continued) xix Pag
  • Page 21 and 22: LIST OF FIGURES (Continued) xxi Pag
  • Page 23 and 24: 1.0 INTRODUCTION The 1990 Amendment
  • Page 25 and 26: 2.0 SUMMARY The purpose of this doc
  • Page 27 and 28: thermal NOx formation. However, the
  • Page 29: Table 2-5
  • Page 33 and 34: subpart D and subpart Da are in the
  • Page 35 and 36: TABLE 2-2. NOx EMISSION LEVELS FROM
  • Page 37 and 38: the boiler at the lowest level of e
  • Page 39 and 40: or pulverized coal; however, most o
  • Page 41 and 42: 2.5 SUMMARY OF PERFORMANCE AND COST
  • Page 43 and 44: . The table includes the NOx reduct
  • Page 45 and 46: 0.45 lb/MMBtu (50 to 60 percent red
  • Page 47 and 48: NSPS boilers Expected levels contro
  • Page 49 and 50: controlled NOx emissions from the c
  • Page 51 and 52: lower than 1991 dollars; therefore,
  • Page 53 and 54: control CONTROL COST technology EFF
  • Page 55 and 56: Figure 2-1 2-31
  • Page 57 and 58: shows the NOx control cost effectiv
  • Page 59 and 60: For wall boilers, the cost effectiv
  • Page 61 and 62: 2-37 control cost effectiveness for
  • Page 63 and 64: 2-39 control cost effectiveness for
  • Page 65 and 66: (cycling) 100 MW 100 (baseload) MW
  • Page 67 and 68: 2-43
  • Page 69 and 70: a peaking-duty boiler (10 percent c
  • Page 71 and 72: . The table includes the NOx reduct
  • Page 73 and 74: With reburn on pre-NSPS tangential
  • Page 75 and 76: level (lb/MMBtu) Applicable boiler
  • Page 77 and 78: eduction across the load range. For
  • Page 79 and 80: control technology 100 MW 100 MW 30
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    presents a summary of the cost effe

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    2-59

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    2-61 control cost effectiveness for

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    2-63 control cost effectiveness for

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    2-65

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    Table 2-10 2-67

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    summarizes the impacts from combust

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    were no reported effects on the nat

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    Other possible effects Ammonia slip

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    Limited data were available for ins

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    Figure 3-1. Percent Generating Capa

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    As shown in figure 3-2 3-79

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    , most of the coal-firing capabilit

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    . 3 Oil is predominantly used in Fl

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    . 4 Fuel economics and environmenta

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    3-87

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    3-89

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    Table 3-1 3-91

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    3-93

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    TABLE 3-2 3-95

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    3.2.1.2 Bituminous Coal. By far the

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    Kinematic Viscosity, C) Distillatio

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    No. 6 fuel No. 5 fuel No. 4 fuel No

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    3-103

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    12 5 OK 4 LA 3 OH 2 So. CA 1 PA Cha

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    hot water and steam. The physics an

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    . These subassemblies include the f

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    The design and operating conditions

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    , the fuel-air mixture in a tangent

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    , the burners in this furnace desig

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    3-117

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    envelope, or fireball, each of the

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    shows the burner arrangement of a t

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    . 19 To burn fuel oil at the high r

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    3-125

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    Figure 3-10. Opposed Wall-Fired Boi

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    Figure 3-11. Cell Burner for Natura

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    3-131

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    tangentially-fired systems, but hav

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    Figure 3-12. Flow Pattern in an Arc

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    Figure 3-13. Cross Section of Turbo

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    3-139

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    3.3.2.3 Cyclone-Fired. Cyclone-fire

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    , fuel and air are burned in horizo

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    shows the single-wall firing and op

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    . 25 The thin bed of fuel on the gr

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    3-149

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    The atmospheric FBC (AFBC) system s

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    is similar to a conventional utilit

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    energy through both heat transfer t

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    extracts most of the system's energ

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    forced-draft, primary-air, induced-

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    outed to a reheater located in the

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    drain to the furnace bottom. In thi

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    . 36 Furnaces firing coals with low

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    Figure 3-19 3-167

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    shows the comparative sizes of coal

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    3.5 REFERENCES 1. Energy Informatio

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    33. Ref. 6, p. 9-20. 34. Ref. 5, p.

