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aliningrad: Visions of the Future

Kaliningrad: Visions of the Future

Documentation of the

international Symposium

15-17 June 2005

in Kaliningrad

Urban development of the city centre


Kaliningrad: Visions of the Future

Urban development of the city centre

Documentation of the international Symposium 15-17 June 2005 in Kaliningrad

Location

Conference Centre at the Ocean Museum - Naberezhnaja Petra Velikogo 1

Kaliningrad/Russia

Promoter

Municipal Authority Kaliningrad, Department of Architecture and Urban Design,

Kaliningrad/Russia

Öffentlicher Verband "Kaliningrader Kulturkontakte", Hamburg/Germany

Management

OOO "Nikor-Projekt" GmbH, Kaliningrad/Russia

D&K projektentwicklungsmanagement, Hamburg/Germany

Moderators

Dr. Vladimir Renevic Krogius, Moscow/Russia

Prof. Peter Zlonicky, Munich/Germany

With kind support of

Öffentlicher Verband "Kaliningrader Kulturkontakte", Hamburg/Germany

Kaliningrad Branch of the Russian Union of Architects, Kaliningrad/Russia

Dr. Christina Weiss, Minister of the Chancellor's Office, Representative of the Federal

Government for Culture and Media (BKM), Berlin/Germany

Deutsche Gesellschaft für Technische Zusammenarbeit (GTZ) GmbH, Berlin/Germany


International Symposium Kaliningrad

ontents

Contents

1 Foreword

1.1 Opening address of the Symposium, held by Tatiana L. Kondakova

1.2 Opening address of the Symposium, held by Prof. Dr. Dieter Biallas

2 Introduction

3 Lectures

3.1 First Day 15.06.2005

3.1.1 Lecture 1 – Tatiana L. Kondakova

Current state of development of the city centre/problems of the centre

3.1.2 Lecture 2 – Olga V. Krasovskaya

Visions of the Future, Tasks of the present and roots of the past

3.1.3 Lecture 3 – Dr. Werner Möller

Actualisation of the European City

3.1.4 Lecture 4 – Oleg I. Vasjutin

Historical and development stages of Königsberg/Kaliningrad

3.1.5 Lecture 5 – Prof. Marcin Orawiec

Transformations

3.1.6 Lecture 6 – Prof. Irina V. Belinzeva

Stylistic peculiarities of architecture in Königsberg

in the 13th - 20th century

3.1.7 Lecture 7 – Venzel T. Salakhov

History and contemporaneity in the planning pattern

of Kaliningrad's city centre

3.1.8 Discussion – First Day

3.2 Second Day 16.06.2005

3.2.1 Lecture 8 – Prof. Gennadij M. Fedorov

Geopolitical aspects of the relationships between the

European Union and Russia –

The place of Kaliningrad and the Oblast in the context of economic

and cultural relationships

3.2.2 Lecture 9 – Prof. Sergej D. Kozlov

Investment projects and their influence on the planning structure

of the centre of Kaliningrad

3.2.3 Lecture 10 – Prof. Dr. Dr. h.c. Jürgen Bloech

Location factor architecture and other economic location factors

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Contents

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3.2.4 Lecture 11 – Dr. Elke Knappe

Kaliningrad – a strong partner in the Baltic Region?

3.2.5 Lecture 12 – Flemming Frost

Strategy of urban projects

3.2.6 Lecture 13 – Dr. Otto Flagge

Analysis of urban structures

3.2.7 Lecture 14 – Olga V. Mezey

Königsberg/Kaliningrad – Wandering centre in the context of

transformation of transport communications

3.2.8 Lecture 15 – Prof. Dr. Eckart Güldenburg (held by Julius Ehlers)

Structural changes of ports – a chance for urban development?

3.2.9 Lecture 16 – Daniel Luchterhandt

“Building civil society” – Experience from St. Petersburg

3.2.10 Dicussion – Second Day

3.3 Third Day 17.06.2005

3.3.1 Lecture 17 – Jochen Brandi and Andrej Derbenkov

Traces of history and future images of the island city on the River Pregel

3.3.2 Lecture 18 – Prof. Peter Zlonicky

Continuity and inconsistency – Experience from Berlin

3.3.3 Lecture 19 – Anna Brunow-Maunula

Methods of controlling the townscape of Helsinki

3.3.4 Lecture 20 – Dr. Sergey V. Semenzov

On the principles of retaining the urban genetic code in the

process of reconstruction and development of the city

3.3.5 Recommendations

4 Summary

Participants

Illustrations

Imprint

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International Symposium Kaliningrad

4

1 Foreword

Foreword

1 Foreword


1.1 Opening address of the Symposium

Tatiana L. Kondakova

Dear Colleagues, Ladies and Gentlemen, dear Guests!

It is my pleasure to welcome you at our symposium. This meeting is a good sign for the development

process of our city.

In preparation of the 750th anniversary of the city, we are doing a lot of construction work, and

have acquired a taste for it. At the same time we are beginning to understand that besides the

tasks of the moment, it is necessary to start a comprehensive development project in the historic

part of the city.

We are going to speak about the development of the central part of our historic city, about the

current state of the city, and how we would like to see it in future.

I hope we will all share our experiences and ideas about the direction the administration and

professionals will have to take to make the most wonderful dreams come true, for the city and its

inhabitants.

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International Symposium Kaliningrad

1.2 Opening address of the Symposium

Prof. Dr. Dieter Biallas

6

1 Foreword

I am a representative of the working group Kulturkontakte Kaliningrad which has provided the

impulse for this symposium and also secured the financing by the two German institutions that

significantly contributed to this symposium. We also managed to engage the cities of Gdansk,

Hamburg, Kiel and Rostock to participate in the programme. Please allow me to briefly introduce

the working group.

Kaliningrader Kulturkontakte was set up in the first half of the 1990s with the aim of opening a

window of dialogue between Kaliningrad and the West – especially Germany. To us, this seemed

necessary at that time because of the rightwing political forces that endeavoured to exploit the

chances in the post-perestroika era to spread dangerous, and to some extent revanchist, ideas

that certainly are contrary to the prevalent wish for intercultural dialogue and reconciliation. The

idea came in the guise of private initiatives. Our working group wanted to prevent the spread of

such ideas in the Kaliningrad Region, and instead, commence a dialogue to overcome the fronts

of the Cold War seeking reconciliation of our peoples. Core members of the group were Mrs

Gräfin Dorothea Razumovsky, Renate von Metzler, Haug von Kuenheim and myself. We

organised several art exhibitions, state-aided and privately funded, a film festival and meetings

of Russian and German artists in Kaliningrad and in Germany respectively. Here, in Kaliningrad,

12 painters met on the ship Vitjas and in Lich, near Frankfurt, 12 sculptors met – Germans and

Russians in equal numbers. These projects are both state-funded and funded by private sources

in Germany.

After several years the rightwing influence ceased and numerous links were established between

the Kaliningrad region and its western neighbours, especially Scandinavia and Germany. Our

initiative was no longer the only one and the group gradually withdrew.

The imminent anniversary of the city gave cause to think about whether the working group could

contribute, a kind of birthday present to the city. We decided to give an impulse to the discussion

on the urban development of Kaliningrad that should build on the thought that had previously

gone into the subject, and to encourage contacts to western urban planning partners. In talks with

the city council and private partners in Kaliningrad the proposal was developed to facilitate an

information trip by a delegation of Kaliningrad experts to meet experts in the cities Gdansk,

Hamburg, Kiel and Rostock.

The choice of cities was determined by two main factors: all are located on the Baltic Sea or are

former Hanse towns, and all suffered from massive destruction in the Second World War and a

difficult period of reconstruction. The trip was a great success.

Our second proposal was related to this symposium. We suggested a meeting of experts form

the neighbouring countries right here in Kaliningrad in order to establish a dialogue with the

numerous local experts. Also the public should be involved in the discussions about the future of

the city.


The role of the working group was mainly to win the participation of the above-mentioned cities

and to organise the outstanding financing of the German contribution for both these events. We

managed to gain the cooperation of GTZ (Deutsche Gesellschaft für Technische Zusammenarbeit)

and the State Minister for Culture and Media of the German Federal Government, Dr.

Christina Weiss. We mobilised a total of 200,000 Euro and contributed to enlisting German

experts to partake in the preparation and realisation of the symposium.

We believe that this contribution is an answer to the wish voiced by large sections of the

population – that the citizens will claim the city as their own by tying into its history and linking it

to the present and future, thereby creating a homeland for themselves.

In this respect our efforts are a small contribution to heal the wounds left by the war and its

aftermath, the wounds of disavowal and hostility in the years 1939-1945 and in the post-war

period in the whole of Europe.

I hope this symposium will be a great success and would like to thank

the German institutions that have contributed to the financing

the cities of Gdansk, Hamburg, Kiel and Rostock for their expert and financial contributions

the Russian partners who worked on this project and helped finance it

the experts from the East and West for their participation and contributions

and you, for being here and for your attention.

Thank you.

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International Symposium Kaliningrad

8

2 Introduction

Introduction

2 Introduction


For more than half a century the urban community of Kaliningrad, its architects and engineers

have been facing the problem of shaping the vision and image of the centre of the city. The City

of Königsberg/Kaliningrad has developed for almost 750 years, it is characterised by distinctive

architectural ensembles, squares and parks that reflect cultural traditions and art-historical and

aesthetic trends of the various epochs and historical episodes.

Tragic events of World War II caused catastrophic damage to the cultural fabric of the old city.

Entire layers of the historical foundations of the existing urban area were razed to the ground.

The city centre was particularly badly affected. The political consequences of the War resulted in

changes in the indigenous population and in the transformation of the urban planning culture of

the city.

During the post-war period the urban community endeavoured to restore the life of the city.

Originally the city was reconstructed without changing the structure and its street network. Later

the urban fabric that had grown over centuries was abandoned. As a consequence of the

psychological and emotional condition of society after the cruelties of the War, the ideological line

was the absolute neglect of the former architectural and urban pattern of the city centre. It was

decided to build quite another socialist city – Kaliningrad – to replace the old Königsberg, in

which the memory of the centuries-old history of the place would be erased gradually.

Finally, these directives resulted in the decision to demolish the damaged buildings in the

historical quarters. The most dramatic alterations took place in the city centre: whole districts

were cleared, the city and its street network extended, standard mass-construction implemented

in microrayons, which was the directive state policy on architecture and town planning for a

longtime.

The redevelopment of the city centre had to serve the ideological confrontations of the past.

However, an adequate solution was not found and its appearance remains unfinished. After the

demise of the ideological age, land use and urban design issues merely cause dissatisfaction.

In the context of the changes on the political map of Europe and in the economic system of

Russia, the civil society of this enclave – the Kaliningrad Region – faces the challenges of new

times. The tasks include the development of Kaliningrad as a Russian city within the realm the

European Union.

The authorities of the city are now faced with the necessity of identifying recent and current

processes within the city's development, to formulate new aims for the social, cultural, architectural

and artistic vision of the historical settlement.

To achieve this, a new comprehensive plan of the city was commissioned. Several scientific

forums, cultural exchanges and contacts with many experts from European cities took place. The

main idea of the discussions was the further development of the city, which no longer was to

follow the course of destruction and erasure of the former townscape and buildings, but their

sensitive inclusion into a new environment, taking into consideration the continuation of all

current developments. An active dialogue is being held between the community of Kaliningrad

and organisations of former citizens of Königsberg.

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International Symposium Kaliningrad

10

2 Introduction

The present Symposium is held within the framework of the 750th anniversary celebrations of the

city and is supported at highest state level. At the organisation committee's meeting on the 60th

anniversary of the foundation of the Oblast and 750 year anniversary of the foundation of

Königsberg, on 20 October 2004, the decision was made to hold an international festival,

“Kaliningrad Visions”.

Initiators of the Symposium are the Department of Architecture and Town Planning at Kaliningrad

City Hall, the Kaliningrad branch of the Russian Union of Architects and the association

“Kaliningrader Kulturkontakte” (Germany), with the friendly support of the Representative of the

Federal Government for Culture and Media, Dr. Christina Weiss, and the Deutsche Gesellschaft

für Technische Zusammenarbeit (GTZ).

Object of the Symposium

The focus of the Symposium is the centre of Kaliningrad within the historical ring of the second

rampart fortification: Gvardejsky Prospect, Yunosheskaya Street, Rakitnaya Street, Lithuanian

Rampart, Kalinin Prospect and Zheleznodorozhnaya Street including the adjoining “green belt”

areas.

Tasks of the Symposium

The international Symposium has the following objectives:

- To induce discussion among the invited specialists, based on the analysis of the current

situation, problems and development potential of the inner city; to find the best methods and

draw up possible development scenarios of the central part of Kaliningrad;

- To form a circle of creative professional groups and specialists who are not indifferent to the

fate of the city and who, in the interest of development prospects, will participate in the

forthcoming international competition for the development of Kaliningrad.

Results of the Symposium will serve the organisers and the local authorities as a basis for

drawing up a programme for the international competition for the development of the inner city

of Kaliningrad.

Current state of the area

The core of the city, the geographical and compositional centre, has not been developed. Previously

approved projects have not been completed yet. The focal point and main elements

on the huge empty space in the city centre are the major transportation routes crossing the city

on two levels, Leninskiy and Moskovskiy Prospects, and the “House of the Soviets”, built in the

Brutalist style, that was never completed.

The historical buildings in the inner city were lost, the land is now open space. The infrastructure

and the urban design of these areas is minimal. The only surviving building is the Cathedral that

has been partially reconstructed. It is an island within an area of historical destruction.


Natural and artificial water areas are found in the centre. Their function is purely recreational,

except for the harbour section of the River Pregel. The flood plain of the river is natural in

character. Numerous urban functions are not linked to the water's edge.

In the inner city, within the area of the second defensive rampart, the main characteristics of the

radial planning system are preserved. The existing town gates and the green belt on the site of

the old ramparts form the historical planning framework until today.

The historical urban structure was destroyed. The newly developed squares and spaces are

clearly too large for the existing buildings.

The vehicular traffic system in the centre of the city is unsatisfactory, the situation close to

breaking point. The centre is overloaded with transit traffic in a north-south direction caused by

the absence of special relief routes and only few bridges across the River Pregel. Railway

terminals are located on opposite ends of the city centre.

Congestion of the city led to the deterioration of the environment. Strong west-east winds sweep

along the open valley of the river unhindered by buildings, causing aerial erosion and thus

worsening the microclimate of the city. This is mostly felt in winter.

Pedestrian traffic and links into the densely populated quarters are unordered. Urban design

standards of pedestrian pavements and traffic safety are low.

Residential areas within the city centre are of pre-fabricated concrete construction typical of the

Soviet period. The road network of these areas was extended contrasting the historical street

system. Building densities were reduced according to environmental regulations at that time.

Institutions and service industries are evenly distributed and generally focused on trade and

entertainment.

Administrative functions and retail trade centres are located along the main traffic routes, Leninskiy

Prospect, Mira Prospect and Victory Square. Their chaotic locations do not comply with standards

of accommodation and care of the local population.

At the intersection of Leninskiy Prospect and the green belt, two unfinished projects from the

early 21st century can be found: Victory Square and the square at the Southern Railway Station.

On Victory Square a public, administrative, religious and trade centre is currently being developed,

leading to a displacement of functions from the core of the city.

The pre-fabricated concrete buildings along the main roads are monotonous in appearance. Existing

historical buildings are disharmonious and a neutral transition to newly built areas is

lacking. Technical conditions of historical buildings are unsatisfactory as these are not maintained

or refurbished. Pre-war housing stock and the first generation of mass-construction pre-fabs are

evidently falling derelict – the lack of technical maintenance led to deprived living conditions.

Some of the open spaces are of historical origins, others were created on vacant sites after the

demolition of existing buildings. The quality of existing mature trees from before the war is low,

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International Symposium Kaliningrad

12

2 Introduction

new planting has been added to compensate this. Many trees are over mature or diseased, and

there are numerous areas of uncontrolled vegetation.

Technical supply networks of the city have been partially renewed, but still need considerable

investments for modernisation and reconstruction. The underground service networks in the

historical core have mostly not been exploited, as the area is not built up. Their condition needs

be examined and documented.

Main urban problems of the city

The main urban and spatial problems of the inner city of Kaliningrad can be listed as:

- Non-existent or insufficiently distinguishable city centre as a place of historical origin and

development;

- Lack of specific plans for the city centre both in detail (micro scale) and as general concepts

and proposals. This also applies to the appropriate relation of the “inherited” and the

“contemporary”;

- Insufficient coordination of transportation issues between the architectural proposals and the

functions of the centre.

The general condition of the inner city requires the formulation of an urban doctrine. The greatest

challenge in this is the creation of an individual image for the city. There are two different planning

approaches: The reconstruction of the lost city centre and the search for new forms. The result

will directly depend on the cultural understanding of the investors.

Analysis of the urban aspects leads to the following conclusions, questions and tasks that need

to be addressed in solving the problems of the inner city of Kaliningrad:

- The approach to history and appreciation of the place. The interrelation of history and the

contemporary in terms of planning and actual building: Further disintegration or continual

integration of modern urban design?

- Kneiphof Island: Possible historical reconstruction and revitalisation of the local quarter within

the limits of the island location, with extensive areas of historical buildings and existing

underground infrastructure, as an object of urban archaeology.

- Functional zoning of the city centre, its composition and structure. What functions may be or

need to be implemented in the centre of Kaliningrad?

- Architectural and artistic design of the inner city and its periphery: artistic image of the centre,

urban system, silhouette of the city.

- Scale of building development in the inner city: interrelation of scales of man-made and

natural landscapes – balance and dislocation. Is it possible to make the city centre of

Kaliningrad comfortable?

- Transportation planning in the centre: Solving problems by redirecting transit traffic or by

building high-speed thoroughfares; reorganising north-south traffic flows; completion of the

inner ring. Structuring pedestrian traffic – pedestrian areas; segregation of pedestrian traffic

and vehicular traffic.

- Re-establishing the links between urban land uses and the river and the image of the city on

the waterfront. Bridges in the centre – was it right to give them up? Is it possible to reclaim

the romantic appeal of “Euler's solution”?


- Optimisation of green open spaces, revitalisation of historical green spaces and the revival of

urban recreational functions. Relation of open and built up spaces in the inner city.

- Ways of creating a regional style of architecture for Kaliningrad: orientation on historical

association, the architecture of the Baltic states? Adopt the international contemporary style

or vernacular architecture?

- Ways of modernising concrete pre-fab quarters: demolition or reconstruction, increasing

densities or return to historical building types.

- Creating an inner city that is attractive to tourism: transition of single sites into complexes of

different historical epochs and events, related to history, culture and European historical

figures.

- Founding of a school for restoration and the education of experts specialised on local culture;

links to schools in neighbouring countries. Improvements in the field of preservation and

maintenance of historic monuments.

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International Symposium Kaliningrad

14

3 Lectures


First Day

3.1 First Day 15.06.2005

3.1.1 Lecture 1 – Tatiana L. Kondakova

Current state of development of the city centre/problems of the centre

3.1.2 Lecture 2 – Olga V. Krasovskaya

Visions of the Future, Tasks of the Present and Roots of the Past

3.1.3 Lecture 3 – Dr. Werner Möller

Actualisation of the European City

3.1.4 Lecture 4 – Oleg I. Vasjutin

Historical and development stages of Königsberg/Kaliningrad

3.1.5 Lecture 5 – Prof. Marcin Orawiec

Transformations

3.1.6 Lecture 6 – Prof. Irina V. Belinzeva

Stylistic peculiarities of architecture in Königsberg

in the 13th - 20th century

3.1.7 Lecture 7 – Venzel T. Salakhov

History and contemporaneity in the planning pattern

of Kaliningrad's city centre

3.1.8 Discussion – First Day

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International Symposium Kaliningrad

Lecture 1

3.1.1 Lecture 1 –

16

3 Lectures

Current state of development of the city centre/problems of the centre

Tatiana L. Kondakova


Current state of development of the city centre/problems of the centre

My presentation is not going to be entirely traditional. I would like to tell you about my own

objectives and about the objectives the citizens have set before their authorities. I hope to hear

your opinions on whether my understanding of the problems of the city is similar to yours.

What was the incentive for conducting this Symposium? We believe that it was a public necessity

caused by the citizens' dissatisfaction with the conditions of the urban environment in the historic

part of the city.

Only fifteen years have passed since 1990, but a lot has changed. In the first place – the citizens

have claimed their environment. People's requirements have grown not only in a material sense,

but also in the spiritual realm. When we meet our colleagues in mainland Russia, we often hear

that in Kaliningrad, unlike in many other regions, there is an established civil society. It certainly

is an exaggeration, but we nevertheless agree with the fact that we actually have forces that

express the ideas of the urban community, including public claims made to the authorities. These

public claims have quickly moved from the purely material to the spiritual, to the realm of culture

and life styles in the modern city.

That is why we are now talking about the cultural heritage, about the city's history, and also about

our role in making and sustaining this history.

In the discussions on the built development, its conveniences, buildings, courtyards, entrance

ways and flats, the views expressed by the citizens are a direct response to the condition of the

city. Unfortunately, negative impressions prevail.

It seems to me that in the course of our Symposium it is necessary to determine possible trends

of development, and change and restoration of the built environment in the historic city centre;

this would not only allow a rational utilisation of land resources but would reconnect the torn

fabric of history. This is the main objective.

Kant put it succinctly, “Upwards does not always mean high into the air”. These are very

significant words that one should recall while considering the urban development. This is an

activity that has both a material and an ideal component – benefit and beauty on the one hand,

and huge capital investment on the other.

We all feel nostalgic for a city in which none of us have lived. We all have a certain mental picture

of this city: based on photographs, maps that are available today, and on the existing urban

geography. In our understanding it was an ideal city. An unconscious desire emerges, to restore

what has been lost. But should these ideas be distributed?

How can the city develop?

When preparing for today's Symposium, I read letters, translated into Russian, of travellers who

had visited the city. I was struck by a letter dated 1931, in which a traveller wrote that it was

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International Symposium Kaliningrad

impossible to cross the centre of Königsberg, that there was little vegetation and that something

should be done with the lakes. That letter could have been written today.

Today, we want the city centre to meet all our requirements. What should be done first? Where

does the decade-long journey start onto which one would have to embark to solve the problems

one by one? What we would like to do, is to develop the historic city in a way that it can be

combined with modern claims.

When we asked our architects' opinion about how they would like to see our city, we received a

huge variety of ideas: these include a theatre in the historic building tradition to super modern

buildings in the high-tech style. Everyone should see something of relevance to him in the city,

and everyone should find what he needs. But there must be something in common, to unite

everyone. Convenience and attractiveness of the redeveloped city centre is the final aim which

we will pursue in our creative work.

This is what I would like to talk about, and hear your opinions, so that the ideas expressed today

can be formulated into statements and tasks. We believe that the time has come for the city to

talk about its role, not only in the context of our country, but also the whole of Europe. I would

like excellent professionals to take part in the development of the city. In the coming years we

want to conduct an international competition for the development of the city centre. A brief must

be written for this competition. I believe that the success of the competition will, to a great extent,

depend on how the brief will be formulated. A positive result will, on the one hand, depend on the

planners’ understanding of the project and, on the other hand, on the degree to which the public’s

demands are reflected in the programme.

Today, we are unable to answer all questions, but I hope that we will find answers that will help

us to move on, as a result of our meeting. After my presentation you are going to hear the

presentation of the author of the city's masterplan. It is an important document. The significance

of the work that has gone into compiling this document will become apparent when working with

it.

While developing, restoring and redeveloping the old centre, the city should not lose its face, it

should retain its historic, economic and cultural features that make it significant, both for Russia

and for the whole of Europe.

I would like to ask all those present to share their experience, knowledge and opinions with my

colleagues and myself so that our endeavour may succeed. Your work will be embodied in the

future of the city, which we will jointly decide on and that will be appreciated by future generations.

18

3 Lectures


Personal Profile

Resume

Name

Tatiana Lazarevna Kondakova

Origin

Kaliningrad/Russia

Profession

Architect, Lawer

Main profession field

Municipal services in control of urban

development planning

Main subject

Urban zoning and land register zoning,

architecture and urban planning,

normative and statutory control of

urban development

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International Symposium Kaliningrad

Lecture 2

3.1.2 Lecture 2 –

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3 Lectures

Visions of the Future, Tasks of the present and roots of the past

Olga V. Krasovskaya


Visions of the Future, Tasks of the present and roots of the past

This year Königsberg-Kaliningrad celebrates its 750th anniversary. Considering its complicated,

and, at times tragic history, recognition of the fact of a continuous 750-year history is a significant

event in itself.

The first visit to the Kaliningrad Oblast in the early 1980s and first impressions are easy to

remember: an amazing railway station of red-brick with covered platforms reminding of the film

“17 Moments of Spring”, and the surreal view of the gothic Cathedral ruins side by side with the

unfinished concrete bulk of the Soviet administrative monster.

At that time it was impossible to imagine that the Kaliningrad Oblast would be open for international

tourism, the Cathedral would be restored, the Lenin monument “removed for restoration”

and the new church raised on the square (former Hansa Platz) right in front of the City Hall. It

was hard to imagine – but we see it happening now.

The international Symposium “Town planning development of the Centre of Kaliningrad” was

held in the wake of the city's 750th anniversary events. It is dedicated to the issues and ideas for

the development of Kaliningrad and its centre in the 21st century.

It was extremely interesting and important that from the very beginning of the conference a wide

range of questions concerning the place and role of the Kaliningrad Region and its capital in

modern society were raised. It is significant as the town planning ideas present strategic ideas

concerning deep socio-economic and political processes of the modern world.

As head of the authors' group that developed the Urban Masterplan of Kaliningrad, I was asked

to state the central points of the project and formulate the main problems concerning the centre

of Kaliningrad and approaches to solving these.

The first aspect was the accurate formulation of strategic ideas and development aims for the

whole Kaliningrad Region, because without this basic stage, the best architectural ideas will

remain mere visions. The geopolitical situation of the Kaliningrad Oblast has a specific character

as the region is separated from the main territory of the Russian Federation by other independent

states. Surely isolation of the Region from the mother country causes a lot of difficulties, such as

breakdown of the traditional economic ties, difficulties in transportation, problems of goods transit,

tariffs, job placement and competitiveness of economy etc. But! Taking a look at the modern

map of Europe it is obvious that the exclave situation of the region surrounded by EU countries

also implies a number of potential advantages for the Kaliningrad Oblast and Russia as a whole.

I. The Region

1. The utilisation of strong points of the region's geographic locations – creating a “Region of

Cooperation”, the place where representatives of different nations could enter into cooperation

in the widest sense – human, economic and cultural. The task of expansion of cooperation

between the RF and the EU can, and must be intensely implemented in the Kaliningrad

Region and its capital Kaliningrad.

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International Symposium Kaliningrad

2. Communications – inclusion of the Kaliningrad Oblast and Kaliningrad in the international

transport corridor system – the problems of development of transport infrastructure, borders,

tariffs and determining the role of Kaliningrad port in the system of international traffic.

3. Tourism as a tool of cooperation and economic development.

II. The City

The priorities of the Kaliningrad town planning strategy are formulated in the Urban Masterplan:

- Legal decision-making – developing a package of regulating documents: the Masterplan, the

plan of historic and cultural monument conservation zones, rules of land tenure and building,

other standard acts, public hearings procedures etc.;

- Openness of the city – accordance of spatial opportunities for cultural, economic and political

cooperation, creating territorial conditions for investment, reservation of the territories for a

wide range of activities, access to information;

- Cultural self-identification (discovering the regional cultural phenomenon and individual

architectural image of the place in the world, the Baltic Region and Russia);

- Urban environment – a secure and friendly, convenient for life, ecologically safe and beautiful

city.

Solutions of the Masterplan of Kaliningrad are aimed at providing this town planning strategy. Let

us dwell on the most important points of the project.

1. Sustainable economic development

Orientation of the city on the multifunctional pattern of economic development determines the

necessity of reserving territories for transportation, financial, business, commercial, scientificeducational,

manufacturing and research-and-production units as well as health care, culture,

sports and administrative institutions. The following measures are proposed: creating commercial

and business areas along the main radial transport directions and the ring road; modernisation

of the port area; development of innovation techniques – reservation of the territories for

industrial and business complexes – techno-depots; creating an international fair and exhibition

complex.

2. Ecology of the city

Realisation of a range of measures aimed at improving the city environment – planning, air and

water protection, technical, technological etc. General ecological compatibility of urban activities.

Reorganisation of industrial areas and transformation of a number of industrial units to serve

social, business and residential functions.

3. Forming a natural ecological frame of the city

Kaliningrad has unique opportunities of creating the image of a “green city” and to return to the

former reputation of one of the best-furnished European cities. Among the measures outlined are

development of the city and suburban green and recreational areas; reconstruction of the architect

Schneider's historical greenbelt and recreation area of the Lower and the Upper Lakes, Max

Ashman Park, green vales of rivers and springs; preserving the “green diameter” – the ecosystem

of the River Pregel; creation of “green wedges” as buffers between residential areas.

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1 | masterplan

4. Transport

Comprehensive development of the transport infrastructure and public conveyances. Development

of the external transport system – redevelopment of the airport Khrabrovo; redevelopment

and building of the external transport routes, promoting the removal of transit traffic from Kaliningrad;

redevelopment of the port area, developing water communications and tourist and sports

boats maintenance infrastructure; building terminal and logistic complexes etc. Developing

pedestrian areas and bicycle routes. Development of public conveyances including ecologically

safe electrical transport. Reconstruction of the existing transport infrastructure – the network of

roads, streets, passages and transport structures. Constructing transport relief roads (first of all

for the elevated bridge), ring roads, new bridges and road junctions. Optimisation of traffic,

equipping stations with park and ride facilities on the land of railway terminals and stations and

main approaches to the centre. Establishing a system of underground car parks. Improving

carriers stock, introducing ecological standards.

5. Reconstruction and development of residential areas

Comprehensive reconstruction and furnishing of the existing micro-districts and neighbourhoods;

building new accommodation in consideration of interests and means of all social levels of the

population, implementing social housing programmes; development of new residential areas –

construction of service facilities, organisation of reliable transport services, technical infrastructure

of the new residential areas; promoting expressive architectural design for residential

buildings. The planned volume of the housing programme proposed by the Masterplan is 4.5 million

square metres.

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6. Development of social infrastructure

The standard of living and quality of life of city dwellers depends in many respects on the city's

social components. Thus active development steps are proposed for public spaces and service

projects – health care, education, sport, culture and trade in all administrative districts of Kaliningrad;

establishing residents' centres; creating pedestrian zones and squares; arranging multifunctional

service zones along the main entrances into the city.

7. Development of tourism

Tourism is one of the most dynamically developing sections of the world economy. Proposed

measures include development of all main constituents of the tourism infrastructure – areas and

projects as tourist attractions, transport maintenance, all kinds of services and information facilities,

a network of hotels for various categories of tourists, improving quays and other recreational

spaces. The general condition of the successful development of tourism is a safe, green, convenient

and beautiful Kaliningrad.

8. Modernisation of technical systems

Providing the energy and ecological safety of the city and region; modernisation and reconstruction

of supply systems and leading technical structures; building modern sewage systems and

rainwater drainage; orientation on resource-saving policy; package of engineering measures for

the preparation and improving of urban areas.

III. The Centre

The centre is the major element of the city, the focus of both positive and difficult qualities of the

urban environment. The success (or failure) of designing a city centre is greatly determined by

the extent to which the measures are specific and focused.

The urgent problems are:

- Absence of a concept for the centre supported by all participants of the process, as well as

no definite aims for the development, function and shape of the central area at the current

allocation of building land;

- Absence of a balance of public and investment interests, virtually spontaneous building of

numerous commercial projects not taking into account the problem of car parking, pedestrian

traffic, complex service systems;

- Transport congestion – “north-south” transport streams cross the central part of the city since

there are no relief roads; public transport is limited and the citizens are forced to depend on

private motorised traffic which increases the volume of traffic even more; lack of pedestrian

areas and car parks – the centre is for transport and not for pedestrians;

- The city does not use its waterfront – the quays are not used for water tourism, recreation,

promenades, the hydrologic system (the Upper and the Lower Lakes, River Pregel, minor

streams) are in a bad condition;

- Unsatisfactory quality of the environment and ecological situation in the centre – there are

few public open spaces, the number of green spaces is reduced, investors build on green

areas, residential buildings and courtyards are in a bad state; extremely high levels of air

pollution in the centre as a result of motor traffic and industrial emissions.

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The principal conceptual points concerning the rebuilding and development of the city centre are

formulated in the Urban Masterplan. The territory within the historic inner city is earmarked as a

special multifunctional area for the entire city centre. It should mainly take on a series of functions

– cultural, commercial, business, representative, tourist, residential, informational and others.

Multifunctionality, cultural and environmental diversity are indispensable conditions of the city

centre.

The following main direction of a comprehensive reorganisation of the city centre are outlined in

the project:

- Revival of the historic and cultural significance of the central zone, restoration of historic and

cultural monuments; creation of architectural and spatial designs that are appropriate to the

human scale;

- Reconstruction and architectural design of the main urban focus in the centre – Central

Square, Victory Square, Kalinin Square, reconstruction and improvement of the city's main

street – Leninsky Prospect;

- Dominant locating of public and business sites, cultural entertainment and trade projects in

the central zone;

- Reconstruction and improvement of the existing housing areas in the central area;

- Reconstruction of the existing street and road network, building of new bridges and roads in

order to remove transit traffic from the city centre, building modern car parks (multilevel, integrated

into building complexes, including underground car parks) and pedestrian areas;

- Comprehensive improvement of open spaces and planting in the centre, rehabilitation of

historic green spaces, improvement and rehabilitation of natural areas at the Lower and the

Upper Lakes;

- Design of architecture and landscape, and comprehensive improvement of quays and the

waterfront along the branches of the River Pregel, facilitating of landing stages and arranging

sports and tourist boats maintenance.

- Reconstruction of the main urban focal points and central areas.

Central square (the area of the former Royal Castle)

Serious town planning mistakes were made on this site. These are the demolition of the Royal

Castle and construction of an administrative building on its foundation that has remained unfinished

for over ten years.

The Masterplan proposes to create a public business and culture centre on the site of the Central

Square with special historic (archaeological) tourist facilities. The Royal Castle (reconstructing

parts of the Royal Castle is possible), the archaeological layers should be protected as a historic

monument. The architectural urban development strategy for the square and the adjacent areas

should be determined by a design competition.

Immanuel Kant Island (Kneiphof)

The proposal is to organise a discussion engaging both professionals and the public on the alternative

urban concepts for the island, which was a self-contained unit within the town for centuries.

The Masterplan puts forth the idea of regenerating the historical environment of the island

and restoring the historical fabric, the character and scale of buildings. Architectural solutions can

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2 | Land use plan

be diverse – ranging from the restoration of a number of historical buildings to modern architectural

imagery at the scale of the historical streets and squares. Also possible is a combination of

reconstructing historical buildings and retaining green open spaces in other parts. It is essential

that the island, which was and is the cultural, material and spiritual centre, is the starting point of

acquaintance with modern Kaliningrad, should rise as the genuine spiritual and cultural centre of

the city. Decision-making and the definition of investment intentions should take place on the

basis of a design competition brief.

Victory Square

Victory Square and adjacent public areas are the contemporary administrative, business, commercial

and transport centres of Kaliningrad. The proposal is for a continuation of the architecture

and reconstruction of this complex public area. The main measures are the development of the

road junction with traffic at different levels; extensive use of underground car parking; completion

of the Cathedral; reconstruction of the Central Market area; restoration of historical buildings

(House of Technology of the former East-Prussian Fair etc.), improvements of open spaces, reconstruction

of the concert hall Rossiya, reconstruction and improvement of the North Railway

Terminal.

The South Railway Terminal Square (Kalinin Square)

Important is the design of a multifunctional public centre for transport, business and commerce,

an “Open City” (hotel, shops, offices, representatives' offices of transport companies, tourist information,

car rental, entertainment). The fundamental urban measures are the reconstruction of

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the square including vehicular access at different levels; a green pedestrian area; reconstruction

of railway and bus terminals; measures to optimise the organisation of public transport at the

railway station; construction of underground car parks.

Leninskiy Prospect

Leninskiy Prospect is the main street of the city. It is part of the top priority redevelopment zones.

Proposed is the modernisation and redesign of the typical post-war buildings, inserting new

buildings of different functions into existing buildings, increasing the number of storeys of existing

buildings and adding lofts, architectural improvements of crossroads, construction of car parks,

comprehensive improvement of streets and courtyard spaces, redevelopment and design of

squares. It is important that not only the building fronts are included in the comprehensive urban

redevelopment measures, but also those near to the main road.

IV. Development of the modern city centre in its historical context

The subject of the Symposium, “Town planning development of the centre of Kaliningrad”, is

closely associated with an understanding of the roots, the “genetic code” of the place, mentioned

in other presentations.

It should be noted that the development of the Masterplan of Kaliningrad and definition of development

points in the city centre, took place in conjunction with the project of dividing the city into

protection zones for the cultural heritage of Kaliningrad. This project, according to RF legislation,

is an indispensable condition of urban development activities and the treatment of land in historical

surroundings.

The aim of the project is the modern urban development of Kaliningrad in the context of traditional

European culture, the definition of protective measures and the tasks of creating a modern

open city.

For the realisation of these aims the significance of the historical territories of Kaliningrad need

to be classified. Within these territories different protection zones for objects of cultural heritage

are distinguished and special regulations for urban development activities established that is

derived form the value of the city environment and the value of individual historical and architectural

features of the historic territories.

