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P r o c e e d i n g s<br />

index: authorname<br />

index: abstractnumber<br />

colophon:<br />

Conference<br />

<strong>Engineering</strong><br />

Education in<br />

Sustainable<br />

Development<br />

<strong>Delft</strong> University of Technology,<br />

<strong>Delft</strong>, The Netherlands<br />

24 & 25 October 2002


Sponsored by:<br />

Ministry of economic affairs<br />

<strong>Delft</strong> University of Technology, DUT<br />

Shell Nederland B.V.<br />

<strong>Delft</strong> kennisstad<br />

Akzo Nobel<br />

Municipality of <strong>Delft</strong><br />

also sponsored by:<br />

ministry of housing, spatial planning and the environment<br />

and CITY OF ROTTERDAM


Contact<br />

Dr.ir. Karel F. Mulder<br />

<strong>Delft</strong> University of Technology<br />

Faculty of Technology Policy & Management<br />

Technology Assessment<br />

Jaffalaan 5<br />

NL 2628 BX <strong>Delft</strong><br />

The Netherlands<br />

tel. +31-15-2781043<br />

fax. +31-15-2783177<br />

k.f.mulder@tbm.tudelft.nl<br />

ISBN 90-5638-099-0<br />

DUT Congress Office.<br />

Mekelweg 5<br />

NL 2628 CC <strong>Delft</strong><br />

The Netherlands<br />

Tel: +31-15-2788022<br />

Fax: +31-15-2786755<br />

Congressoffice@fd.tudelft.nl<br />

Local organizing committee<br />

Prof.dr.ir. J.LM. Jansen<br />

Drs. G. Pessers-van Reeuwijk<br />

Dr.ir. K.F. Mulder<br />

EEE network<br />

The conference <strong>Engineering</strong> Education in Sustainable Development is organized in co-operation<br />

with the ‘eee-network, partnership for a sustainable future’ Brussels,<br />

http://eeenetwork.net/main.html<br />

Scientific committee<br />

Chair<br />

Prof.Dr.ir. J.T. Fokkema, Rector <strong>Delft</strong> University of Technology<br />

Co-Chair<br />

Prof.dr.ir. J.L.A. Jansen, Chairman of DUT s’ Sustainable development platform,<br />

Initiator Netherlands Sustainable Technological Development program<br />

Secretariat<br />

Dr.ir. K.F. Mulder Project leader DUT s’ Sustainable development program<br />

Members<br />

Prof.dr. H. Brattebö, NTNU Trondheim, Norway<br />

Prof.dr. M.C.E. van Dam-Mieras, Open University, Heerlen, The Netherlands, President Copernicus<br />

Network Europe, Dutch Scientific Council on Government Policy (WRR)<br />

Dr. A. de Groene, Zeeland University of professional education, Vlissingen, The Netherlands<br />

Prof. M. Heitor Lisboa, University of Technology, Portugal<br />

Prof.dr.ir. C.F. Hendriks, Civil <strong>Engineering</strong> DUT, The Netherlands<br />

Prof.dr. E.C. van Ierland, Wageningen University, The Netherlands<br />

Prof.dr. N.S.Kasimov, Lomonosov Moscow State University, Moscow, Russia<br />

Prof.dr. W. Leal Filho, Hamburg Harburg University of Technology, Germany


Prof.dr. D.H. Marks, Massachusetts Institute of Technology, Boston, USA<br />

Prof.ir. B. Mazijn, University of Ghent, Belgium<br />

Prof.dr. C.J.H. Midden, Eindhoven University of Technology, The Netherlands<br />

Mrs. S. Poyry, EEE network, Brussels, Belgium<br />

Prof.dr. A. Rip, University of Twente, The Netherlands<br />

Prof.dr. C.J. Ryan, Royal Melbourne Institute of Technology, Australia, Lund University, Sweden<br />

Prof.dr. F. Schmidt-Bleek, President Factor 10 Institute, Carnoules, France<br />

Prof.dr. R.W. Scholz, ETH Zurich, Switzerland<br />

Prof.dr. M. Suzuki, United Nations University, Tokyo, Japan<br />

Dr. P.M. Weaver, Paris, France<br />

Local honorary committee<br />

Chair<br />

ir. J.J. Slechte, Chair man supervisory board, <strong>Delft</strong> University of Technology<br />