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    Classification by rank Stat e TABLE

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    The first reaction (equation 4-1) i

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    . 41 If the system is fuel-rich, th

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    equivalence ratios, and thus premix

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    nitrogen during coal devolitization

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    . 47 However, the percentage of fue

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    . 48 Note, however, that most of th

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    shows that fuel NOx formation corre

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    4-191

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    quickly mixed with the burning fuel

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    urner assembly, heat transfer to co

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    , significant contributions from th

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    furnace volumes than boilers origin

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    . 52 As a result, less thermal NOx

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    illustrates the impact of operating

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    load), and firing subbituminous coa

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    4.3.1.1 Coal-Fired Boilers. Table 4

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    4-2 shows typical, low, and high un

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    4.3.1.2 Natural Gas-Fired Boilers.

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    4-3 shows typical, low, and high un

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    TABLE 4-4. UNCONTROLLED/BASELINE NO

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    4-217

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    TABLE 4-5. NOx EMISSION LEVELS FOR

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    4.4 REFERENCES 41. Glassman, I., Co

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    combustion controls can be used sim

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    This chapter describes NOx control

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    5.1 COMBUSTION CONTROLS FOR COAL-FI

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    initial NOx level; therefore, highe

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    Reduction Controlled Uncontrolled C

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    approximately 40 percent and consis

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    all the air and fuel are introduced

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    Figure 5-2a. Conventional overfire

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    5-239

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    Figure 5-3. Tangential boiler windb

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    5-243

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    Reduction Controlled Uncontrolled C

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    5-247

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    primary combustion zone, thereby es

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    is an internally-staged design whic

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    Figure 5-5. Internal Fuel Staged TM

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    Figure 5-6. Dual Register Burner-Ax

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    5-257

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    5-259

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    5-261

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    5-263

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    5-265

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    zone. During firing, the lower fuel

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    was designed for turbo, down-fired,

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    . 18 The fuel and air nozzles are d

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    . 18 This technique changes the air

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    5-275

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    5-277

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    5-279

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    longer flames of some LNB will tend

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    Table 5-4 continued 5-283

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    There are two tangentially-fired un

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    5-287

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    Figure 5-14. Short-term controlled

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    For the pre-NSPS boiler retrofit wi

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    ange of 0.75 to 1.2 lb/MMBtu and we

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    Table 5-5 continued 5-295

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    The tangentially-fired boilers have

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    , the NOx emissions for three tange

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    5-301

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    5-303

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    Figure 5-16. NOx emissions from new

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    Figure 5-17. Advanced OFA system wi

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    Figure 5-18. Low NOx concentric fir

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    5-311

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    possible with CCOFA, providing bett

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    Table 5-6 continued 5-315

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    The uncontrolled and controlled NOx

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    5-319

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    Figure 5-19. NOx emissions from tan

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    superheat steam temperatures. To ma

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    TABLE 5-7. PERFORMANCE OF LNB + OFA

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    5-327

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    5-329

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    zone must be above 980 oC (1,800 oF

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    As shown in figure 5-21 5-333

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    , reburning may be applicable to cy

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    5-337

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    penetration or under-penetration co

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    Reduction Controlled Uncontrolled R

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    5-343

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    Figure 5-23. Controlled NOx emissio

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    5-347

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    emitted from natural gas and oil-fi

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    Reduction Controlled Uncontrolled C

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    In general, the higher the baseline

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    , FGR involves extracting a portion

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    Reduction TABLE 5-10. PERFORMANCE O

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    5.2.3 Overfire Air 5.2.3.1 Process

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    These units were typically operated

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    Figure 5-25. ROPM TM burner for nat

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    Figure 5-26. Dynaswirl TM low NOx b

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    5-367

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    Figure 5-27. Internal Staged Combus

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    Figure 5-28. Primary Gas-dual Regis

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    Figure 5-29. Axial Control TM Flow

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    5-375

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    The Swirl Tertiary Separation TM (S

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    . 85 In this design, the internal s

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    . 83 The burners are available for

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    5-383

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    5.2.4.3 Performance of Low NOx Burn

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    presents data for LNB on natural ga

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    approximately 0.14 lb/MMBtu at full