Protection regulations (town planning regulations) should improve the condition of the historic

stock and link modern town planning with the conservation of the historic and cultural heritage of

Kaliningrad.

Beside the general conservation tasks of the cultural heritage in historic cities, Kaliningrad, as a

city occupying a special position within the Russian Federation, is at present faced with the

specific task of creating a unique modern architectural image, as this task was neglected in the

post-war period. The search of its particular image and the process of cultural self-identification

by the urban community is a complex, delicate and personal task. It should be noted that it only

became possible to address this problem in a “non-ideological context” after 1991.

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International Symposium Kaliningrad

Spatial planning is one of the tools for improving our life. With all the different views and opinions,

urban environment is the result of a dialogue between various social groups.

The problem of the current development of the city and its centre comprises many issues and

affects the residents of Kaliningrad. The views and ideas of the urban community and among

specialists of the “proper” development of the city may differ significantly. It is important that the

urban development of Kaliningrad is accurately described and implemented in the interests of the

urban community as a whole.

In our view, the subject of searching a spatial form for the centre of Königsberg-Kaliningrad, as

the heart of an open Russian city with ancient European roots, is one of the most intriguing and

fascinating tasks of modern urbanistics.

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Personal Profile

Resume

Name

Olga Vjaceslavovna Krasovskaya

Origin

St. Petersburg/Russia

Profession

Architect

Main profession field

Master planning for cities,

senior project architect

Main subject

Masterplan for the City of Kaliningrad,

project of conservation zones of cultural

heritage of the City of Kaliningrad,

building control in the City of Kaliningrad

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Lecture 3

3.1.3 Lecture 3 –

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Actualisation of the European City

Dr. Werner Möller


Actualisation of the European City

In recent years the significance of the European city has been the topic of a growing debate. On

the one hand, much effort is put into city centres to ensure the conservation and reconstruction

of spatial and architectural elements that bear witness to past epochs. These activities range

from exact reconstruction to so-called critical reconstruction, and to the introduction of architectural

and urban references alien to the locality. On the other hand, the end of the European city

is proclaimed in professional debates. Arguments oscillate widely between the search for identity,

loss of face, scale, tourism, globalisation, transformation and new lifestyles.

1 | Design of the ideal city form the treatise of Filarete, around 1465

2 | Town centre of Siena

The question of which type of the European city is referred to is hardly ever asked. Generally

reference is made to ancient Greece or the ideal urban plan of the Renaissance and the picturesque

historic city centres of different European epochs, to set the atmospheric background to

current economic, planning or architectural projects or, at best, as a reference to the lost sense

of proportion and scale.

Apart from the prerequisite of built and spatial beauty the term “European city” rather stands for

the exemplary organisation of economic, cultural and legal matters by urban society, in constant

competition with other cities. This civilising pursuit of balance and prosperity in the European city

was to be mirrored in the design of the city, and not vice versa. It was a flexible system of

exchange of goods and knowledge, communication and migration, whose strength and stability

constantly had to be pitted against changing economic, political and social conditions. Changing

demands and utilisation patterns finally determined the appearance of the European city – from

compact city to urban sprawl. However, the fragility of this civil framework really was, and is,

expressed also in the large number of wars and racist disputes within Europe. The wholesale

idealisation of the European city has another downside since its history is inseparable from

European colonisation of the world, starting with the conquest of Antiquity or the discovery of the

New World, leading up to the industrial age. Looking at it matter-of-factly, the much praised

model of the European city is less the embodiment of Arcadian beauty and dignity rather than an

expression of the imprint of European hegemonic thought.

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3 | Founding plan of Caracas, around 1560

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In this context, today's reference to the term “European city” is more of an emotional anchor, an

expression of longing for a putative ideal state, in times of immeasurable change and transformation.

From this mental perspective a comparison to the late 19th century is permissible, when

the equilibrium of society was severely threatened by uncontrollable growth of the cities. Today

it is global competition and the individualisation of society that dominates local, regional and

national development, and that shakes our view of the future.

In the course of this competition the recalling of past virtues has spawned some odd quirks in

Germany. One example is the desire to revitalise the centre of Braunschweig: after many futile

4 | Braunschweig Castle prior to its destruction in WW II


5 | Demolition of Braunschweig Castle,

watercolour by Karl Schmidt, 1960

attempts in the 1950s, to reconstruct and find new uses for the war-damaged castle – such as

the seat of the Technical University and later a conference centre including cinema and hotel –

the ruin was demolished in 1960, on the basis of a democratically reached decision by the city

council. The area was developed, according to the urban planning ideals of the time, into a caroriented

and green city centre. As a relic the past fragments of the old castle now furnish the new

lake in the city park.

To improvement the city centre of Braunschweig and enhance its competitiveness with commercial

developments in the periphery and with neighbouring towns, a competition for a large ECE

7 | Open space design around Braunschweig Castle Arcades, 2004

9 | Computer simulation of Braunschweig Castle Arcades, 2003

6 | Site of the former Braunschweig Castle after demolition

8 | Ground floor plan of Braunschweig Castle Arcades, 2005

10 | Model of Braunschweig Castle Arcades, 2005

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11 | ECE-Center Brünn (Czech Republic), opened 2005

13 | ECE-Center Wetzlar (Germany), opened 2005

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12 | ECE-Center Klagenfurt (Austria), opened 2004

centre on the site of the former castle was held in 2003. The always present latent desire for the

reconstruction of centrally located historic buildings destroyed in the World War II, was taken up

and the reconstruction of the castle facade – the entrée to the shopping centre – incorporated in

the competition design. In conjunction with the existing efficient traffic system of the area, planned

and installed in the 1960s, representatives of the city of Braunschweig and the managers of

ECE speculated for a new quality of urban recreation and the representation culture of shopping.

This concept had previously been successfully applied in the extended use of railway stations or

newly constructed inner city malls, such as ECE centres – and the trend continued uninterrupted.

New to Braunschweig is the radical rededication of the castle motif, a symbol of centralistic

temporal power turned show-facade of a modern shopping palace. Even public debate against

the project seems to have been employed in advertising creating much public response.

The history of the castle district in Braunschweig is an example of how the architectural and

spatial changes in function of the city centre is an expression of the changing values of urban

society of the 20th and early 21st century – and how difficult it is, reflecting the past, to fall back

on the architectural and spatial achievements of the European city.

Another attempt to stop the move from the city to the periphery, and to compact inner city areas

once again, is to offer housing near the centre on “green landscape” sites. Amidst residential

areas from Wilhelminian times, one of the metaphors of the European city of the 19th century,

“city houses” appear on derelict industrial land or large infill sites, typical suburban terraced housing

estates of different styles. This trend can also be detected in the transformation of old indus-


14 | Town houses in Leipzig (Plagwitz), 2005

15 | Town houses in Leipzig (Schleusig), 2005

16 | Town houses in Leipzig (Schleusig), 2005

trial buildings and the refurbishment of housing in the Wilhelminian style: Specific suburban forms

of single-family homes are implanted into old structures under the theme of “loft living” or “living

in the Wilhelminian style”. Next to the traditionally more neighbourly form of living in tenement

blocks with a shared stairwell, the private house now has two to three storey maisonette flats,

ideally with a separate entrance, integrated garage and private garden.

These two examples alone, the ECE centre as the new city centre and the high, individual

demands related to urban living, make clear the drastic new spatial and social configurations that

determine the restructuring of the “European city” in the age of globalisation and individualisation.

Perspectives for the European city

Next to massive restructuring processes cities were exposed to in the last decades, awareness

of the long recognised problems of European population development is now increasing – and

these problems will be more pressing for the prospects of the European city with growing urbanisation

and competition. Until recently increased mobility, flexibility and youth culture were seen

as an inseparable entity, and a guarantee for success in the context of global competition.

Europe and its cities can no longer ignore the fact that, in parallel to the ongoing transformation

following the fall of the iron curtain and the enlargement of the EU, it must start thinking about an

aging and decreasing populations. Even cities that are still growing are faced with the acute

problem of over-aging of their population.

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These are aspects of the “European city” that most of all require a process of rethinking in civil

society, and concentration on their very own potentials from which concrete spatial and architectural

solutions should be derived. Current endeavours to palliate, such as to compensate the lack

of population growth by increasing migration, sound cynical in the wake of rising racism alone,

as does the euphoric presumption of the prospects of unhindered mobility in old age based on

excellent health care.


Personal Profile

Resume

Name

Dr. Werner Möller

Origin

Leipzig/Germany

Profession

Work placement at Thonet GmbH,

study of Graphic Design and Painting as well

as History of Art, New German Literature

and European Ethnology at

Philipps University in Marburg/Lahn

Main profession field

Publicist and curator

Main subject

Modern Movement, 20th and 21st century

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International Symposium Kaliningrad

Lecture 4

3.1.4 Lecture 4 –

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Historical and development stages of Königsberg/Kaliningrad

Oleg I. Vasjutin


Historical and development stages of Königsberg/Kaliningrad

The historical development stages of the city of Königsberg-Kaliningrad are a certain decoding

of cause and effect and development principles of an urban system as a territorial and spatial

temporal entity, resulting from the effect of various external and internal historical factors.

The existing system of periodisation is based on the idea of a continuous change of town planning

cultures, when one town planning culture is gradually replaced by another.

In spite of the tragic losses and further dramatic consequences for the whole artistic and building

civilisation of the city, the existing sequence of stages is, until now, considered the basis of the

urban development anatomy of the city.

Stage I: 1255

The first town planning stage starts from the change of the geographic fate of this area and is

closely connected with the general historical processes of cultural-political and economic character

that took place in Europe. That is why Königsberg is an integral part of the general formation

process of new towns in Europe (according to K. Bucher, approximately 400 new towns were

established in Germany in the 13th century).

In 1255, the military and political will of the Order, its spiritual-missionary feat and wish for landscape

changes were realised in the founding of the Castle of Königsberg, close to the historical

trade route leading to Zamland. Thus, the Castle's place within the system of the Order of castles

in Prussia was determined.

The choice of the location for the city was in the best Vitruvian traditions, and the first stage was

fixed in character from the start. With the founding of the Castle, the nucleus of the town was

placed, its reference point fixed as the zero coordinate. The direction of the town's future development

grid was also determined. The angle (f) of the vector axis (B) towards Rome and Malta

probably meant orientation towards, and fixation of, the metaphysical beginnings, links to the

mother country – the Latin Empire.

Territories and settlements received new names, the proto landscape of the future city was given

Latin names. Thus, the area in front of the Castle was given the name “insula major” (I), the future

Löbenicht “insula inferior” (II), and Kneiphof Island was called “insula advocati” (III). A dam was

built for the power supply for the economy of the Order, the resultant Castle pond the first manmade

landscape feature of the future city.

The first stage took place against the background of the Rhine-Roman period, and its characteristic

imagery is closely connected with the key landscape (Berg – mountain) that gives the

name to the future city.

Thus, with the change of the historical and cultural landscape in 1255, the change of the town

planning cultures took place – from the Prussian ancient settlement of Tvangste to the Latin

colony of Königsberg.

The genetic code of the first stage is Latin metaphysics.

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International Symposium Kaliningrad

1 | Stage I: 1255

Stage II: late 13th century to the end of the 16th century

This stage of development covers a period of three centuries, including both the time of the Order

and the period of formation of a new administrative and political system that became the Duchy

of Prussia in 1525.

The key event of this stage is the formation of three self-sufficient urban units and three types of

medieval law – the towns of Altstadt (1286), Löbenicht (1300), Kneiphof (1327) and, in 1340, their

joining the system of European integration, the Hanseatic Union.

The common town planning culture of the three towns (archetype) genetically corresponds to the

town planning typology of Roman military towns of the 2nd century AD (Lambesis, Timgad, Gerasa)

that were based on the regular plan of Hippodamus.

As a result of the Christian reconsideration of the regular grid plan, it was subsequently interpreted

as a repetition of the Latin cross. The use of this phenomenon in the planning of the town

made it possible to attain missionary, protective, ritual and sacral aims.

At this stage the first measuring scale of the city was determined. Its diameter was approximately

500 m, and the dimension of each town was immediately connected to the spatial unit of the

landscape on Kneiphof Island, and proportional to it.

The development of the infrastructures of the three European Medieval towns with their own town

halls, markets, churches, fortresses, ramparts, gates, bridges and outskirts determined the cha-

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2 | Stage II: late 13th century to the end of the 16th century

racteristics – the castle as the defensive and dominant unit which rules over a dense regular

pattern of structurally linked and complementing Western European towns. At this time the most

important architectural/urban development pair was constructed, the Castle and Cathedral,

giving rise to the specific silhouette of the towns.

In terms of style, the second stage includes Gothic and the early Renaissance, its genetic code

is the imperial Ancient Roman regularity.

Stage III: early 17th – mid 19th century

The main historical event immediately connected to the third stage of the development of the

town, determining its structure, was the establishment of the royal, political and economic capital

of Prussia. In 1724, this resulted in the union of the three independent towns of Altstadt, Kneiphof

and Löbenicht into a single Königsberg. This led to the extension of the general urban module of

the city.

As a result of a new defensive initiative in response to the new status of the city, new ramparts

were constructed and the development space of the town fixed in a second dimension. Its diameter

was approximately three kilometres and its construction implemented in two phases.

In the first construction phase (1626-1843) a simplified system of ramparts was created. The insufficient

density of the inner city influenced the geometry of the fortifications that did not reach

the ideal length of its circumference.

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International Symposium Kaliningrad

3 | Stage III: early 17th – mid 19th century

In the second phase (1843-1862) the system of ramparts was essentially completed. The density

of the inner city formed the perimeter of the ramparts into a better shape – that of a circle, dimensioned

according to the rules of fortification art at the time.

The special feature of the urban culture of this period is the two-part composition of the spatial

structure of the city comprising two types of grids:

- Type I – urban structure of the Hippodamus plan in the central part of the city;

- Type II – radial structure of the inner city that developed on the basis of historical, natural and

trade routes leading to the Castle.

This period is characterised by the architectural and urban planning multiplicity of the city environment

– new building types, squares, open spaces, landscapes etc. are established. A large

stylistic capacity of the stage is reflected in the combination of the Renaissance, Baroque,

Rococo, Classicism (the style “Zopf”) and Biedermeier. In the context of this multiplicity, the

seven Königsberg bridges can be distinguished as a cultural occurrence that acquired a new

quality – the phenomenon of “urban planning mathematics” (Euler's formula).

The characteristic image of the third stage of the city's development is as follows: the horizontal

space consisting of a dense urban core and a strong natural landscape component that corresponds

to the notion of “provincial capital character”.

The genetic code of the stage goes back to the aesthetics of the mathematical culture of the

Renaissance.

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Stage IV: late 19th – early 20th century

The fourth stage of development started against the background of the industrial revolution that

had just begun and determined a new quality of life. The motorcar, railway and tram drastically

changed the concept of speed (movement), resulting in a new perception of space.

By the end of the 19th century Königsberg, a town-fortress surrounded by defensive ramparts

and a historically typical radial-circular structure and densely built up, had exhausted its possibilities

and reached a critical point in its development. Hence, by the beginning of the 20th century

the situation is characterised by the move to areas beyond the fortifications.

With the change of the city's military and defensive doctrine its third scale was determined. From

1905 to 1908, 17 suburban territories with the total area of 2.530 hectares were merged with the

city. The territorial and spatial fixation of the third scale of the city was the construction in 1890

of a new defensive belt consisting of 12 forts.

The special feature of the urban planning culture of the fourth stage is the prevalence of a northwest

direction in the city's development. An innovation of the urban development of these areas

was the new ideology of the garden city. This gave rise to a trend of deurbanisation that resulted

in the disintegration of the urban environment of Königsberg. But intense development of modern

transport infrastructure projects in the city compensated for the possible consequences of this

negative process, and as a result it determined urban mobility and provided access to new territories.

With the appearance of new districts of Amalienau and Maraunenhof two typologies of urban

Königsberg emerged. The first is a dense and closed, radial-centric inner city, and the second is

open, consisting of districts with independent urban grids and self-contained coordinate directions.

One of the new planning features was the use of a fan-shaped urban grid.

The stage can be characterised as the decentralisation of the city, dualistic contrasting and

division of the city environment into past and present, the archaic and the contemporary. The

stylistic specificity lies in the processing of the old aesthetic experience, i.e. Eclecticism (Historicism

and stylisation) and Neo-Classicism.

The genetic code of the fourth stage is the regularity of E. Howard's garden city.

Stage V: first third of the 20th century

The symbolism of the town planning processes of the fifth historical stage in the city development

can be viewed as the realisation of the third spatial and temporal concept (Z. Gidion) – interaction

and mutual penetration of internal and external spaces.

In 1910, part of the old ramparts of the inner city were demolished. As a result two “towns” were

united, the old inner town within the ramparts and the new outer town that had reached the

significance of an independent entity. This was possible because public communication centres

had established at junction (A, B) which included architectural ensembles of a new compositional

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4 | Stage IV: late 19th – early 20th century

and stylistic type. That is, the interaction and mutual penetration of two urban mega-forms took

place. With the emergence of the main urban diameter of the city as a continuation of the “cardo”,

a large urban module (1.200 m) was developed, also as a system of parcelling the nodes within

the main city diameter, even though its vector orientation was changed in the process.

Thus, the urban planning culture of the stage can be characterised by transition from mono-centrism

to polycentrism.

After the ring of the old ramparts had lost its original function, its adaptation brought a new urban

quality – a landscape green belt and parks for the city.

During this period the infrastructure of the railway and port was considerably strengthened. New

industrial harbours were constructed that corresponded to the new dimension of the rapidly developing

city. In the city the functional theme began to dominate as an aesthetic principle with the

transition from the Art Nouveau to Bauhaus.

The stage can be characterised as a free (second) wind of the city with new green lungs, democracy

of architecture and urban spaces with freedom of movement and the aesthetics of openness

and continuity.

The genetic code of the stage is Cubism (visual revolution).

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5 | Stage V: first third of the 20th century

Stage VI: “Project towns” designed Königsberg of the 1930s and Kaliningrad of the 1950s

This historical stage was not completed, but it is undoubtedly of great value since it shows the

attitude towards the city under radical conditions of further development in as much as characterising

certain similarities in the approach to urban development of different civilizations at this

particular stage of history.

This period demonstrates the “power and might” of the states in the creation of “form and style”

in the city under different conditions in the totalitarian regimes. The shared urban culture of the

two states lies in the “organisation and regulation” of the shape of the city, aspiration for a certain

ideal and its symbolism. In this respect they are close to each other. The scales of new masterplans

are of equal value, and, in their proportions enough to completely change the appearance,

the character and the status of the city. The differences are only in the methodologies of the

design approach. The German design period is characterised by succession and the sustainable

development of the idea of polycentrism within the historical and cultural urban symbolism of the

Latin cross. Its genetic code is the continuation of the imperial Roman tradition. The Soviet town

planning culture can be characterised by change (replacement) of the architectural and urban

symbols and a return to the monocentrism of the radial-circular town planning system. The

genetic code of this town planning culture is the colonial transfer of the town planning forms of

Moscow and St Petersburg.

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International Symposium Kaliningrad

6 | Stage VI: “Project town” Königsberg of the 1930s

Stage VII: Second half – late 20th century

After turning from the capital of East Prussia into a Russian provincial city Kaliningrad fitted the

category of a province, as in the Roman Empire the word meant “defeated country”. In the consideration

of this stage one should start with the notion of a “trophy city”, with the understanding

that something “foreign” became “our own”. The urban and architectural colonisation that followed

a short period of adaptation resulted in different relationships between such categories as

“native-foreign”, “old-new”, “past-future”.

At the very beginning of the 1950s, an independent urban unit was allotted for the representational

purposes in the destroyed townscape – Stalingradsky Prospect (now Mira Prospect). The

result of reconstruction activities in this area was a scenario of Stalinist monumental Neo-Classicism.

At first the reconstruction was conducted on the basis of the historically grown urban structure

– that is why two types of city environments developed at that time: the urban quality of the

German time supplemented with the quality of the Soviet period. However, the masterplans for

the city developed in the 1960s denied the city's historical planning context that had evolved over

centuries. And the All Union architectural competitions conducted in 1964 and 1974 proposed

models for new planning resolutions. As a result an ideological set was adopted that completely

ignored all previous architectural and urban culture of the city. At first this resulted in two totally

different cities in one location, leading to a clash of their respective cultures, and further, to the

complete change of the planning morphology, scale, character and image of the city.

The basis of the proposal of the new Soviet city was the earmarking of 85 hectares of open space

in the city centre that was traversed by two urban routes (Moskovsky and Leninsky Prospects)

and the manifestation of the new dominant symbol (House of the Soviets).

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7 | Stage VI: “Project town” Kaliningrad of the 1950s


With the onset of mass industrial construction the socio-economic experiment of architecture

started. This promoted the dictatorship of standardisation and standard construction, which, in

turn, determined the new principles of urban development. Buildings all constructed of a type and

at one time replaced the ensemble architecture of the streets and squares. With the continued

spread of residential quarters of this ideology over the entire city, the parcelling of spaces was

significantly increased and led to the considerable expansion of the city. The variety of forms and

spaces of the historical city was destroyed.

Formation of such a “new socialist city” that was fundamentally different from the existing historical

prototypes became the architectural and urban planning ideology of the dramatic period,

starting in the late 1950s and continuing, with some transformations, into the present.

Thus, the denial of West European culture, unwillingness to understand and accept the historical

city, the lack of archives and the ideological taboo of the subject of Königsberg until recent times,

gave rise to the next stage – the war between Kaliningrad and Königsberg. This did not involve

direct destruction and demolition but redevelopment. All this finally led to a tragic outcome in the

harmonious continuity of the cities. The genetic code of the seventh historical stage of the urban

development of the city is Soviet Modernism.

The International Congress of Architects that took place in Barcelona in 1995 was held under the

symbolic and topical motto: “The past, the present and the futures”. Strangely enough, the motto

was often incorrectly translated – the last word was translated as the future. Indeed, if there is

only one past, only one present, there could be several futures. It is all up to us.

It seems that we are currently on the verge of the eighth town planning stage. What is it going to

be like? The town planning doctrine of the eighth stage should give the answer to this question.

That is why I am going to raise this issue for further discussion.

The town planning doctrine should, first of all, objectively diagnose the city on the basis of the

assessment of the existing situation, should determine the 'territory' of architecture, formulate the

main principles of the regional architectural and town planning policy, its strategy and tactics. It

should propose to the profession architectural and planning methodologies and technologies.

The doctrine should also contain aims and objectives, main directions, stages of development of

town planning and architecture, as well as the tools of their implementation. For the town

planning doctrine it is important to develop a characteristic image for the city – a certain line of

association that relates to the image of the townscape. The content should be a concept

programme for all the regional architectural and urban planning activities that can only be

implemented on the basis of a systematic approach.

Result

There could be three main proto-conceptual vectors of urban development.

The first seems the most familiar. It focuses on the continuation of the construction of Kaliningrad

as an artificial and abstract city, not at all connected with the local regional characteristic, an ag-

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International Symposium Kaliningrad

9 | Evolution of Kaliningrad

gressive outpost in the Baltic. In this case, both external and internal conditions can be forecast

– all the possibilities of integration will be closed for us, and the ongoing difficulty and permanent

tension of the situation will take up most of the inner resources.

The second vector would be a revival of the old Königsberg. It is incredibly difficult, archaic and

reminds of childish maximalism. In this case one could dream a little, but except for the incorporation

of fragments imitating the past, this would be dishonest towards history.

The third vector follows. We settle on the cultural uniqueness of the city among many historical

cities in Russia and Europe, and declare the harmonious succession of the cities Königsberg and

Kaliningrad, and act according to the chosen course. The professional concepts and develop-

8 | Stage VII: Second half to late 20th century

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3 Lectures


ment technology will show how this should be done. They will undoubtedly be based on the historical-cultural

component of the city and region. This vector seems to have a future.

Considering the evolutionary chain of the development stages of the city it is necessary to emphasise

the urban destruction that was done during the seventh stage. That is why the aim of the

eighth stage is to heal the wounds and to establish a harmonious link, not only to the seventh

stage but to all previous stages, which will promote the sustainable development of the city.

Personal Profile

Resume

Name

Oleg Ivanovic Vasjutin

Origin

Kaliningrad/Russia

Profession

Architect

Main profession field

Project planning and journalism

Main subject

The cultural link

Königsberg/Kaliningrad

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International Symposium Kaliningrad

Lecture 5

3.1.5 Lecture 5 –

Tranformations

Prof. Marcin Orawiec

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3 Lectures


Transformations

Rheinpark Süd, Düsseldorf

In the year 2000, OX2architekten were commissioned by IDR GmbH to examine the future potentials

of the 100 hectare Reisholzer Hafen site in Düsseldorf to raise public awareness and

political interest for one of the last remaining continuous development areas to the south of the

city. The in part visionary character of the proposal provided an impulse for discussion about the

future of the partly industrial area and inspired the future-oriented urban planning development

of the harbour.

2 | Rheinpark Süd – Site plan

1 | Rheinpark Süd – Night-time perspective

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3 | O.Vision – Perspective

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3 Lectures

O.VISION – the city for people and their health

The special attraction of the urban design scheme for the 60-hectare site of the former coalmine

in the centre of the Ruhr Basin for the client Projekt- und Entwicklungsgesellschaft Oberhausen,

was the multifaceted chances for the modernisation of society, economic dynamics and technical

progress and innovation. The O.VISION project combines these challenges in one central theme

of fundamental significance: “People and their health”. The appearance of the arena in the urban

context embraces the presentation and display of the ideal human condition as well as the

observation and control of people's actions.

4 | O.Vision – Site plan


5 | Schanzenstraße – Perspective 1 6 | Schanzenstraße – Perspective 2

Schanzenstraße

The scheme was awarded second prize and is a comprehensible and expressive gesture designed

at an urban scale, which is detached from the existing industrial fabric. Confident and consequently

linear the future media district in Cologne will be developed into an independent and

distinct urban neighbourhood.

7 | Schanzenstraße – Site plan

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54

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8 | Wesseling – typical sketch 9 | Wesseling – Model

Wesseling

The urban design concept is based on three macro-structures composed in a radial arrangement.

The large differences in scale compared to the immediate surroundings are addressed within

these units and thus facilitate a fitting transition between the different ensembles.

On one side we find the dominant image of the three blocks which are of a similar scale to the

industrial structures. On the other the breakdown of the blocks towards the interior into units of

use, dimensioned according to the requirements, provides a transitional zone to the scale of the

residential areas.

10 | Wesseling – Site plan


Personal Profile

Resume

Name

Marcin Józef Orawiec

Origin

Aachen/Germany

Profession

Architect

Main profession field/

Main subject

Townplaning, Architecture and Design

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International Symposium Kaliningrad

Lecture 6

3.1.6 Lecture 6 –

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3 Lectures

Stylistic peculiarities of architecture in Königsberg

in the 13th - 20th century

Prof. Irina V. Belinzeva


Stylistic peculiarities of architecture in Königsberg in the 13th - 20th century

The architecture of Königsberg developed over centuries along the artistic characteristics of the

Baltic south coast. The Medieval Brick Gothic of the 16th century was replaced by the Renaissance

in its European version, known as Mannerism and found in the transition from the Middle

Ages to modern times in the regional schools of Northern European countries. In the 17th – early

18th century the architecture of the city saw phases of Baroque and Classicism in their Dutch

form. The second half of the 18th century, the French influence was noticeable. Historicism in

Königsberg in the 19th century showed itself in its pan-European form. One example of this style

is the new building at Königsberg University, built by F. Stüler in the Neo-Renaissance style. Art

Nouveau buildings are mainly concentrated outside the city centre, in the villa district (Amalienau,

now Kutuzov Street). In the 20th century the architecture of the city followed the popular European

styles – the Bauhaus style of the 1920s and the concept of reconstruction of the city of the

period of the totalitarian regime (urban development project of 1938).

The specific feature of development in Königsberg is a certain conservatism that is manifested

in the preservation of the medieval urban structure of the city centre that remained almost unchanged

up to the beginning of the 20th century. Besides, a certain time lag was observed, caused

by the city's remoteness from the main artistic centres of Europe.

At the founding of the city in 1255, a plan after Hippodamus, resembling a grid structure, formed

the base. The most regular was the plan of the Old City that extended in an east-westerly

1 | Town plan of Königsberg by Jochim Bering, 1613

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2 | Fragment of the epitaph – Königsberg in the guise of Jerusalem

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3 Lectures

direction along the river, coinciding with the trade routes established in ancient times. The

Langgasse (now Moskovsky Prospect) ran across the entire city connecting two opposite gates.

On both sides of, and at equal distances from, the main street were two parallel streets

intersected by roads at right angles (Ill. 1).

The founding of towns on pagan territory conquered by the crusaders was not only for practical

reasons of increasing trade or taking agricultural lands, but also had spiritual motifs that justified

hardships and deprivations which were inevitable while settling in foreign countries. Only the

sacred city of Jerusalem and its respected divine prototype that had just been lost by Christians,

but was still remembered by many knights, could serve as an urban ideal for the knights of the

Teutonic Order. As is generally known, the urban planning rules of the Middle Ages are steeped

in images of the sacred city of Jerusalem. The images of the urban form of the Divine Jerusalem

influenced worldly architecture.

It seems probable that the crusaders, while colonising conquered lands in north-eastern Europe

and in the founding of new settlements, pursued the example of the lost city that had not forfeited

its sanctity. According to the Apocalypse, at the time of the old Jerusalem's decline conditions

emerge for the establishment of the new earthly Jerusalem (Apocalypse, 3, 12). Perhaps the

towns founded in the Baltic by the Order were a variation on the subject of the reconstruction of

Jerusalem on earth. There is a lot of evidence that testifies to the connection between the idea

of Jerusalem – both earthly and divine – and Königsberg. In the 19th century an ancient castle

called Jerusalem was located not far from the Prussian Königsberg. A Russia traveller wrote in


the early 19th century, “Jerusalem is situated at the distance of three quarters of an hour from

Königsberg (...). The place name has a special origin. To be admitted to the Order, German

knights had to crusade (conduct pilgrimages) to Jerusalem, as the city was the original object of

the Order. After they lost holy graves they were unable to perform their vow but at least they tried

to keep their word. That is why the Knights built a palace in this area, called it Jerusalem and

soothed their conscience by arranging pilgrimages there and having fun conducting

tournaments.” (1)

In the 14th-15th century crusades to Prussia were extremely popular among the European

knights including those who were not members of the Teutonic Order. Trips to Königsberg and

participation in military operations against pagans were considered a special achievement and

privilege and were comparable to a pilgrimage to Rome, Jerusalem or Santiago de Campostela.

In Prussian Königsberg knights from all over Europe – from England, Scotland, northern and southern

Italy, Aragon, Portugal, Germany – spent their time at feasts, hunting and tournaments

while waiting for the beginning of campaigns against eastern pagans – Prussians, Lithuanians,

Slavs (who had been christianised by that time).

Hans Nimpch's (1476-1556) epitaph that is kept in the Museum of Varmy and Mazur in Olshtyn

(Poland) testifies to the connection between Königsberg and the image of the Divine Jerusalem.

It used to be kept in the northern nave of Königsberg Cathedral. It is a simple composition including

a painted image of a crucifix in an architectural frame. The most interesting feature in this

memorial is the city of Königsberg with its typical towers and church spires in the background in

the form of the earthly Jerusalem. The painting is by Henry Königswiser (around 1530-1583), a

court artist of Duke Albrecht, the most outstanding painter of Königsberg in the 16th century. He

had been trained in Wittenberg by Lukas Cranach, the famous master of the Northern Renaissance

in Germany, who praised him immensely in his letters to the Duke. (2) (Ill. 2)

During the further urbanisation near the already established coastal city of Königsberg, new

urban developments, called “New Town”, were successively added to the old town. Every newly

built New Town had its own administration (town council), trade organisations and even professional

specialisation. Along with the relative political and economic independence the New Towns

were determined by the presence of their own urban structure in the form of a perpendicular

streets pattern, which deliberately did not match the basic pattern of the old town. The new towns

were surrounded by their own town walls that were erected even on the side of the adjacent old

districts. The presence of considerable limitations initially put the New Towns in the secondary

position. Only two of the New Towns – the main part of Gdansk and Kneiphof in Königsberg (that

was originally called New Town), due to their favourable location and the settling of merchants

here, became serious competitors to the Altstadt – the old town of Königsberg. Löbenicht was in

a less favourable position, its development disturbed by the proximity of the Prussian settlement

Lipze.

An important stage in the history of the formation of the spatial structure of Königsberg is the

construction of the defensive ramparts (1624-1636) that enclosed the city into a kind of single

artistic and compositional unit. Comparing the appearance of Königsberg of the 17th century and

the first plans for the construction of Petersburg, one will notice certain similarities between the

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International Symposium Kaliningrad

3 | Town plan of Königsberg by Suchodolez Mladschij, 1740

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3 Lectures

principles of formation of the spatial structure of the two cities. This was manifested in the concepts

for the fortress of Petersburg (1703), in planning of Vasilievsky Island by D. Treseni (1714),

in the projects of the masterplan by J.B.A. Leblond (1717), as well as in other proposals concerning

the new capital (Ill. 3-4).

The most notable similarity is the choice of location for the town. Like Königsberg, St. Petersburg

was located not far from the sea, in an area with three large islands in a river. The natural analogies

were strengthened by the use of the planning principles. On the former plans of Königsberg

of the 17th century and the first half of the 18th century, and in the well-known project of

St. Petersburg by J.B.A. Leblond, a regular city is introduced, divided into separate districts by

the arms of the river and enclosed in an oval of fortifications with projecting battlements.

Several similar details can be distinguished in the planning of Königsberg and St. Petersburg.

Both cities have a citadel closes the main river. In Königsberg, it is situated on an artificial island

where the river leaves the city, while in St. Petersburg the citadel is located, mirror-inverted,

where the river comes into the city, on a natural river island. On Zayachy Island in the River Neva,

by the order of Peter the Great in 1703, an “earth fortress” was first built with six bastions that

was later replaced by a stone fortress. The idea of Peter I of a regular urban pattern on Vasilievsky

Island is interesting. The island was going to be populated by merchants and artisans. This

was also done in Kneiphof. St. Petersburg's district of “New Holland” – the customs territory and

an area for the storage and drying of shipbuilding timber – also has its analogues in Königsberg.

In the 17th century, the Dutch occupied four fifths of the shipping area in Königsberg; there was


4 |Town plan of St. Petersburg by J.B.A. Leblond, 1717

a special wharf for ships from Holland – Hollenderbaum. The Russian Tsar Peter I lived in this

area, he was well aware of the customs regulations of Königsberg and frequently mentioned the

necessity to adopt some of these.

Numerous records testify not only to the visual impression that Königsberg made on Peter the

Great, who welcomed all foreign influences, but also to the role of Königsberg's immigrant

citizens in the construction of the first regular Russian fortresses. Thus, J. Stelin noted that: “the

fortress St. Petersburg was initially founded on two earth banks and later by Johann Kirschstein

from Königsberg.” (3)

In Baltic cities districts of equal form were divided into separate blocks divisible by a certain measure

of length: the old kulma measuring cane (4.32 m) or new kulma cane (4.707 m) (Ill. 5). A

stone model of the measure of length of 4.32 m was embedded into the east wall of the temple

in Kulma.

Residential buildings of three to four storeys, their narrow facades facing the street, and an

acute-angled end pieces, occupied most of the districts. An average height of the buildings from

ground floor to the eaves was also regulated and was approximately 30 “feet”, or about 8.6 m.

The city buildings were similar in type, of equal height and width, erected along the “red line”

forming a corridor-like street. Minor differences in the details of the facades did not play a significant

role in the arrangement of the area that was enclosed by buildings, like by a wall. A row of

the similar compositional units was a specific feature of the medieval street. (Ill. 6)

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International Symposium Kaliningrad

5 | Ordnance survey map of Königsberg, 1815

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3 Lectures

Plots allotted to the citizens were called “inheritance” (Erben). There were full and half “inheritances”

and the so-called shacks (Buden). The average width of one site intended for construction

of a shack was the size of two measuring canes, while for the construction of a shack it was

only one cane (generally 4.707 m). The width of construction sites differed, and no regularity was

identified regarding the alternation of single-module, one and a half or two and two and a half

module plot. In Königsberg the plots were two new measuring canes on average, i.e. 8.6 m wide

and four to five canes deep, i.e. 17.2-21.5 m. The building usually occupied two thirds of the plot,

the rest of the area was intended for the inner courtyard with a well.

Initially the method of building was timber-frame construction, which can be explained by the

wealth of building materials, timber and clay. It is assumed that colonists had introduced the

timber-frame building technique from the Northern Germany, while wood had always been the

main construction material in Prussia. Roofs were covered with available materials – rush, thatch

and boards. The historical buildings of timber-frame construction in the Baltic were located on the

peninsula Ambarov – Lastady in Königsberg, up to World War II.

In the 14th-15th century, rich citizens started to build their houses of brick. Each of the three

neighbouring towns – the Old City of Königsberg, Löbenicht-Königsberg, Kneiphof-Königsberg,

had its own building regulations. One of the oldest manuscripts of Königsberg, dated 1394, contained

building regulations that had been adopted in Löbenicht in 1385. (4) The document mainly

regulated the so-called neighbourhood rights that were important in the context of an increasing

lack of space in the rapidly growing town.


