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NOx Emissions from Process Heaters - US Environmental Protection ...

NOx Emissions from Process Heaters - US Environmental Protection ...

NOx Emissions from Process Heaters - US Environmental Protection

Please note: The page numbers seem to have been screwed up in this electronic form. Sorry about that! Alternative Control Techniques Document— NO x Emissions from Process Heaters (Revised) Emission Standards Division U.S. ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY Office of Air and Radiation Office of Air Quality Planning and Standards Research Triangle Park, North Carolina 27711 September 1993 EPA-453/R-93-034

  • Page 2 and 3: ALTERNATIVE CONTROL TECHNIQUES DOCU
  • Page 4 and 5: TABLE OF CONTENTS (continued) Secti
  • Page 6 and 7: TABLE OF CONTENTS (continued) Secti
  • Page 8 and 9: LIST OF TABLES (continued) viii Pag
  • Page 10 and 11: LIST OF TABLES (continued) x Page T
  • Page 12 and 13: LIST OF FIGURES (continued) xii Pag
  • Page 15 and 16: 1.0 INTRODUCTION Congress, in the C
  • Page 17 and 18: 2.0 SUMMARY This chapter presents a
  • Page 19 and 20: 2-3
  • Page 21 and 22: Uncontrolled emission factors for t
  • Page 23 and 24: eduction efficiencies and the reduc
  • Page 25 and 26: TABLE and 2-3 2-3. present REDUCTIO
  • Page 27 and 28: 2-11
  • Page 29 and 30: TABLE 2-4. MODEL HEATERS: NO EMISSI
  • Page 31 and 32: TABLE 2-4. (continued) Model heater
  • Page 33: TABLE 2-5. (continued) Model heater
  • Page 39: Figure 2-2. Model heaters: NO emiss
  • Page 43: Figure 2-4. Model heaters: NO emiss
  • Page 47 and 48: 2.4 IMPACTS OF NO CONTROLS x The us
  • Page 49 and 50: 3.0 PROCESS HEATER DESCRIPTION AND
  • Page 51 and 52: flows. A typical process heater dis
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    Figure 3-1. Cross-section of a typi

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    etween the hot flue gas in the stac

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    Figure 3-2. Examples of radiant sec

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    Fuel compatibility is also importan

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    shows typical burners found in proc

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    Figure 3-4. Size distribution of th

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    19 494,000 bbl/d. As of January 1,

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    provides a breakdown of the number

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    gives a more detailed breakdown of

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    displays the growth estimate for th

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    3-25

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    TABLE 3-3. ENERGY REQUIREMENTS OF M

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    TABLE 3-4. REPORTED APPLICATIONS OF

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    3-31

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    20. Cherry, S.S., and S.C. Hunter (

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    4.0 CHARACTERIZATION OF NO EMIS x 4

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    4 Figure 4-1. Impact of temperature

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    4-5

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    1 Figure 4-2. Effect of fuel-bound

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    4.1.3 Prompt NO Formation x Prompt

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    80 percent hydrogen; is primarily f

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    NO x formation. Limited oxygen avai

  • Page 97 and 98:

    shows the effect of combustion air

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    Figure 4-4. Effect of firebox tempe

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    elow ambient pressure. Process heat

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    Figure 4-5. Effect of excess air on

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    4-23

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    TABLE 4-1. AP-42 ESTIMATES FOR UNCO

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    Figure 4-6. Uncontrolled NO emissio

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    Figure 4-7. Uncontrolled NO emissio

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    4-31

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    increases in the nitrogen content o

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    The emission factors in Table 4-2 f

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    This inventory, tabled in Appendix

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    The data presented in Table 4-3 are

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    4-41

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    TABLE 4-4. MODEL HEATERS AND UNCONT

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    of the ND heaters in Figure 4-8. Se

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    eaks tend to divide the heaters in

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    presents a graphical representation

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    TABLE 4-6. MODEL HEATERS AND UNCONT

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    Table 4-8 4-53

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    presents two model heaters represen

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    4-57

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    13. Reference 5, p. 20. 14. Referen

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    5..0 NO CONTROL TECHNIQUES x In thi

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    leakage into the heater, and the ab