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    Table 5-13 concluded 5-391

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    5-393

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    fuel utility boilers are selective

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    Figure 5-32. Ammonia-based SNCR. 93

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    NH3 is a pollutant and can also rea

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    Figure 5-33. Urea-based SNCR. 92 5-

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    Figure 5-34. High-energy SNCR proce

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    5-405

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    concentrations of NOx lower the rea

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    Figure 5-35. General effects of tem

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    educe the effectiveness of SNCR. Th

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    shows that at an ammonia-to-NOx rat

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    , given sufficient concentrations o

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    content may not be as much a factor

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    Table 5-14 continued 5-419

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    Table 5-14 continued 5-421

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    There are 2 coal-fired, 2 oil-fired

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    5-425

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    5-427

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    5-429 reduction vs. Molar N/NO rati

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    oilers, respectively. As shown in t

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    for effective reagent use. 5.3.1.4

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    emissions Length of test Capacity (

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    ange depends upon the type of catal

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    . 115 5-439

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    Figure 5-41. Possible configuration

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    5-443 118

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    5-445

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    however, aqueous ammonia is safer t

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    shows a typical configuration for a

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    shows examples of relative optimum

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    The precious metal catalysts are ty

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    . 124 Honeycomb catalysts are manuf

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    5.3.2.2 Factors Affecting Performan

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    , the conversion of SO2 to SO3 is t

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    or breaking over time, or from foul

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    Reduction Reference SCR slip Fuel T

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    California Edison has a commercial

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    and 5-47b show NOx removal and NH3

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    Figure 5-48a. V/Ti catalyst ammonia

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    Figures 5-49a 5-471

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    and 5-49b show the performance resu

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    5-475

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    TABLE 5-17. PERFORMANCE OF LNB + OF

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    The addition of SNCR reduced NOx an

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    9. Lisauskas, R. A., et al. Develop

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    29. Vatsky, J. NOx Control: The Fos

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    53. Questionnaire response from Jea

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    75. Questionnaire response from Kan

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    94. Cato, G. A., Maloney, K. L., an

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    114. Heck, R. M., Bonacci, J. C., a

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    Utility TABLE 5-4. PERFORMANCE OF L

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    TABLE 5-4. PERFORMANCE OF LNB RETRO

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    TABLE 5-5. PERFORMANCE OF LNB ON NE

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    TABLE 5-6. PERFORMANCE OF LNB + OFA

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    TABLE 5-6. PERFORMANCE OF LNB + OFA

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    Utility Pacific Gas & Electric Co.

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    Utility Public Service Co. of CO Co

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    Utility Southern Cal Edison Co. Sou

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    TABLE 5-14. PERFORMANCE OF SNCR ON

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    TABLE 5-14. PERFORMANCE OF SNCR ON

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    TABLE 5-14. PERFORMANCE OF SNCR ON

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    TABLE 5-14. PERFORMANCE OF SNCR ON

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    TABLE 5-14. PERFORMANCE OF SNCR ON

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    TABLE 5-14. PERFORMANCE OF SNCR ON

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    TABLE 5-14. PERFORMANCE OF SNCR ON

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    TABLE 5-14. PERFORMANCE OF SNCR ON

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    Table 4 (cont.) TABLE 5-14. PERFORM

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    TABLE 5-14. PERFORMANCE OF SNCR ON

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    Natural gas- and oil-fired TABLE 5-

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    TABLE 5-14. PERFORMANCE OF SNCR ON

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    TABLE 5-14. PERFORMANCE OF SNCR ON

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    TABLE 5-14. PERFORMANCE OF SNCR ON

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    Total capital cost, TABLE 5-14. PER

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    TABLE 5-14. PERFORMANCE OF SNCR ON

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    Figure 88 TABLE 5-14. PERFORMANCE O

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    TABLE 5-14. PERFORMANCE OF SNCR ON

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    TABLE 5-14. PERFORMANCE OF SNCR ON

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    Table 8 TABLE 5-14. PERFORMANCE OF

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    Figure 92 TABLE 5-14. PERFORMANCE O

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    TABLE 5-14. PERFORMANCE OF SNCR ON

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    TABLE 5-14. PERFORMANCE OF SNCR ON

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    TABLE 5-14. PERFORMANCE OF SNCR ON