6 | Development of facades in Baltic coastal towns, 1400-1900

After 1525, during the reign of Duke Albrecht in Königsberg, the Renaissance developed in the

form of Northern Mannerism that had been brought from Holland (second half of the 16th century

to the beginning of the 17th century). A great influence of Dutch culture was felt in Northern

Germany, Denmark and in Baltic coastal regions, as early as the 15th century. This increased

further in the second half of the 16th century. Dutch Protestants oppressed by the Spanish

Catholics, searched for shelter in large and rich port cities in Northern Europe – also in Königsberg,

that had had close trade links to the Netherlands for a long time. In 1530, more than 4.000

Dutch Protestants arrived in tolerant East Prussia and settled in the capital and international port

of Königsberg.

New tastes in the urban construction were taking shape under the influence of the ducal court

with its artistic aspirations oriented to the European capitals. Duke Albrecht and the subsequent

rulers of East Prussia rendered special patronage to the artists – representatives of the Northern

Mannerism movement who had come from the Netherlands. Numerous historical sources and

artistic monuments, most of which have been lost, testify to this fact.

Due to the Dutch masters a certain artistic unity appeared “on the areas stretching as far as

Holland and coastal provinces of Germany in the west, surrounding Denmark, Southern Sweden,

Northern Poland and running further east as far as Riga and Tallin” (5). Establishing their workshops

in the coastal cities of Northern Europe, the representatives of Northern Mannerism disseminated

drawings and artwork possessing unique original features in their artistic language.

Strange grotesques, fantastical figures of people, animals and plants are intertwined, growing

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into one another. Elaborately decorated “ears” and other kinds of ornaments made up the basis

of the new European style. Used as examples were the albums of Vredeman de Vris and

Cornelis Floris engraved by Jeronim Kock in Antwerp at the end of the 16th century. The albums

by Vredeman de Vris were used as “catalogues” of different types of forged ornament and drawings

of grotesques. Examples of compositional combinations of complicated ligature of figurative

and ornamental images were borrowed from Cornelis Floris. Both artists worked in Königsberg.

The Dutch made gravestones for Duke Albrecht and his wife Duchess Dorothea (1549, 1570).

The epitaph to Duke Albrecht, complex in its concept and artistic forms, the remains of which

could still be seen after the war on the east wall of the chorus building, was created by the

famous Dutch artist Cornelis Floris. He probably also crafted the gravestones for the Duchesses

Dorothea and Anna. The sculptural composition of the monument to Margravine Elizabeth, Duke

Albrecht's wife, was made after 1547 by Willem van den Block from Mekhelen who studied at

Cornelis Floris' studio in Königsberg for 14 years. Design of the Hall of Muscovites in the 16th

century (the name was later transferred to a different building of the castle) was also done by the

Dutch artists.

The Renaissance style, in the form of Northern Mannerism borrowed from the Netherlands, dictated

new patterns of design of both portals and interiors of the castle as well as of residential

houses (Ill. 7, 8, 9, 10). Representational facades had rich sculptural ornaments in the form of

masks, heads, animal and plant motifs that were made under the influence of Cornelis Floris

whose patterns had spread along the coast, or created directly in his Königsberg studio.

By the end of the 17th and beginning of the 18th century, building in Königsberg adopted a different

style that can be named either as Classicist Baroque or Baroque Classicism. It was mainly

based on different Dutch examples. In the towns of the south coast of the Baltic Sea, where Protestantism

had prevailed as early as the first quarter of the 16th century, the problem of building

new churches arose. Protestant church building in the Baltic Region was not extensive due to the

number of large-scale Medieval religious sites that had been adapted to Protestant services

during the period of Reformation.

The consecration of the first reformatory church in East Prussia took place in the presence of

Frederic III and his court on 22. January 1701, on the first Sunday after an important event – the

joining of the Prussian Duchy to the German Reich. Built according to the plans of the Berlin

architect Johann Arnold Nering, the church is a complex spatial composition in a north south

orientation. The plan of the church followed the New Church in The Hague, built by an unknown

artist in 1649-1655. The unfinished tower of Königsberg Castle Church was also based on the

early buildings of the Netherlands – Zunderkhirkhe (architect Hendrick de Keiser, 1603-1611) and

Vesterkhirkhe (unknown architect, 1620-1631). Castle Church combined Gothic remains (stone

stellar vaults of the apsis and the tower that also served as a belfry), Baroque compositional

techniques in the form of the transverse interior space and massive columns in the lower part of

the tower and other classic details. The appearance of Gothic forms in the 17th century can be

explained by the Renaissance of the church scholasticism and a wide spread of mysticism.

(Ill. 11, 12, 13)

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7 | Portal of Königsberg Castle- south entrance to courtyard, 1551 8 |Portal of house no. 27 Langgasse on Kneiphof – early 17th

century

A characteristic example of the local style, besides the church in the Castle village (1690), is the

town hall of the Old Town. German researchers assume that A. Schlüter designed the ceiling of

the hall on Kneiphof Island (the town hall was destroyed). The town hall, built in 1695-1696, was

in the style of a rather modern town house (Ill. 14). It is assumed that the French artist, Jean

Baptist Broebes, who was born in Paris and studied there, built it. After he had been expatriated

from France as a Huguenot, he worked on the construction of the town hall in Bremen. In 1692-

1697 he was involved in the construction of the fortress in Pillau near Königsberg.

The stylistic analysis of the sculptural decoration of the ceiling confirms the assumption about the

authorship of the famous master A. Schlüter (Ill. 15, 16, 17). Perhaps, the first acquaintance of

Peter I and Andreas Schlüter took place in May 1697, during his two months' stay at the “Grand

Embassy” and at the visit of the Tsar himself. A. Schlüter's arrival in Königsberg at that time could

have been connected with the moulded decorations of the town hall ceiling that were completed

around 1697, or later. At that time A. Schlüter was in the service of Brandenburg Elector Frederick

III. (the future Prussian King Frederick).

The buildings of the Middle Ages survived in Königsberg for a long time, occupying quite a large

area of the city centre. In the 18th century, many city manors were built within the earth ramparts

that had been built of a large diameter to accommodate future expansion. The design of palaces

followed the leading stylistic trends of the European architectural fashion – of the late Baroque

and reserved early Classicism. Here, the general European style acquired its typical regional

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9 | Residential building in Bergstrasse, in the Old Town of

Königsberg – early 17th century

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10 | Residential building in Junkerstrasse on Kneiphof, 1654

features of the local upper Baltic artistic tradition – the use of the expressive material brick, and

a preference for high tiled roofs etc.

On the vast areas of the inner city, and instead of the shabby or burnt medieval buildings,

appeared new palaces and apartment buildings for government officials. The classicist manors,

built in the Saxon or French tradition with Rococo elements, were retained in Königsberg up to

World War II. They were Saturgus' manor in Lastady, the Royal Palace in Königstrasse, the

Dennhoff manor in Bergplatz, Walenrode manor etc.

The Russian architect and gardener, A. Bolotov, described in his memoirs the park at the estate

of the merchant Saturgus. Built in the Roccoco style with many motifs, quaintly cut trees, espaliers,

fountains, conservatories, menagerie and cabinet of curiosities. The park was laid out in

1753 on the site of an existing garden of the early 18th century. It is possible that impressions of

the park had an impact on the future activities of the famous landscape gardener.

Changes in the appearance of the city in the 19th century were brought by the ruin and subsequent

reconstruction of the church in the Old Town. Due to the soft ground the church subsided,

the west tower leaned, the pillars and vaults cracked. The church had to be demolished, and a

square was built in its place that was later named after Kaiser William. A new church was built in

the Old Town nearby, on the site of the old theatre, by the famous architect F. Schinkel in the

Neo-Gothic style (consecrated in 1845).


11 | Castle Church of Königsberg, 1690

12 | Plan of Königsberg Castle Church, 1690

13 | Königsberg with Castle Church in background

During the 19th century, the appearance of some of the streets in the inner city changed. The net

of small curved streets was straightened in parts. The ramshackle medieval buildings were replaced

new houses in the style of Historicism of the 19th century, abundantly decorated with Neo-

Gothic and Neo-Renaissance details. The University building (by F. Stüler, student of F. Schinkel)

and related clinics and institutes were constructed in this style on the main square Parade

Platz in 1842-1862. The unity and integrity of the naturally developed historical and architectural

environment of the city was destroyed by the aesthetic concepts of ideal construction in the 19th

century. Stylised buildings in the sense of European “history” replaced the historic environment

to form new streets. The widening and changing of streets had positive effects, since improvement

works were conducted in the districts, old ditches filled, standing water cleaned and sewage

systems constructed. The drawback of redevelopment around the Castle was the destruction of

the historically important medieval city, as well as modernisation and conversions of the remaining

facades and the construction of numerous commercial buildings. In the course of extension

works of trading companies the house where I. Kant lived was demolished in 1893. Extensive

construction activities after World War I were resumed in Königsberg only at the beginning of the

1920s. These were initiated by H. Lomeier (1881-1968) who was elected First Mayor. He implemented

the concept of turning of the whole of the Königsberg agglomeration into a garden city.

The hesitation regarding the construction of the city centre reflected the Soviet development in

the post-war period. The post-war structural and planning systems for the centre of Kaliningrad

were divided into options. One proposed the relocation of the centre of Kaliningrad to one of the

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14 | Königsberg Town Hall on Kneiphof, 1695 15 | Ceiling decoration at the Town Hall 1696-1697, A. Schlüter

16 | Fragment of ceiling decoration at the Town Hall 1696-1697,

A. Schlüter

17 | Detail of ceiling decoration 1696-1697, A. Schlüter

inner city districts, others even a completely new city centre across the entire area of the historical

town. The development of the architectural image of the city was initially based on the differentiation

of the cultural heritage into “own” and “foreign”, into “suitable” for the socialist construction

and “unsuitable” for the political endeavours. In the late 20th century appreciation of the

historic architecture followed, in the context of the “modernised” creative techniques of postmodernism.

Regarding the stylistic changes in the image of the architecture of Königsberg/Kaliningrad, four

main stages can be distinguished; each of these was connected with a change of a certain

leading paradigm. The medieval city was an embodiment of the concept of recreation of a Divine

Jerusalem on the earth. In modern times (16th-18th century) the architectural style was inspired

by the concept of creating a powerful secular state based on Protestantism and borrowing artistic

impulses from the Dutch and later from the French culture. In the 19th century and the first half

of the 20th century, one of the leading paradigms was the idea of national patriotism that manifested

itself in different forms ranging from basically progressive appeal of the period of Romanticism

in the early 19th century to the Medieval heritage, to national socialism in the pre-war and

war periods. The second half of the 20th century, when the city became capital to a Russian

region, was marked by the idea of establishing a new socialist city on the ruins of the devastated

“German presence” (Ill. 18).

After perestroika and the city's opening in the 1990s, the need arose to formulate a new spiritual

concept for the city, which can be expressed as “Kaliningrad – a city with European roots and

traditions, and a European future”.


18 | Post-war project in the centre of Kaliningrad, 1950s

Notes:

1 Rosenwahl P.: Bemerkungen eines Russen über Preußen und dessen Bewohner, gesammelt auf einer im Jahr 1814, durch dieses Land

unternommen Reise. – Mainz, 1817. p. 147-148

2 Dethlefsen R.: Die Domkirche in Koenigsberg in Pr. nach ihrer jüngsten Wiederstellung. – Berlin, 1912. p. 61

3 Stelin J.: Aufzeichnungen über die schönen Künste in Russland. M., 1990. T.1

4 Hauke: Das Buergerhaus in Ost- und Westpreussen. Tuebingen. 1967

5 Bialostocki Jan.: Obszar nadbaltycki jako krajobraz artyctyczny w XVI wieku.

Bialostocki Jan. Refleksje i syntezy ze swiaya sztuki.-Warszawa, 1978

6 Gause F.: Königsberg in Preußen. Die Geschichte einer europäischen Stadt. Leer, 1989

Personal Profile

Resume

Name

Prof. Irina Viktorovna Belinzeva

Origin

Moskau/Russland

Profession

PhD Science of Art

Main profession field

History of Art and Architecture

Main subject

Urban planning and architecture in

Kaliningrad and in the Kaliningrad Region,

architectural history of Königsberg.

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International Symposium Kaliningrad

Lecture 7

3.1.7 Lecture 7 –

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3 Lectures

History and contemporaneity in the planning pattern

of Kaliningrad's city centre

Venzel T. Salakhov


History and contemporaneity in the planning pattern of Kaliningrad's city centre

The town planning activities in the centre of Kaliningrad, both design and building, had been

aimed at creating a new image of the city until the 1990s. But the urban fabric of the city that had

evolved over centuries was not taken into consideration; the appearance of places that had

survived and the anthropogenic landscape were destroyed. As a result the cultural trend and

urban traditions of development of the city centre were broken.

The changes took different forms in the various parts of the city centre, but its core changed

drastically. A new core was developed based on the town planning doctrines of the 1960s-1970s.

Their grand scale failed to withstand the test of time and the economy of the cold war period. At

present the centre has lost its old image but has not acquired a new one. In the course of time

the mistakes of socialists doctrines in the development of the new city centres became visible –

the gigantic scale, the narrowness of functions and dispersion of the construction with buildings

isolated from the city environment.

When perestroika reforms were started in Russia and the ideology ceased playing the dominant

role in architectural decision making in the development of the city centre. The dissatisfaction

with its current state induced the authorities and architects to search for a different way to develop

the centre.

Central areas and the core were included in the process of town planning activities of the new

masterplan for the city. The community again has to look for ways of developing the image of the

centre.

One of the best and proper ways of designing the centre is returning to the successive development

of the city in consideration of the surviving elements of cultural heritage. As such one can

consider historical buildings as well as the urban elements of the cultural heritage, but also the

changes that have taken place in the city core. So, what is this heritage and what means can be

used for the creative development of the centre?

The object of protection of the contemporary cultural heritage of the city of Kaliningrad

The historical heritage of the city of Kaliningrad is both numerous and various. It comprises items

that make up cultural heritage of different peoples of Europe – Lithuanians, Poles, Germans,

Prussians and Russians.

However, the degree of their preservation, comprehension, concentration, integrity and complex

character differs depending on the area of the city. The particularity of the monuments' location

in the city is their distribution across all the districts. At that, the number and the value of items

of cultural heritage in the city centre is lower than the number, state of preservation and integrity

of monuments in the peripheral areas.

In the medieval core of the city the pattern of planning and building was lost and is represented

with only one structure, the Cathedral – a historical and architectural monument of the 14th century.

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The inner city has partially retained its planning pattern, as well as all the main transport routes

and some historical buildings including several rare integral town planning elements. The second

defensive rampart framing the area of the inner city has been preserved to a great extent. The

spatial connection and integrity of the fortifications can be clearly seen in the planning pattern of

the city. Its system comprises all the elements (though to different degrees of preservation) of the

Prussian fortification school of the mid 19th century. They were either retained in their original

form or adjusted for recreational needs of the population after the fortification had lost its main

function.

The peripheral areas of the city beyond the ramparts have mainly retained their layout and the

integral building pattern. All the post-war town planning activities in these areas were conducted

with regard to the layout and the building pattern. Though one can see some discordant decisions

of fragmentary inclusion of standard housing and other buildings in the pattern of the historical

site.

Different areas of the city have different conservation grades for the objects of protection. Within

the Medieval city core the objects of protection include the following:

- Town plan of the territory;

- Monuments of architecture and town planning;

- Archaeological cultural layers;

- Proportion of spaces – open, built up, green spaces;

- Elements of the natural landscape – relief of river banks and the riverbed, Kneiphof Island

etc.

Within the inner city the objects of protection include the following:

- Monuments of architecture and town planning;

- Retained layout;

- Retained system of streets, squares and open spaces;

- Views, areas of compositional influence, architectural nodes and accents;

- Areas of possible cultural layers;

- Retained integral town planning entities – districts, streets, building complexes.

Methodology of preservation and development of cultural heritage of Kaliningrad

In different historical areas of the city centre different methods of conservation or redevelopment

of historical monuments, culture and places of interest can be applied.

In the historical core of the city the method of regeneration of the historical environment can be

applied, on the basis of the historical plan and recreation of the buildings according to preserved

iconographic material. If this is not available the stylistic imitation of buildings is also possible.

The degree of the possible implementation of the method can be determined after the complete

archaeological excavation of the sub-structure of the medieval core of the city. The Cathedral and

the riverbanks can serve as a scale for the design limitations and decisions.

In the inner city the method of revalorisation of the built-up area can be applied – the programme

of the restoration of its buildings, recreation and revitalisation of the lost architectural, composi-

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tional and utilitarian values. The main direction of the town planning activities in this area is the

rehabilitation of the distorted environment, “pulling together” of the torn pattern of the city within

the main compositional and planning axes. The retained architectural and urban monuments, the

red lines of the historical built-up sites indicate the scale.

Due to the lack of historical buildings in the city core and the scattered locations of some architectural

and urban monuments in the inner city, Kaliningrad needs a special methodology for its conservation

activities. The basis of this methodology should be the conservation of the historical

heritage and the reconstruction of the lost heritage that is the bearer of genetic features of the

area.

The objective can be attained using the method of binding frames, while the planning activities

can be carried out in the whole city. But the form of activities is subject to special regulations –

strict regulations applied only to conservation issues. The rest of the infrastructure can be considered

as peripheral to the of actions. For the city of Kaliningrad the method can be used in the

following forms:

- Identification and consolidation of the compositional and planning axes with spatial nodes

and focuses that should possess the qualities of invariability and stability in time, should

contain sites representing the values of the epoch and create an environment of historically

recognisable sites of the city;

- The built-up areas between them should be considered as a neutral territory for construction

activities regulated by the planning rules. The objects of historical heritage that form islands

within these territories are the criteria on which the regulations are based.

Since the most important urban elements that determine the perception of its artistic image are

the three components the plan, the centre and the silhouette, it is proposed to identify and to

construct frames of the city that are stable in time and space- the planning frame, the compositional

frame and the silhouette frame (dominant).

The frames with their symbolic elements, nodes and focuses are restricted by firm regulations

and thus protected in urban development terms. The aim is the conservation and restoration of

the fields of perception of the historical building fabric. The space between them makes up the

neutral environment for construction. Special town planning regulations would govern limitations

on scale, height, layout, style, colour and materials.

Linear-spatial frame of the city of Kaliningrad

The linear-spatial frame of the city has established since the 14th century and developed without

any drastic changes until the middle of the 20th century. Historical trade routes with prevailing

north-south, west-east directions, and commercial centres served as the basis of the frame.

The direction north – south was formed by two roads leading from the amber coast to the south,

as far as the Mediterranean. The direction west-east was shaped by the waterways and roads

from the Baltic Sea coast to the Baltic States and Russia.

The topography, safety and convenience of the area caused all the roads to cross near the hill

Tvangste at a fortress and ford across the river. With the fortification of the Order Castle and

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development of adjacent towns, the trade routes were consolidated by bridges, fortified city gates

and trade squares etc.

The first defensive belt, established in the 17th century, secured the main routes of communication

by building new city gates. Before the beginning of the 20th century there were eight of

these routes. After the main road in the south was constructed to the city district of Ponart, the

number of roads increased to nine.

At that stage of evolutionary development of the spatial frame until the middle of the 20th century,

the routes of communication formed two converging bow-shaped chords in the meridional and

latitudinal directions. The space formed at their crossing point was the medieval core of the city,

crowned by a powerful dominant, the Royal Castle (Ill. 1).

In the second half of the 20th century, during the Soviet period of the city's development, the main

directions of communication did not undergo any significant changes. Moreover, the roads received

a clearer geometrical shape due to the demolition of the ruined buildings and the straightening

the roads. Most of the roads in the city core were changed but still passed through the city

gates.

The routes of communication accentuated the open squares. Their position and combination

changed several times in the course of the city's development until the early 20th century. The

city centre was formed by four squares situated two by two as a suite on the main roads to the

west and east of the Royal Castle. They were Hezekusplatz and Wilgelmplatz on the west side

and Münzplatz and Schlossplatz on the east side.

Along the radial axes of the main roads alternating squares at an irregular rhythm were situated

at the junctions or in their lobbies. All the circular rays ended in open squares at the city gates.

From the mid-20th century on, the rhythm and location of the squares on the main roads changed

drastically. The changes were most significant in the historical city core. The rhythm and the scale

of small and pleasant squares in the centre were replaced by gigantic open spaces devoid of

buildings. At the same time the roads coincided with the directions of the historical routes (Ill. 2).

The squares along the main roads were partly retained, some new ones were built in the context

of reconstruction works along the roads. In some cases they clearly improved the urban situation

of excessively built-up districts of the inner city (southern part of Leninsky Prospect, Bagration

Street, Moskovsky Prospect, Klinicheskaya Street etc.). The view of the open spaces at the city

gates has been completely retained (Ill. 3).

The particular feature of the city of Kaliningrad is the unchanged appearance of the existing

frame at the development of the railway network. In the mid-19th century, the defensive function

of the town wall was still intact and the city could be entered through railway gates, without using

the main roads. Until the end of the 19th century the city was a closed system. The junctions of

transit routes were located outside the ramparts.

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1 | Linear-spatial frames Königsberg, 1938 2 | Linear-spatial frames Kaliningrad, 1996

The fort belt, built in the late 19th century, gave rise to the construction of the third ring road. Its

inclusion in the planning structure of the city was a further successive development step of the

spatial frame. The planning nodes that were formed at the junctions of main roads with the ring

road created the external outlines of the frame. The outer borders of the city are still being

shaped. The forts could assimilate this role due to their specific function – the hidden position

within the landscape.

Compositional frame

The dominant axes of communication and active compositional zones within the city in which

buildings and complexes of public, cultural, historical and symbolic significance are concentrated

form the compositional frame of Kaliningrad. The elements of the frame of the city core were

formed by the incremental increase of planning structures of the medieval towns Altstadt,

Löbenicht and Kneiphof. Each of them had borders, walls, compositional axes and emphasis.

The first premise forming the compositional frame of the city core was the construction of the

common outer town wall surrounding the three towns and adjoining the citadel – the Royal

Castle. A marked compositional axis was formed, north-south (cardo) and west-east (decumanus)

that united the compositional axes and nodes of some towns. The common compositional

dominant of the settlement was the Royal Castle.

The next step towards the development of the compositional frame was the construction of a system

of defensive ramparts with town gates. This consolidated a huge area comprising towns and

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3 | Former town gate

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suburban areas. The roads to the gates formed the compositional axes that gradually turned into

routes of the exposition of compositional nodes and dominants: street junctions, squares with

public buildings and complexes with dominant buildings (Ill. 4).

Due to the outline of the city ramparts, designed by I. Schtraus, a professor of mathematics from

Königsberg University, the city was radial-centric in plan. The Castle became the compositional

centre of the whole city. This significance was underlined by various elements of the composition

– both natural and architectural. The spatial influence and visual connection to the castle determined

the general of the character city, let alone its socio-political status of the residence of the

power sovereign.

The modern compositional frame of Kaliningrad had been developing for approximately three

hundred years, retaining in time and space the main directions of the compositional axes, nodes

and emphases. Its basis is the compact plan of the inner city. The type of development resulted

in the spatial integrity and compositional completeness of built-up areas, whose borders were the

defensive ramparts with emphases in the form of city gates.

The texture of the built-up areas that grew in the early 20th century beyond the ramparts did not

display these characteristics. The extensive new areas and low growth rates of the town prevented

the development of the compositional subject of the town centre. Perhaps, the changing of

artistic and stylistic tastes of the community hampered its development. Each district developed

locally. The architectural and artistic image of the place, the compositional zoning of some settlement

types should be noted.


4 | Compositional frames Königsberg, 1938 5 | Compositional frames Kaliningrad, 1966

The third ring of the town was also complete in plan, but it lacked compositional emphases and

dominants. It was formed by military forts, whose large mass and vast areas were hidden in the

natural landscape.

The post-war stage of the city development is characterised by the loss of integrity of the historically

developed compositional system of the centre. The disintegration of the fabric of built-up

areas and elimination of the over-ground infrastructure resulted in the loss of urban landmarks

and scale of the area. The further reconstruction of the built-up areas was conducted without

taking into consideration historical planning, which was ignored on principle. As a result the compositional

centre of the city was lost, though its natural component was preserved.

Designers understood the importance of a component of emphasis in the centre and tried to

create new dominants in the form of the House of the Soviets and Central Square. However, the

isolated position, remoteness from current every-day life and gigantic scale of open spaces failed

to create a compositional core compatible with the historical centre. At the same time, all the

dominant compositional axes, nodes and borders of the compositional structure of the inner city

have remained (Ill. 5).

The silhouette frame

The city's silhouette was characteristic of European cities. Since the Middle Ages the dominants

in every city were the church spires and the Order Castle towering above. The local dominants

of city halls and palaces of the upper class echoed them.

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6 | Königsberg, 1729

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With the growth of cities the number of dominants marking the new settlements increased. Engravings

of the 17th and 18th centuries display a picturesque silhouette (Ill. 6).

All through the history of the city the bell tower of the Royal Castle was a dominant feature.

Steeple tops of churches were clustered around it. Since the territories of cities and suburban

areas were not large, the dominants were densely clustered. Although later the height of average

buildings in the city was extended to five or six floors, the church spires and the new religious

buildings of other confessions invariably towered above the horizontal line of the silhouette.

The church dominants of later suburban settlements were situated quite far from the city centre.

Their location was more isolated, and they were less dense due to the extensive areas of new

city districts.

By the beginning of the 20th century, the developed silhouette of the city looked as follows. The

city centre had the highest density of dominants. Their location created a varied picture of visual

perception points. According to the degree of density they could be divided into three zones.

The first zone includes the highest dominants of the city core of the highest density. The zone

displays a concentration of two groups of dominants. To the west – from the highest vertical lines

of the city, spires of the Altstadt Church and the Castle tower, and four church spires and churches

of other confessions in the east. They seem to balance one another in the thick of the other

dominants.

The second zone comprises the historical dominants of the districts within the defensive ramparts.

The line of density of their visual links makes up a hexahedral figure. Each face is a certain

perspective frame of the visual perception of the zone silhouette.

The third zone comprises the dominants of the peripheral areas of the city. The lines of their outer

visual links make up a scalene quadrangle. It forms four perspective frames of perception of all

the dominants of the city (Ill. 7).

The most favourable viewpoint representing the typical silhouette of the city is the valley of the

River Pregel flowing in a west-east direction, and the view from the plateau in the south. These

lines of visibility consecutively open up images of the silhouette of the city.


7 | Dominant frames Kaliningrad, 2005

The analysis of the pictures of various perspectives of the silhouette shows that the dominants

are clustered in four parts of the city. Dominants in the northern part of the city, near the elevated

Tvangste hill, are especially picturesque. They dominate the whole city and can be seen from

both close and remote viewpoints.

The middle group of dominants is composed of the spires at Kneiphof and Lomse. They are situated

in the low-lying area, in the range of the visual axis opening the city panorama in a westeast

and east-west direction.

The southern group of dominants is made up of the spires of dominants in the Haberberg district

situated on a plateau above the river valley. The prevalent dominant here is the spire of the Haberberg

Church terminating the compositional north-south axis and counterbalancing the

additional axis of the powerful dominant of the Castle tower.

Another characteristic panorama of the city silhouette opened up from the south. From the plateau

at the suburb Haberberg a picturesque view of the river valley and its north bank with Tvangste

hill could be observed. The dominants of the silhouette were densely clustered around the

strong vertical line of the Castle tower, smoothly falling to the suburbs of the inner city.

In the early 20th century, on the west side of the panorama, new dominants of industrial buildings

of the sea port were developed. Their height and weight exceeded the historical dominants of the

city centre, but they were of a comparable scale in the silhouette due to their remoteness from

the centre. The silhouette extended towards the open waters of the bay.

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3 Lectures

During the post-war reconstruction of the city the historical silhouette changed disastrously. The

overwhelming majority of the dominants of the city core, of the centre and the inner city were

gradually lost. The modern silhouette of the city, being flat in the centre, does not correspond to

the topography of the area and the functional zones of the territory.

The modern town planners understood the compositional meaning of the highest spot in the city

and tried to create a new dominant – the House of the Soviets. But its scale and weight are in no

proportion to the huge new square around it. There are no other dominants or buildings supporting

it, as there used to be (Ill. 10).

The present city centre needs urban planning measures which are adequate to its position and

meaning. The direct reproduction of the old dominants is hardly possible. But it is possible to borrow

the context of the historical silhouette and create new dominants characteristic of the location,

clustering and panorama of high-rise points. Ths is helped by the formerly built-up sites of

the old historical dominants – the Royal Castle, Altstadt Church, the central post office, Burg

Church, Löbenicht Church, Sackheimer Church and other dominants of the city and local significance.

Conclusions

Based on the analysis conducted, the following succession scenario of the historical identification

of the area can be proposed for future town planning activities in the city of Kaliningrad:

1. For the historical city core – regeneration of buildings on vacant sites, on the basis of the

historical town plan and the increase of densities in the “loose” areas with the inclusion of

historical and modern “island” developments.

2. For the city centre – return to the principle of row construction within the inner city with the

selected regeneration of the street scale and the increase in densities of “loose” areas with

an urban development pattern, open or in rows.

3. For the city silhouette – recreation of the general city dominants of the centre on vacant sites

associated with the symbolic image of the area. It is important that redevelopment take place

on the exact spots of the former dominants and that their composition within the environment

is recreated rather than literally reproduced from historical designs.


Personal Profile

Resume

Name

Venzel Takievic Salakhov

Origin

Kaliningrad/Russia

Profession

Architect

Main profession field

Urban planning and residential

developments, conservation of cultural

heritage, building conservation

Main subject

Conservation of cultural heritage in

Kaliningrad

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International Symposium Kaliningrad

iscussion

3.1.8 Discussion – First Day

The city and its region

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3 Lectures

Kaliningrad – a European city?

- How can the wish be realised for Kaliningrad to become a more beautiful and liveable city?

- What elements and qualities should the urban environment have?

- Kaliningrad could become a Russian city under European influence – which elements/

aspects of both cultures need to be considered?

- Strengthening of the subsidiary principle.

Participation of all players in urban development processes!

- How can the identification of citizens with their city be strengthened?

- How can a general open-mindedness of the public regarding the development of the city be

achieved?

- How can many players, especially the public, be integrated into the planning process?

- Visions must become mission statements.

Strengthening of the cultural and economic significance for Europe!

- What could be the character of Kaliningrad, the region between Russia and Europe?

- How can other European neighbouring states, other than Russia and Germany, be integrated

into the development processes of Kaliningrad?

- How can the economic situation of Kaliningrad be improved in order that investors initiate

development projects?

- Courage of self-reliance and active future marketing of the strengths and potentials.


International Symposium Kaliningrad

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Second Day

3.2 Second Day 16.06.2005

3.2.1 Lecture 8 – Prof. Gennadij M. Fedorov

Geopolitical aspects of the relationships between the European Union and Russia –

The place of Kaliningrad and the Oblast in the context of economic and cultural

relationships

3.2.2 Lecture 9 – Prof. Sergej D. Kozlov

Investment projects and their influence on the planning structure

of the centre of Kaliningrad

3.2.3 Lecture 10 – Prof. Dr. Dr. h.c. Jürgen Bloech

Location factor architecture and other economic location factors

3.2.4 Lecture 11 – Dr. Elke Knappe

Kaliningrad – a strong partner in the Baltic Region?

3.2.5 Lecture 12 – Flemming Frost

Strategy of urban projects

3.2.6 Lecture 13 – Dr. Otto Flagge

Analysis of urban structures

3.2.7 Lecture 14 – Olga V. Mezey

Königsberg/Kaliningrad – Wandering centre in the context of

transformation of transport communications

3.2.8 Lecture 15 – Prof. Dr. Eckart Güldenburg (held by Julius Ehlers)

Structural changes of ports – a chance for urban development?

3.2.9 Lecture 16 – Daniel Luchterhandt

“Building civil society” – Experience from St. Petersburg

3.2.10 Discussion – Second Day

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Lecture 8

3.2.1 Lecture 8 –

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3 Lectures

Geopolitical aspects of the relationships between the European Union and Russia –

The place of Kaliningrad and the Oblast in the context of economic and cultural

relationships

Prof. Gennadij M. Fedorov


Geopolitical aspects of the relationships between the European Union and Russia –

The place of Kaliningrad and the Oblast in the context of economic and cultural

relationships

The future planning decisions and architectural appearance of Kaliningrad depend, to a great extent,

on the success of the socio-economic development of the Kaliningrad Region and its appeal

to migrants, the influx of whom affects population growth of both the Region and its administrative

centre. The demographic potential of the city and its development, as well as the dynamics of the

population in the suburbs of Kaliningrad as a centre of the urban agglomeration, are important

factors influencing planning decisions. This influence is both direct (taking into account the necessity

of housing and public facilities) and indirect (via increasing the production of goods and

services, growth of general wealth and corresponding increase in the city's budget, parts of which

are spent on the development of municipal services).

At present, Kaliningrad is the pole of the region's economic development. 45% of the region's population

and the same percentage of housing are concentrated here, as well as 78% of industrial

production, 77% of retail trade turnover and 68% of house building. The city's enterprises provide

92% of the national income. The unemployment rate is rather low and salaries are 30% higher

than in the rest of the region.

The role of the Kaliningrad Region in the economy of the country and the prospects of the socioeconomic

development of the region are assessed ambiguously. Therefore, the forecasts concerning

the regional centre differ.

Scenarios that are at present being developed by both Russian and international experts are

subject to geopolitical and geoeconomic interests. As a reflection on the cooperation “throughout

the region” of various actors with regional, federal and international interests, these scenarios differ

to a great extent. The scenario of the Russian outpost in the Baltic represents one pole. Another

is the separatist idea of the “fourth Baltic republic” with suggestions of creating the euro

region of “Prussia” and the plea to organise a Russian-European condominium in the region. The

places between these poles are taken by various versions of less tendentious regional strategies

(an ordinary region as part of the Russian Federation, Special Economic Area receiving federal

support, a region with a different special economic regime, the official strategy of the “region of

cooperation”).

The Kaliningrad Region, as a Russian exclave in the Baltic and at the same time an enclave

within NATO and the EU, depends in its development and vital functioning of the relationships

between Russia and Byelorussia, Lithuania, Poland and the EU.

The balance of Russian and EU interests determines the success of a regional strategy. Today,

Kaliningrad is one of the important centres of international contacts and the object of various

projects developed by both Russian and international experts. The EU enlargement to the East

and the region's turning into an enclave within the EU has led to a number of political, economic

and social problems. The solving of these will reflect the true extent of the development of the

international cooperation between Russia and its Western European partners. The experience of

Kaliningrad, both positive and negative, may be helpful in the adjustment of Russian foreign

economic and political strategies.

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1 | Abutting Baltic states

Under conditions of a publicly declared partnership between Russia and the EU, the settlement

of political, legal and economic issues emerging in the Kaliningrad Region in connection with the

EU enlargement, is of great importance. It serves as an indicator of both parties to move from

political declarations to action. At the same time, the solving of burning international and legal

issues (including technical ones, such as the visa problem) is not end in itself, but the precondition

for rapid economic development of the Kaliningrad Region, as the region of cooperation

between Russia and the EU in the 21st century.

The cooperation between Russia and the EU in the Kaliningrad Region is not starting from

scratch. The mechanism of the Free, and later of the Special Economic Zone has, in fact, already

turned the region into an experimental area of international interaction where (on the initiative of

the Russian party) new integration mechanisms are being polished. Approximately 2,300 joint

and international enterprises have established in the Region, contributing to the development of

foreign economic activities. Numerous international projects are being realised which help to improve

production and the social infrastructure that is necessary to draw investment. Cross-border

cooperation with Poland and Lithuania, the new members of EU, has also increased during the

last few years. This process includes interaction through the euro regions “Baltics”, “Neman”,

“Saule” and “Sheshupe”. Scientific research contacts with Germany have been revitalised. The

Region started taking part in projects of interregional Baltic cooperation, including the EU “Northern

Dimension”.

Cooperation in Kaliningrad is one of the elements of a wider partnership between Russia and the

EU. The Union has granted about 40 million Euros for various TASIS projects in the Kaliningrad

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Region since 1991. From 2004 to 2006, the region will receive approximately 50 million Euros in

the course of the TASIS programme of technical cooperation.

The EU has actually rejected the idea of signing a special treaty on the Kaliningrad Region,

proposed by a number of Russian representatives. It was suggested to carry on collaboration

within the general relations between Russia and the Union (though the decision to establish a

special committee on the Kaliningrad Region was made, it has not been set up yet).

The EU supposes that Kaliningrad exporters benefit from its enlargement, as the EU customs duties

are lower than Polish and Lithuanian import duties. Actually, the main obstacle for export to

Lithuania and Poland is not high duties, but the absence of competitive goods in the region that

would meet the standards of EU. So lowering export duties to the neighbouring countries will

hardly eliminate the inconveniences connected with the rise of prices and complications of communication

with “continental” Russia in the near future.

In assessing Russian propositions to establish a special trade regime for Kaliningrad and the EU,

the Union pointed out that as Kaliningrad is an integral part of Russia, giving it a special status

(e.g. free trade area or customs union) would cause difficulties. It may generate political and legal

issues. Besides, Russia according to the European Commission, will hardly grant Kaliningrad the

necessary autonomy. That is why the EU is not sure the region will need a special regime (in

other words, the idea is actually rejected, though in a gentle manner).

The parties should, as soon as possible, come to a mutual understanding on the Kaliningrad

Region and the integration of Russia into the all-European region, which has been declared the

most important objective common to both Russian and the EU.