Members<br />

Ir.drs. J. van der Veer, President Royal Dutch Petroleum Company<br />

Mr. P.A.F.W. Elverding, CEO DSM<br />

Mr. C.J.A. van Lede, CEO AKZO-Nobel<br />

Ms.drs. M. Beckers-De Bruijn, President ‘Stichting Natuur en Milieu’<br />

Drs. E.H.T.M. Nijpels, Chair-man, Dutch Initiative Sustainable Development<br />

Dr. G.J. Wijers, Senior Vice President, The Boston Consulting Group<br />

Dr. P. Winsemius, Mc Kinsey & Company<br />

Mr.drs. L.C. Brinkman, President AVBB-Federation of Dutch Contractors’<br />

Organisations<br />

Mr. H.A.P.M. Pont, Director-general of National Institute of Public Health and the Environment (RIVM)<br />

Ir. J. van der Vlist, Director- general Environment at Ministry of Housing, Spatial Planning and Environment (VROM)<br />

Ir. J.A. Dekker, CEO TNO<br />

Mr. J.H. Schraven, President of Confederation of Netherlands Industry and Employers, (VNO-NCW)<br />

Ir.drs. H.N.J. Smits, CEO Rabobank, Nederland<br />

Dr. H.H.F. Wijffels, Chair-man, Social and economic council (SER) in the Netherlands<br />

Prof.dr. M.C.E. van Dam-Mieras, Chair, Copernicus Network Europe, Member Netherlands Scientific Council on Government Policy (WRR)<br />

Ir. B. van Nederveen, President, Royal Institute of Engineers (KIvI)<br />

Prof.dr. F.W. Saris, Director Energy research Centre of the Netherlands (ECN)<br />

Mr. H.M.C.M. van Oorschot, Mayor, City of <strong>Delft</strong>


initials name e-mail address title paper abstr.no page no.<br />

K. Alam Arsenic Mitigation and Social Mobilisation in<br />

Bangla Desh<br />

B. Amadei amadei@spot.colorado.edu Earth Systems <strong>Engineering</strong> Program in<br />

<strong>Engineering</strong> for Developing Communities<br />

P. Anderson andersonp@iit.edu <strong>Engineering</strong> Education for the Real" World<br />

Educating Engineers to Meet Real Needs with<br />

Minimal Environmental Effects"<br />

S. Arlinghaus Profitable environmental management in small<br />

and medium enterprises (SME)<br />

P. Arnfalk peter.arnfalk@iiiee.lu.se From Plant to Paper and Sea to Sandwich -<br />

Technical Implications of Product Chain<br />

Management in Real Life<br />

N.A. Ashford nashford@mit.edu Pathways to sustainable industrial<br />

transformations: Cooptimising competitiveness,<br />

employment, and environment<br />

N.A. Ashford nashford@mit.edu Major challenges to engineering education for<br />

sustainable development: What has to change to<br />

make it creative, effective, and acceptable to the<br />

established disciplines<br />

L. Baas Interuniversity Masters curriculum Industrial<br />

Ecology<br />

179 669<br />

14 65<br />

5 33<br />

180 678<br />

86 324<br />

158 582<br />

159 592<br />

141 501<br />

L. Balasevicius leobal@eaf.ktu.lt Internet based training programmes for e-learning 45 184<br />

L. Basson Decision Making for Sustainability - a Senior<br />

Chemical <strong>Engineering</strong> Course<br />

H. Baumann henrikke.baumann@esa.chalmers.se After 10 years and 300 students - Our LCA<br />

teaching experience<br />

L. van Beek Multidisciplinary projects as learning tool for<br />

sustainable approaches Experience and some<br />

critical assessment<br />

A. Behnsen Profitable environmental management in small<br />

and medium enterprises (SME)<br />

H. Birkhofer „Embedding Sustainability in the Student’s Head“<br />

or „How the Idea of Sustainable Product Design<br />

can be Implemented in Education“<br />

F.A.J. Birrer birrer@liacs.nl Teaching sustainability in a world of subliminal<br />

enticement<br />

J. Boes j.boes@tbm.tudelft.nl Arsenic Mitigation and Social Mobilisation in<br />

Bangla Desh<br />

175 644<br />

163 611<br />

2 14<br />

180 678<br />

183 703<br />

117 431<br />

179 669<br />

I. Boguslavski ibog@aaanet.ru The management of sustainable development 78 283


initials name e-mail address title paper abstr.no page no.<br />

C. Boks c.b.boks@io.tudelft.nl Experiences with Teaching Applied<br />

Environmental Design<br />

J. Bonfim jose.bonfim@iccti.mct.pt Strategies for integrating sustainable<br />

development competences in engineering and<br />

natural sciences higher education: the<br />

Portuguese experience<br />

J.A.B.A.F. Bonnet j.a.b.a.f.bonnet@tnw.tudelft.nl Intellectually Responsible Teaching of Subjects<br />

with Strong Normative Content, Like<br />

'Sustainability', at Universities<br />

J.A.B.A.F Bonnet j.a.b.a.f.bonnet@tnw.tudelft.nl Sustainable Entrepreneurship in <strong>Engineering</strong><br />