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    TABLE 5-14. PERFORMANCE OF SNCR ON

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    BOILERS TABLE 6-9. COSTS FOR LEA +

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    Figure 96 TABLE 5-14. PERFORMANCE O

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    TABLE 5-14. PERFORMANCE OF SNCR ON

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    TABLE 5-14. PERFORMANCE OF SNCR ON

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    Figure 98 TABLE 5-14. PERFORMANCE O

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    TABLE 5-14. PERFORMANCE OF SNCR ON

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    TABLE 5-14. PERFORMANCE OF SNCR ON

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    TABLE 5-14. PERFORMANCE OF SNCR ON

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    Figure 100 TABLE 5-14. PERFORMANCE

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    TABLE 5-14. PERFORMANCE OF SNCR ON

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    TABLE 5-14. PERFORMANCE OF SNCR ON

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    Figure 102 TABLE 5-14. PERFORMANCE

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    Figure 106 TABLE 5-14. PERFORMANCE

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    TABLE 5-14. PERFORMANCE OF SNCR ON

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    TABLE 5-14. PERFORMANCE OF SNCR ON

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    Figure 110 TABLE 5-14. PERFORMANCE

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    TABLE 5-14. PERFORMANCE OF SNCR ON

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    Table 13 TABLE 5-14. PERFORMANCE OF

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    Figure 116 TABLE 5-14. PERFORMANCE

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    Figure 120 TABLE 5-14. PERFORMANCE

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    Figure 126 TABLE 5-14. PERFORMANCE

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    TABLE 6-21. COSTS FOR LNB + AOFA +

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    TABLE 6-4. DESIGN AND OPERATING CHA

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    eUncontrolled NOx levels of 0.70 lb

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    TABLE 6-13. COSTS FOR SNCR APPLIED

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    In coal-fired boilers, an increase

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    7-791

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    Carbon monoxide emissions are prese

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    7-795

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    There are four applications of LNB

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    7-799

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    7-801

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    7-803

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    88.1 percent at full load and from

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    TABLE 7-3. SUMMARY OF TOTAL HYDROCA

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    decreased from 0.04 to 0.023 gr/scf

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    TABLE 7-4. SUMMARY OF CARBON MONOXI

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    7-813

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    TABLE 7-7 7-815

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    Data from the two Broadway units sh

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    Five natural gas-fired units report

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    energy required for the NOx reducti

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    TABLE 7-6. SUMMARY OF POTENTIAL IMP

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    7-825

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    7-827

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    7.3.1.2 Fluidized Bed Units. Table

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    summarizes CO, NH3 slip, and THC em

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    . Two of the pilot units are coal-f

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    during the initial period (2,000 to

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    7-837

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    Response to Section 114 information

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    43. Letter and attachments from Wel

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    54. Letter and attachments from Coo

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    Utility Board of Public Utilities A

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    Utility Georgia Power Co. Ohio Edis

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    Utility Wisconsin Power and Light C

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    Utility Unit (standard) a Florida P

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    Utility Wisconsin Electric Power Co

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    APPENDIX A COSTING PROCEDURES A.1 M

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    The equation to calculate an indire

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    where: where: Supporting equations

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    With annualized capital costs of $5

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    Total Capital Variable O&M Indirect

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    Figure A-10

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    A-1 presents the plot of the data a

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    A-14

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    A.3 LNB APPLIED TO COAL-FIRED TANGE

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    A.4 LNB + AOFA APPLIED TO COAL-FIRE

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    From this, the basic system cost al

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    Variable Fixed Indirect System Cost

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    Figure A-24

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    A-2 presents the plot of the data a

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    fuel. As discussed relative to boil

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    Total Capital Variable O&M Indirect

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    typical sulfur and calorific conten

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    MW, HR, and CR are as previously de

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    Reference 11 ($/kW) 11 12 Breakdown

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    Figure A-3 A-38

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    A-40

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    A.9 LNB (TANGENTIALLY-FIRED), LNB +

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    A.10.3 Retrofit Cost There were no

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    A.11 SCR A.11.1 Data Summary The SC

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    The equation for estimating the cos

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    A-50

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    A.12 COMBINATION CONTROLS - LNB + S

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    12. Letter and attachments from All

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