Russian interests can be conventionally divided into federal and regional. The first group includes

retaining the Kaliningrad Region as part of the Russian Federation and in the all-Russian economic

space. This is to become an indispensable condition in any discussion on the prospects of

regional development.

Federal interests in the region are also of military and strategic significance, presupposing support

of Russian military positions here, at a level sufficient to provide national safety.

Furthermore, the Kaliningrad Region is able to fulfil significant all-Russian economic functions.

However, taking into account the level of realisation of the regional development programmes,

the federal centre has not yet determined the functions of the region in the all-Russian division

of labour.

The economic significance of the region in the long-term prospective is connected with the use

of its geographical advantages, which are not yet recognised by the federal authorities. That is

why the region should start a number of new projects aimed at satisfying federal and interregional

interests. These could be the use of ports, forming a complex of consignment warehouses and

corresponding organisation of international logistics, complex processing of extracted amber,

agricultural products, development of seashore resorts, creating a Russian-international technopolis

depending on the regional and federal scientific and technical potential with a complex of

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2 | Region Kaliningrad 2000-2010

export-oriented enterprises. These projects should be planned from the point of view of economic

and social effectiveness of their realisation in the Kaliningrad Region (including comparison to

other similar projects in various regions of the country). This will raise the awareness of the

federal authorities regarding issues of regional development.

Federal interests were formulated in the federal target programme “The Kaliningrad Region –

development up to 2010” aimed at “creating conditions for the sustainable socio-economic development

of the Kaliningrad Region based on expanding export-oriented enterprises and achieving

a standard of living comparable to that in the neighbouring countries”.

Securing geostrategic Russian interests in the Baltic Region includes:

- Development of Kaliningrad as a large transport centre in the RF through modernisation of

the transport infrastructure;

- Securing the power supply of the region through the reconstruction and construction of new

sources of power;

- Improving the ecological situation, achieving the normative level of major environmental conditions.

The tasks at federal level are the following:

- Transformation of the regional economic structure towards export orientation;

- Improving the Special Economic Zone as the mechanism of developing the economy of the

region and its integration into the world economy, development of an effective system of SEZ

management with the participation of federal and regional authorities;

- Developing the telecommunication infrastructure;

- Improving tourist and recreational facilities;

- Structural reorganisation of the amber industry.

Taking into account the EU enlargement, the Kaliningrad Region should build a system of crossborder

economic relations with the neighbouring countries in the context of their integration into

the EU structures. If this is not done, the geopolitical and geoeconomic situation of the district will

substantially decline.

Regional interests are versatile. First of all, the region is interested in the reorganisation of its

economy, which should match the new geopolitical reality. That is why local authorities welcome

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oth Russian and international investments into specialised industries. However, it is obvious that

investment should suit specific interests of the region, such as social and ecological ones. It is

hardly surprising that the experts disapproved the projects of building oil-export harbours and

giant ports that would damage the ecosystem of the region.

At the same time, the sectors meeting the everyday needs of the population require particular

attention at a regional level. These provide foods, industrial and consumer goods, commercial

and housing services, health care and education. It is the task of the regional authorities to

secure budgetary financing of non-commercial organisations and creating favourable conditions

for business development.

The EU acknowledges unconditionally that Kaliningrad is an integral part of the Russian Federation.

Its joining the Union separately from the whole of the country is impossible, since the EU

does not enter into negotiations with individual parts of states.

According to the EU, its enlargement influences the neighbouring countries positively, including

Russia and the Kaliningrad Region, which can make good use of the new potential of its

geographical situation.

The EU emphasises that the development of the Kaliningrad Region is the responsibility of Russia

and the region itself. Nevertheless, in view of the EU enlargement and in the context of the

“Northern Dimension” policy, the Union expressed willingness to assist economic and social development.

As it is pointed out in the European Commission reports, the Union is ready to discuss

and settle issues concerning Kaliningrad within legal-organisational mechanisms, provided by

the Partnership and Cooperation Agreement.

In our opinion, the EU should take part of the responsibility for the region's development, as the

enlargement to the East changes its the external conditions. This responsibility should not be

limited to providing funds, which largely return to Europe anyhow, through foreign experts' and

consultants' salaries, equipment supplies, and so on. The issue is of a political nature and should

not rest with technical details, as is sometimes the case with our partners (for example, their

position concerning the transit visa problem).

Regarding the economic cooperation of Kaliningrad, the Russian and EU approaches coincide

in two crucial points: economic isolation of the region should not be tolerated; the region's potential

creates promising opportunities for cooperation between the RF and the EU. In addition to

this, Russia considers the region as its Special Economic Zone where many legal procedures

(customs, tax, registration) are simplified, making the region more attractive to domestic and

international investors. Both new and traditional economic ideas and technologies (such as international

concessions) can be approved here. In particular the regulations of World Trade Organisation,

which Russia will soon enter, can be worked out in the Kaliningrad Region.

Of course, the capacity of Kaliningrad's home market does not give grounds to consider it a substantial

factor for the economy of the whole country. The region is developing as a transit centre

and a place for assembly enterprises working to substitute import into the RF. Export production

with its favourable prospects also presents certain significance.

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For foreign investors the region can be attractive not so much in terms of the export-oriented production,

but rather in terms of its convenient location allowing access to extensive Russian markets.

This implies establishing joint ventures on the basis of both existing and newly created

enterprises. On the assumption that labour forces will be freed in the course of restructuring the

economy, and that it is highly qualified and comparatively cheap, the new enterprises can be

provided with local staff.

The research carried out by scientists at Kaliningrad University in cooperation with Moscow and

international experts created the basis for work on the strategic principles of regional development

taking into account the regional, federal and international interests that come together in

the region. This research is reflected in a number of monographs and articles written by A. P. Klemeshev,

S. D. Kozlov, M. A. Tsikel, V. P. Zdanov, Yu. M. Zverev, T. R. Gareev, G. M. Fedorov and

others. I would like to note the article “The New Economy of the Kaliningrad Region” published

this year in 2 of “Voprosy ekonomiki”, the monographs “the Island of Cooperation”, “The Special

Territory of Russia”, “The Kaliningrad Region: Strategy of Cooperation”, “From Isolated Exclave

to the Corridor of Development: the Alternatives of the Russian Exclave in the Baltic”, “The Effectiveness

and Perfection of the Mechanism of the Special Economic Zone in the Kaliningrad

Region” and “Formation of the New Economy of the Kaliningrad Region” published in 2002-2005.

The titles speak for themselves.

Our conclusion is as follows: the region undoubtedly has all the preconditions for accelerated development.

Realisation depends on the mutual activities of both local and federal authorities in

accordance with the region's development programme that presupposes its remaining part of the

Russian economic space, while actively developing external links and participating in the Baltic

economic space. These ideas formed the basis of the strategy of the “region of cooperation” that

is being implemented in the Kaliningrad Region. It should be developed and improved.

A comprehensive approach, taking into account all the various intertwining interests in the region,

presupposes the elaboration of the following documents and measures in order to create an

institutional basis for sustainable development.

At the regional level it is necessary to improve regional legislation and to lower administrative

barriers for the development of entrepreneurship.

At the federal level it is advisable to develop federal policy regarding the Kaliningrad Region. Its

main elements are the “Law on the Special Economic Zone in the Kaliningrad Region” and the

Federal Target Programme “Development of the Kaliningrad Region for the period up to 2010”.

At the international level it seems expedient to conclude an agreement between the RF and the

EU on the conditions for securing vital functions and development of the Kaliningrad Region as

a region of mutual cooperation (it is necessary to convince the EU that such an agreement is expedient),

as well as to conclude other agreements and treaties with the Baltic Sea States and

Byelorussia.

The Partnership and Cooperation Agreement could be the basis for signing a special agreement

between the RF and the EU. The initiative of signing such an agreement is supported by the

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3 | National linkage of Kaliningrad

Kaliningrad Regional Duma. A number of proposals were formulated in the “Strategy of the socioeconomic

development of the Kaliningrad Region as a region of cooperation for the period up to

2010” that was elaborated by the regional administration in collaboration with researchers from

the I. Kant State University of Russia and other research centres of Kaliningrad and Moscow. The

corresponding proposals have been put forward to the European Union by the Russian

Government.

Besides covering the conditions of passenger and cargo transit via EU countries for securing vital

functions of the Kaliningrad Region, the agreement could address other aspects that are of

mutual interest.

Thus, considering the duty free import of goods from abroad (first of all, from the EU countries)

to the Kaliningrad Region, Russia should insist on opening the EU market for Kaliningrad goods

(at least to an equal amount as goods imported from EU countries). Besides, the exclave position

of the region and the changes brought by the EU enlargement have worsened the conditions and

increased the cost of cargo and passenger transportation between the Kaliningrad Region and

other Russian regions. International law of the EU countries stipulates repair of the possible

economic damage caused by its activities.

The EU, judging by the publications and officials' speeches, is not yet ready to sign an agreement

with Russia on the Kaliningrad Region but prefers to work within the established and nonburdensome

format of the Partnership and Cooperation Agreement and technical assistance

within the TACIS programme. It is significant that the European Union has not officially

responded to the Russian proposal of turning the Kaliningrad Region into a “pilot region” of cooperation

between Russia and the EU in the 21st century. Neither has there been a response to

the “Strategy of the socio-economic development of the Kaliningrad Region as a region of cooperation

for the period up to 2010”. These ideas have not been rejected, they have just been

“overlooked”. However, it should be noted that the Russian federal centre seems to be satisfied

with the existing format of cooperation. As a result both Russia and the EU do not solve the problems

of the Kaliningrad Region as a whole, but consider them “as they appear” which is often

too late, causing a string of crisis situations.

Nevertheless, we proceed on the understanding that the present political difficulties are temporary

and all the existing problems will be solved for our mutual benefit. This will be the sign that

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the European Union really considers Russia an equal partner and is ready for further the development

of a close cooperation. An indication of the EU to pursue such a strategy would be

their consent to sign a special agreement securing vital functions of the Kaliningrad Region and

its development as a region of mutual cooperation. In our view, the Kaliningrad Region could play

a similar role in the relationships between Russia and the North Atlantic Alliance (as an aside: in

the summer of 2004 a joint Russia – NATO exercise was held in the Kaliningrad Region).

The Kaliningrad Region could play an important role in the approval of the EU – Russia cooperation

in various spheres: in the elaboration of the concept of the common European economic

space, in the energy dialogue and the dialogue in the transport sphere, in the interaction in the

field of telecommunications and engineering technologies.

The geoeconomic approach helps to determine the region's prospective specialisation. In this respect

the Kaliningrad Region can be considered a leader among other Russian regions, which

could help the Russian economy to occupy a position of greater potential within the world labour

division, compared to the present state. This is favoured by the current pattern of the regional

economy and the region's geographical position close to Russia's main trading partners, as well

as by the strategy of development of the Kaliningrad Region as “region of cooperation”.

A well-known fact is that the essence of the geoeconomic approach is active involvement in the

international labour division and thus occupying the most favourable positions. In any national

economy there are economic entities that are part of the internationalised reproduction nucleus,

and there are also non-internationalised parts (outside the general context of world development

but serving as one of the sources of development of the national reproduction nucleuses). The

state of the internationalised nucleuses determines the place of the country in its struggle for the

world income, i.e. the income on a world scale from external economic activities that is generated

when the goods and services produced within these nucleuses, using all kinds of national

resources, are sold.

The state's income directly depends on its position within the international labour division, i.e. on

the availability of the internationalised reproduction nucleuses providing access to the world

income. That is why the state has to play a significant role in their formation, in promoting the development

of their branches by allocating loans for purchasing imported equipment, guarantees

and insurance on loans, beneficial taxation of income and property, introduction of accelerated

depreciation etc. One of the specific ways is the mechanism of the Special Economic Zone in the

Kaliningrad Region.

The regions that are best prepared for the innovations in the economic sphere should act as the

poles of development. The Kaliningrad pole of integration should play a more active role in Russia's

winning favourable geoeconomic positions.

It is widely believed that energy, aerospace, metallurgy and innovation are prospective fields for

the formation of the Russian nucleuses. However, it is equally important, in our view, to consider

the necessity of entering the market of consumer goods (at least on the domestic market, where

the international competitors are prevalent at the moment, and a gradual penetration the world

market). In this respect the Kaliningrad Region, in its specific geopolitical position, provides the

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unique opportunity to serve as a pole of development of such production activities (as presently

exercised). Perhaps, this is the origin of the Russian government's policy regarding the new law

on the SEZ. It presupposes the reorientation of the regional economy from import-substitution to

export production, and also the role of the region as Russia's contact territory. But this chosen

approach should be given proper substantiation.

Even now the participation of the Kaliningrad Region in the internationalised nucleuses is higher

that in most of the other Russian regions. Import-substitution and export production make up the

basis of the industry. Servicing the external economic activities of the other regions is of great

significance. But one can assume that since the added value in the import-substitution is quite

small, it could service “foreign” but not Russian nucleuses. However, the “upper stages” of

technological processing, of importing raw materials and semi-finished products, are present in

the region. This can be considered as quite beneficial and a progressive direction of the region's

specialisation. An actual drawback of the established pattern of the region's economy is the

significant share of its non-internationalised sector and its weak links with the internationalised

nucleuses.

Strengthening of the role of the Kaliningrad Region as a prospective “corridor of development”,

promoting the integration of Russia in the global economy, meets all-Russian as well as regional

interests. This direction should become the basis for a regional strategy ensuring sustainable and

dynamic development of the Kaliningrad exclave.

It seems equally important to determine the place of Kaliningrad within the cultural interaction

between Russia and foreign Europe. The recently published book by the Rector of the University

A.P. Klemeshev, “Russian exclave under the conditions of globalisation”, emphasises an

important role of the region located on the border between two civilizations: Russian and western.

Will a new “velvet” curtain appear as a consequence of Hantington's hypothesis on the

clash of civilizations, or will the cultures penetrate and enrich one another? Kaliningrad and the

region are doing a lot for the development of cooperation in this sphere (the Council of Europe

Awards to the city testify to this fact). Cooperation in the field of education is successful, as well

as in the sphere of social work. Kaliningrad undoubtedly has all the preconditions to become a

centre of contacts, international exhibitions and conferences, the number and quality of which are

constantly growing (the present forum testifies to this fact as well as the forthcoming celebration

of the city's jubilee).

The realisation of a successful regional strategy makes the issue of a rational spatial organisation

of the region's territory a pressing one. Actual steps in solving these problems were planned at

the end of 2004 in the comprehensive masterplan of the town planning development of the

territory of the Kaliningrad Region and its parts (our region is among the first Russian regions to

do such work). A masterplan for the recreation zone on the seaside has been designed and

masterplans for a number of cities and towns in the region are being worked on. A comprehensive

plan of nature conservation in the Kaliningrad Region has been developed, landscape

planning projects are being carried out (they are conducted by researchers from the University

in cooperation with other specialists, including experts from Irkutsk where similar work has been

done and the support from the German Environment Foundation and researchers from Berlin

Technical University). The strategy of regional development perfectly fits the general strategy of

the Baltic Sea countries in the course of the TACIS project “Seagull-IIRC”.

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The development of the city of Kaliningrad should be coordinated with the development of the

whole of the western part of the region (Bagrationovsky, Gurievsky, Zelenogradsky districts, sea

and bay coastal towns). This area practically corresponds to the nearby suburban area of

Kaliningrad, the Kaliningrad agglomeration with a population of 690,000 (73% of the total

population of the region). Within it several sub-zones can be identified.

1. The city of Kaliningrad and its suburbs: industrial and transport sub-zone of the north coast

of Kaliningrad Bay (Svetly, Vzmorie), Kolosovka – Khrabrovo, Gurievsk – Vasilkovo, southern

suburbs – the villages of Nizovie, Severny, Yuzhny, Pribrezhny. Based on the degree of development

of internal demographic and socio-economic links, the whole of this area could be

included within the city boundaries of Kaliningrad. The other areas to the west of the region

are included in the sphere of influence of Kaliningrad:

2. Seaside resort sub-zone (Primorie – Zelenigradsk – Rybachy);

3. Seaside defensive and industrial zone (Baltyisk – Donskoye);

4. Immediate border to Poland (Ladushkin – Mamonovo, Bagrationovsk);

5. Agrarian inner part of the Kaliningrad peninsula also with good potential for used for tourism.

Although in the recent years statistics have not recorded significant migration of people to Kaliningrad,

we believe that the situation will change in the near future. The population figures, including

people of Kaliningrad who are capable of work, are going to decline rapidly due to the

specificity of the age structure of the population. Housing reserves will be available for people

coming into the city. At the same time, new jobs in connection with the revival of the economy

will sooner be created in Kaliningrad rather than in the other settlements of the region.

We believe, that two thirds of those migrants coming to the cities and towns of the Kaliningrad

Region (both from other regions and from rural areas of the region) will be heading for Kaliningrad

in the near future.

With the lack of migration and maintaining the current birth rate and death rate the population of

Kaliningrad will be rapidly declining. This will be in the region of 5,000 people annually during the

first five years, and 4,500 people annually during the subsequent five years. The number of the

people who are able to work will be rapidly decreasing, and within ten years will have declined

by more than 30,000. If the inflow of migrants amounts to 2,000 people a year, the labour

resources will be decreasing by 8,000 in 2005-2010, and by 19,000 in 2010-2015.

The data in the table below reflect the trend of different age groups of the population in per cent

as to 2005, assuming the migration of 3,000 people annually:

Tab. 1: Forecast of age and sex structure of the urban population of the Kaliningrad Region (assuming a migration balance of 3,000 people a year

and increase in life expectancy), in % as to 2015

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Population 2005 2010 2015

Total 100 97 96

Younger than 18 years old 100 89 95

At an age capable of work 100 95 93

Retirement age 100 105 108


In order to maintain the number of people at an age capable of work up to the year 2015, the

migration inflow in 2005-2010 should increase to 4,500-5,000 people a year, and in 2010-2015

to 7,000-8,000 people annually. In principle this is possible both with the increase of the inflow of

migrants from other regions and from inner regional migration, and mainly from rural areas. At

present, the number of the rural population is considerably higher than it was in the early 1990s,

though the employment rate in agriculture is lower. There also are some potential reserves in the

increase in mobility of labour resources in suburban areas. However, one should anticipate a

probable decline in both the population and the labour resources of Kaliningrad when forecasting

the development of the city's economy.

Thus, the system of interconnected and complimentary documents of spatial planning in the

region is manifested in the masterplan of the city of Kaliningrad. Strategic and spatial planning is

joined into a single entity that promotes dynamic development and rational allocation of the

economy.

Personal Profile

Resume

Name

Prof. Gennadij Michajlovic Fedorov

Origin

Kaliningrad/Russia

Profession

Economic geography

Main professional field

Regional development, spatial planning

Main subject

Geopolitical problems of the

Kaliningrad Region,

economic and social development,

territorial planning,

functional zoning

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Lecture 9

3.2.2 Lecture 9 –

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Investment projects and their influence on the planning structure

of the centre of Kaliningrad

Prof. Sergej D. Kozlov


Investment projects and their influence on the planning structure

of the centre of Kaliningrad

The two companies, “Baltic Construction Corporation” and “Baltic Investment Corporation”, which

I run, have been given the honour of being organisers, owners and contractors in the implementation

of the two large projects in the centre of Kaliningrad. The first project, “Kaliningrad-750”, is

the construction of a business centre comprising a hotel and an underground car park (the total

area of K-750 is 45,000 sq. m.). The second project is the construction of a shopping centre,

business centre and exhibition centre – “Trade House Zentralny” (total area 21,000 sq. m.) – on

the site of the famous ruined “House of Machinery” (formerly part of the East German Fair by

architect Hans Hopp). The amount of investment for the first project (the investor is RGS – Nedvizhimost)

is estimated at over 40 million Euros, and for the second project (the investor is the

commercial bank BIN) the amount is approximately 10 million Euros. It is planned that the first

part of the centre “Kaliningrad-750” will be completed for the jubilee of the city. It involves a huge

amount of engineering works and the construction of an underground car park beneath a square

and fountain. The building shell of the Trade Centre will be completed in August 2005, and by the

beginning of July most of the fitting works will have been done.

The implementation of these projects, and other by our colleagues' construction projects in the

centre of Kaliningrad, testifies to the fact that after the loss of the historical buildings of the city,

and of many years of arrested development in the area adjoining the House of the Soviets, the

investment flow was inevitably directed to the formation of a new private sector, administrative

and religious centre in the area of Victory Square. The driving force behind the process was the

adoption of the concept of building a city centre, by the City Hall and City Council in the late

1990s. This concept was designed the architect O.V. Kopylov. The Cathedral of Christ the Saviour

is intended as the dominant of the centre. Its construction promoted the development of the

sites around the Cathedral and also determined the architectural appearance of the buildings, to

some extent even their functions.

This is the reconstruction of the historical destiny of a unique place that combined administrative

functions (the magistrate), trade and exhibitions (the whole area from City Hall to the House of

Machinery), religious buildings (churches in Ivannikov and Partizanskaya Streets), recreational

(landscape and parks in the fortification belt) and cultural (Arts Hall). It is predetermined by the

1 | Visualisation of Christ the Saviour Cathedral and shopping centre

Kaliningrad 750

2 | Former House of Technology

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3 | Bird's eye view of construction of Christ the Saviour Cathedral and shopping centre “Kaliningrad-750”

4 | Bird's eye view visualisation of Christ the Saviour Cathedral and shopping centre “Kaliningrad-750”


etained system of transport communications, trade and religious traditions of the existing area

that was the centre of public and business life of Königsberg in the 1920s-1930s.

The increasing attractiveness for investment of this part of the city, bounded by Teatralnaya

Street, Leninsky Prospect, Chernyakhovsky, Proletarskaya and Ozerov Streets, Sovetsky Prospect

and Victory Square, is determined by a number of macro and micro economic factors.

Firstly, this means an actual increase in the standard of living and consumer potential of the

population.

Secondly, favourable legislation is in force: in Russia the Special Economic Zone, and on a regional

level the law for the support of investment in the form of capital investment, and on a municipal

level the package of laws on investor support.

Thirdly, administrative support of projects was given by the City Council, by officials at City Hall,

and most importantly, by the Mayor Mr. Yu. A. Savenko, who took responsibility for the controversial,

large-scale reconstruction of the city centre.

Fourthly, a simultaneous consolidation of efforts of several investors facilitates the solving of

difficult infrastructure problems (power supply, water and heat supply, sewerage), making the

investment area even more attractive. The contribution of the participants of our two projects in

the development of the network and improvements of the urban environment is approximately

300 million Roubles. More than half of this amount has already been allocated to solving the city's

problems.

Fifthly, changing the architectural environment of large areas and solving engineering issues will

enable the development of adjoining areas.

And finally, while developing a new centre – “Kaliningrad-750” – we are at the same time reconstructing

the ruined monuments, such as Hans Hopp's House of Machinery in the style of Bauhaus.

As a result, the attractiveness for tourist will increase which will improve the economy of

the city.

The further prospects of development of the new administrative, public business and religious

centre of Kaliningrad will, in my view, be dependant on the movement towards the Upper Lake.

Chernyakhovsky Street will be redesigned and should be widened into a main road. It is important

that heavy traffic is removed from Baranov Street. The old-fashioned and low quality residential

buildings that now face Chernyakhovsky Street are doomed to de demolished. It is clear that

the prices for flats in those building are going to be quite high which may cause problems to the

investor. The present shops already look like shrines to unbridled capitalism of the early 1990s.

The former stables of the Kirasirsky Regiment (now the food market) are unlikely to be an attraction

in the city. It is impossible to retain the Central Food Market and the buildings in Chernyakhovsky

Street in their present state. We are aware of how similar problems were solved in Moscow,

Minsk and other Russian cities. Modern complexes with parking areas have been built that

perfectly fit the contemporary architectural environment.

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5 | Extract from street map

Underground development projects in the city can have considerable economic, social and ecological

effects. It should be made obligatory to construct underground car parks while developing

the area above for recreation. In this respect the architectural solution found for the “Kaliningrad-

750” project is exemplary. The first part of the complex will be completed for the jubilee of the

city. As a result of the considerable profits made by investors and owners of large units in the city

centre, the buildings could be linked to one another via pedestrian routes, elevated walkways and

underground passages in the same way as it is done in large cities of the world, such as Toronto

and Montreal. However, it will be difficult to bring together the investors' efforts without proper coordination

from City Hall.

While restoring and developing the area as a new public, business and religious centre, everything

should be done for the revitalisation of its recreational potential. It seems obvious that a

good pedestrian area must be built between Victory Square, Verkhnee Lake and Yunost Park,

where Mrs. Putin is implementing her wonderful project. The function of a park in Schneider's

green belt, from Garazhnaya Street to Proletarskaya Street, should be restored: it is necessary

to build pedestrian paths, to restore small architectural objects, and, of course, landscape work

needs to be carried out on extensive areas of the park. The inclusion of a children's playground

on the theme the style of Hoffmann's fairy tales would be desirable. The stream in the park needs

special attention. It should be both cleaned and restored, and along the Trade House Zentralny

it should be culverted to create a new architectural and landscape complex connecting the park

with trade and service spaces. Baranov Street should be pedestrianised between Gorky Street

and the crossing at Proletarskaya Street.

We made proposals for improvements of the park and a new recreation area between Gorky and

Partizanskaya Streets, but this was turned down on grounds of the ecological survey. I would like

to believe that the attitude that investors are only interested in profits will finally subside. We are

also Kaliningradians, like everyone else living here. We are dreaming of a beautiful, pleasant city

to live in, and we are doing our best to transform it into a modern European city, and in many

respects even a capital city. We want this to take place in a time span of two to three years. In

fact, it is the creation of a new business, spiritual and cultural centre of Russia, a showcase of

the success of present-day Russia within the European Union. Based on modest calculations the

total volume of investment to take place in the next years in this area could amount to 250-300

million Euros, if the corresponding administrative support is provided. This, in turn, will create

new long-term investment possibilities for the development of the city in the future.

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6 | Original building of grocery market


Personal Profile

Resume

Name

Prof. Sergej Dmitrievic Kozlov

Herkunft

Kaliningrad/Russia

Profession

Economist, Finance expert,

Professor of Law,

PhD Political Science

Main professional field

Mobilisation of investments, construction,

urban development

Main subject

Building the public centre “Kaliningrad-750”,

reconstruction of the inner city of Kaliningrad,

the trade house “Centralnyj”

(formerly “House of Technology”)

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Lecture 10

3.2.3 Lecture 10 –

Location factor architecture and other economic location factors

Prof. Dr. Dr. h.c. Jürgen Bloech


Location factor architecture and other economic location factors

Since 1994, Venzel Salakhov and Andrej Derbenkow from Kaliningrad as well as Jochen Brandi

and Jürgen Bloech from Göttingen have, in a Russian-German working group, studied the old

fabric and future potentials of the war-ridden Kneiphof Island in Kaliningrad (Königsberg), the site

of the cathedral.

Working with the group are interested partners from the Russian Immanuel Kant University in

Kaliningrad that is joined in a cooperation agreement to Georg-August University, Göttingen.

The development potentials of the central area of Kneiphof Island are of particular interest that

could help to elucidate the special importance of the site to citizens and visitors.

Intense discussion on whether Kneiphof Island should be built upon began as early as 1990. In

this discourse we pledged for a new Kneiphof on old foundations in the vicinity of the cathedral.

The cathedral today lies isolated and could be given back its cultural setting by the reconstruction

of the (now Russian) buildings for philosophy and humanities.

The area around the cathedral could also become a park for contemplation with a “philosopher's

path” which is a worthy approach to the grave of the great philosopher.

This was the context in which the idea was born to bring back the books of Kant's library, together

with modern international literature, to a location close to him. The director of the State and

University Library Göttingen, Elmar Mittler, has made a valuable contribution to the development

of this concept.

Location factors and their function in the development of city and region

Visitors to the city immediately notice the architectural fabric. This fabric often dominates the first

impression and influences the visitor before he can have other experiences. In terms of tourism

architecture can become a major location factor. This approach is an interesting starting point

when thinking about architecture as a location factor in conjunction with the future design of

Kaliningrad. In doing this, the train of thought should consider economic as well as cultural

aspects that are linked to architecture.

Location factors are specific influences that may be defined differently in different places and

recognised by business people, institutions and the citizens alike. This poses the question of

whether architecture too can be mapped as a location factor.

A site-related survey will mainly ask about the advantages and disadvantages of the city and

region regarding the settlement of businesses and institutions. This approach looks at the socalled

hard location factors that are expected to bring direct economic benefits. These are tax

advantages, cost of land, availability of qualified workers, transportation network, legal system

and others.

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Soft location factors have other characteristics (also compare Thießen, 2005, p. 10 ff.). They

affect people's behaviour through sympathy and well-being and their preferences for spending

time in a particular place. There is no clear delineation between hard and soft location factors.

Certain soft location factors have strategic potential in terms of attractiveness to tourism or to

culture conscious management.

These may consider the cultural potential of a city in their choice of business location that will

offer an attractive environment to sophisticated and highly qualified staff.

This perspective on the attractiveness of location, determined by soft location factors, bears in

mind that private people close to executive members of staff - and their happiness - will influence

the decision to want to work in a company located in an attractive location. In turn, excellent

executive managers are an important potential for successful companies.

City and municipalities that are aware of the influence of location factors will carry out measures

to improve the attractiveness of the locality.

Access and transportation networks will be expanded and improved, for example, to reduce

travelling time and costs for industrial companies and logistics firms.

Land for the relocation of industries is set aside. Cultural facilities are enhanced to increase the

diversity and quality of the soft location factors.

Thus numerous activities are aimed at preparing local location factors for the future development

of the region.

Location factor architecture, potential for the city

Looking at architecture as a soft location factor will also consider the position of architecture in

the historic development of the city as well as a part of the general cultural strategic potential.

The historic development of a city entails that buildings, cultural facilities and infrastructure including

parks and gardens, are constantly being created, transformed or conserved. In the course

of many decades the resultant townscape is the expression of the citizens' cultural appreciation.

Outside visitors will either be attracted by the architectural overall picture or repelled.

Interaction of architecture and other location factors

The development of the central areas of the city is of specific importance in the development of

Kaliningrad.

The comprehensive plan for the city will propose architecture that will provide access to the

international transportation network via specific stations such as harbour, airport, possibly

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motorways and the railway station. Here architecture and logistics will work together in creating

those potentials. In addition the link of infrastructure facilities for the city logistics (compare Eckstein,

1992) will require the cooperation of architecture, urban planning and logistics planning.

Such building projects and their cross-linking will improve the hard and some of the soft location

factors of Kaliningrad.

An area of particular value which requires cautious architecture, is Kneiphof Island. It is located

in the centre of the city of Kaliningrad and also was the former centre of Königsberg. The

cathedral, constructed in the 14th century is now the only building on the island.

At the cathedral is the last resting place of the great philosopher Kant.

The Russian-German working group has examined ideas and concept to establish an

international library in proximity to the cathedral.

The cathedral island and Kant's grave are elements of the urban cultural system that deserve to

be taken out of their isolated position.

The significance of Kant, as the founder of a philosophical revolution will be emphasised if his

philosophy can be studied and discussed in his immediate surroundings. Emphasising his significance

would simultaneously be the augmentation of the entire city as a central place.

The architectural concept for Kneiphof Island could improve its cultural meaning by developing

the island as a place for contemplation and, for example, making philosophy and the history of

philosophy the focal point by creating a philosopher's path for historical philosophers with stations

for contemplation.

Adjacent to the cathedral a philosophical and international library could be built in the style of

Kant's old university, of a sufficient size to host international scientific congresses. The director

of Göttingen library, Prof. Dr. Elmar Mittler, supports the library concept in Kaliningrad and has

said: With a new building the “books could return to their former location” and find a final home

in which the existing books and new acquisitions could be stored, expertly protected and looked

after. Possible extensions could be built in rows of houses in a southwesterly direction along the

cathedral. Access to the library would be across the existing Honigbrücke from the east; later the

reconstruction of other bridges to the island would follow.

A repository building could be developed on the old foundations along the lines of a modern

“warehouse” with a supporting structure to suit the special constraints of Kneiphof Island. The

urban archaeologist Wenzel Salachov proposes to expose the foundations and cellars still

hidden beneath the existing ground level and thereby “securing the evidence of the old buildings”.

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Summary

Architecture is one of the soft location factors which have an indirect but long-lasting effect on

the economy. Architecture is an attractive and harmonious composition comprising service

industries, production and citizens. Economic success is also advanced by architectural culture.

Literature:

- Thießen, F.: Zum Geleit: weiche Standortfaktoren – die fünf Sichtweisen. In: Thießen, F., Cernavin, M., Führ, M., Kaltenbach, M. (Ed.):

Weiche Standortfaktoren, Berlin 2005, p. 9-34

- Bloech, J., Ihde, G.B. (Ed.): Vahlens Großes Logistiklexikon, Munich 1997

- Eckstein, W.: 1992

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Personal Profile

Resume

Name

Prof. Dr. Dr. h.c. Jürgen Bloech

Origin

Tranßau, Ostpreußen/Germany

Profession

University Professor,

University of Göttingen

Salaried Professor at the

Immanuel Kant Russian State University

Main professional field/

Main subject

Strategic planning, logistics,

business studies

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Lecture 11

3.2.4 Lecture 11 –

Kaliningrad – a strong partner in the Baltic Region?

Dr. Elke Knappe


Kaliningrad – a strong partner in the Baltic Region?

The perception of the Kaliningrad Region as a partner in the Baltic Region was rather one sided

for a long time – it had the status of a closed region, and was known as the base of the Baltic

fleet. Only after the break up of the Soviet Union did the region and its capital Kaliningrad emerge

from this shadow.

Economy of the region

The opening of the Kaliningrad Region was the beginning of some fundamental political and

economic changes in the city and the region. Opening the borders to foreigners also brought the

region to the attention of its former inhabitants – the Germans began to visit their former home

and this meant – also for today's inhabitants – a confrontation with the German past.

The administrative centre of the region is Kaliningrad (formerly Königsberg), a city dominated by

post-war residential developments. The historic context of the town was hardly acknowledged

and the construction of prefabricated high-rise buildings has changed the inner city beyond

recognition. Another particularity is that residential and industrial zones are in close proximity (Ill. 3).

A reduction of the quality of life by noise pollution, dust and odours is (still) tolerated by the

citizens; short travelling distances to the place of work playing an important part. A popular

residential area is located to the northwest of the city, where many dwellings were constructed

on vacant land since 2003. Construction is primarily financed by private investors and the num-

1 | Kaliningrad, Housing and industry 2002

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2 | Kaliningrad Region, Housing

ber of social housing projects of the state has significantly decreased (Klemešev and Fjodorov

2004). This means that the less well-off citizens live in the cheaper neighbourhoods to the south

of the city.

Generally it can be noted that, despite of private investment, the area of living space per inhabitant

is not very large (Ill. 4). The illustration further shows that the majority of construction development,

except for in the city of Kaliningrad itself, is taking place in Rayons Selenogradsk and

Bagrationowsk, i.e. in the west of the region and near its capital. Russian development is concentrated

mainly in Rayon Selenogradsk because of its beautiful landscape and a high quality of life

in the town of Selenogradsk. Illustration 5 shows the long lasting trend of residential development

in the centre of the region and in the west, while the east only shows little building activity.

In economic terms the opening of the Kaliningrad Region meant the option for a new start along

the principles of a free market economy. On 25.09.1991 the State Duma of Russia agreed the

free trade zone “Jantar” (amber). This paved the way to making the region attractive to foreign

and Russian investors. It turned out, however, that the free trade zone took over the function of

a transhipment hub where many trading companies registered merely to import their goods taxfree

and sell these at a good price to other regions in Russia. This brought no economic advantages,

neither for Kaliningrad Region nor for the city.

In 1996 the Federal Law on the Special Economic Zone was passed. This, in a modified form,

created the framework that was to ensure that foreign capital would settle here. Illustration 1

shows that the foreign direct investments of 10.7 million US $ were not very high, in spite of

special concessions. The total foreign investment was 32.4 million US $ in 2004 (Ill. 2). The main

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3 | New public housing development 2004

reasons for this are the instability of law, changes of the law at short notice, a lack of infrastructure

and the fact that foreigners may not buy land, but only lease it.

A further reason for the slow increase of direct investment is the weak economy of the region

itself. Although after 1998, the year of the rubel crisis, the economy saw an upturn and sectors

such as energy industries and engine construction developed at a fair pace (Table 1), these

activities were not sufficient to make the entire region attractive.

For a long period of time agriculture was the dominant land use of the region, but has now lost

its leading position; privatisation was carried out half-heartedly and many farmers now produce

for themselves rather than the market.

On the other hand, the retail sector has developed greatly and the modern supermarkets of the

national chains such as Vester, Viktoria, Semja dominate the retail market in the cities.

Germany 11%

Great Britain 35%

Poland 6%

total: 10.7 Mio. US $

other countries 2%

Lithuania 46%

Germany 11.4%

Great Britain 11.6%

4 | Share of foreign direct investment 2004 5 | Share of foreign investment according to countries 2004

113

other countries 8.3%

Switzerland 12.6%

Poland 2.6%

Lithuania 15.7%

Cyprus 21.3%

USA 16.5%


International Symposium Kaliningrad

Table 1: Economic structure of the Kaliningrad region (ratio of sectors in %)

Kaliningrad – a transportation hub

The region of Kaliningrad itself is relatively easily accessible, but to live up to the claim of being

the hub of east-west trade, the road network is insufficient – important are the long distance

routes. Illustration 6 shows the Via Haseatica, which is meant to be the link from Lübeck to

St. Petersburg. This road includes a section of the former autobahn Berlin – Königsberg. Another

section already built on the Russian side has not been opened because construction work on the

Polish side is not finished. A further problem of the Via Hanseatica lies in the border crossings

between Poland to the Kaliningrad region and from the Kaliningrad region to Lithuania. Long

cues form at the borders despite of some modernisation works that have been carried out,

making goods traffic even more cumbersome. The result is that the majority of goods traffic

travels on the Via Baltica, and thereby bypassing the region of Kaliningrad.