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    Figure 5-1 illustrates the typical

  • Page 149 and 150:

    combustion air preheat and NO emiss

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    Figure 5-2. Staged combustion air l

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    TABLE 5-1. CONTROLLED EMISSIONS FOR

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    5-73

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    TABLE 5-2. CONTROLLED EMISSION LEVE

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    Table 5-3 5-77

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    presents several staged-air burners

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    these "air-staged" designs use a te

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    5-83

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    Spacing between burner center lines

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    1 Figure 5-4. Schematic of a staged

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    Reductions in NO emissions of up to

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    TABLE 5-5. CONTROLLED NO x EMISSION

  • Page 175 and 176:

    5-93

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    vii. Ultra-Low NO Burners x Ultra-l

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    induce hot flue gas back into the p

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    technique is available for new inst

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    presents data from three different

  • Page 185 and 186:

    Ammonia slip can also cause ammoniu

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    22 a TDN system applied to a proces

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    Installation date Fuel TABLE 5-7. P

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    expensive and should be acceptable

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    injection process has been installe

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    ® 7 Figure 5-7. Nalco Fuel Tech NO

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    large variations in firebox tempera

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    Capacity, MMBtu/hr TABLE 5-8. NALCO

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    een achieved by the use of other co

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    Horizontal and vertical arrangement

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    6 Figure 5-9. Effect of temperature

  • Page 207 and 208:

    operations and thus uniform flue ga

  • Page 209 and 210:

    TABLE 5-9. CONTROLLED EMISSION FACT

  • Page 211 and 212:

    5-129

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    total effective reduction for natur

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    , pyrolysis furnaces use approximat

  • Page 217 and 218:

    During the coke removal operation,

  • Page 219 and 220:

    Natural to mechanical draft convers

  • Page 221 and 222:

    Model heater capacity, MMBtu/hr TAB

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    TABLE 5-14. MODEL HEATERS: CONTROLL

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    emission reductions for 8,760 hours

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    5-145

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    5-147

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    percent emission reduction. For exa

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    23 Letter and attachments from Pick

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    6..0 CONTROL COSTS This chapter pre

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    TABLE 6-1. UTILITY, CHEMICAL, AND M

  • Page 239 and 240:

    where: and where: TIC = total capit

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    Operating costs for LNBs described

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    catalyst replacement, additional el

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    Section 6.1.3.1. Selective noncatal

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    present these costs for the ND low-

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    TABLE 6-2. (continued) Operating an

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    Model heater capacity, NO x control

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    TABLE 6-3. (continued) 6-18

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    TABLE 6-5. COSTS OF CONTROL TECHNIQ

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    TABLE 6-3. (continued) the control

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    TABLE 6-3. (continued) TABLE 6-7. N

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    TABLE 6-3. (continued) 6-26

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    TABLE 6-3. (continued) 90 percent l

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    TABLE 6-3. (continued) TABLE 6-8. C

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    TABLE 6-8. (continued) Model heater

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    TABLE 6-9. (continued) Uncontrolled

  • Page 271:

    TABLE 6-11. COST EFFECTIVENESS OF C

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    TABLE 6-13. CARB COST EFFECTIVENESS

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    Heater capacity, MMBtu/hr TABLE 6-1

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    11 Letter and attachments from Stri

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    depending on the uncontrolled emiss

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    In a test involving a process heate

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    function of flue gas O content for

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    8 TABLE 7-1. OPTIMUM LOW-EXCESS-AIR

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    7-10

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    TABLE 7-2. NITROGEN OXIDE AND CARBO

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    TABLE 7-3. NITROGEN OXIDE AND CARBO

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    7-16

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    Figure 7-2. Pilot-scale test result

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    typical refinery heater application

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    Formation of N O also increases wit

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    this material is quite large and di

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    d. REFERENCES FOR CHAPTER 7 1 Lette

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    APPENDIX A. REFINERY PROCESS HEATER

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    APPENDIX A. (continued) Air Oxygen

  • Page 313 and 314:

    APPENDIX B: (continued) NO x baseli

  • Page 315 and 316:

    APPENDIX C. LIST OF PROCESS HEATER

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