Curricula at <strong>Delft</strong> University of Technology:<br />

Context, Approach, Results, and<br />

Recommendations<br />

J.A.B.A.F. Bonnet j.a.b.a.f.bonnet@tnw.tudelft.nl Teaching sustainability in a world of subliminal<br />

enticement<br />

J.J. van der Boom Integrating sustainable development in<br />

engineering education The case for chemistry and<br />

chemical engineering<br />

S.J. Bosch Àn <strong>Engineering</strong> Undergraduate/Graduate Course<br />

on Sustainable Design and Construction<br />

S.J. Bosch Built Environment Sustainability: An Integrated<br />

Approach to Education, Research, and Outreach<br />

S.J. Bosch Sustainable Facilities & Infrastructure Training:<br />

Approaches, Findings, and Lessons Learned<br />

12 55<br />

152 565<br />

55 218<br />

97 351<br />

117 431<br />

3 23<br />

106 385<br />

110 396<br />

118 440<br />

C. Boyle c.boyle@auckland>ac.nz Educating Engineers in Sustainability 84 316<br />

D. Brandt Implementing project orientation towards<br />

sustainability in the university - the issue of<br />

systemic change<br />

N. Brandt From Environment to Sustainability - The<br />

development of educational programme at the<br />

Royal Institute of Technology in Stockholm<br />

J. Brauweiler brauweiler@ihi-zittau.de Environmental education and international knowhow-transfer<br />

between universities - results from a<br />

pilot project in cooperation with German, Polish<br />

and Czech universities.<br />

J.C. Brezet j.c.brezet@io.tudelft.nl An evaluation of the Sustainability impact of 100<br />

Design for Sustainability MSc projects.<br />

J.C. Brezet j.c.brezet@io.tudelft.nl LCA case studies for students: added value for<br />

the integration in a sustainable mindset<br />

J. Bruno Experiences learnt from the implementation of the<br />

Environmental Plan of the Technical University of<br />

Catalonia (1996-2001)<br />

P. Bryce paulb@eng.uts.edu.au Implementing a course in sustainability for<br />

engineers at University of Technology, Sydney: a<br />

story of negotiating intersecting agenda""<br />

M.B.G. Castro m.b.castro@ta.tudelft.nl LCA case studies for students: added value for<br />

the integration in a sustainable mindset<br />

21 73<br />

142 510<br />

105 381<br />

25 89<br />

64 262<br />

36 139<br />

28 107<br />

64 262


initials name e-mail address title paper abstr.no page no.<br />

G. Cervantes gemma.cervantes@upc.es A new methodology for teaching industrial<br />

ecology<br />

M.H. Chaudbry ovpaacvf@info.com.ph An International Partnership to Enhance<br />

Sustainable Development Through Environmental<br />

<strong>Engineering</strong> Education and Research in the<br />

Philippines<br />

J.S. Clancy j.s.clancy@tdg.utwente.nl Sustainable development in a north - south<br />

perspective: engineering in a development<br />

context<br />

A.T. Cooper coopera@engr.sc.edu An International Partnership to Enhance<br />

Sustainable Development Through Environmental<br />

<strong>Engineering</strong> Education and Research in the<br />

Philippines<br />

R. Cörvers Use of virtual communities for education in<br />

sustainable development<br />

F. Crofton orcad@4sustainability.com Stone walls, labyrinths, draw-bridges and side<br />

doors in the ivory tower: Challenges and<br />

opportunities for sustainable development in<br />

higher education.<br />

M.C.E. van Dam-Mieras Use of virtual communities for education in<br />

sustainable development<br />

L. De Jong dejong.lmf@hsbrabant.nl Multidisciplinary projects as learning tool for<br />

sustainable approaches Experience and some<br />

critical assessment<br />

176 653<br />

26 96<br />

139 494<br />

26 96<br />

161 602<br />

112 408<br />

161 602<br />

2 14<br />

G. Dervinis valtek@eaf.ktu.lt Internet based training programmes for e-learning 45 184<br />

J.C. Diehl j.c.diehl@io.tudelft.nl Sustainable Product Development education for<br />