The claim of being the hub of transportation has not been realised, which is expressed in the

goods trade figures of the year 2004 (Ill. 7). The majority of trade is by rail; of greatest international

importance is the broad gauge line Kaliningrad-Kaunas-Minsk-Moscow. Other international

connections serve Gdansk and St. Petersburg daily. A through coach travels daily on the

standard gauge track between Kaliningrad and Berlin.

Shipping has the second largest traffic volumes. Kaliningrad harbour is linked to the Baltic Sea

via a 40 km sea canal and is virtually ice-free. At the end of the canal the outer harbour of the

city of Baltisk is an important Russian navy base in the Baltic.

The main problems of Kaliningrad harbour are the outdated facilities and the long approach

through the sea canal. In contrast to other Baltic ports, e.g. of the Baltic States, Kaliningrad harbour

has no specialisation. It is a multi-functional place of transhipment for general goods and

bulk cargo. Several options are being discussed regarding the future development and modernisation

of the harbour infrastructure: a general redevelopment of Kaliningrad harbour or the development

of a new large port directly on the Baltic coast in the bay of Primorskaja, and also the

utilisation of the free capacity of the navy base in Baltisk.

Kaliningrad – cooperation space in the Baltic Region

The location of the Kaliningrad Region in the centre of the European Union is not just a logistic

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1990 1998 2003

Energiewirtschaft 4 27 23

Maschinenbau 27 13 25

Holzverarbeitung, Zellulosegewinnung 10 9 9

Baumaterialien 3 2 2

Leichtindustrie 4 2 1

Nahrungsmittelverarbeitung 40 38 37

Andere 12 9 3


6 | Road network of the Baltic Region

problem regarding the connection of the region to the motherland Russia, it also has significant

development potential which should not be underestimated.

The region of Kaliningrad is the partner of several Euroregions (Ill. 8) and is thus closely linked

to the development of the Baltic Region. Close economic relations to neighbouring Lithuania

have led to extensive Lithuanian investments making Kaliningrad one of the largest producers of

refrigerators in Russia.

Looking after the heritage of Kant and the resolute development of the University of Kaliningrad

are factors contributing to the strengthening of Kaliningrad's role as a site for science and research.

The European Union has also contributed, by means of comprehensive projects, to em-

Water (Inland-)

929.6; 28%

Street

374.7; 11%

7 | Share of foreign investment according to countries 2004

115

Air

1.1; 0%

Data in 1000t

total: 3.36 Mio. t

Railways

2059.3; 61%


International Symposium Kaliningrad

8 | Kaliningrad Region – Euro Regions

phasising and subsidising the bridging function, rather than isolating the Kaliningrad Region: This

has happened mainly with the help of development projects in areas supported by private finance,

cross-border cooperation and the development of the harbour, environmental protection,

health and education, and the increase in efficiency of the local self-administration.

The willingness of the region to increase cooperation with its neighbours in the European Union

is clearly discernable. This will contribute to the strengthening of the existing economic and cultural

potential of the region and assess its value. The claim of the Kaliningrad Region to be a bridge

linking Russia to the European Union receives a solid base, and it can develop into a strong

partner in the context of a Baltic cooperation.

Literature:

- Klemešev, A. P. und G. M. Fjodorov (2004): Ot isolirovannogo eksklava k koridoru razvitija. (Von der isolierten Exklave zum Entwicklungskorridor).

Kaliningrad

- Knappe, E. (2004): Kaliningrad aktuell (=Daten, Fakten, Literatur zur Geographie Europas, H. 7), Leibniz-Institut für Länderkunde, Leipzig

- Zverev, J. M.(2004): Problemy i perspektivy razvitija promyšlenosti Kaliningradskoj oblasti (Problems and development perspectives of

industries in the Kaliningrad region), In: Vestnik 6, p. 27-36

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Personal Profile

Resume

Name

Dr. Elke Knappe

Origin

Leipzig/Germany

Profession

Agronomist

Main professional field/

Main subject

Shifts in land utilisation and

settlement development in Eastern Europe

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Lecture 12

3.2.5 Lecture 12 –

Strategy of urban projects

Flemming Frost


Strategy of urban projects

4 Q-books for Universitetsholmen in Malmö – From shipyard city to university town

The present discussion about urban development revolves around understanding processes,

developing strategies and carrying on a debate about the interrelationship among the various

players in the planning process; this attitude has been crucial in our work for the development of

Universitetsholmen in Malmö.

In connection with the redevelopment of Universitetsholmen, from shipyard to a projected university

area ready to accommodate 15,000 students, a dialogue guided by the architects was set

into motion. Embedded herein were a number of initiatives aimed at qualifying the users, politicians

and appointed officials to take part in the making decision process. A test of the volume

proposals in relation to the overall plan resulted in the clarification of the prospective urban architectural

framework of Universitetsholmen in relation to the rest of Malmö's urban areas.

The four Q-books develop and lay down a strict urban architectural framework for the future

development of Universitetsholmen, to ensure, over the course of time, the individual specific

identity and quality of the areas. With regard to urban planning and construction, Universitetsholmen

is rendered the object of an ongoing discussion, which, with the help of a three-dimensional

model, is conducted on three levels: the urban level, neighbourhood level and urban architectural

level. The four Q-books lay down guidelines for the following urban areas and are organised

according to the different areas of responsibility within the city's administration:

1 | Q-Book 1

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2 | Q-Book 2

Q-book 1: overall urban strategy – secures the overall urban architectural strategy for the development

and land use of Universitetsholmen.

Q-book 2: the city's floor – sets guidelines for streets, open plazas, parks and infrastructure.

Q-book 3: the city's building structure – sets guidelines for the urban and building structure.

Q-book 4: art in the public space – sets guidelines for the role of art in the public realm.

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3 | Randers Barracks 1 4 | Randers Barracks 2

Randers Barracks – An urban development strategy for Randers Barracks

The site is transformed from a restricted barracks quarter to a new centre for the surrounding

residential and business areas. New urban spaces such as streets, plazas and parks are introduced

as the setting for public life and to improve the appearance of the neighbourhood. A green

recreational strip with housing forms a link to the former exercise grounds, an area of great

potential as a recreational space for the city.


5| Analysis of the inner harbour of Copenhagen 1 6 | Analysis of the inner harbour of Copenhagen 2

Copenhagen's Inner Harbour – Harbour analysis

Copenhagen's inner harbour is undergoing intensive development. A number of rather distinctive

large-scale projects are beginning to form a new context for the harbour, which poses a challenge

to the urbanity and identity of neighbouring areas.

The project makes its mark on the urban context of the city, the interurban zone and the harbour

becoming the basis of a new understanding of urban areas and the harbour. The interurban has

evolved in the space between the city and the harbour – two very different spaces – and comprises

an accumulation of functions, which are too large for – or too awkwardly disposed in relation

to – the city, but too small or irrelevant for the harbour. A special language of harbour

architecture has come into being using its own idioms. Its scale is related to function, challenging

the scale of the city. In the interchange between these three contextual situations of different

scales, the point of departure is established for a new urban understanding and a new understanding

of the harbour.

The project is based on the formation of a 3-D computer model, which is employed as an operational

and didactic implement in the formation of a comprehensive, unified urban development

strategy, in which the infrastructure and supporting contributions from different interest groups

are correlated with the architectural proposals. The goal is to engender a wider awareness about

the potential of the land in Copenhagen's harbour and to provide insight and understanding prior

to the necessary decision making process.

A series of volume studies investigate the quality of proposed urban structures sited on the banks

of the harbour and across its water areas. The course of the waterway through the city is not

seen just as a narrow river, but rather as a ramified and more multifarious dissolution of the city's

edge along the water. When a new connection is inserted, places that have hitherto been

perceived as the city's blind spots will suddenly become points of transit. Such new transit points

ignite and vitalise these sections of the city. New patterns of movement appear and, unexpectedly,

places that were previously perceived as being far apart are interconnected.

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7 | Porcelænshaven Residence 1

Porcelænshaven Residence

Reconstruction of Porcelænshaven – The new buildings

Based on the historic significance of the site and its buildings as a testimony to Copenhagen's

industrial development, the factory buildings are converted into about 200 new homes. The lofty

industrial spaces, with their particular construction and character, contain apartments and terraced

housing of a simple design, while typical local materials and construction methods inspired

the design of the new buildings.

Transformation of the harbour area in Bergen, Norway

The project is a vision for the future development of a cultural axis in Bergen that unites innovation

and tradition. It encourages initiatives that support the cultural axis in the area. Guidelines

were formulated for its future development, emphasising the Nøstet shipyard as a place in Bergen

with clear global references – where the present has left its marks.

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8 | Porcelænshaven Residence 2

9 | Bergen Sjöfront 1 10 | Bergen Sjöfront 2


Personal Profile

Resume

Name

Flemming Frost

Origin

Copenhagen/Denmark

Profession

Architect

Main professional field/

Main subject

Urban planning and landscape architecture

Editor of SKALA Magazine

for Architecture and Art, 1985-1994

Professor of Architecture at

Lunds University, Sweden, 1998-2001

Guest Professor at Pratt University in

New York, USA

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Lecture 13

3.2.6 Lecture 13 –

Analysis of urban structures

Dr. Otto Flagge


Analysis of urban structures

by the example of Kiel: destruction and phases of reconstruction

Kaliningrad and Kiel have a shared past: their near total destruction in the World War II.

The port city of Kiel is located at the southern end of Kiel Fjord on the Baltic Sea. The aerial

photograph (Ill. 1) illustrates the incision of the deep water port into the centre of the city, which

initially developed on the west bank.

Around 1940, Kiel was a strategic location of the German armament industry (ship building) with

approximately 300,000 inhabitants. Allied bombardment started as early as 1940, and by 1945

about 80% of the city had been destroyed. Illustration 2 gives an impression of the extent of the

destruction. Illustration 3 shows the scene of devastation in the city. The sites that initially could

not be built upon were planted with trees (Ill. 4) to make the temporary surroundings more bearable.

Plans for the reconstruction of the city started at the beginning of the war. This, in combination

with a competition, led to the rapid development of an urban concept that formed the basis for

reconstruction. Concepts of fundamental structural change designed in the course of the competition

were not pursued. The historic town plan was the basis for all reconstruction proposals for

the city centre to the west of the Fjord. In keeping with the Zeitgeist, transport-oriented plans

1 | Kiel Fjord

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2 | Extent of destruction of Kiel after the World War II

were implemented, including road-widening schemes and the opening-up a few new street corridors.

Trade and service industries were the anticipated land uses of the inner city.

Illustration 5 (view north from the railway station) shows how the formerly small-scale pattern of

buildings was transformed into a clear building block pattern, without disturbing the urban scale.

New, linked open spaces break up the previously densely built-up city centre. Completely destroyed

industrial areas on the east side of the Fjord were rebuilt for commercial and industrial

use during the years of the so-called German “economic miracle”. Illustration 6 shows an example

of a newly constructed machine factory from the initially prosperous 1960s.

The first phase of Kiel's reconstruction measures was completed in the second half of the 1950s.

Retaining the basic structure of the road and canal networks allowed for rapid reconstruction of

the city centre while making structural improvements. Plots were amalgamated, new open spaces

created and the opening of the city towards its waterfront improved. Germany's first pedestrian

precinct was built. There was ample opportunity for building modern architecture. Initially,

the new road spaces managed to accommodate the rapidly and continually increasing traffic

loads. Car parking spaces were implemented in phases, some as multi-storey car parks. However,

by the 1970s the capacity limits of the reconstructed urban fabric became apparent.

The attempt to introduce an elevated pedestrian level in parts of the city centre (from the railway

station to the north) at the beginning of the 1970s was only a partial success. Around the same

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3 | Destruction of inner city of Kiel

4 | Open spaces with temporary tree planting


5 | Adaptation of the urban fabric (view north from railway station) 6 | Factory Buckau-Wolf, 1963

time it became evident that existing retail space in the city centre was not sufficient for its

sustainable development. Plans for the reorganisation of the southern inner city (periphery of the

station) to accommodate a large shopping centre on two levels were made and implemented in

the 1990s.

The commercial and industrial areas constructed on the east bank of the Fjord in the 1960s

proved not to be sustainable and partly fell derelict. Structural changes in the port economy also

necessitated a new planning approach. The logical consequence at the end of the 1990s was to

develop a planning concept that linked the derelict land to the east of the water (“Hörn”) to the

city centre to the west of the water. Illustration 7 shows the general disposition of land. At the top

left one can see the round of the “second old town”, partially surrounded by water. The retail

areas of the inner city extend from that point on the west side of the Fjord up to the area south

of the station. This is where the (pedestrian and bicycle) bridge crosses the water, linking the

district Gaarden in the east, beyond the industrial dereliction, directly to the city centre. The

derelict industrial areas themselves and peripheral zones on the waterfront are declared a

“formal redevelopment area”. This received special rights to enable rapid new urban development.

The special rights relate to the possibilities of land acquisition by the city and to controlling

the price of land. In addition, the legal position brings special financing opportunities (split

financing between city/federal state/federal government) for site clearance and infrastructure

measures. Sale of the newly structured building plots, cleared of all contamination, will follow. In

the northern part of the site a new ferry terminal was constructed now handling the largest ships.

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7 | Waterfront Kiel – city to the water

Further south, the recently prepared areas are mostly earmarked for service industries, with a

small residential part.

Illustration 8 shows the masterplan for the southern “Hörn”. The planning process was organised

in several stages of increasing detail, some will have competitions. Each stage was discussed

with the citizens, always before the council meetings made binding decisions. During this undoubtedly

complex process many images were drawn and models built to explain the relevant

planning stages to the public and also to those involved in the design. For the implementation of

the redevelopment measures, and to take the pressure off the municipal authorities, a body of

trustees of the city was appointed.

Illustration 9 shows an aerial sketch of the potential implementation of the masterplan. Illustration

10 shows the elevation of the newly constructed ferry terminal. Illustration 11 the view from the

east onto the new bridge between the totally refurbished main railway station and the shopping

centre beyond, constructed in the 1990s. Illustration 12 shows the view south onto the new

waterfront promenade on the east side of the Fjord, and illustration 13 the first completed building

with its “water square”, the stepped southern bank of the “Hörn”.

For the development area “Hörn” it was important that the city had ownership of the derelict

areas. This was the only way in which to develop new public open space – especially the waterfront

promenade – and, after consultation with the plans of private investors, reorganise the land

into ideal plots and sell it. One critical comment would be that the currently weak German econo-

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8 | Masterplan Hörn

9 | Sketch of Masterplan Hörn


10 | Hörn Bridge and view to Kiel main station

12 | Hörn Campus

11 | Promenade with view to Hörn Campus

my has led to a slower development of the “Hörn” than originally anticipated. Contracts between

the city and investors make no difference when firms go bankrupt. Nonetheless, the development

area “Hörn” has opened opportunities for the city, which will have a strong impact on its urban

future.

The experience from Kiel can be summarised as follows:

- Grown urban fabric requires sufficient scope for change.

- Urban planning objectives must be clearly defined for all the different detail stages to set a

framework for public and for private investors.

- Municipal plans must incorporate the state and political levels.

- Intense public participation at all planning stages is the precondition to ensure an implementation

process free of conflict.

- Development areas must be closely linked into the neighbouring zones.

- Urban planning projects must leave flexibility for detail.

- Building land should not be sold to investors unless binding agreements on the projects have

been made and their implementation is bound by contract. This requires special agreements,

e.g. on the cost splitting of transitional zones from private to public land.

If, finally, the experience from Kiel is transferred to the initial situation of Kaliningrad, this would

mean that:

- Prior to a competition for the design of Kaliningrad's city centre around the cathedral, a clear

brief must be developed and agreed on a political level. These must start to define what

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should be publicly funded and what should be privately funded.

- The development of scenarios can be helpful in the decision making process on a political

level.

- All development concepts for Kneiphof Island need to incorporate the areas on the periphery

of the island.

- Private investors only finance projects that pay-off in the long-run. The implications of this fact

require that some projects must remain in the public sector, if one is to find the right solution

for Kaliningrad's sensitive central island location around the cathedral.

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Personal Profile

Resume

Name

Dr. Otto Flagge

Origin

Kiel/Germany

Profession

Urban planner and

municipal planning consultant

Government building officer of Kiel (retired)

Main professional field/

Main subject

Urban development and urban

refurbishment with projects in Mainz,

London, Bonn, Leverkusen and Kiel

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Lecture 14

3.2.7 Lecture 14 –

Königsberg/Kaliningrad – Wandering centre in the context of

transformation of transport communications

Olga V. Mezey


Königsberg/Kaliningrad – Wandering centre in the context of

transformation of transport communications

The objective of my paper is not to offer a recipe of what should be done to the centre of Kaliningrad,

but first of all to consider the causes of its appearance, to analyse the transformation as

well as to trace its development and “wandering” along the area that is now marked by the

second defensive ring of the former city fortifications.The paper is a research attempt that aims

at comprehension, comparison and systematisation of the interconnections and mutual influences

of the city centre and the urban transport communications, and finally, to find the possibilities

that open up for the entire city when the right balance of transportation in the city centre is achieved.

The content of the paper is, to a great extent, based on the work of several groups of Kaliningrad

architects that have made proposals for the development of individual parts of the centre (within

the context of improvement of the transport situation: in the central, commercial and administrative

zones of the city) – Victory Square, Central Market, Chernyakhovsky Street, the square of

the South Railway Station. The collaborators in the paper are Alexander Nevezhin, Oleg Vasjutin

and Anatoly Seljutin. The paper is aimed at showing and explaining the phenomenon of the wandering

centre of the phantom-city Königsberg, and at helping Kaliningrad in the reconciliation of

history and contemporaneity.

In the late 1980s, the historical archives of the city were opened to the public. The possibility

arose to speak openly about the history of the city and to search for approaches to protect the

surviving cultural heritage. The overlapping of historical and contemporary layers, especially

within the inner city in the second ring of the fortification, is delightful and cause for contemplation

and observation. One starts to compare the problems and to understand. One tries to find ways

of merging the past, present and future. With the aim of revealing the pattern of change in the

city centre in time and space, I, like Oleg Vasjutin, have divided the development of Kaliningrad

into stages.

The first stage: The core of the development of the entire centre of the future Königsberg is the

appearance of the Order Fortress on Tvangste Hill. The basic factor determining the location was

the waterway, the River Pregel, as well as the trade route from Germany. The function of the centre

was established for military and administrative reasons (Ill. 1).

The second stage: The formation and development of the three towns in this area. This significance

of the Castle was lost. Each city built independent centres. These centres had different

functions: administrative, commercial and spiritual. At that time waterways were increasing in

significance and commerce expanded rapidly. External factors, such as the condition of streets

and roads, were gaining in importance, i.e. the transport structure started developing. This process

was later continued in the street network of each of the towns, Kneiphof, Altstadt and Löbenicht

(Ill. 2).

The third stage: The structural development of the town centre that had already been united under

the name of Königsberg started after 1724. The city grew within the second rampart ring of

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1 | Stage I – Statement

defensive fortifications. What were the characteristics of the centre at this stage? During this

period three previously independent centres of the three towns grew and were united into a

single multi-functional central core of the city. Its main function, besides its administrative and

spiritual roles, was commerce. The new function of education was introduced with the founding

of Königsberg University. The water transport communications developed and acquired even

greater significance. Traffic flows from the outside increasingly influenced the city's structure

within the ring, and as a result a circular system of the inner streets was formed (Ill. 3).

The fourth stage: The construction of the third defensive ring was a significant step in the development

of Königsberg. The second ring lost in importance and its area turned into a green belt.

The centre of the city of Königsberg also changed. As the city grew and spread, its centre also

3 | Stage III – 1724-1866

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2 | Stage II – Three cities with town halls, main trading places and a

spiritual centres


4 | Stage IV – After 1912

5 | Stage IV – Radial ring structure, historical core, present linear

centres

had to grow. Two squares were built at the South and North Railway Stations. This clearly testified

to the growing importance of the new mode of transportation, the railway. The railway was

gradually extended and started competing with water transport. Road traffic was also important.

But one could detect within the structure of the centre that the historical core was still of great

significance. The two linear centres of north-south orientation extended to the newly built squares.

The structure of the fourth stage of development of the city of Königsberg and, in particular

of its centre, is a linear with a centric pattern in the historical core. In the centre the pre-war

Königsberg had a large historical core with different land uses. The direction of further development

was towards the north-west, towards the new residential areas.

What were the characteristics of the transport network? Railway and water transport were still of

great importance, but it was decided to close the first transport ring. The aim was to solve the

emerging conflict of transit traffic by directing it around the central core of the city (Ill. 4, 5). This

was the state of the city transport structure of the city of Kaliningrad in the post-war period up to

the 1960s. The central part was almost free of construction; the city centre was moved north. In

the course of the formulation of the urban policy it was suggested to move the centre to the

present Mira Prospect and Karl Marx Street.

The fifth stage is the period of post-war destruction of the old city centre and the formation of the

new city. The ruins of the lost historical centre were not touched for a long time. The city lived

beyond the inner city. Only one through road linking the north and the south of the city crossed

this area. The ring around the central part of the city had not been completed. The historical core

of the city center completely disappeared, it was replaced by an open space. The functions of the

centre, commercial, administrative, cultural, sports and recreational, were concentrated within

the area stretching from the square at City Hall (Victory Square) to the former cinema Skala on

the park and near Queen Luisa Church.

The sixth stage covers the 1970s. These are the years of Soviet socialist town planning development.

As previously stated, the principles of town planning of that time presupposed a certain

gigantism. The centre of Kaliningrad was to return to the site of the historical core, the former site

of the Castle. A gigantic square was envisaged with no attractions except some fountains and

flowerbeds. A Sports Centre appeared, and a sculpture park was established on Kneiphof Island,

near the ruined Cathedral. These three large, flat spaces that attempted to represent the func-

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6 | Stage V – After the destruction of the war – 1960s

tions of the city centre replaced the historical centre. There were also the linear centres, in the

south reaching as far as the square at the South Railway Station, offering few public attractions.

In the north, the linear centre reached as far as the square at the monument to the Motherland,

next to City Hall and the cinema. Victory Square also was a gigantic area, an unordered urban

ensemble of historical buildings of the 1920s-1930s that remained unchanged until recently

(Ill. 6).

The seventh stage covers the 1990s up to the present day and displays the following features in

the central part of the city: the former core of the city was enlivened with the reconstruction of the

Cathedral. However, the area is still an open space lacking public facilites. The territory that was

left of the town of Altstadt looks the same; an open space devoid of attractions. The Sports Centre

on the embankment of the River Pregel, the World Ocean Museum, public areas (shops,

recreation) on Verkhnee Lake, the University and the linear centre along Leninsky Prospect are

growing and different service facilities, mainly commercial, are being built there. The ground, first

and second floors are transformed from residential to non-residential uses. The area around the

Central Market is developing rapidly. The city centre is expanding, as it had previously done,

beyond the second ring (now Gvardeisky Prospect) towards Mira Prospect in the north-west. A

new spiritual centre and a commercial area along Chernyakhovsky Street at the Central Market

were developed.

The prevalent functions of the city centre are commerce and business (offices). Among the

transport systems the most significant is the roads network. The railway network has temporarily

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7 | Stage VI – 1970s

lost its importance. So, what can be said about the modern transport system? There is a welldefined

ring where Moskovsky Prospect joins Gvardeisky Prospect. It looks broken, which does

not encourage transit traffic bypassing the centre. The elevated bridge across the River Pregel,

at 9 April Street in a north-south direction has not yet been completed (Ill. 7). Having analysed all

the previous stages of formation of the city centre, the state of the transport structure, and the

location of the city centres in Königsberg and Kaliningrad, conclusions can be drawn that testify

to the problems. These are listed categorically. The first problem is that the water areas are

ignored. The river is not of importance to the central part of the city. This contradicts the fact that

for centuries this was the main factor in shaping the city.

The second problem is the area extending in a north-south direction. This includes the modern

Leninsky Prospect, the linear centre of Kaliningrad with many public services. It is also the main

transit route from the north to the south. I would like to draw attention to the total incompatibility

of the two functions: transit traffic and city centre (by transit I mean inter city communications

between the north and the south parts of the city). Chernyakhovsky Street is in the same situation.

It has already been established as the main commercial street of the central trading zone

of Kaliningrad, which, is located on the ring road taking all the traffic from the centre. This is a

burning problem of traffic congestion.

The third problem is the ring not being closed and the wish to relieve this route, at least partially,

from through-traffic in the central area. The north-south chord (9 April Street) does not give rise

to any conflict since the city centre is moving westward. The east part of the ring does not have

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8 | Aerial view of Kneiphof

many public services and it is traditionally considered less of a centre, i.e. it does not fulfil the

specific functions of a centre.

The fourth problem is area around the ring at Leninsky Prospect and Teatralnaya Street. Its

centre is the defined by City Hall and the cinema on one side, and the monument to the Motherland

on the other. This area is characterised by a difficult traffic situation, as it is located on the

large junction on the city ring at the access to the north-south transit route. This route is also the

main road of the city of Kaliningrad. A lesser problem is the access of Moskovsky Prospect onto

the ring. There are further problems at the egress of the South Railway Station and main roads

outside the ring. I would like, once again, to emphasise the problem of Moskovsky Prospect. It

completely cuts off the waterfront from the north-western part of the centre, and leaves no

possibility of uniting the two. The situation will remain unchanged unless Moskovsky Prospect is

rerouted at ground level rather than being aligned above or below ground (Ill. 8 – aerial view).

Illustration 8 clearly shows how the elevated bridge is depriving the island Kneiphof of a chance

to develop. Firstly, the scale of the city today does not correspond to that of a city with the

population of 400,000. Secondly, the buildings near the elevated bridge are less than perfect.

For many years several groups of specialists have worked on trying to solve the transportation

problems in the central part of Kaliningrad. The latest studies that we have conducted as a group

brought us to the conclusion that the whole of the central part of Kaliningrad within the ring should

be considered since the problem cannot be solved partially (Ill. 9).

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9 | Problems of the present condition of the city centre of Kaliningrad

(Stage VII – 20th/21st century)

Following the analysis of all previous development stages of the centre we came to the following

conclusions.

With the radial-circular system, the transit ring must be closed. Within the entire city area the

streets should double up as they used to in the past. They should not be too wide, but must have

a good traffic flow capacity for all traffic conditions. The central streets should remain as such but

transit traffic through the actual centre should be removed. The issue of the section of Moskovsky

Prospect and the elevated bridge should be solved. In that one needs to find solutions for vehicular

traffic and pedestrians in order to join the north and south parts of Kneiphof Island with the

rest of the territory.

It is evident that the area of the former historical core remains a white spot on the map, as was

the intention. At present I have no recipes for what, and to what extent, should be or could be

built upon, and where open spaces should be located. I believe the answer will be found in time.

We are not ready yet. The aim of the symposium is to gradually formulate specific questions to

obtain detailed answers to the most important issues.

Regarding the remaining traces of the centre, which I have described as wandering, I would like

to say the following: It is the origin of the city. At present excavations of the Royal Castle foundations

are being conducted. The area of the historical core of the city ( the former three towns)

is the open space at Kneiphof and Altstadt. The linear centre of the city underwent further deve-

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lopment along the north-south axis, and further along the north-west, bypassing the former historical

core and both arms of the river, the Old Pregel and the New Pregel.

And finally the following questions should be posed:

1. How compact or extensive should the future centre be?

2. Should the historical core be left as open space, and to what extent?

3. Should the centre be developed along the riverbank towards the port?

I propose that these fundamental questions are put to the participants of the ideas competition

for the further development of the centre. Later they should be included in the programme of the

future architectural and town planning competition for the realisation of the centre of Kaliningrad.

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Personal Profile

Resume

Name

Olga Viktorovna Mezey

Origin

Kaliningrad/Russia

Profession

Architect

Main professional field

Urban development planning

Main subject

Masterplans, residential developments,

community facilities and

transportation planning

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Lecture 15

3.2.8 Lecture 15 –

Structural changes of ports – a chance for urban development?

Prof. Dr. Eckart Güldenberg (held by Julius Ehlers)


Structural changes of ports – a chance for urban development?

The far reaching structural changes in maritime traffic and port economy have altered the harbour

landscapes throughout the world; in many European port cities extensive areas of urban

land are falling derelict. Shipbuilding and maritime traffic are the two major economic factors of

the “maritime cluster” comprising transhipment/storage, port and shipping related public facilities,

port related industries, fishing trade and maritime recreational facilities.

Changes in the shipbuilding industry

Globalisation and high-technology in the shipbuilding industry are the characteristics of a changing

shipbuilding industry:

On the one hand, demand and production of world-wide shipbuilding is still growing on a high

level. On the other hand, product innovation and new production methods have led to a concentration

on a diminishing number of efficient companies. Also global relocation, mainly to East

Asian countries (Japan, Korea and China), and a dramatic decline in employment has led to the

dereliction of extensive dockyards, often located in the centres of European port cities.

Modern shipbuilding is primarily based on installation and systems engineering. Research and

development is focused on minimising pollutants, energy technology, innovative vehicles and

new driving power concepts.

The ultra-modern production engineering of dockyards is supplemented by an increasing independence

of location of the supplier industry.

Despite the highly developed technology sector and the rationalisation and cooperation efforts,

German and European shipbuilding has little hope for the future in the absence of international

agreements controlling or preventing competition for capacity and subsidies. The downward

trend in European shipbuilding is towards repairs, up-grading and conversion jobs, and also specialised

and navy shipbuilding.

In terms of port development this means a reduction in land occupied by the shipbuilding industries,

or even the closure of docks, and a lasting spatial deconcentration of the supply industries.

Changes in maritime traffic

Characteristics of changes in maritime traffic are technological and organisational changes in

maritime transport and transhipment like increasingly larger ships, the specialisation and standardisation

of transport, the mechanisation of cargo transhipment and the intermodal transport,

especially of containers.

The requirements for the development of ports are primarily new terminals with a sufficient depth

of water and short access to the sea, specialisation on particular goods, efficient transhipment

facilities and large docks, expansive storage capacity and good access to rail and road for transportation

to the hinterland.

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Special conditions and restrictions apply to Baltic maritime traffic and the ever-increasing size

shipping units and economics of scale.

These are the often restrictive water depths at the access points to the Baltic Sea (Kiel Canal

max. 9 m), or on the detour via Skagerrak and the Great Belt (20 m), but most of all limited depths

of navigation channels and of all the docks of the south-eastern Baltic Sea ports.

Large seafaring container ships of the panmax class (approximately 5,000-8,000 TEU) cannot

call at any of these ports. Transhipment capacity, manoeuvring space and the service capacity

of these ports are also still insufficient.

This makes the ports of Bremerhaven and Hamburg important hubs for Baltic container shipping,

where containers are loaded onto feederships (capacity max. 1,500 TEU, generally 500-800

TEU) specially suited to the Baltic Sea.

Another reason for the extensive use of the so-called feederships is the lack of economic centres

and densely populated agglomerations, and the low population numbers in the hinterland of most

ports.

Short-sea shipping is thus dominant in the Baltic Sea, typified by high transport frequencies and

relatively low or reduced loads and smaller ships, good punctuality and flexibility to ensure paired

journeys and return freights.

Furthermore, highly frequented sea-crossing corridors on the straits are dominated by ro-ro

ferries. Alternative land-connections rarely exist, if at all.

The transformation of the Soviet Union and the integration of Poland and the Baltic States into

the EU has opened new economic relations with lasting implications for the role and organisation

of maritime traffic in the Baltic Region.

Structural changes of Port Cities

Port cities are trying to compensate the structural changes affecting maritime traffic, shipbuilding

and seaport industries, as well as the resultant loss of employment, by introducing revitalisation

projects in disused harbour areas and by building new, efficient ports. These considerations must

include the opportunities arising from naval disarmament and the vacating of ports and waterfronts

formerly used for military purposes, found in nearly all the port cities represented here.

The dereliction of harbours opens opportunities for urban development. New mixed uses can be

introduced while the city centres, harbours and waterfronts, are re-integrated spatially and in

urban design terms.

Harbour areas, previously inaccessible to the public, noisy and dangerous, will provide links within

the urban fabric and access to the water's edge. The city's waterfront can now be experienced

by its citizens.

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The question is whether it is possible to analyse, in a comparative study of several Baltic ports,

the development of harbour areas falling derelict in the course of structural changes of the

maritime economy, and how this is can be achieved. The object is to gain insight in urban design

processes and methodical issues that are all equally relevant and of interest to these cities.

The general conditions of structural changes of the port economy, such as containerisation, deindustrialisation

and military disarmament, apply to most ports in the south-eastern Baltic. However,

neither the socio-economic parameters, nor financial resources, nor the actual local conditions,

nor the planning and building traditions, are the same for all Baltic ports. Structural change

occurs quite unsimultaneously.

In contrast to their past function, or rather their role in a planned economy of division of labour,

the harbours of the former German Democratic Republic, Poland, the Baltic States and Russia

are now in open competition with one another.

The determining factors in redefining their individual harbour function are the specific local

conditions in the context of an increasingly international trade and transport association in the

Baltic. The emerging economic complexity and transnational sea and land routes can be either

privileging or disadvantageous to the port cities.

The local conditions for transit traffic to large cities which are easily accessible, or densely

populated regions in the hinterland and/or terminating and originating traffic in relation to the

number of inhabitants as well as production and distribution in each particular catchment area

play an important role in the relocation of port cities in the context of competing cities in the Baltic.

In how far the chances of structural change in ports are utilised, the regeneration of abandoned

harbour areas exploited for future urban development, also depends on the planning and building

tradition of each city.

This reflects the formative process of public opinion, the consent or dissent of conflicting

interests. The resources and market positions of investors, as “global players”, and planners, as

“local actors”, are different. While business decisions primarily pursue quick profits, the city

needs to consider mid-term to long-term urban development perspectives.

These result in lines of conflict between the sometimes self-governing port authorities that

endeavour to attract businesses, and the municipal planners and implementation authorities that

act in the public interest.

Lines of conflict may also arise between the social needs of the local population and the superior

political urban planning requirements.

Several examples can be quoted, of contradictions between social, sustainable urban development

policies and the municipal politics pursuing the necessity of budget consolidation by opting

for dubious short-term solutions in establishing businesses.

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These existing conflicts and contradictions hinder integrated planning strategies for derelict

urban harbour areas and waterfronts.

In most large Scandinavian port cities, such as Oslo, Copenhagen, Malmo, Stockholm and Helsinki,

structural changes of harbour functions and the maritime economy have progressed far.

Hence the questions at hand can be discussed with reference to examples of completed schemes

and existing proposals for waterfront urban development projects (WUD).

Helsinki is exemplary of relocating its entire modern port facilities to Vuosaari. This site has good

access from the sea and excellent infrastructure links to the city and the hinterland. The “Vuosaari

Harbour Project” is equipped with the latest container transhipment facilities, has extensive

distribution and production areas, and comprises new residential development. Relocation of

existing facilities is a precondition for urban planning measures to successfully integrate and

regenerate abandoned port areas in cities, as in Katajanokka, Ruoholahti and Herttoniemi.

Land is freed by the redevelopment of these central sites and can be made available for new

uses, such as service industries, housing, public utilities and open space. But also the land uses

of the harbour are reorganised in consideration of appropriate locations for specialised labour:

disused shipyards, warehouses and port-related business enterprises are closed or relocated to

make way for modern ro-ro ferry terminals, cruise terminals or marinas.

In Helsinki economic structural changes and urban renewal of derelict port areas are carried out

simultaneously – at breath-taking speed and to high urban design standards. This is mainly due

to Finland's economic drive, penetrating markets with great innovation potential and assuming

an entrepreneurial role between western and eastern Europe. Helsinki is an area of economic

growth facing continuous pressure on housing caused by the internal migration of the Finnish

population. The annual average of a growing migration population in Helsinki was 3,000 people

in the past years. The public authorities have largely managed to finance the non-profitable

investments of revitalising derelict port areas (e.g. demolition, landfill, new waterfronts, access).

At the same time development costs of new ports and residential areas (outer and inner local

public infrastructure, expansion of the Metro etc.) are met.

Other reasons for the successful transformation of Helsinki's urban development are the highly

developed Finnish planning and building tradition, a disposition of much of the land by municipal

or government bodies, well-established distribution of work, and cooperation of private investors

and public authorities and relocation of polluting facilities and technical infrastructure into granite

beneath the ground.

The German Baltic ports of Flensburg, Kiel, Lübeck, Rostock and Stralsund are in the middle of

this development process. A large proportion of the reallocation projects on their waterfronts and

of harbour-related land uses have been planned in concept, some have already been implemented.

A comparative study should also include the functional changes of selected port cities in Poland

(Szczecin, Gdynia, Gdansk), the Baltic States (Klaipeda, Riga, Tallinn) and Russia (St. Petersburg,

Kaliningrad).

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Adaptation processes of harbours

The following adaptation processes to the changing requirements of maritime traffic and transhipment

of goods can be observed.

In ports located inland on rivers, development is partly being relocated to the estuaries. In Germany

this applies to Lübeck on the River Trave and Rostock on the Warnow. It also applies to

the Polish ports of Szczecin on the River Oder, to Gdansk on the Mottla and to Russian Kaliningrad

on the Pregolya. Consequently Travemünde, Warnemünde and Swinoujscie are in a superior

position. In Gedansk the north port is built directly on the coast – land for expansion is available.

Regarding Kaliningrad – although located on the mouth of the River Pregolya and linked to

the Baltic Sea via an approach canal across the Vistula lagoon, 43 km in length – the question

of a possible increase in importance of the port at Baltijsk, sited directly on the Baltic Sea, needs

to be examined.

Some of the south-eastern port cities of the Baltic were established directly on the coast of the

open sea. In Germany these include Kiel, in Poland Gdynia, in the Baltic States Tallinn, in Russia

St. Petersburg and in Finland Helsinki. Brought about by structural economic changes, these port

cities are also subject to reorganisation, new land uses, relocation of port facilities and the

maritime economy, thereby opening new opportunities for urban development.

In St. Petersburg the modernisation of the harbour facing the Finnish bay is progressing, while

simultaneously new ports are being developed, e.g. the landfill in front of Wassilij Island for cruise

ships. The Russian Baltic ports of Primorsk/Vyborg and Ust Luga are developed at the same

time.

Riga and Klaipeda are characterised by the fact that they have developed along the course of

the River Daugava and the Curonian lagoon to the Baltic Sea respectively. For Riga – where the

harbour functions extend along the River Daugava, from the city centre to the mouth on the Baltic

Sea, one fundamental question arises: should development concentrate on a new outer port

directly on Riga Bay, or on decentralised development of specialised port facilities and business

locations, along the River Daugava, in compromise with all other urban development.

Questions on the structural changes of ports

Thorough preparation and interpretation must precede the substantiated comparison of past

developments in several cities, their development potentials, relevant urban design considerations

and plans, and their implementation. First and foremost this the following questions need

to be asked.

1. Conditions

What are the geographic, topographic and hydrographical site conditions characterising city and

port development?

What are the historical and economic requirements of the city and port development? Which is

the historical relationship of city and harbour, especially in ports located in inner city areas or old

town centres, and what new opportunities arise?

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2. Development of maritime economy

In how far do the site conditions of the port meet new requirements of maritime traffic regarding

water depth, container storage, container traffic and other infrastructure?

What are the characteristic changes of the industrial port economy? What are the prospects for

shipyards and shipbuilding (any specialisation, retreat to repair yards, closures of all shipyards

and termination of shipbuilding)?

Are there any raw material industries (oil refineries, petro-chemistry etc.) and what is their ability

of adapting to changing environmental conditions? Are the oil tanker terminals linked to oilproducing

regions via pipelines?

Are existing power stations in keeping with the latest technological developments, or are there

plans for relocation?

3. Urban design objectives

What are the proposals of masterplans, structure plans, strategic plans and other development

plans for the waterfront and port development areas, particularly regarding to the allocation of

new ports areas, and the regeneration and reallocation of land uses in disused ports?

4. Implementation

How far has the relocation of port facilities and the maritime economy to new sites progressed?

What are the new infrastructure projects, and what traffic routes to the hinterland are there?

In how far could the remaining industries and power stations etc. be adapted to meet new

environmental standards?

What new land uses could be established in disused areas and on derelict harbour sites?

5. Parameters of implementation

What is the role of existing planning laws and land laws?

What is the availability of land? Is there a limitation to private rights of use on ownership of buildings

on public/government owned land?

Can proposals governed by public law be implemented?

What is the relationship of public planning proposals to private initiatives and the private sector?

What role do developers' companies play and how are they governed or organised?

In how far is the financing of the redevelopment of former harbour areas dependant on public

funding by the municipality, the State, or the EU?

In how far can the allocation of specialised land uses be implemented, or rather, is there competition

between different port development projects?

6. Urban design questions on Kaliningrad

How is the demand for operational port areas in Kaliningrad evaluated?:

- How restrictive are the existing hydrographical site conditions (limited water depth of 8.2 m in

the docks and the approach canal, approximately 43 km in length) for the development potential

of the harbour of Kaliningrad (e.g. for modern container traffic and raw materials)? Is the

possible development of certain functions at the sea port of Baltijsk an alternative to Kaliningrad?

- Which of the port functions (including port affined industries and commercial businesses)

have development potential, also for Kaliningrad?

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- Which areas of land, docks and traffic infrastructure is suitable or necessary? Which of these

can be made available for reallocation in the context of urban redevelopment ?

- In how far can the central trade location of Kaliningrad be improved by better access from the

hinterland to the motherland, and links to the European road and rail network? – notwithstanding

the possibility of increasing industrial production of goods by special agreement with

the EU and/or the establishment of a free trade zone?

- Looking at it from another angle, it needs to be examined if there is a demand for alternative

land uses in the existing port areas of Kaliningrad. Does demand exceed the available land

in the inner city and along the banks of the River Pregolja, earmarked (for a change of use)

for housing, mixed use, administration, offices, commerce, culture, leisure and local recreation?

And are the harbour areas (beyond the railway bridge) suitable for these uses?

- Would the location of these particular waterfront and harbour sites be especially suited to

these uses?

- What infrastructure and ecological conditions would have to be considered?

Literature:

- Buchhofer, Ekkehard: Die Rolle des short-sea-shipping in den TINA-Verkehrsnetzen des Ostseeraumes, in: Europa Regional, Heft 2/2003

- Schubert, Dirk: Umbau von brachfallenden Hafen- und Uferzonen, in: HANSA International Maritime Journal Heft 4/2001

Name

Prof. Dr. Eckart Güldenberg

Origin

Kiel/Germany

Profession

Urban Planner

Main professional field/

Main subject

Housing, urban and regional planning

Personal Profile

Resume

Name

Julius Ehlers

Origin

Rostock und Itzehoe/Germany

Profession

Urban Planner

Architect

Main professional field/

Main subject

Urban structure plans,

integrated urban development

and regional plans, urban regeneration,

urban design, residential development

plans, conversion concepts

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Lecture 16

3.2.9 Lecture 16 –

“Building civil society” – Experience from St. Petersburg

Daniel Luchterhandt


“Building civil society” – Experience from St. Petersburg

It may seem a little odd for someone from Hamburg, in Kaliningrad, to report on recent developments

in St. Petersburg, a metropolis of 4.7 million inhabitants faced with major challenges. But

in the sense of a unifying Europe it is considered necessary to understand the processes and the

motives behind the developments. And furthermore, St. Petersburg is an extremely attractive city.

Transformation process

St. Petersburg and Kaliningrad are as different as can be, but both cities are in the middle of a

dramatic transformation process that could hardly be more radical or more complex – not just in

terms of urban planning and urban design but chiefly in economic, social, institutional and political

terms.

The change of system naturally had a considerable effect on urban planning. It is no longer

“easy” to plan and build cities – as it was at the time of the General Plan of Leningrad in 1960,

which proposed the extension of the city with a residential belt and put this into practice.

Today, planning is the interaction of different players and their individual interests. Politics and

administration have lost much of their influence. They have to reposition themselves, redefine

their roles and grow to fill them. Planning needs to be increasingly strategic. Planning is more

and more the steering, moderation and bringing together of different interests – with the aim of

finding a mutually acceptable solution. Planning is becoming increasingly more like quality management.

The difficulty lies in the definition of one's own values and collective values, and to

keep these on course during the process, that is, not to arbitrarily/heedlessly dismiss the proclaimed

aims.

Because of the complexity of the transformation processes and the high speed at which they

occur planning is not always an enviable task and challenge. It touches the inherent personal

convictions of the planner and sometimes forces him into a radical rethink. It is clear that this

does not happen at the push of a button.

The following will look at in how far St. Petersburg has dealt with its own transformation process

in past years and how different planning procedures were used to bring together heterogeneous

interests.

Urban regeneration and urban development in St. Petersburg

The development challenges of St. Petersburg are of an essential nature. They mainly are:

1. renewal of the historic inner city with conservation and refurbishment of existing historic structures

and reclaiming public space

2. development of the local economy especially trade, tourism and new services

3. improvement of living conditions and housing.

UNESCO estimated the cost of the complete renewal of the historic inner city at 30 million dollars.

While Kaliningrad is concerned with the reconstruction of its historic centre, St. Petersburg

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1 | A changing city – comprehensive redevelopment of the urban

infrastructure

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2 | Not everything can be done overnight: Transformation needs time

has to constantly struggle for the upkeep of its existing buildings – architectural monuments as

well as “profane” buildings, parks and open spaces, technical infrastructure or keeping pace with

the constantly growing vehicular traffic. It seems obvious that the city will not handle this effort

just with its own resources. Consequently the strategy is to provide stimuli for private investment.

The city has concentrated on key projects that should improve the business climate and attractiveness

to tourism. Apart from the restoration of important buildings and ensembles (Hermitage,

Peter-Paul Fortress etc.) the main concern is the reclamation of urban spaces, as public space

for interaction and as private/semi-private space for people to withdraw. Around Nevskij Prospect

far reaching changes have taken place in the last years. New pedestrian areas, expensively designed

squares and new lighting has created a pleasant environments of a high quality. With the

new design of Haymarket as an important traditional trading place, the formerly dangerous area

3 | Old world of experience in new splendour: Mall on Nevskij

Prospekt

4 | New world of experience and new luxury: a new shopping centre

at the Metro station Vladimirskaj


5 | “How long will this go on for?”: An apartment means

enhancement of the living conditions

6 | New perspectives of living: Successors to prefabricated homes

dominated by the mafia is now safe again. It is this site that was declared an “investment zone”

in the context of an investment strategy offering favourable conditions (tax advantages) and state

subsidy for follow-on projects.

The development of public spaces made a major contribution to the stimulation of the local economy.

New uses, in turn, will lead to the intensified use of urban spaces, especially in summer.

This also applies to the new courtyards that significantly improve the residential area along Nevskij.

Privatisation and the refurbishment and reconstruction of old apartments in the city centre are

progressing slowly. More important for St. Petersburg are the dynamic changes on the periphery

and in its green areas where in excess of 2 million square metres of privately financed housing

of different standards was built. Many people, however, have the basic need for a home, supply

of water and electricity, and safe housing.

Compared to the initial situation considerable renewal has taken place – for urban society and

for individuals.

“Building civil society”

On my first visit to St. Petersburg in the autumn of 2003 – contrary to all pessimistic predictions

of my colleagues – I met the openhearted staff of the Department of Urban Design and Architecture.

The deputy head, Viktor Polishuk, provided me with plans and information on current

projects, was available for interviews and further cooperation. His work on a new General Plan

he accompanied with the – in my view remarkable – statement: “We want to build civil society

here.”

Civil society! In the classical order it is the third sector apart from state and market. It describes

the realm of public life that is based on self-organisation and the individual. Initiatives, societies

and associations are an expression of a civil society that operates in the sphere of market and

state but without becoming part of it (because these would then pursue different aims from those

of a civil society). The functioning society is founded on shared values based on laws and a constitution,

and also the respect of its people. And at the same time, civil society is the expression

of the democratic self-conception of society.

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7 | The pass to membership in civil society 8 | “Together we can do anything” – Finding support for blind faith in

authoritarian structures

What contributions can urban planning make in the development of civil society, what role can it

play?

The chance lies in the discourse of society. The desired living conditions for the future, values

and standards are subjects related to planning. They concern questions ranging from the layout

and furnishings of homes, architecture and neighbourhood, to the functional structure of cities

and to other general questions of urban living. To organise this discourse in the triangle of power

of state, market and civil society, and to derive at spatial solutions is an important contribution in

the transformation of the overall urban situation.

Procedure

In democratic societies transparent procedures are the only way to reach “clean solutions”. Because

there is not one model solution that will be to the mutual agreement of all, a clearly structured,

cleanly applied and fair procedure should be conducted for the legitimisation of the result.

District 130

The extent and complexity of the task of renewal require innovative planning and development

strategies. Limited financial resources will result in an increasing number of model projects that

are meant for copying. The conception of District 130 was preceded by, in my opinion, an

exceptional procedure that significantly contributed to the quality of the project. Starting point was

a competition that did not search for competing solutions for a certain site, but asked planners

from St. Petersburg to submit a proposal for the site of their choice. The aim was to exemplify

the diverse tasks of urban renewal and find an integrated solution for these.

The project combined the restoration of the ailing technical infrastructure, including contaminated

soils, with the design of land freed by demolition and its financing through the sale of four building

plots. The new pedestrian zone is to extend retail areas around Nevskij and illustrate the interaction

of technical matters, urban quality and economic feasibility. The project also contributed to

the international transfer of knowledge.

Sennaja Ploshad

The results of urban development in St. Petersburg illustrated above are said to have been carried

out according to the official rules and planning procedures. However, it still remains to be


asked if it would not have been more appropriate if, especially in the case of the Haymarket

(Sennaja Ploshad) project, the former municipal architect had not done the design in his own

practice, or, if instead, several independent schemes should have been worked on in the course

of a competition. Architect of the design and regulatory authority in one person is not considered

to be a confidence-building situation, even though the outcome could have been worse.

Strategy plan 1997

A remarkable procedure was the one related to the development of the strategy plan in 1997

when the city started thinking about controlling its development after many years of planning

lethargy. It was a complex process in which all groups of society, from politics and administration,

economy, science and citizenship discussed the aims and tasks of St. Petersburg and documented

the result in a plan. The city also involved the citizens in the associated action “Moj

Gorod” when asking them to participate in formulating the strategic development of the city. This

meant a learning process for the entire urban society and was an important signal to the citizens.

The result was in integrated plan, which represented an important step in the writing of the almost

completed General Plan. A procedure of such perspective has not been carried out in the city

since; regrettably not even in the context of the current exhibition of the General Plan where

involvement is limited to the formal participation procedures.

New Passenger Harbour Competition

The development of a new ferry terminal in front of Wassili Island is one of the recent challenges

9 | Project Kvartal 130: integrated renewal creates new quality in the city centre

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10 | State planning: Redevelopment of Haymarket has brought improvements

11 | Sennaja Ploshad – the most lively square in town

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the city will face. The project is to be largely financed by private investors. St. Petersburg has

held an urban planning competition to provide ideas for the new territory. In a transparent procedure

several alternative schemes, and the design selected by the jury were made public. This

kind of procedure is generally considered as positive. In view of the fact that at the same time

projects by the name of “Sea façade” or “Sea cascade” are being completed and people will soon

move into the apartments that have a view of the sea which could then be lost, it seems that more

consideration of their interests would have been better. The results show a clear preference for

the interests of investors; and occasionally complete ignorance of the existing fabric and

neighbourhood. In terms of the discourse of urban society competitions can only be the beginning.

12 | Deep roots: Peter the Great as the ideal master planner of

St. Petersburg


14 | The project “Morskoij Kaskad and Morskoij Fasad”

Mariinskij II

The final positive example of St. Petersburg is the invited international competition for the Mariinskij

Theatre organised on the initiative of the artistic director of the Gergejev Theatre. The competition

was mainly noted for its openness and effort to publicly discuss the schemes within the city.

Of less importance is the jury's decision in favour of the design of Dominic Perrault, rather than

the broad discussion on new architecture in the historical urban context on the one hand, and

legitimisation of such a decision by an independent jury on the other. The procedure also had an

exceptional feature: the entries were exhibited prior to the jury session and its decision, giving

citizens the opportunity to comment on each of the schemes. Unfortunately it is not known in how

far the suggestions and objections of the public influenced the jury – but the decision for Perrault

13 | Maximum economic exploits at the expense of first-rate homes

and quality of life

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15 | Project Mariinksij II 16 | More faith in future generations: Not only outward support of

change!

at least seems to be sustainable. (But rumour has it that it is very difficult for him to set up an

office as a foreign “businessman”).

Gummersbach

The early public participation at the Mariinskij Theatre has inspired planners in Gummersbach to

try this in a procedure for a large industrial site in a town near Cologne. They succeeded in convincing

the Chamber of Architects, although such deviations are generally not permitted by the

competition regulations. More than 500 people visited the exhibition within three days and made

qualified comments about the entries. It was observed that the citizens explained the proposals

to one another and discussed the potentials of the town. These comments will leave an impression

for the jury of what will be feasible in the town. And suddenly it became possible to discuss

a previously rejected shopping centre in its urban context, and the conditions for its realisation.

Fronts are broken.

Learning from St. Petersburg!

Literatur:

- Goldhoorn, Baart (2002): St. Petersburg, Project Russia Vol. 26

- Leontief Centre (1998): St. Petersburg City Center Rehabilitation, St. Petersburg

- St. Petersburg City Rehabilitation Project (2004): http://fisp.pgdg.ru, Zugriff 4.11.2004


Personal Profile

Resume

Name

Daniel Luchterhandt

Origin

Hamburg and Dortmund/Germany

Profession

Spatial Planning

Main professional field

Urban planning, urban development,

informal planning procedures

Main subject

Current urban development of St. Petersburg

and other East European metropolises

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iscussion

3.2.10 Discussion – Second Day

Economy and investment

A strong city needs a strong region!

- How can both city and region be strengthened?

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The Kaliningrad area should be transformed into a corridor of development.

- What effects will this have on the morphology of the city?

- What options does the city have for negotiations with the Government?

The labour market is increasingly dependent on migration.

- What social conditions are to be expected in the city?

- How will the housing market develop?

- How much time does the city have for the pre-emptive relieve of tension?

Large projects are catalyst of urban development.

- What is the context?

- New developments in the north: effect on the existing centre?

- How can contracts ensure the separation of private and public interests?

Kaliningrad needs to develop a specific profile, boost its strengths.

- What potentials do the city and the region have?

What are the implications of the confined boundaries of the city?

- Isolation or partnership? Network of the Euro regions?

- Contractual agreements between the Government and the European Union?

Concept for a city?

- Intellectual cultural centre? How to facilitate quality architecture?

Infrastructure of the city

Rethink planning.

- Clearly defined objectives. Write scenarios. Set priorities.

- Design and implement small sites in a mosaic-like manner, consider links into adjoining sites.

- Make procedures transparent, facilitate public debate.

Conversion of the harbour – a chance for the city.

- How does one transform the harbour while maintaining employment?

- How can the flow of goods be based on the division of labour?

- How can tourist ships moor in a central location in the city?

Priority: the development of the city centre.

- Its role as a central location for retail trade?


- How can out-of-town development be controlled (green field retail developments)?

Function as an administrative centre?

Redevelop transportation system.

- How to take transit traffic out of the centre, relief of the inner city?

- How can the centre of the city be redesigned?

Develop key projects.

- Central task: Design of public spaces.

- Environment for private investments! Create a pleasant environment!

Set up networks!

- Kaliningrad, with its region and cooperating cities, is strong.

Draw up contracts.

- Secure balance of strengths and weaknesses. Uphold social justice.

- Look after existing assets!

- What to do in case of insolvency?

Set up a round table at the end of the Symposium!

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Third Day

3.3 Third Day 17.06.2005

3.3.1 Lecture 17 – Jochen Brandi and Andrej Derbenkov

Traces of history and future images of the island city on the River Pregel

3.3.2 Lecture 18 – Prof. Peter Zlonicky

Continuity and inconsistency – Experience from Berlin

3.3.3 Lecture 19 – Anna Brunow-Maunula

Methods of controlling the townscape of Helsinki

3.3.4 Lecture 20 – Dr. Sergey V. Semenzov

On the principles of retaining the urban genetic code in the

process of reconstruction and development of the city

3.3.5 Recommendations

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Lecture 17

3.3.1 Lecture 17 –

Traces of history and future images of the island city on the River Pregel

Jochen Brandi and Andrej Derbenkov


Traces of history and future images of the island city on the River Pregel

Topography eastward – westward

It is said that on city excursions one should, whenever possible, approach harbour towns from

the sea – that is by boat. The study of the first beginnings of cartography show that very early on

extremely accurate information on the depth of water and coastlines was available in order to

reach the coast safely.

The old trade routes to the Amber Coast across the Baltic Sea towards the former city of

Königsberg, the Kaliningrad of today, reveal a landscape that has always been described in

colourful terms and in a special light. A “double coast” emerges as the ship finds its way into the

narrow opening of the Visula Lagoon near Pillau (Baltisk): a succession of spaces from the expanse

of the sea to the enclosed lagoon, into the mouth of the River Pregel (Pregolja), upriver

into the transition from harbour to city. Controlled, constructed embankments dividing to form a

natural island within the city – the so-called Kneiphof. Further east, towards Insterburg/Gumbinnen

(Tschernjachowsk/Gussew), the river disintegrates into an archaic water landscape of still

and flowing currents. In some places the banks dissolve into reeds and marshland.

In this distinctive topography one encounters the biography of the town, now 750 years old,

founded by crusaders of the German order. If, in the minds eye, one changes direction and turns

downstream, one follows the route along which the East-Prussian population fled during the last

months of the war, in the spring of 1945. They were headed for the open sea, where they hoped

to be saved.

1 | Kneiphof, city island and the cathedral on the River Pregel

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Since then Königsberg is a Russian city, now celebrating its 60th anniversary. It is the westernmost,

ice-free harbour of Russia with the political vision of an “open gate to Europe”, the socalled

oblast, now an enclave in the Baltic Region, enclosed by Poland and Lithuania.

City trilogy at the mouth of the river Pregel

Königsberg (Ill. 1) comprised three formerly independent towns – the island town of Kneiphof in

between the old and the new Pregel rivers, the old part of town and castle on elevated ground,

and the crafts people's town of Löbenicht upriver. This historic centre was razed to the ground by

the bombings of August 1944 and during the battle in the spring of 1945. The last witness of the

“erased city” is the Gothic cathedral on Kneiphof island, as if Königberg's great son, the

philosopher Immanuel Kant, who is buried by its side, had taken the church under its wing. Here,

on this densely built-up island in the mouth of the River Pregel, the first building of Königsberg

university (Collegium Albertinum) stood, whose European history of research and teaching is

continued by the Russian university that now has adopted the name of Immanuel Kant.

Kneiphof – empty space?

The island has remained unpopulated and derelict since the end of the war in 1945, and exactly

this is where its unique cultural chance lies – in not being easily available for the fast building

projects of investors, out of scale with the surroundings, as seen on the opposite bank (Ill. 2).

This has left time and space to think about the future of Kneiphof and to discuss its prospective

appearance by means of several alternatives.

2 | View of the city island Kneiphof, Kaliningrad around 2000

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One obvious alternative would be to leave the derelict island, traversed by an elevated road

bridge, in its do-nothing state, an open space. But this topos of a formerly independent town

deserves to be examined in terms of its cultural and urban values – or in terms of the economic

criteria of Jürgen Bloech, “hard and soft location factors”.

The first building proposal was put forward by the young Kaliningrad architect Yuriy Zabuga who

had just finished his studies in the 1980's. His scheme, at the time considered to be courageous,

not historicising but modern in design, opened the necessary discussion on the repopulation of

the island in the River Pregel.

Old town plan – new buildings

A more recent alternative was worked on by a Russian-German collaboration in the mid-1990's

that tried to build on the historic town plan of old Kneiphof in a “critical reconstruction” (Ill. 3). Not

the two other neglected areas, the old town and Löbenicht, which were rebuilt, but only the

vacant Kneiphof island offers the opportunity – as the Kaliningrad urban archaeologist Venzel

Salakhov put it – to decode the “genetic code of the sunken city” and its rich history of culture

and trade, and lost human scale. Buildings restricted to four-storeys in height, tracing the former

alignments and edges of squares, would represent the continuation of culture and urban planning

across the desolated island, to remind of the past life on Kneiphof.

Old streets, squares and courtyards have been covered in a 1.5 metre layer of rubble since 1960,

letting the old cathedral appear sunken. Beneath this layer the foundations, cellars and ground

floors still exist. To expose this historic layer and make it accessible to the citizens would mean

to publicly discuss the fate of this town, with “raised or down-turned thumb”.

In the context of the exposed spatial information one would find convincing arguments for this

historic topos to be given back its former dense and urban life. This could, transform the town

centre, the only remaining possible location for this transformation of the old (and only seemingly

sunk) European town, into a new European model city (Ill. 4), which is currently politically claimed

by the Russian government and the population.

Invisible urban layers – terra incognita

In this context it is reminded (Ill. 5) of the proposals to conduct excavations by Kaliningrad archaeologists

on Kneiphof, possibly starting in the vicinity of the cathedral and former Albertina University.

While information on the old town plan and parcelling of land is available in the archives,

deep excavation, that is exposing the elevations of the former hidden cellars beneath ground

level, would lead to a layer that will reveal the fragmented town.

The exposed lowest layer of Kneiphof should not just become a museum. Its geometry creates

spatially fascinating opportunities for old basements to receive a newly constructed first floor

above, perceiving this as a whole and utilising the “time lagged layers” as public and private

space. A new sophisticated architecture with a “frugal footprint” – i.e. supporting structures –

would be placed above the foundations and cellars, thus leading back to the historic roots, the

“scale and pattern” of Kneiphof.

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3 | Historic town plan of Kneiphof before 1945

4 | The “new Kneiphof”, a citical reconstruction of the old town plan

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5 | Sketch section

Return of books to Kneiphof?

Which parts of the island Kneiphof could accommodate old and new life and who will be first to

find the way back to the area around the cathedral? For some time now the old books of the

Albertina, as well as those of the reputed Wallenrodt Library that was partly located in the

cathedral have been considered. These books are now spread across the world, and in some

places inadequately stored. It seems obvious that this cultural treasure should be brought back

to its place of origin, first of all to guarantee their conservation?

In kind consultation with the director of the University Library at Göttingen, Professor Elmar Mittler,

a project was developed to set up a repository for these “homecoming” books which would,

in time, be expanded into a modern library at Russia's Kant University – above the foundation

walls of the old Albertina.

The concentration of these valuable cultural assets in the vicinity of the cathedral would result in

people soon following the books – one possible step on the way of regaining foothold on Kneiphof.

Since “Historisches ist nicht, das Alte allein festzuhalten oder zu wiederholen. Dadurch

würde die Historie zugrunde gehen. Historisch handeln ist das, welches das neue herbeiführt

und wodurch Geschichte fortgesetzt wird.” (“The historical is not merely recording or repeating

the old. This would lead to the demise of history. To act historically is to effect the new and

thereby continuing history.”) Karl Friedrich Schinkel.

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Genius Loci on Kneiphof – speculation

If one could engage the great son of this European city to partake in this discourse and ask him

about topos and logos, he would possibly give us this piece of advice to take with us: “Ein künftig

unbebauter, stadtentleerter Kneiphof wäre nur ein Friedhof um mein Grab. Ein wiederbelebter

Ort des Wissens würde dagegen an Büchern und Arbeitstisch festhalten, die mir – ohne Königsberg

je verlassen zu haben – hier zur eigenen Welt geworden sind.” (“A future undeveloped,

vacant Kneiphof would be the cemetery around my grave. But a revived place of knowledge

would hang on to books and desk, which have – without ever having left Königsberg – become

my own world.”)

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Name

Andrej Derbenkov

Origin

Kaliningrad/Russia

Profession

Long distance captain

Main professional field

Local history and landscape history,

journalism

Main subject

Urbanistics, history of the Kaliningrad Region

Personal Profile

Resume

Name

Jochen Brandi

† November 2005

Origin

Göttingen/Germany

Profession

Architect

Main professional field/

Main subject

Architecture, urban design and landscape

projects

International competition achievements

(in USA, Russia, Senegal, Turkey,

Vietnam, a.o.)

European Steel Design Award 1976

Publication: LANDSCAPE – determined city

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Lecture 18

3.3.2 Lecture 18 –

Continuity and inconsistency – Experience from Berlin

Prof. Peter Zlonicky


Continuity and inconsistency – Experience from Berlin

A comparison with Kaliningrad

Berlin is different. Berlin is larger, is a capital city. Berlin was shop window for the development

of East and West. Berlin has seen some rapid development after reunification, but neglected

some districts. Berlin today is in a critical phase of transformation.

What do the two cities have in common? Kaliningrad and Berlin have similar historical references.

Both cities build bridges – territorial between East and West. The most important bridges

were built by the spirit of enlightenment and the sciences in the nineteenth century, culture and

art in the early twentieth century. Berlin destroyed economic and cultural bridges in the war

started by the National Socialists, and ultimately caused the destruction of both cities.

Town Plan

The destruction of Berlin did not start with the bombardment of 1943 to 1945, but with the demolition

of entire districts for the grand axes planned by the National Socialists. The radical restructuring

of the traditional urban framework and the demolition of a total of 73,000 flats were to make

way for the proposals of Hitler and his chief architect Speer to put up representative buildings for

the “Third Reich”. Aim was to make Berlin the world capital and to proclaim it as “Germania” after

a world exhibition in 1950.

1 | The great north-south axis and the “Hall of the People” (exceeding 300 metres in height, compared to the old Reichstag in the foreground) from

the design of Albert Speer (1941)

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2 | Plan of the inner city prior to demolition in the war black: existing buildings; light blue: construction sites; mid-blue: almost completed projects;

blue-violet: Government buildings; ochre-yellow: new public spaces

3 | Plan of the inner city after reunification black: existing buildings; light blue: construction sites; mid-blue: almost completed projects; blue-violet:

Government buildings; ochre-yellow: new public spaces


4 | current plan of the inner city black: existing buildings; light blue: construction sites; mid-blue: almost completed projects; blue-violet:

Government buildings; ochre-yellow: new public spaces

The “cold war”, the development of West German and East German governments – especially

the construction of the wall, led to Berlin being a divided city. Looking at the town plan after reconstruction,

it becomes apparent that two ideologically competing proposals have the same basic

concept. The town plan should be retained in principle, the city should be more open, less dense,

more green; the city should be a representative place, but also a place to live.

Reunification set off a building boom in Berlin. Even before the decision for the new capital was

made (1991) old and new landowners secured the best sites for themselves (Potsdamer Platz).

The development of the capital was initially planned as a comprehensive new construction project,

the restraint of decreasing resources led to the conversion of the existing fabric.

5 | Brandenburg Gate 2005, pictures of a destroyed square 1945

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Today, Berlin is a shining city that is especially attractive to young people – and it is also a city

that is in the middle of a severe economic and financial crisis. Investments in the hinterland weaken

inner city areas. Inhabitants move to the periphery. The birth rate is decreasing, like in all German

cities. Also the financial strength has adapted to the general situation – Berlin has lived

beyond its means for too long. Public infrastructures and difficult neighbourhoods and their social

problems have been neglected, such as the industrially produced new estates of the 1970s/80s.

Strategies

Among the numerous contributions to the urban development of Berlin, the following three concepts

show innovative development options that reach beyond the city.

In the social and cultural crisis of the 1980s Berlin developed a system of “cautious urban renewal”

by the example of the neglected district Kreuzberg. In collaboration with residents' groups,

especially with active young people, it was possible to save the “broken city”. Kreuzberg still has

problems today, but the built environment and the infrastructure have been modernised, disadvantaged

inhabitants are largely integrated.

Immediately after reunification an active senator set up the “city forum”. Over the space of three

years players in the field of urban planning in Berlin met twice monthly for two days: representatives

of the political parties, economy, trade unions and environmental groups, building societies

and tenants, urban planners and architects. Each group was allocated a “bench”. Additionally

there was a “bench for interjectors”: independent citizens, artists and writers. The senator re-

6 | Objectives of cautious urban renewal of the district Kreuzberg

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7 | Berlin Study, Strategies for the city; title page of the publication


sponsible for urban development and the environment participated in all meetings, but saw his

role as “first listener”, only contributing to the discussion when it was in danger of going off the

subject. The Berlin City Forum was the model for many similar forums in other German cities.

The “Berlin Study” combines different strategies for the development of the city. It was composed

by independent scientists and politicians who developed programmes for “twenty-first century

society”. These strategies focus on integrative politics for the city and its districts. They strive for

social peace as a prerequisite for economic development.

The “critical reconstruction of the city” was the constant motif of urban planning in Berlin since

the late 1980s. Adherence to the historical town plan, preference of “urban parcel planning”, reference

to classical building heights and design of structured facades were the guiding principles

of urban development that was determined by an understandable desire to recreate the traditional

townscape, but which also led to the immobilisation of the town, displaying little willingness

to take risks with new architecture. The reconstruction of public spaces was successful and in

the best tradition of the model of the European city.

Building blocks in a new Berlin

Reunification, invoked by all West German governments and hoped for by many citizens' groups,

also from East Germany, has taken politicians and the city of Berlin by surprise: there were no

concepts for the time of reunification. At least common infrastructure was rebuilt within a short

period of time. However, the traces of the common history – of the divided city – were demolished

8 | Public space Unter den Linden; title page of the publication of the

Senate office, ca. 1996

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9 | The Berlin wall as art and as reminder, only retained in a few

places

along with the Berlin wall. The “wall in people's heads” is still present in the minds of the citizens

of Berlin and it is up to the young generation to overcome this.

During the initial period that lacked a concept large firms helped themselves: Daimler Benz, Sony

and others bought the rights to implement large scale urban development projects in the city

centre. The buildings on Potsdamer Platz, and now also on Leipziger Platz, display a new scale

that is appreciated by businesses and visitors to the city, but not by the people of Berlin.

The “Schloss debate”also is an answer to the new scale of the city: at least in the centre it should

be possible to reconstruct historic urban spaces. The reconstruction of the palace itself is a

problem: it strengthens the tendencies to erase the history of the last seventy years. The former

“Palace of the Republic”, the modern East German Parliament building, would have to be

demolished. Proposals for new uses have not been put forward. Fortunately there are no

prospects for realisation.

Pariser Platz on Brandenburg Gate is still loved by the people of Berlin and tourist for being the

salon of the city. Frozen with the rigid regulations of “critical reconstruction”, it would today be an

empty square – if the new Academy of Arts had not opened up its controversial glass façade onto

the square. For a few weeks now it has been a lively space in the centre of the city.

Handling remembrance

With the reunification of the city, important memorials of the post-war period were taken on, as

for example the monument of the Soviet army. They will also be protected in future.

11 | Historic centre of the city, view of the “Palace of the Republic”;

title page of advertising brochure

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10 | New building on Potsdamer Platz, view from Leipziger Straße


12 | New Academy of Arts in its old location,

Pariser Platz 4

It took 60 years to build memorials for the murdered European Jews in Berlin. Only a few weeks

ago the Holocaust Memorial was opened, a large field of steles that deliberately avoids indoctrination,

letting each visitor, based on his own experience and knowledge, reflect the most severe

cultural inconsistency that emanated from this city. People who use it in a multitude of ways now

have adopted the site as a public open space.

The project “Topography of Terror”, an institution to come to terms with the history of the perpetrators

of the Nazi regime, has not been realised until now. Misgivings that the construction of the

memorial is stalled in the interest of surviving perpetrators are not without reason.

The smallest memorials are the paving stones set into the footpaths in front of the houses of former

Jewish citizens. They remind of names and dates of those residents who were driven away

or murdered. A growing number of citizens are involved in this individual way of coming to terms

with history. A growing number of stones in many of Berlin's streets are expression of the wish to

come to grips with a past that has been suppressed for a long time.

Which Berlin experience is of interest to Kaliningrad?

Not wanting to transpose proposals for Berlin onto other cities, it is however possible to generalise

the experience. If at all from Berlin, some of the Berlin strategies and projects can be used

as building blocks for the model of the European city. In this sense they can be generalised – as

Berlin has learned from many other European cities.

13 | Memorial for the murdered Jews in Europe 14 | Stumbling blocks: Reminders in front of the houses of residents

who were driven away or murdered

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The search for the lost centre is the topic of many debates in European cities. In Berlin, where

two centres developed during the period of the wall, the aim is to find one common centre. Is it

enough to rebuild the historic facades? Is there such a thing as a common intellectual centre?

What determines the identity of the city?

“Critical reconstruction” is an attempt to reproduce some of the essential elements of the European

city: public spaces, streets and squares, a typical building pattern, including heights and

densities. Does this have to be combined with a strict set of rules? What are the acceptable

exceptions?

Large building projects are gaining in importance in European cities – they are landmarks, evidence

of the strengths of a city. Is the economic strength not also dependant on the social, the

cultural climate of a city? Apart from traditional infrastructures, are not soft infrastructure elements

such as environment, design quality, the cultural and social conditions important? Are not

the economically successful city on the one hand, and the social city on the other, two inseparable

sides of the coin?

The city has to be read like an open book of history. There are large signs and numerous small

traces of memory of good and also of awful times. Are these memories to be shaped by the

municipal institutions alone? If the city is the project of its citizens – should they not have the

opportunity to actively participate in the process of remembrance?

Sometimes it is the debate on strategy for a project that is more important than the product itself.

Every city must provide levels for such a debate – levels that are carried by the commitment of

the people. They offer the forum for a joint learning process, for formulating public opinion, for

strengthening civil society. Can the international urban development forum in Kaliningrad

strengthen public debate on the further development of this European city?

15 | The Symposium in Kaliningrad

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Personal Profile

Resume

Name

Prof. Peter Zlonicky

Origin

Munich/Germany

Profession

Architect with a focus on urban planning

Main professional field/

Main subject

Urban development and urban design,

cautious urban renewal,

development aid in the Near East, in North

and West Africa,

evaluations in Rumania, in Haiti and Brazil,

cooperation with Pratt Institute in Brooklyn,

NY. Research mainly in the field of social

compatibility of large projects and the future

development of urban districts.

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Lecture 19

3.3.3 Lecture 19 –

Methods of controlling the townscape of Helsinki

Anna Brunow-Maunula


Methods of controlling the townscape of Helsinki

Why present Helsinki at a seminar about Kaliningrad. Helsinki is young and there are only few

historical layers. The city is at present holding a strong position as a growing economic, administrative

and cultural city. One interesting aspect of Helsinki is that it can be conceived as a physical

manifestation of a democratic welfare state.