Industrial Design <strong>Engineering</strong> students<br />

J.C. Diehl j.c.diehl@io.tudelft.nl An evaluation of the Sustainability impact of 100<br />

Design for Sustainability MSc projects.<br />

B.T. Doma ovpaacvf@info.com.ph An International Partnership to Enhance<br />

Sustainable Development Through Environmental<br />

<strong>Engineering</strong> Education and Research in the<br />

Philippines<br />

C.A.J. Duijvestein c.a.j.duijvestein@bk.tudelft.nl Education on sustainable development at the<br />

Faculty of Architecture <strong>Delft</strong> University of<br />

Technology<br />

M. Enzer ernzer@muk.tu-darmstadt.de „Embedding Sustainability in the Student’s Head“<br />

or „How the Idea of Sustainable Product Design<br />

can be Implemented in Education“<br />

A. Esturo aesturo@suk.azti.es Sustainable development in the food industry:<br />

education experiences in SMEs<br />

D. Ferrer-Balas coord.medi.ambient@upc.es Experiences learnt from the implementation of the<br />

Environmental Plan of the Technical University of<br />

Catalonia (1996-2001)<br />

C.V. Flora ovpaacvf@info.com.ph An International Partnership to Enhance<br />

Sustainable Development Through Environmental<br />

<strong>Engineering</strong> Education and Research in the<br />

Philippines<br />

J.R.V. Flora ovpaacvf@info.com.ph An International Partnership to Enhance<br />

Sustainable Development Through Environmental<br />

<strong>Engineering</strong> Education and Research in the<br />

Philippines<br />

24 80<br />

25 89<br />

26 96<br />

173 638<br />

183 703<br />

177 664<br />

36 139<br />

26 96<br />

26 96


initials name e-mail address title paper abstr.no page no.<br />

J. Frederick jimfred@sikt.chalmers.se Case Studies in Environmentally Sustainable<br />

Process Technology at Chalmers<br />

J.W. Frouws j.w.frouws@wbmt.tudelft.nl Is the approach of competency learning sufficient<br />

to cover sustainable development in the fields of<br />

Marine Technology or should there be more?<br />

124 450<br />

151 551<br />

V. Gerasimov The management of sustainable development 78 283<br />

M.M. Godinho Strategies for integrating sustainable<br />

development competences in engineering and<br />

natural sciences higher education: the<br />

Portuguese experience<br />

L. Greden Teaching and Understanding the Design of<br />

Sustainable Livelihoods in the Space Between<br />

U. Gren Case Studies in Environmentally Sustainable<br />

Process Technology at Chalmers<br />

S. Griffith saul@media.mit.edu ThinkCycle: Developing Online Tools and<br />

Curricula for Open Source Collaboration in<br />

Sustainable Design<br />

J. de Groene j.groene@mail.hzeeland.nl Sustainable short sea shipping A multidisciplinary<br />

project in education in sustainable development<br />

J. Grosskurth j.a.grosskurth@icis.unimaas.nl Learning for Strategies in Sustainable<br />

Development<br />

A.R.C. de Haan a.r.c.dehaan@tbm.tudelft.nl Education in Sustainable Development at<br />

Mechanical <strong>Engineering</strong><br />

M. Hadfield susan.herbert@smith-nephew.com Sustainable development training & educational<br />

challenges for business & universities<br />

I. Hadjamberdiev igorho2000@yahoo.com Sustainable development course for environment<br />

engineering speciality in Kyrghyzstan<br />

W. Hafkamp Pathways to sustainable industrial<br />

transformations: Cooptimising competitiveness,<br />

employment, and environment<br />

J.J. Hageman hageman.jj@hsbrabant.nl Integrating sustainable development in<br />

engineering education The case for chemistry and<br />

chemical engineering<br />

G.J. Harmsen g.j.harmsen@tnw.tudelft.nl Development of MSc courses sustainable<br />

(chemical) technology design<br />

A. Heideveld aheideveld@science.uva.nl The Duth network ‘Sustainable Development in<br />

Higher Education’-Lessons for the future in<br />

nowadays higher education<br />

C. Hendriks Interuniversity Masters curriculum Industrial<br />

Ecology<br />

Ch.F. Hendriks c.f.hendriks@ct.tudelft.nl Sustainable use of materials and products, <strong>Delft</strong><br />