History

On the 750th anniversary of Kaliningrad Helsinki has just celebrated its 450th anniversery. Helsinki,

however, was not built in stone until after 1810. Frequent fires, mainly caused by battles

between the Russians and Swedes, destroyed much of the urban fabric of earlier times.

The historic centre, built between 1820-50, was financed by the Russian Tsar Alexander I. The

town plan was conceived by Johan August Ehrenström and its buildings drawn by the German

architect Carl Ludwig Engel (Ill. 1). This centre still gives the towscape its identity and scale,

although the population of Helsinki has grown from 15,000 in 1850, to 555,000 in the year 2000.

The capital of Finland has, for a long period of time, been a growth pole (Ill. 2), mainly due to

internal migration brought about by changes in economic conditions. The urban development of

Helsinki has gained attention not because of exceptional solutions or spectacular projects, but

because of its high urban qualities.

Urban Qualities

Municipal steering and democratic control of development have always had a relatively strong

and independent status. I state a few of the reasons:

- The city, together with the municipality and the state, has always been a significant landowner

and taxes have been comparatively high.

- In the capital, the demand for developable land and development rights has always been

sufficiently high to keep the power in the hands of the regulating bodies.

- In Finland, corruption, which generally gravitates towards this sector, is almost non-existent.

1 | Helsinki 1877, painting by Oskar Kleineh

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2 | Helsinki Masterplan 2001

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Consequently, decisions regarding city planning have been in the hands of democratically elected

bodies while professionals have carried out the actual planning. The tax income has been

steady, even though the city is constantly struggling with a cash deficit.

The following has contributed to some of the urban qualities:

Helsinki has a well-functioning infrastructure

Depending on the political majority, the focus of investment shifts between public transport and

private cars. The result is that while we plan for the extension of a Metro line we build extensive

multi-storey car parks in the city centre. Both are needed (Ill. 3).

Everyone has a roof over his or her head; most people own their own home

After the World War II, Finland faced a major period of transition. New housing was in great demand

in industrial areas. The government wanted to promote frugal money management among

the citizens, but there were further political reasons why people were encouraged to become

homeowners. A housing policy, which still prevails, was started by a system of reasonably priced

loans and inexpensive building technology (Ill. 4).

The influx in population to the Helsinki Metropolitan Area is great, and the demand for housing is

constant. The majority of high-rise housing development is subsidised by the government, and

targeted at the private market. The government still regulates the conditions for the allocation of

housing and controls prices. One of the problems of this situation is the resultant uniform residen-


3 | Transportation 1986-2004

Private vehicular Buses Trams Underground Regional railway

4 | “Säteri” Prefabricated panel construction

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5 | “Arabia” Residential block

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6 | Library in Kuusankoski

tial solution, where architects have to put in much effort to try giving the buildings an individual

finish (Ill. 5).

Public space and sites for public buildings are safeguarded in the masterplan. Not only concert

halls, theatres and museums but also schools, libraries, health and day-care centres have played

an important role in creating the identity of the townscape. The city has generally taken care of

public construction works (Ill. 6). Only recently the need to develop concepts for private sector

finance has emerged; this has many reasons, including a shortage of resources.

It should be mentioned that the Church still plays an important role. New churches are built with

separate tax money.

Local plans generally allocated space for commercial development in excess of that required by

property developers. Nevertheless, the steering of developers' wishes has succeeded in Helsinki,

but this is no longer so beyond the city boundaries (Ill. 7). Even the neighbouring towns are

competing for newcomers by allowing considerable deviations from their local plans, or by amending

detailed local plans in conflict with the masterplan.

Controlling the building process

New legislation

In Finland the control of land use and building is based on legislation. Legislation is modelled on


7 | Office building for Stakes and Senate Properties

other Northern European countries – you will be familiar with the general principles of these acts

and regulations.

The new Land Use and Building Act was adopted in 2000. It includes reforms that required

decades of preparation. The biggest changes in land use legislation were in the area of national

planning.

- Many of the differences between rural and urban areas were abolished.

- The preparation of detailed local plans was transferred from county level to the municipalities.

- It was stipulated that a certain proportion of the increase in land value, that is, added value

brought about by additional development rights, is made payable to the municipality.

- The opportunities for citizens to participate in the process were also increased.

- Demolition permits were among the reforms of building legislation.

- Requirements for sustainable development and for the right of citizens for a good living environment

were incorporated in the new Land Use and Building Act.

Building legislation is complemented by regulations, and the city's own guidelines and decisions.

The principal instruments to enforce and monitor the regulations are the process of zoning and

granting building permits.

City Planning Department

Helsinki has invested considerably into local planning. The City Planning Department has almost

one hundred employed architects who prepare and control the implementation of projects. Both

the planning department and the private sector also commission consultants to prepare draft

plans. In both cases, further development and detailed planning are carried out largely behind

closed doors in the City Planning Department. A democratically elected body, the City Planning

Committee, approves the plans, and representatives of political parties can assert influence on

these decisions.

Citizens can, with justified arguments, delay or stop processes by filing a complaint about a project

(Ill. 8).

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8 | Urban planning process

selection process for land area

to be developed

public participation &

assessment

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D E T A I L E D P L A N N I N G I N H E L S I N K I

exhibition & discussion

forums on draft plan

proposed plan to Planning

Committee for approval

proposed plan

may be returned to

Planning Committee

for revision

approved master plan

initial sketch plans work programme

draft plan to

Planning Committee

proposed plan

on-deposit

plan approved

by City Council

draft plan

proposed plan - revisions

& public comments

proposed plan

to City Board

network diagram of the detailed planning process

Building Control Department

The department has over one hundred employees in total, handling permits required even for

small-scale construction projects. Formerly, anyone could apply for building permission. Currently,

an applicant is required to prove that he or she has the necessary professional skills for the

task. The department's principal function is to check that the projects comply with the plans and

meet requirements.

The town planner may have added a number of guidelines on the appearance of the buildings,

and the regulation department ensures that these are followed. This may apply to the retention

of part of an old building, integration in the existing environment or design guidelines for achieving

uniformity in a newly built area.

programme & schedule draft plan proposed plan approved plan


The building supervisor has the right to present his or her views on issues of design and appearance,

which are handled by the Cityscape Advisory Board.

The democratically elected Building Committee has the final say on building permits. The standard

practice is to abide by the opinion of the presenting official of the Building Regulation

Department.

Influencing the building process

Cityscape Advisory Board

The Cityscape Advisory Board operates under the Building Regulation Department. Its members

include the highest-ranking officials of the department, the City Planning Department and two

outside experts, who are invited as members and generally represent the best of the architectural

profession.

During its life of almost five years the board has earned great respect within the building industry,

even though it is a voluntarily appointed body. This achievement stems from the board's considerable

professional expertise enabling it to make clear long-term policy decisions – despite the

fact that it has to tackle questions of appearance, which are subjective by nature.

The highest-ranking official responsible for planning issues is the Deputy Mayor for City Planning

and Real Estate, who has set up an unofficial body, the Urban Planning Academy, as his own advisory

body. Its invited members include professionals and representatives of related fields. Depending

on the issues dealt with, he may also invite pertinent decision makers to the meetings.

The Finnish Architectural Policy

The Finnish Architectural Policy is a new instrument for creating a better built environment. It is

very much a tool of today, a tool for finding ways of nurturing good environments without overburdening

public sector spending.

Therefore, we must find new ways to increase awareness. We must have influential figures representing

players in various fields more visibly committing themselves to the nurturing of good

environments alongside their own goals. We must promote the creation of networks between

existing resources and willing voluntary decision makers.

The main objectives of the policy:

The Finnish Architectural Policy Programme charts the central development and maintenance

measures with regard to what makes a good built environment, and condenses them into 24

actions (resolutions) mainly aimed at players in the public sector. In most cases the responsible

body is clearly specified.

The programme has three strong tendencies: Strengthening the expertise and specialist organisations;

producing obligations and willingness that guarantee a good cultural quality of the built

environment; increasing participation and information related to the rights and responsibilities of

citizens.

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9 | Myyrmäki Church 10 | Viewing tower at the zoo in Helsinki

The main objectives, originally expressed as 24 actions, are:

- to create opportunities for the realisation of the constitutional rights of citizens to have a good

environment,

- to facilitate the citizen´s rights and his/her responsibilities for his/her own environment by

promoting architectural education and public awareness,

- to set high standards for public building and property management,

- to set an example for the whole construction sector,

- to encourage the use of procedures that will enhance architecture and high quality building,

- to promote innovation through architectural education, research and development work,

- to improve the care of our architectural heritage and development of the built environment as

part of a broader approach to cultural history and architecture.

The City of Helsinki has begun preparing its own Architectural Policy, including the general goals

mentioned earlier, as well as specific proposals for action. The Architectural Policy Programme,

approved by the City Council, should not just impose restrictions on the building industry but also

motivate its players to invest in a better-built environment.

Architectural competitions

A significant percentage of notable buildings in Finland have come about as a result of architectural

competitions since 1876. Finland has a most successful record of realising winning competition

entries and satisfied clients (Ill. 9). The reason for this lies in the way competitions are carried

out.


A professional body advises clients on how to write clear programmes that abide by our rather

strict rules. But above all, the long and thorough judging process in which two professional judges,

chosen by an independent body or by the invited competitors, are much in charge of the

result. The jury consists of about ten members from different fields, but the two “chosen” professionals

are in charge of analysing all entries, presenting them to the other members of the jury,

identifying the criteria as a result of discussions, and obtaining necessary calculations or expert

opinions. This process goes on for about eight or ten weeks in which four or five jury meetings

are held. The aim is to guarantee that the client really gets the best schemes and a solution that

he wants to continue with. There has never been a problem in keeping the authors of the entries

secret during the whole process.

Other instruments

Important discussions about architecture and the townscape of Helsinki are held in different institutions

in the capital: the Aalvar Aalto Academy, the Building Information Foundation and the

Architects' Society.

The renowned department of Architecture at the Helsinki University of Technology is a valuable

resource in shaping the future identity of our capital (Ill. 10).

Personal Profile

Vita

Name

Anna Brunow-Maunula

Origin

Helsinki/Finland

Profession

Architect

Main professional field/

Main subject

Architecture and Urban planning

Guest professorship at the University of Applied

Sciences Hamburg, 1995-96 and at the College

of Visual Arts, Hamburg 1999-2002

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Lecture 20

3.3.4 Lecture 20 –

On the principles of retaining the urban genetic code in the

process of reconstruction and development of the city

Dr. Sergey V. Semenzov


On the principles of retaining the urban genetic code in the process of reconstruction and

development of the city

The issues of retaining the historical heritage of any city and the possibilities of developing the

city as a whole (on an urban planning scale and in its architecture) are two sides of a medal. The

reality is constantly setting urban development tasks while retaining its historical heritage and

gives examples of attempts to retain history within modern development.

All historical cities have developed over centuries. They all possess their specific characteristics

that are revealed in the uniqueness of the urban frame (building system), in the system of functional

and environmental zoning, in the system of ensembles and outstanding buildings, in the historical

context of the ordinary urban fabric, in the peculiarities of stylistic unity and variety of the

urban environment. These peculiarities can be seen in the specific urban genetic code of each

city.

The urban genetic code is not only discernible in each particular building (planning, compositional,

stylistic, image and other features of buildings, structures, even complexes and ensembles),

but also in the design rules of the entire city environment that developed over centuries,

unique to every city, including the construction rules of each particular building in the context of

development of an individual city.

Unrestrained and uncontrolled modern development is harmful for any historical city (Paris, Berlin,

London, St. Petersburg, Moscow etc.) just as indiscriminately retaining absolutely everything

that survived from the past. Each city has its own specific measure of the historical and the new

that allows it to develop rather than destroy the historical urban, architectural and cultural basis.

This measure is determined by maturity and the system of community requirements, political will

of the authorities, and expertise of the professionals. The historical heritage is determined by the

system of monuments, objects of protection and the system of conservation areas.

The analysis of development of the world architecture shows that modern buildings remain upto-date

and attract attention for 20-30 years at the most. Then comes the inevitably stage of

fundamental re-evaluation of their urban significance within the changed systems of values. Most

of them are found to be of no value and are (often even obligatorily) replaced by new ones. That

is why all over the world masterpieces of mass industrial construction are being cruelly and

dauntlessly pulled down. Even retaining the many urban ensembles, squares and avenues that

appeared in capitals and large cities in the 1960s-1970s, built in the fashionable then style of Le

Corbusier is questioned. And many older buildings, houses, and ensembles, which are less pretentious,

are generally held in higher cultural, public and professional esteem. Moreover, they are

unique and possess specific features.

In order to maintain the historical image of the city it is necessary to retain the most important

urban, architectural and historical cultural objects – the highest bearers of this historical tradition.

One of the generally acknowledged methods of retaining our heritage is the protection of

historical monuments, the creation of conservation zones of various types (attractions, conservation

areas, protected areas, areas with building regulations, areas of vertical limitations etc.).

But this proves to be insufficient. Contradictions between the requirements of modern development

and those of retaining historical buildings are found practically everywhere. The problems

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of modern urban developments are often solved by means of satisfying modern demands on city

life (according to norms, requirements, town planning regulations) and within the system of modern

protection measures (protection of individual buildings, system of protected areas, historical

and architectural plans, urban protection areas etc.). But it proves not to be effective. Recklessness,

contradiction and deficiency in this approach can be seen in the demolition of historical

centres of Moscow, Stockholm, Berlin and Kaliningrad, for example. Even the creation of different

conservation areas around individual old buildings does not prevent them from being destroyed.

This approach works perfectly well for single buildings, but it fails to work for the whole urban

environment. General problems of conservation and simultaneous urban development are predetermined

by the problems of conservation and development of the urban genetic code of a

particular historical city. This does not only mean retaining specific buildings, but to a greater

extent retaining urban territorial rules of the formation and development of cities.

For instance, the three-hundred-year-old history of St. Petersburg shows that the basis of its

development had been the principles of regularity and measure, a clear rule for the process of

urban development. Initially, under Peter I and during Anna Ioannovna's reign, these strict planning

regulations were introduced (they were even expressed in figures, with well-defined zoning

and a clear system of codes). The progress of St. Petersburg was based on principles and interconnected

parallel development of architecture and property rights, and design principles of its

cultural field. Admittedly, the most important feature of modern St. Petersburg is not only the

presence of a considerable number of outstanding architectural monuments, but first and foremost,

its unique historical urban context, unique town planning regulations, unique town planning

rules of the whole city environment. For St. Petersburg this piecemeal approach of retaining

individual monuments is absolutely insufficient, even if the immediate environment is retained.

The conservation of nearly 8,000 buildings, complexes and ensembles fails to save St. Petersburg's

historical context. The piecemeal approach to conservation and restoration cannot ensure

the protection of the uniqueness of the whole urban environment. The example of St. Petersburg

shows that in order to preserve its individual historical and modern character (the unity of the

historical and the new), it is necessary to apply the design rules of the urban environment in the

whole city, and the entire St. Petersburg agglomeration. Naturally, it is more difficult to implement

the design rules for the environment rather than preserving its individual elements.

As expected, it is only possible to ensure the compatibility of historical buildings with modern

architecture within the design rules of the urban environment. As a comparison, in medicine it

was discovered long ago that only genetically related organs, tissues and cells are biologically

compatible. It is doomed to failure if one tries to combine genetically incompatible organs, tissues

and cells – great efforts will be needed not to destroy the immunity of the whole organism. If we

consider a city as an organism, the placing of genetically incompatible elements (buildings, structures,

ensembles, complexes, roads, squares, blocks of extrinsic buildings etc.) will inevitably

lead to the destruction of the historical city. If instead of the historical construction with clear spatial

characteristics (density and configuration of streets, embankments, canals and squares, functional

zoning, density, height and number of storeys, stylistic, architectural and silhouette characteristics

of the construction etc.) open spaces are formed, this is also destructive within the context

of the city. In all historical cities many of such incompatible objects have been created.

This problem is typical of any historical city that attempts not only to preserve its historical monuments

but also to progress. The key terms of the issue are as follows: conservation (of buildings,

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structures, complexes, ensembles, elements of the historical environment, monuments of historical

heritage, objects of urban conservation and protection areas), development (of buildings,

structures, complexes, ensembles, elements of the historical environment, the city on the whole),

historically formed design rules of the urban environment, urban genetic code.

Unfortunately, the issue is not legally secured. The town planning code (of 2004) and the law “on

the protection of the historical heritage of the Russian Federation” (2002) do not provide ways of

solving the problem. In fact this rests with the personal experience, expertise and intuition of

designers. This experience is not always positive, especially if professional issues are mixed with

pride and politics.

So how can the problem be solved? Without denying established approaches, it is also necessary

(in quantitative and qualitative terms) to discover an individual urban code of the city, for

example of Kaliningrad. This code must be included in the system of planning legislation and

planning documentation (such as masterplans, surveying projects, possibly restorable planning

projects and building projects, pivotal historical and architectural plans and in systems of conservation

measures, town planning regulations), as well as in the system of project documentation

(through architectural plans and architectural restoration projects, holding of competitions, in tender

documentation, in the conservation obligations etc.).

The characteristics of the urban genetic code can be expressed in empirical, evaluative data, as

well as in precise quantitative and qualitative indices. The urban genetic code can only be discovered

on the basis of research of all the stages of development of a city as a whole and peculiarities

of its historical and modern buildings.

A. The main system peculiarities of the urban genetic code are as follows:

- Spontaneity of design or creation and development according to masterplans;

- Degree of control over the city's development exercised by the authorities and professionals;

- Degree of presence (absence) of planning regulations, formulated and approved rules and

regulations;

- Typology of the urban environment on the whole and its peculiarities (agglomeration, megapolis,

city, settlement, system of settlements, etc.);

- Degree of regularity and irregularity of the urban environment;

- Urban and general cultural significance of the city or settlement in question.

B. The characteristics of the urban genetic code:

- Urban framework (hierarchy, typology, specific planning regularities, planning parameters,

specific alignments, configuration of main traffic routes, squares, canals, roads, etc);

- Urban fabric (hierarchy, centricity, functional regularities and peculiarities, system and peculiarities

of dividing into blocks, groups of blocks, suburbs, districts, planning areas, zones, surveying

system, allocation of planning zones for different purpose etc.);

- Environmental zoning and characteristic regularities of each zone (or district);

- Architectonics of the urban environment (polyrhythmic of urban emphases and zones, characteristic

heights, building densities etc.);

- Rules of territorial interaction of elements of the urban framework and urban fabric;

- System of urban dominants and town planning background;

- System of vertical dominants;

- System and typology of visual links (fields, corridors, zones, axes, networks, etc.);

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- Most important bearers of the urban characteristics that require unconditional preservation;

- Incompatible bearers of urban characteristics that require immediate changes.

C. Object characteristics of the town planning genetic code:

- Specific historical buildings, constructions, complexes, ensembles, their historical, compositional,

planning, stylistic and other peculiarities;

- Rules of territorial interaction of the object elements (buildings, constructions, complexes, ensembles);

- Significant bearers of object characteristics that require unconditional preservation;

- Strictly incompatible bearers of object characteristics that require immediate changes.

In practice, at this stage all historical cities develop the characteristics of the genetic code, but

without discovering the rules of their territorial interaction. A single step approach of revealing,

describing and preserving them prevails without taking into consideration their interaction in the

specific urban context. And the main system peculiarities and urban characteristics of the genetic

code are hardly considered.

As an example, the analysis of the main system peculiarities of the urban genetic code of St. Petersburg

is included.

St. Petersburg was initially established according to a special town planning programme, the

Russian variant of a world capital. Up to 1917, the building and improvement of St. Petersburg

had been considered one of the most important national issues. The reforms in St. Petersburg

were conducted along with reforms in all of Russia. The town planning and architectural activities

in the capital on the River Neva in the 18th to early 20th century were mainly conducted under

the personal control of the emperors and empresses. Peter the Great rejected the direct copying

of both Russian and west European towns. The searches for analogies in urban form and architecture

in Amsterdam, Paris, Venice, London, Moscow etc. showed that St. Petersburg does not

have any direct parallels in world architecture. One can only discover single elements of town

planning, architecture, building construction, legislation, system of management from other cities

and schools that were inimitably combined in St. Petersburg. The city absorbed mainly Russian

and West European practice transforming it into a unique combination of specific St. Petersburg

architecture of a specific St. Petersburg spatial scale.

St. Petersburg, an unprecedented large, regular city, was created in the conditions of the predominance,

both in Russia and in Western Europe, of the medieval town planning tradition with

picturesque curved streets, non-geometric plans and unregulated construction. Small regular

towns, fortresses, country estates and castles were still rare. The development of St. Petersburg

and its town planning and architectural features is a phenomenon in the world's urban planning

and architectural theory and practice. During the 18th century and the first half of the 19th century,

St. Petersburg was not only an unprecedented urban experience for the architects of the

world, but also an object of imitation in the town planning practices of many countries. It can be

stated that in the 18th century and the early 19th century, St. Petersburg was the world's testing

ground for town planning and architectural ideas. Many ideas of Western European architects

remained unrealised in the West, but were first implemented in St. Petersburg and then returned

to Western Europe as realisable and implemented projects deserving of European imitation.

Mass reconstruction of the West European cities of the 19th century according to the rules of

regularity was conducted not only on the basis of theoretical ideas of West European treatises

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and local experiments, but also under the influence of the actual practice of St. Petersburg's

grand regular town plan.

St. Petersburg' s town plan is a worldwide phenomenon.

The urban genetic code of St. Petersburg was actually developed in the course of three centuries.

Peter the Great laid the most important principles of its development. Under the reign of the

tsar-reformer's followers the crystallisation of the main planning principles of the city was continued.

At present the issue of preserving the urban genetic code of the city and the whole of the

agglomeration is pressing since current activities will result in the destruction of the code.

The main system peculiarities of the urban genetic code of St. Petersburg

Unity of the capital city and its outskirts, their formation according to a single spatial programme

From the very beginning in 1703, a huge agglomeration began to establish, but not the city. The

city, its near and remote suburbs (fortification, industrial, noblemen's manors, peasants' dwellings),

the system of reserved forests and areas, the road system, natural waterways and manmade

canals, the integrative system of administration of the capital city and the province, integrative

town planning, architecture, property legislation – all this was aimed at the creation of a

capital agglomeration, but not a city in its own right. Peter the Great determined its initial spatial

parameters: from Oranienbaum to Kronstadt (in the west) to the mouth of the River Volkhov (in

the east), from Sestroretsk and Toksovo (in the north) to Krasnoe Selo and Sarskaya Myza (in

the south). In time the borders of the agglomeration changed, but the principles of the coordinated

development of the city and its outskirts remained unchanged.

Succession of development of the city and the whole of the agglomeration

The territory on which St. Petersburg was founded was not uninhabited. The city and most of its

suburbs and roads were formed on the basis of existing settlements of the 13th and 14th century

that had outlived the Novgorod, Moscow and Swedish development periods of the Neva area.

Many modern neighbourhoods and districts of St. Petersburg, and most of the suburbs are

located on pre-Petersburg settlements; hundreds of kilometres of pre-Petersburg roads became

city avenues and streets. In the area of the modern Greater St. Petersburg more than 400 settlements

existed for centuries. In the nearby outskirts there were about 600 settlements. Besides,

the development of the city itself was successive in character. Often the ideas formulated by

experts were implemented decades later by a new generation of architects. The first ideas for the

design of the city centre and sub-centres of the capital on the River Neva, that still exist, were

expressed by J. B. A. Leblond (1717). The first villages, similar to the principles of the fashionable

garden city of the early 20th century, were built on the banks of the Neva from 1739-1740, when

villages for regiments of the life guards were established. The first ideas for constructing a dam

for the railway from Lisy Nos via Kronstadt to Oranienbaum go back to 1844-1846.

Cyclicity of development of the city and the agglomeration

At different times the development of the city and the entire agglomeration was based on different

principles that successively replaced one another. The three main types, three main strategies of

the spatial development of the areas can be distinguished into the strategy of extensive development,

strategy of intensive reconstruction and strategy of compositional improvement of the

city and its outskirts. These strategies successively replaced one another, showing cyclical (nonlinear)

characteristics of development of the city and of the agglomeration. The strategy of exten-

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sive development (by means of maximum development of earlier rural areas and extension of

the city borders) was implemented in 1703-1761, 1802-1815, 1836-1879 and 1917-2004. The

strategy of intensive reconstruction (within the stabilised city borders and the borders of the suburbs)

was prevalent in 1762-1801 and 1880-1900. And the strategy of compositional improvement

of the city and the outskirts (with the maximum development of the ensemble character of

the entire urban environment and establishment of the main ensembles of the city and of significance

to the whole of Russia) was implemented in 1816-1836 and 1901-1916. Each strategy

type of city development has its own special type of masterplan, special systems of legislation,

special systems of city administration and regulation.

City development on the basis of masterplans

The design of masterplans and main programme documents of the territorial and organisational

structure of the city was obligatory for 300 years. Often, especially in the 18th century and early

20th century, masterplans did not only determine the strategies of spatial development of the city,

but also predetermined changes of borders and administrative division within the city, changes

in the system of the city administration, of the town planning, architectural, construction and

property legislation. Masterplans complimented each other, and grew one out of the other. As the

analysis of the world's urban planning shows, the elaboration and implementation of masterplans

was a compulsory condition for a world capital city. In the 18th century and beginning of the 20th

century, establishment and development of St. Petersburg – Petrograd, and the design of its

masterplan were considered a matter of national significance. The reforms in St. Petersburg were

part of the all-Russian reforms and were implemented under the personal control of the emperors

and empresses. All 19 masterplans for the city were a continuous and successive series of town

planning ideas for the development of St. Petersburg – Leningrad – St Petersburg. In accordance

with different development strategies of city, different types of masterplans were designed and

implemented.

Among the masterplans of extensive development are the following: a set of masterplans, imperial

approved by Peter the Great, for several districts of St. Petersburg (1712-1715, 1718-1724);

a set of imperial approved masterplans for several districts, areas and complexes of St. Petersburg

elaborated in the Commission on St. Petersburg's construction, in the headquarters of the

Life Guards regiments, in the Chief Police Office (1735-1746); “Plan of the capital city of St. Petersburg”

(I.F. Truskot, 1748-1749); a set of imperial approved masterplans of individual peripheral

areas of St. Petersburg drawn up in 1805-1836 (also in the “Committee on the construction

improvement and hydraulic works”); a set of imperial approved masterplans of individual

districts of St. Petersburg (1840-1879); a project of regulation of Leningrad (1925); Masterplan

of Leningrad (L.A. Iliyn and others, 1926-1934); Masterplan of Leningrad (L.A. Iliyn and

others, 1935-1936); Masterplan of Leningrad (N.V. Baranov, A.I. Naumov and others, 1938-

1939); Masterplan of Leningrad's reconstruction (N.V. Baranov, A.I. Naumov and others, 1944-

1948); Masterplan of Leningrad's development (V.A. Kamensky, A.I. Naumov, G.N. Buldakov, V.F.

Nazarov, G.K. Grigorieva, 1958-1967); Masterplan of Leningrad's and Leningrad region's

development (G.N. Buldakov, V.F. Nazarov, G.K. Grigorieva and others, 1980-1987).

Among the masterplans of the intensive reconstruction periods are the following: “Master drawing

of St. Petersburg” by J.B.A. Leblond (1717); “New plan of the capital city and fortress of

St. Petersburg” (A.V. Kvasov, 1765); “New plan of the capital city of St. Petersburg” (1776); “New

plan of the capital city of St. Petersburg” (1792, edited in 1796); “Design plan for the regulation

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of the city of St. Petersburg” (1880); “Plan of the city of St. Petersburg and regulation of streets

until January 1, 1909” (1909).

Masterplans for compositional improvements of the area are the projects of the “Committee on

improvement of all the constructions and hydraulic works in St. Petersburg and adjoining areas”

(1816-1836), the plan of regulation of Petrograd (I.A. Fomin and others, 1919-1923). An initiative

to develop a masterplan was also proposed by L.N. Benua, F.E. Enakiev, M.M. Peretyatkovich,

N.E. Lansere (“Plan of St. Petersburg’s transformation”, 1910).

Development of the city and agglomeration on the basis of the town planning regulations, “model

projects”, standard and individual design, under the complete control of architects

Almost from onset in 1712, a strict system of clear, well-defined (with quantitative parameters)

town planning regulations was introduced in St. Petersburg. Simultaneously the policy of individual

design of large projects (buildings, structures, ensembles) and standard mass building following

“model projects” was introduced.

Regularity of the urban system, geometrical character and density of the street network

One of the most outstanding features of St. Petersburg is the rule of straight roads and a geometrical

grid. From 1703, the young city was developed on the principles of picturesque, nonlinear

planning. After 1712, by decree of Peter I, the reconstruction of built-up areas was started

using straight streets and canals. Since the time of J.B.A. Leblond's (1717) project the rule of

geometrically well-defined squares was introduced. The network of new villages acquired clear

geometrical outlines and special – typical only of St. Petersburg – building densities, avenues,

streets, canals and squares. The optimal network of urban roads was purposefully created for

St. Petersburg, governed by a specific size of cells or blocks between the routes. This development

differed considerably from the principles of the formation in other cities around the world.

This principle of regularity, geometricity and special density became one of the main design principles

of the planning frame of St. Petersburg.

“Sloboda”(village) character of the area

The territories of the city in all periods of its development were built up with separate, local compositions

of slobodas of different sizes. This principle also goes back to the times of Peter the

Great, but was manifested during the reign of Anna Ioannovna and Elizaveta Petrovna. Almost

all the territories of the historical city were formed according to the sloboda principle.

The ensemble character of the design of area

Deliberate inclusion of the city and the whole of the agglomeration of the Neva area in the single

ensemble. A most important feature of the urban environment of St. Petersburg is its ensemble

character. Ensembles that emerged at different periods and are of different compositional styles

formed a hierarchical multi-level system of ensembles in the city and its suburbs, in the course

of time. The main ensembles in the city are its main squares and the main Neva area. Since the

times of Peter the Great, the Neva (from its source to the mouth) and Kronstadt Bay displayed

the main ensemble elements of the city itself and the main compositional elements of the whole

of the agglomeration.

The system of vertical dominants

The system of vertical dominants of the city has almost always been one of the most important

elements of the capital environment that was created purposefully and professionally. From

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1710-1712, Peter I formulated the design rules of the system of vertical dominants in the city. The

axes of “prospects” and streets are aligned to vertical dominants: church cupolas, towers and

spires of public, industrial and residential buildings. In the 1730s to 1740s, the spatial system of

vertical dominants was developed, based on the principle of the “field of perception” with verticals

two to five times higher that the urban buildings of one to two storeys that could be seen from

almost any spot. After the transition of the 1770s to the solid fire walls and increase in the

average number of storeys from two to three or four (from the 1820s), and later five to six storeys

(from the 1890s), the principle of the “field of perception” ceased to function. In the second half

of the 19th century architects deliberately switched over to the principle of “corridors of perception”

and started creating a system of turrets, bay windows or similar emphases. The old vertical

dominants and new vertical emphases formed a single spatial multi-level system. Up to the

1950s, these general principles of accentuation remained. The rejection in the 1960s of the vertical

dominants led to the spatial disorder of the whole of the industrial city, resulting in a clearly

perceptible discomfort of the city environment.

Regularity and regulation of building neighbourhoods

Gradually a single principle for the regular layout of neighbourhood blocks and building within the

blocks was formed in the city. Under Peter I, the rule of building along red lines was formulated.

The outer buildings did not yet occupy the whole of the front of the block and fences with gates

were built along the red line. J.B.A. Leblond proposed to implement the principle of outer buildings

along the red line, but using fire walls along the embankment of the Neva. Regulations

governing the height and number of storeys were also introduced, as well as a differentiation of

permitted types of buildings according to their materials in the whole territory of the city and the

suburbs. From the end of the 1730s, during the reign of Anna Ioannovna, regulation of building

within the neighbourhood blocks was introduced. From the 1770s, under Catherine II, the rule of

solid brick fire walls of a fixed height along the red lines in the area from the Neva to the River

Fontanka was introduced (after J.B.A. Leblond). Even in areas of regulated timber construction

building rules applied. The following principle of construction was gradually developed and

existed up to the end of the 19th century: brick buildings were constructed in the city centre, brick

and timber buildings in the suburbs, timber mass construction in the outskirts. In 1919-1920, a

new principle was introduced: solid brick fire walls (or solid perimeter walls) of different styles in

the centre of the city; brick buildings, possibly not of the fire wall type, detached multi-storey

buildings with landscape elements in the periphery; and detached buildings (cottage type)

surrounded by countryside outside the city. This principle was followed until the end of the 1950s.

The construction of the perimeter type was always applied in the central territories of the city. In

the inner city (even in the newly developed large sites) the construction of the fire wall was compulsory,

for example, on Suvorovsky Prospect, on Bolshoy Prospect of Vasilievsky Island. Rows

of housing were constructed on the outskirts of the city and signified the peripheral character of

the area. From the 1960s, with the transition to industrial methods, all development construction

was of the row housing type. Practically not a single new route has been added to the centuriestested

rules of construction of central routes of St. Petersburg.

Multi-style arrangement of the city environment

Since the times of Peter I, attempts were made to create a mono-style urban fabric. They were

continued during the reign of Anna Ioannovna, Elizaveta Petrovna, Catherine II, Alexander I and

Nicolas I. In pictures and engravings the city looked perfect, but actually applied to whole of the

city the mono-style was monotonous in appearance. But in 1842-1843 the monarch prohibited

the construction of buildings of a single style. With the simultaneous increase of building in the

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city (tenfold by 1880) the multi-style construction (of the epochs of Historicism, Modernism, Neo-

Classicism) retained the principles of regularity (the construction was done along the red lines

with fire walls of a limited height), but it ensured diversity in the city environment. This period of

multi-style construction formed almost 90% of the historical environment of St. Petersburg, so

highly praised all over the world. A return to the mono-style principle was implemented in the

industrial construction in new blocks in the second half of the 20th century, with all its negative

consequences.

Urban and suburban types of sites

Rules of laying out urban, outskirts and suburban blocks into plots. The urban neighbourhoods

had a clearly regulated division into residential and non-residential areas. The sizes of plots had

been standardised since the early projects of D. Treseni and J.B.A. Leblond, and they were finally

grouped and specified during the reign of Anna Ioannovna, at the end of the 1730s. The plots

were supposed to be rectangular (residential use) or non-rectangular (for public uses), 20-30

meters wide along the red line and half the length of the block. Borders of the urban plots during

the 18th and 19th century were stable. The plots in outskirts and suburbs, used as country

estates, for industrial purposes, or as green areas, did not have to conform to the standard size.

After they were incorporated into the city, plots were often changed from the suburban type into

urban types and urban construction rules applied. An example is the following: during the transformation

of the suburban River Fontanka into a canal (1780-1790) the suburban dacha sites

were replaced by plots for urban layouts. Urban plots were the most important cells of the environment

and the chief bearers of St. Petersburg's unique urban scale. They determined the front,

the dimensions and the height of the buildings along the streets, densities and cellularity of the

historical buildings blocks. In the course of comprehensive refurbishment works in the second

half of the 20th century, survey boundaries were abolished. This practice and the construction of

modern out-of-scale buildings led to the destruction of the fundamental basis of the urban

environment of St. Petersburg and its historical plots.

System of gardens and parks as one of the most important elements of the urban environment

In 1715, the proposals for Vasilievsky Island by D. Treseni included gardens in the urban environment.

In the 18th century and beginning of the 19th century, the creation of public gardens and

parks in the city was obligatory. During the times of intensive mass construction in St. Petersburg

in the middle of the 19th century to the beginning of the 20th century, parks and public gardens

were laid out on any vacant piece of land under control of the emperor, governor and the city

duma. The gardens and parks, not only in the suburbs but also in the city itself, were and still are

one of the most important spatial systems of St. Petersburg.

System of canals in the city and in the suburbs

Among the most important elements within the urban framework and the entire agglomeration is

the system of navigable canals and water culverts extending from Oranienbaum to the Ladoga

area. The greatest canal-building activities were conducted under Peter the Great (numerous

realised canals and proposals that were not implemented in the area of the future St. Petersburg,

a canal along the south shore of the bay of Finland, Ladoga canal, Kronstadt canal, Ropshinsky

and Ligovsky canals, proposals for constructing canals up to Sarskaya Myza), during the reign

of Catherine II (Kryukov and Ekaterininsky canals, River Fontanka, canal ditches within the city

boundaries and along the borders of the outskirts) and during the reign of Alexander I and Nicolas

I (Obvodnoy canal).

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System of town planning regulations and functional spatial height limitations

Any construction in the city, in the outskirts and in the suburbs was conducted on the basis of

well-defined town planning regulations. The first regulations were introduced in the reign of Peter

the Great. They formed part of the masterplans and were obligatory for all builders, including

members of the imperial family. The emperor himself controlled all kinds of building activities and

redevelopment in the city centre.

Dynamism of spatial trajectories of formation of the centre and the main functional zones. The

successive development and enlargement of the city and its suburbs led to the relocation of its

most important components. The spatial structure of the city is dynamic. For example, the main

administrative centre was moved from Troitskaya Square on Gorodskoy Island (St. Petersburg)

to the spit of Vasilievsky Island and later to the Admiralty. Gradually and considerably its borders

expanded up to the 1930s, when it was attempted to move it further south to the crossing at

Mezhdunarodny Prospect and Tsentralnaya Dugovaya Street. In the 1940s it was again located

in the area of the Palace Square. The trajectory of the port is as follows: canal at the Kronwerk,

division into military and commercial ports (Kronstadt and Galernaya harbours), north wharf of

the spit of Vasilievsky Island, separation of the specialised bread and forestry ports,

establishment of the sea port in the area of Gutuevsky Island, separation of the outer harbours

in Oranienbaum and Luzhskaya Bay. The zones of the nearby suburban dacha areas are as

follows: Summer garden and the island (until the 1710s), then the banks of the Moika, of

Karpovka, Chernaya river (until the 1750s), of Fontanka (until the 1780s); the areas along the

Petergoff Road and the banks of the River Neva, tsar manors and manors of high officials in all

suburban districts. The elitist residential areas of the city were located in the following sites:

embankment near Troitskaya Square on Gorodskoy Island (until 1712), the area of the future

Shpalernaya Street (1712-1716), the spit of Vasilievsky Island (1716-1721), Palace Embankment

(1720-1760s), extension of the borders of the elitist residential area along Angliyskaya Embankment

and along Nevsky Prospect (1760-1800s), then the elitist residential area was transferred

across Fontanka to the zone of Furshtatskaya, Zakharievskaya, Sergievskaya Street

(1800-1880s), development of new areas on St. Petersburg Island and along the modern Prospect

of Decabrists (1890-1900s), establishment of the elitist residential areas on Mezhdunarodny

and Suvorovsky Prospects (1940-1950s). In a similar way one can trace the trajectory of spatial

transfer of almost all significant town planning elements. “New Holland”, for example, was located

in a different place before 1737, namely on the site of the arena of the Horse Guards Regiment.

The legislative succession of the city development

A consistent town planning legislative base for the city and its outskirts was being constantly and

successively developed since the times of Peter the Great. It had been in force continuously, until

the end of the 1930s when a transfer to a new system was made. Many of the decrees by Peter

the Great were supported by the legislation of Anna Ioanovna, Elizaveta Petrovna, Catherine II.

These decrees were included in the Complete Laws of the Russian Empire, in the Code of Law

of the Russian Empire, became paragraphs and chapters of all the editions of the Construction

Statute and Task Regulations. The transfer at the end of the 1930s to the system of building

codes (SniP) broke down the continuous successive line.

Conclusions

The urban genetic code of St. Petersburg has been developing for centuries and retains its continuity

to the present. It has been acknowledged as one of the highest achievements of town plan-

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ning art of the world. The historical centre, historical outskirts and landscapes of St. Petersburg

and its agglomeration were made a UNESCO World Heritage Site in 1989. Retaining the genetic

code, even under conditions of new mass construction and mass standard buildings, will be a requirement

for preserving the individual character (based on the historical development) of St. Petersburg.

The destruction of the genetic code, even if hundreds and thousands of individual monuments

are saved, will only help retain single monuments, but not St. Petersburg as a complete

historical and urban ensemble. The focus on a few fashionable, glossy buildings is the fundamental

danger in maintaining the city's genetic code.

Personal Profile

Resume

Name

Dr. Sergey Vladimirovic Semenzov

Origin

St. Petersburg/Russia

Profession

Architect

Main professional field

Urban planning, reconstruction and

restoration of the historical environment

Main subject

Masterplans, planning control,

local planning and building construction,

historical and theoretical research

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ecommendations

3.3.5 Recommendations

As a conclusion to the International Symposium the participants formulated the following

recommendations:

1. Broaden the scope of the central topics

In the further development of the City of Kaliningrad discussion of the following topics seems of

particular importance:

- The joint development of city and region.

- Securing and linking water and landscape areas within the city.

- Maintaining existing residential areas, improvements of residential environments.

- Demographic development, the effect of increased immigration on the economic and social

life in the city.

- Relieving the city centre from private motorised traffic, improvement of local public transport,

securing the tramlines, improvements for pedestrians and also for cyclists.

- Enhancing the attractiveness for tourism.

- Securing the “genetic code”, the identity of the city.

2. Select spaces for the development of the city centre

The participants of the Symposium recommend the prioritised treatment of the following spaces:

- The extended inner city, also in its relation to the periphery of the city.

- The inner urban area of the harbour.

- Historic Kneiphof, the island and adjacent areas.

Development within these areas should be assigned priorities.

3. Establish further procedures:

- The diverse findings should be collected in a report and published.

- The next step can be the preparation of a first workshop in which the topics (1) and spaces

(2) are looked at in context and first ideas should be developed.

Participants in the workshop should be mostly university students and young architects/urban

planners from Kaliningrad.

- Following the workshop a further symposium should assess the results and establish the

basis for a subsequent competition.

- The competition should – corresponding to the position of the City of Kaliningrad and its geographic

links – be an international competition.

The participants in the symposium recommend that the political committees of the city should

concern themselves with these recommendations and the subsequent report. They request the

representatives of the City of Kaliningrad to open up the spaces required for a positive development

of this endeavour.


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4 Summary

Summary

4 Summary of the Symposium


Summary

Russian organisation committee's summing-up of the results of the international

Symposium

“Kaliningrad: Visions of the future – Urban development of the city centre”

The promoters of the international Symposium held in the City of Kaliningrad, on the initiative of

the Directorate of Architecture and Urban Design of the City Council in cooperation with the

Arbeitskreis Kulturkontakte Kaliningrad Hamburg, issue the following statement.

Essential aspects are:

- An international charter for the preservation and reconstruction of monuments and sights

(Venice, 1964) and for the protection of historical cities (Washington, 1987);

- The existing friendly relations of Kaliningrad to European partner cities and their creative cultural

circles of architects;

- The pursuit of a “region of collaboration” in Kaliningrad, between the European Union and the

Russian Federation, as stated in the Federal Target Programme, Comprehensive Territorial

Scheme, proposal for a new Masterplan for the city, and also in the declarations of public

organisations;

- The pursuit of the integration of work and the creative collaboration with architects from European

countries, in accordance with the current principles of stable development and upholding

the common values of the cultures and peoples; The intention of organs of local selfadministration

to discuss, within the extended circle of Russian and international experts,

questions concerning the condition and perspective for the development of the centre of

Kaliningrad. The object of this measure is to evaluate the situation and to jointly draw up

recommendations for further action.

The questions stated in the programme of the Symposium was examined and discussed,

announcements and reports heard, and discussions held. As a result the following statements

can be made:

- The location and significance of Kaliningrad, as a historic Russian city that is closely connected

to the history and culture of a number of European nations, are unique.

- The active involvement of Kaliningrad and the Kaliningrad Region in the systems of international

economic and cultural affiliations between the countries of the Baltic Region, and the

inter-personal relations of all their inhabitants, should be promoted.

- The strategic economic objectives of the Kaliningrad Region are the development of a transportation

node of international importance, an international centre of commercial cooperation,

a research and production centre and a culture-tourism link. A considerable part of this potential

is centred in Kaliningrad.

- Priorities of strategies of the urban development of Kaliningrad, as stated in the new Masterplan

for the city are: Open-mindedness of the city for development initiatives, setting up a

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4 Summary

legal framework for urban development decisions, pursuit of a specific cultural identity, creating

a high-quality urban environment.

A number of problems in the area must be considered in the course of formulating urban development

policies, making decisions on the preservation and utilisation of the rich cultural inheritance

of the city and in the context of its central location. These problems must be carefully examined

in order to develop comprehensive solutions. They are:

- the historical centre that was affected during World War II, the inner city area where all buildings

were lost, now is an vast area with unfinished buildings;

- insufficient usage of the huge infrastructure and investment potential of the spaces in the city

centre that could be increased significantly with the development of an ordered overall proposal

for the area.

- the absence of a contemporary design concept for the city centre that is endorsed and supported

by all players. The lack of understanding for the necessity of securing the balance between

public and private investment interests in the reconstruction and new development of

the centre.

In consideration of these conditions the participants and the chairmen of the Symposium formulated

recommendations, on the basis of which the organisation committee has composed the

following notes on solving existing urban planning problems. These are presented to the local

public and the decision makers:

- Issues of the urban development of the city centre shall be examined in the context of the

strategic development objectives of the region as a centre of international cooperation between

countries within the Baltic Region.

- Strategic decisions on the urban and architectural design of the city centre shall be made on

the basis of the international competition, which should address international interests and

the urban scale.

- Multifunctionality of the city centre shall be achieved by creating unique sites that accommodate

federal, regional and urban functions, and that are appropriate to the relevant scales.

- The construction of the centre, its design and architectural image, shall be devised in a

dialogue between the various social groups and associations of the urban public.

- The development of the city centre shall be continued in the spirit inherited, by securing the

harmonious interaction of the cultural inheritance that needs to be preserved and contemporary

architecture. Further, the principle of preservation and restoration of existing sites of the

cultural inheritance should be upheld; they are the temporal and spatial determinants of the

city.

- A decree shall be issued on waiving the right to build on the vacant sites in the historical centre

until a land use plan, as a basis for the international competition, has been released.

- Existing housing stock and the typical concrete pre-fab blocks in the centre, that no longer

meet constructive, operational, social, economic and aesthetic demands, shall be modernised.

- In the reconstruction of areas with existing buildings in the centre of the city, the historical

building pattern should, if possible, be implemented, i.e. blocks, narrow street frontages, enclosed

spaces with small squares and open spaces.


- Sites in the city centre that require a special form of development and building in terms of

functional, historical and other criteria shall be earmarked, to facilitate a variety of settings

and a harmonious interaction between different types of townscape.

- The traffic congestion in the city should be relieved by rerouting transit traffic onto roads by

passing the centre, and also by construction diametrical routes on different levels. This will

ensure the long-term realignment of traffic flows outside the centre.

- Areas for a separate pedestrian network, independent of vehicular traffic, should be allocated

within the city centre. In addition, cycle paths should be constructed.

- Buildings in the city centre are to embrace the River Pregel to extend the urban environment

towards the waterfront and open opportunities for water related tourism and recreation as well

as the establishment of a service infrastructure.

- The focus should be on working out scenarios that are primarily concerned with the balanced,

successive, functional development of problem sites in the urban centre. These include:

1. The area on Zentraljnaja Plostschdj, the natural core of the city and its administrative,

commercial, cultural and tourist focus. The idea is the reestablishment of its primary

function in the urban system and the intensification of the usage of surrounding areas

by concentrating in it important buildings for the authorities, service industries, trade,

recreation and culture.

2. The area on Plostschadj Pobedy, now a significant administrative, public, commercial

and religious centre in modern Kaliningrad. The idea is to further develop the multifunctionality

of the site.

3. The area on Kneiphof Island, the node and interface between the districts on the left and

right banks of the River Pregel that is now to be developed into a centre for cultural

education and tourism. The idea is to reconstruct historical buildings around the Cathedral,

thereby creating a symbolic zone of the lost medieval town, with parks as local

recreation areas.

4. The area on Nishnij Prud and Werchnij Prud, representing a homogenous landscape

unit as part of a unique, interesting, natural, ecological system within the city that is a

public open space of general urban significance. Measures to protect the site need to be

taken and private development of inappropriate projects must be prevented.

5. The area at South Station, the centre of the left bank of the Pregel, accommodating

transportation, commerce and trade functions and thereby relieving functions of the

centre and around the Plostschadj Pobedy area.

In recent years the interest of investors and contractors in the centre of Kaliningrad has grown

rapidly. Participants in the Symposium are of the opinion that delay of decisions on drawing up a

comprehensive proposal for the design of the centre of the city will lead to irreversible processes

(scattered buildings), foregoing the opportunity to develop and implement a unified, well-balanced

urban concept.

Presently the urban public is faced with the task of determining the direction of the development

of the city centre in the 21st century and to actively control its fate in this new era of history. This

responsible task requires the combined intelligence, know-how and material resources of all

potential players in the urban processes – organs of the state and the municipality, the business

world political parties and public organisations, and the entire population.

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International Symposium Kaliningrad

210

4 Summary

The following short-term (two-year) measures for the implementation of the ideas and recommendations

delivered by participants at the Symposium could be:

1. The planning and implementation of a workshop for the conceptual development of the entire

city centre and its most difficult zones – with the help of the creative powers of invited, international

architects and experts.

2. Setting up an exhibition of the proposed concepts, public debate on these proposals, and a

continually updated, publicly accessible database holding information on the task and the

development potentials of the city centre.

3. Holding an international competition for the reconstruction and development of the city centre

of Kaliningrad.

25 June 2005 Kaliningrad


211


International Symposium Kaliningrad

articipants

Participants

212

Participants

Caroline Ahrens

D&K projektentwicklungsmanagement, Hamburg/Germany

Aleksey M. Arhipenko

OOO “+4”, Kaliningrad/Russia

Prof. Irina V. Belinzeva

Fine Arts Institute, Moscow/Russia

Prof. Dr. Dieter Biallas

Transparency International Deutschland (TI-D) /

Deputy Lord Mayor (retired), Hamburg/Germany

Prof. Dr. Dr. h.c. Jürgen Bloech

University of Göttingen, Göttingen/Germany

Jochen Brandi † November 2005

Architects Jochen Brandi, Göttingen/Germany

Anna Brunow-Maunula

Architects Brunow & Maunula, Helsinki/Finland

Ivan D. Chechot

PRO-RT Institute, St. Petersburg/Russia

Tatiana N. Chekalina

Kaliningrad State University, Kaliningrad/Russia

Natalia I. Chepinoga

OOO “Nikor Projekt” GmbH, Kaliningrad/Russia

Uwe Drost

D&K projektentwicklungsmanagement, Hamburg/Germany

Julius Ehlers

AC-Planergruppe Julius Ehlers, Itzehoe/Germany

Alexandr I. Epifanov

Institute of Federal Architects, Moscow/Russia

Vadim G. Eremeyev

Architect, Kaliningrad/Russia

Dr. Veniamin G. Eremeyev

“Rosprojekt“, Kaliningrad/Russia

Prof. Gennadij M. Fedorov

Kaliningrad State University, Kaliningrad/Russia

Dr. Otto Flagge

Municipal Planning Consultants, Kiel/Germany

Flemming Frost

Juul and Frost architects, Copenhagen/Denmark


Konstantin K. Gembitskiy

Administration, Association of Municipalities of the Kaliningrad Region,

Kaliningrad/Russia

Sergej V. Gnedovskiy

Union of Architects of Russia, Moscow/Russia

Pavel M. Gorbach

Architect, Kaliningrad/Russia

Jana Grabowski

D&K projektentwicklungsmanagement, Hamburg/Germany

Aleksey B. Gubin

Local History Society of the Kaliningrad Region, Kaliningrad/Russia

Valeriy D. Gubin

Territorial Administration of Orel Region, Orel/Russia

Sergej A. Gulevskiy

OOO “+4”, Kaliningrad/Russia

Silvia S. Gurova

International Department of Kaliningrad City Hall, Kaliningrad/Russia

Hans-Heinrich Hansen

Department of Urban Planning in Kiel, Kiel/Germany

Dr. Andrej P. Klemeshev

Kaliningrad State University, Kaliningrad/Russia

Dr. Elke Knappe

Leibnitz – Institute of Regional Geography, Leipzig/Germany

Tatiana L. Kondakova

Chief Architect of Kaliningrad, Kaliningrad/Russia

Dr. Sergej M. Kopychina-Lorens

Institut “Kaliningradgrazhdanprojekt”, Kaliningrad/Russia

Dr. Valentin S. Korneyevets

Kaliningrad State University, Kaliningrad/Russia

Prof. Sergej D. Kozlov

Regional Duma, Kaliningrad/Russia

Olga V. Krasovskaya

NPF “Enco“, St. Petersburg/Russia

Dr. Vladimir R. Krogius

Institute of Reconstruction Works INRECON, Moscow/Russia

Dr. Helena G. Kropinova

Department of Socio-cultural Services and Tourism, Kaliningrad State University,

Kaliningrad/Russia

213


International Symposium Kaliningrad

A. P. Kudrjavtsev

Architectural Academy, Moscow/Russia

Prof. Vladimir I. Kulakov

Archeology Institute of the RAS, Moscow/Russia

214

Participants

Valeriy V. Kuzlianov

Deputy Chief Architect of Kaliningrad, Kaliningrad/Russia

Dr. Sergej V. Lebedihin

Architect, Kaliningrad/Russia

Daniel Luchterhandt

University of Technology Hamburg-Harburg, Hamburg/Germany

Prof. Jury S. Matochkin

Regional Duma, Kaliningrad/Russia

Olga V. Mezey

OOO “Nikor Projekt” GmbH, Kaliningrad/Russia

Dr. Werner Möller

Bauhaus Foundation, Dessau/Germany

Alexander V. Nevezhin

Architect, Kaliningrad/Russia

Dmitriy Ofitserov

International Relations Department of Kaliningrad, Regional Administration,

Kaliningrad/Russia

Prof. Marcin Orawiec

OX2architekcts, Aachen/Germany

Alexander V. Popadin

Freelance Writer, Kaliningrad/Russia

Victor I. Pustovgarov

Administration of Kaliningrad Region, Kaliningrad/Russia

Venzel T. Salakhov

“AO BUDIMEX”, Kaliningrad/Russia

Alexa Saure

D&K projektentwicklungsmanagement, Hamburg/Germany

Yuriy A. Savenko

Mayor of Kaliningrad, Kaliningrad/Russia

Anatolij N. Seljutin

Architect, Kaliningrad/Russia

Sergej V. Semenzov

Research Institute of St. Petersburg and the Northwest Region,

St. Petersburg/Russia


Prof. Sergej I. Sokolov

“Giprogor” Institute of Urbanistics, St. Petersburg/Russia

Prof. Sergej Y. Tsiplenkov

Kaliningrad Sociological Centre, Kaliningrad/Russia

Vjacheslav S. Uvarov

Institute “Kaliningradgrazdanprojekt”, Kaliningrad/Russia

Oleg I. Vasjutin

Architect and Urban Planner, Kaliningrad/Russia

Jurij I. Zabuga

Architect, Kaliningrad/Russia

Elke Zlonicky

Urban Planning Practice, Munich/Germany

Prof. Peter Zlonicky

Urban Planning Practice, Munich/Germany

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International Symposium Kaliningrad

llustration

Illustrations

Lecture 2 – Olga V. Krasovskaya

1 | Masterplan

No source

2 | Land use plan

No source

Lecture 3 – Dr. Werner Möller

1 | Design of the ideal city form the treatise of Filarete, around 1465

Source: Benevolo, L.: Die Geschichte der Stadt, Campus Verlag – Frankfurt a. M./New

York, 8th Edition, 2000, p. 577, Ill. 882

2 | Town centre of Siena

Source: Benevolo, L.: Die Geschichte der Stadt, Campus Verlag – Frankfurt a. M./New

York, 8th Edition, 2000, p. 350, Ill. 567

3 | Founding plan of Caracas, around 1560

Source: Benevolo, L.: Die Geschichte der Stadt, Campus Verlag – Frankfurt a. M./New

York, 8th Edition, 2000, p. 675, Ill. 1002

4 | Braunschweig Castle prior to its destruction in WW II

No source

5 | Demolition of Braunschweig Castle, watercolour by Karl Schmidt, 1960

No source

6 | Site of the former Braunschweig Castle after demolition

No source

7 | Open space design around Braunschweig Castle Arcades, 2004

Source: City of Braunschweig and ECE Projektmanagement GmbH &Co.KG

8 | Ground floor plan of Braunschweig Castle Arcades, 2005

Source: City of Braunschweig and ECE Projektmanagement GmbH &Co.KG

9 | Computer simulation of Braunschweig Castle Arcades, 2003

Source: City of Braunschweig and ECE Projektmanagement GmbH &Co.KG

10 | Model of Braunschweig Castle Arcades, 2005

Source: City of Braunschweig and ECE Projektmanagement GmbH &Co.KG

11 | ECE-Center Brünn (Czech Republic), opened 2005

Source: ECE Projektmanagement GmbH &Co.KG

12 | ECE-Center Klagenfurt (Austria), opened 2004

Source: ECE Projektmanagement GmbH &Co.KG

13 | ECE-Center Wetzlar (Germany), opened 2005

Source: ECE Projektmanagement GmbH &Co.KG

14 | Town houses in Leipzig (Plagwitz), 2005

Author's photograph, 2005

15 | Town houses in Leipzig (Schleusig), 2005

Author's photograph, 2005

16 | Town houses in Leipzig (Schleusig), 2005

Author's photograph, 2005

216

Illustrations


Lecture 4 – Oleg I. Vasjutin

1 | Stage I: 1255

Source: Oleg I. Vasjutin, Kaliningrad/Russia

2 | Stage II: late 13th century to the end of the 16th century

Source: Oleg I. Vasjutin, Kaliningrad/Russia

3 | Stage III: early 17th – mid 19th century

Source: Oleg I. Vasjutin, Kaliningrad/Russia

4 | Stage IV: late 19th – early 20th century

Source: Oleg I. Vasjutin, Kaliningrad/Russia

5 | Stage V: first third of the 20th century

Source: Oleg I. Vasjutin, Kaliningrad/Russia

6 | Stage VI: “Project town” Königsberg of the 1930s

Source: Oleg I. Vasjutin, Kaliningrad/Russia

7 | Stage VI: “Project town” Kaliningrad of the 1950s

Source: Oleg I. Vasjutin, Kaliningrad/Russia

8 | Stage VII: Second half to late 20th century

No source

9 | Evolution of Kaliningrad

Source: Oleg I. Vasjutin, Kaliningrad/Russia

Lecture 5 – Prof. Marcin Orawiec

1 | Rheinpark Süd – Night-time perspective

Source: OX2architekten, Aachen/Germany

2 | Rheinpark Süd – Site plan

Source: OX2architekten, Aachen/Germany

3 | O.Vision – Perspective

Source: OX2architekten, Aachen/Germany

4 | O.Vision – Site plan

Source: OX2architekten, Aachen/Germany

5 | Schanzenstraße – Perspective 1

Source: OX2architekten, Aachen/Germany

6 | Schanzenstraße – Perspective 2

Source: OX2architekten, Aachen/Germany

7 | Schanzenstraße – Site plan

Source: OX2architekten, Aachen/Germany

8 | Wesseling – Typical sketch

Source: OX2architekten, Aachen/Germany

9 | Wesseling – Model

Source: OX2architekten, Aachen/Germany

10 | Wesseling – Site plan

Source: OX2architekten, Aachen/Germany

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International Symposium Kaliningrad

218

Illustrations

Lecture 6 – Prof. Irina V. Belinzeva

1 | Town plan of Königsberg by Jochim Bering, 1613

No source

2 | Fragment of the epitaph – Königsberg in the guise of Jerusalem

Source: Jager, E., Schreiner, R.: Das alte Königsberg. Veduten aus 400 Jahren –

Regensburg-Grünstadt, 1987

3 | Town plan of Königsberg by Suchodolez Mladschij, 1740

No source

4 | Town plan of St. Petersburg by J.B.A. Leblond, 1717

No source

5 | Ordnance survey map of Königsberg, 1815

Source: Kartensammlung des Herder-Instituts, Marburg

6 | Development of facades in Baltic coastal towns, 1400-1900

Source: Material Gdansk, Polen

7 | Portal of the Königsberg Castle – south entrance to courtyard, 1551

No source

8 | Portal of house no. 27 Langgasse on Kneiphof – early 17th century

No source

9 | Residential building in Bergstrasse, in the Old Town of Königsberg – early 17th century

No source

10 | Residential building in Junkerstrasse on Kneiphof, 1654

No source

11 | Castle Church of Königsberg, 1690

No source

12 | Plan of Königsberg Castle Church, 1690

No source

13 | Königsberg with Castle Church in background

No source

14 | Königsberg Town Hall on Kneiphof, 1695

No source

15 | Ceiling decoration at the Town Hall 1696-1697, A. Schlüter

No source

16 | Fragment of ceiling decoration at the Town Hall 1696-1697, A. Schlüter

No source

17 | Detail of ceiling decoration 1696-1697, A. Schlüter

No source

18 | Post-war project in the centre of Kaliningrad, 1950s

No source

Lecture 7 – Venzel T. Salakhov

1 | Linear-spatial frames Königsberg, 1938

Source: AO BUDIMEX, Kaliningrad/Russia

2 | Linear-spatial frames Kaliningrad, 1996

Source: AO BUDIMEX, Kaliningrad/Russia


3 | Former town gate

No source

4 | Compositional frames Königsberg, 1938

Source: AO BUDIMEX, Kaliningrad/Russia

5 | Compositional frames Kaliningrad, 1966

Source: AO BUDIMEX, Kaliningrad/Russia

6 | Königsberg, 1729

No source

7 | Dominant frames Kaliningrad, 2005

Source: AO BUDIMEX, Kaliningrad/Russia

Lecture 8 – Prof. Gennadij M. Fedorov

1 | Abutting Baltic states

No source

2 | Region Kaliningrad, 2000-2010

No source

3 | National linkage of Kaliningrad

No source

Lecture 9 – Prof. Sergej D. Kozlov

1 | Visualisation of Christ the Saviour Cathedral and shopping centre “Kaliningrad-750”

No source

2 | Former House of Technology

No source

3 | Bird's eye view of construction of Christ the Saviour Cathedral and shopping centre

“Kaliningrad-750”

No source

4 | Bird's eye view visualisation of Christ the Saviour Cathedral and shopping centre

“Kaliningrad-750”

No source

5 | Extract from street map

No source

6 | Original building of grocery market

No source

Lecture 11 – Dr. Elke Knappe

1 | Kaliningrad, Housing and industry 2002

Source: Knappe, E.: Kaliningrad aktuell (=Daten, Fakten, Literatur zur

Geographie Europas, H. 7), Leibniz-Institut für Länderkunde – Leipzig, 2004, p. 29

2 | Kaliningrad Region, Housing

Source: Knappe, E.: Kaliningrad aktuell (=Daten, Fakten, Literatur zur

Geographie Europas, H. 7), Leibniz-Institut für Länderkunde – Leipzig, 2004, p. 58

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International Symposium Kaliningrad

220

Illustrations

3 | New public housing development 2004

Source: Sozialno-ekonomiceskoe polo enie Kaliningradskoj oblasti v 2004 godu

(The sozio-economic situation in the Kaliningrad Region 2004) – Kaliningrad, 2005, p. 130

4 | Share of foreign direct investment 2004

Source: Sozialno-ekonomiceskoe polo enie Kaliningradskoj oblasti v 2004 godu

(The sozio-economic situation in the Kaliningrad Region 2004) – Kaliningrad, 2005, p. 47

5 | Share of foreign investment according to countries 2004

Source: Sozialno-ekonomiceskoe polo enie Kaliningradskoj oblasti v 2004 godu

(The sozio-economic situation in the Kaliningrad Region 2004) – Kaliningrad, 2005, p. 52

6 | Road network of the Baltic Region

Source: Knappe, E.: Kaliningrad aktuell (=Daten, Fakten, Literatur zur

Geographie Europas, H. 7), Leibniz-Institut für Länderkunde – Leipzig, 2004, p. 37

7 | Share of foreign investment according to countries 2004

Source: Sozialno-ekonomiceskoe polo enie Kaliningradskoj oblasti v 2004 godu

(The sozio-economic situation in the Kaliningrad Region 2004) – Kaliningrad, 2005, p. 20

8 | Kaliningrad Region – Euro Regions

Author's illustration

Lecture 12 – Flemming Frost

1 | Q-Book 1

Source: Juul and Frost architects, Copenhagen/Denmark

2 | Q-Book 2

Source: Juul and Frost architects, Copenhagen/Denmark

3 | Randers Barracks 1

Source: Juul and Frost architects, Copenhagen/Denmark

4 | Randers Barracks 2

Source: Juul and Frost architects, Copenhagen/Denmark

5 | Analysis of the inner harbour of Copenhagen 1

Source: Juul and Frost architects, Copenhagen/Denmark

6 | Analysis of the inner harbour of Copenhagen 2

Source: Juul and Frost architects, Copenhagen/Denmark

7 | Porcelænshaven Residence 1

Source: Juul and Frost architects, Copenhagen/Denmark

8 | Porcelænshaven Residence 2

Source: Juul and Frost architects, Copenhagen/Denmark

9 | Bergen Sjöfront 1

Source: Juul and Frost architects, Copenhagen/Denmark

10 | Bergen Sjöfront 2

Source: Juul and Frost architects, Copenhagen/Denmark

Lecture 13 – Dr. Otto Flagge

1 | Kiel Fjord

Source: Planning materials of the Urban Planning Department, Kiel


2 | Extent of destruction of Kiel after World War II

Source: Planning materials of the Urban Planning Department, Kiel

3 | Destruction of inner city of Kiel

Source: Jensen, J.: Kieler Zeitgeschichte im Pressefoto, Wachholtz Verlag –

Neumünster, 1984

4 | Open spaces with temporary tree planting

Source: Jensen, J.: Kieler Zeitgeschichte im Pressefoto, Wachholtz Verlag –

Neumünster, 1984

5 | Adaptation of the urban fabric (view north from railway station)

Source: Planning materials of the Urban Planning Department, Kiel

6 | Factory Buckau-Wolf, 1963

Source: Jensen, J.: Kieler Zeitgeschichte im Pressefoto, Wachholtz Verlag –

Neumünster, 1984

7 | Waterfront Kiel – city to the water

Source: Planning materials of the Urban Planning Department, Kiel

8 | Masterplan Hörn

Source: Planning materials of the Urban Planning Department, Kiel

9 | Sketch of Masterplan Hörn

Source: Planning materials of the Urban Planning Department, Kiel

10 | Hörn Bridge and view to Kiel main station

Source: Planning materials of the Urban Planning Department, Kiel

11 | Promenade with view to Hörn Campus

Source: Planning materials of the Urban Planning Department, Kiel

12 | Hörn Campus

Source: Planning materials of the Urban Planning Department, Kiel

Lecture 14 – Olga V. Mezey

1 | Stage I – Statement

Source: OOO “Nikor Projekt” GmbH, Kaliningrad/Russia

2 | Stage II – Three cities with town halls, main trading places and a spiritual centres

Source: OOO “Nikor Projekt” GmbH, Kaliningrad/Russia

3 | Stage III – 1724-1866

Source: OOO “Nikor Projekt” GmbH, Kaliningrad/Russia

4 | Stage IV – After 1912

Source: OOO “Nikor Projekt” GmbH, Kaliningrad/Russia

5 | Stage IV – Radial ring structure, historical core, present linear centres

Source: OOO “Nikor Projekt” GmbH, Kaliningrad/Russia

6 | Stage V – After the destruction of the war – 1960s

Source: OOO “Nikor Projekt” GmbH, Kaliningrad/Russia

7 | Stage VI – 1970s

Source: OOO “Nikor Projekt” GmbH, Kaliningrad/Russia

8 | Aerial view of Kneiphof

No source

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International Symposium Kaliningrad

222

Illustrations

9 | Problems of the present condition of the city centre of Kaliningrad

(Stage VII – 20th/21st century)

Source: OOO “Nikor Projekt” GmbH, Kaliningrad/Russia

Lecture 16 – Daniel Luchterhandt

1 | A changing city – comprehensive redevelopment of the urban infrastructure

No source

2 | Not everything can be done overnight: Transformation needs time

No source

3 | Old world of experience in new splendour: Mall on Nevskij Prospekt

No source

4 | New world of experience and new luxury: a new shopping centre at the Metro station

Vladimirskaja

No source

5 | “How long will this go on for?”: An apartment means enhancement of the living conditions

No source

6 | New perspectives of living: Successors to prefabricated homes

No source

7 | The pass to membership in civil society

No source

8 | “Together we can do anything” – Finding support for blind faith in authoritarian structures

No source

9 | Project Kvartal 130: integrated renewal creates new quality in the city centre

No source

10 | State planning: Redevelopment of Haymarket has brought improvements

No source

11 | Sennaja Ploshad – the most lively square in town

No source

12 | Deep roots: Peter the Great as the ideal master planner of St. Petersburg

No source

13 | Maximum economic exploits at the expense of first-rate homes and quality of life

No source

14 | The project “Morskoij Kaskad and Morskoij Fasad”

No source

15 | Project Mariinksij II

No source

16 | More faith in future generations: Not only outward support of change!

No source

Lecture 17 – Jochen Brandi und Andrej Derbenkov

1 | Kneiphof, city island and the cathedral on the River Pregel

No source


2 | View of the city island Kneiphof, Kaliningrad around 2000

No source

3 | Historic town plan of Kneiphof before 1945

No source

4 | The “new Kneiphof”, a citical reconstruction of the old town plan

No source

5 | Sketch section

No source

Lecture 18 – Prof. Peter Zlonicky

1 | The great north-south axis and the “Hall of the People” from the design of

Albert Speer (1941)

Source: Durth, W.: “Deutsche Architekten”

2 | Plan of the inner city prior to demolition in the war

Author's illustration

3 | Plan of the inner city after reunification

Author's illustration

4 | Current plan of the inner city

Author's illustration

5 | Brandenburg Gate 2005, pictures of a destroyed square 1945

Author's photograph, 2005

6 | Objectives of cautious urban renewal of the district Kreuzberg

Author's illustration

7 | Berlin Study, Strategies for the city; title page of the publication

Author's reproduction

8 | Public space Unter den Linden; title page of the publication

of the Senate office, ca. 1996

Author's reproduction

9 | The Berlin wall as art and as reminder, only retained in a few places

Author's photograph, 2003

10 | New building on Potsdamer Platz, view from Leipziger Straße

Author's photograph, 2003

11 | Historic centre of the city, view of the “Palace of the Republic”

Author's reproduction

12 | New Academy of Arts in its old location, Pariser Platz 4

Author's photograph, 2005

13 | Memorial for the murdered Jews in Europe

Author's photograph, 2005

14 | Stumbling blocks: Reminders in front of the houses of residents who were driven away or

murdered

Source: Nina Zlonicky, 2005

15 | The Symposium in Kaliningrad

Source: Elke Zlonicky, 2005

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International Symposium Kaliningrad

Lecture 19 – Anna Brunow-Maunula

1 | Helsinki 1877, painting by Oskar Kleineh

No source

2 | Helsinki Masterplan 2001

Source: Urban Planning Department, Helsinki

3 | Transportation 1986-2004

Source: Urban Planning Department, Helsinki

4 | “Säteri” Prefabricated panel construction

No source

5 | “Arabia” Residential block

Source: Jussi Tiainen

6 | Library in Kuusankoski

Source: Jussi Tiainen

7 | Office building for States and Senate Properties

Source: Jussi Tiainen

8 | Urban planning process

Source: Urban Planning Department, Helsinki

9 | Myyrmäki Church

No source

10 | Viewing tower at the zoo in Helsinki

Source: Jussi Tiainen

224

Illustrations

The editors have, up to the production deadline, endeavoured to find all copyright owners of

illustrations. Persons and institutions who could not be located, and who would like to assert their

rights for illustrations printed, are asked to contact the publishers.


225


International Symposium Kaliningrad

mprint

Imprint

Publisher/Organisers

Municipal Authority of Kaliningrad, Department of Architecture and Urban Design,

Kaliningrad/Russia

Öffentlicher Verband “Kaliningrader Kulturkontakte”, Hamburg/Germany

Concept/Design

D&K projektentwicklungsmanagement

Hohe Brücke 1 / Haus der Seefahrt

D-20459 Hamburg

Telefon 0049 40 36 09 84-0

Fax 0049 40 36 09 84-11

E-Mail info@drost-klose.de

Uwe Drost, Alexa Saure, André Westendorf

OOO “Nikor Projekt” GmbH

236006, g. Kaliningrad,

Moscowski Prospekt 12

Telefon 007 401 34 22 93

Fax 007 401 34 20 52

E-Mail mezey@mail.ru

Olga Mezey, Dr. Helena Kropinova, Venzel Salakhov

Organisation/Editorial Staff

D&K projektentwicklungsmanagement, Hamburg/Germany

Uwe Drost, Alexa Saure, Anniki Stuhr, André Westendorf

OOO “Nikor Projekt” GmbH, Kaliningrad/Russia

Olga Mezey, Natalia Chepinoga

Municipal Authority, Kaliningrad/Russia

Tatiana Kondakova, Valeriy Kuzlianov

Kaliningrad State University, Kaliningrad/Russia

Gennadij Fedorov, Dr. Helena Kropinova

Architects, Kaliningrad/Russia

Venzel Salakhov, Oleg Vasjutin, Jurij Zabuga

Freelance Editors, Kaliningrad/Russia

N. Martynjuk, A. Sokolova

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Imprint


Translation

Russian-German/German-Russian

Margarita Beck, Elena Depken, Elena Gordeeva, Zanna Glotova, Jana Grabowski,

Olga Peteshova, Vladimir Ryzkov

Russian-English

Natalja Andreeva, Elena Kostyk, Anna Samojlova

German-English/English-German

Caroline Ahrens

Photographs

Olga Mezey, Venzel Salakhov, Alexa Saure, Natalja Yagunov, Prof. Peter Zlonicky

Notes on dissemination

This brochure is published for the purpose of public relations of the Municipal Authorities of

Kaliningrad. Political parties, or their candidates and helpers, may not use this brochure for

canvassing purposes during election campaigns. This applies to all elections. Not allowed is the

distribution at election events, information booths of political parties and the inclusion, printing or

posting of party political information or advertisements. Passing on the brochure to third parties

for the use of election canvassing is also prohibited. Irrespective of the time scale of elections,

this brochure may not be used in any way that could be construed as partiality of the publishers

towards any political group. These restrictions are valid irrespective of the channel of distribution,

i.e. irrespective of the way, and in what quantities, this information has reached the recipient.

227

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