University of Technology, The Netherlands<br />

152 565<br />

83 306<br />

124 450<br />

188 721<br />

50 208<br />

63 252<br />

7 14<br />

43 174<br />

40 157<br />

158 582<br />

3 23<br />

49 198<br />

181 687<br />

141 501<br />

191 741


initials name e-mail address title paper abstr.no page no.<br />

M.A. Hersh m.hersh@elec.gla.ac.uk Eco-Design For All: Incorporating Sustainable and<br />

Accessible Design into the <strong>Engineering</strong><br />

Curriculum<br />

K. Hillebrecht Profitable environmental management in small<br />

and medium enterprises (SME)<br />

L. Hindiyarti Case Studies in Environmentally Sustainable<br />

Process Technology at Chalmers<br />

B. van Hoof bvan@uniandes.edu.co Effectiveness and perspectives for regional<br />

capacity building in cleaner production<br />

engineering through the use of internet based<br />

technology<br />

D. Hoogwater d.a.hoogwater@tnw.tudelft.nl Sustainable Entrepreneurship in <strong>Engineering</strong><br />

Curricula at <strong>Delft</strong> University of Technology:<br />

Context, Approach, Results, and<br />

Recommendations<br />

G. Horvath Sustainable development training & educational<br />

challenges for business & universities<br />

R. Hyde rosie.hyde@keen.ca How Green is that Building? Learning and<br />

transformation in the Construction Industry<br />

S. Ihsen ihsen@vdi.de Implementing project orientation towards<br />

sustainability in the university - the issue of<br />

systemic change<br />

67 269<br />

180 678<br />

124 450<br />

131 470<br />

97 351<br />

43 174<br />

92 332<br />

21 73<br />

V. Ilic v.ilic@uws.edu.au <strong>Engineering</strong> Education in the new Millenium 190 735<br />

M. Installé installe@auto.ucl.ac.be Introducing Sustainable Development Concepts<br />

into <strong>Engineering</strong> Curricula : Some Proposals and<br />

Implementations<br />

W.P.M.F. Ivens wilfried.ivens@ou.nl Use of virtual communities for education in<br />

sustainable development<br />

F.J.J.G. Janssen Environmental engineering in Tanzania -<br />

experiences in environmental education for and in<br />

development countries<br />

H. Jonsson hansj@egi.kth.se Sustainable Energy <strong>Engineering</strong> - An International<br />

Master Degree Program<br />

L. Juurlink l.juurlink@chem.leidenuniv.nl Sustainable molecular science and technology,<br />

SMST. A new academic study in the field of<br />

physical sciences<br />

J.H.Y. Katima Environmental engineering in Tanzania -<br />

experiences in environmental education for and in<br />

development countries<br />

H. Keimpema Is the approach of competency learning sufficient<br />

to cover sustainable development in the fields of<br />

Marine Technology or should there be more?<br />

T. Kiba tkiba@nira.Qo.jp A Proposal of Citizen participatory Technology<br />

Development for Sustainable Development_–<br />

from Japanese Experiences’<br />

A.F. Kirkels a.f.kirkels@tm.tue.nl Life cycle assessment in education at Einhoven<br />

University of Technology<br />

42 167<br />

161 602<br />

145 527<br />

146 535<br />

147 543<br />

145 527<br />

151 551<br />

189 730<br />

166 617


initials name e-mail address title paper abstr.no page no.<br />

R. Kleijn Interuniversity Masters curriculum Industrial<br />

Ecology<br />

J. Klein Woud Education in Sustainable Development at<br />

Mechanical <strong>Engineering</strong><br />

G. Korevaar g.korevaar@tnw.tudelft.nl Development of MSc courses sustainable<br />

(chemical) technology design<br />

G. Korevaar g.korevaar@tnw.tudelft.nl Intellectually Responsible Teaching of Subjects<br />

with Strong Normative Content, Like<br />

'Sustainability', at Universities<br />

141 501<br />

7 14<br />

49 198<br />

55 218<br />

G. Korevaar g.korevaar@tnw.tudelft.nl Critical Teaching of Industrial Ecology 56 228<br />

M. Kranert m.kranert@fh-wolfenbuettel.de Profitable environmental management in small<br />

and medium enterprises (SME)<br />

C.J. Kreijns Use of virtual communities for education in<br />

sustainable development<br />

O. Kroesen j.o.kroesen@tbm.tudelft.nl Preparation and Participation of Students in the<br />

Arsenic Mitigation Program in Bangladesh.<br />

E. Kurzinger Profitable environmental management in small<br />

and medium enterprises (SME)<br />

J.P. Kusz <strong>Engineering</strong> Education for the Real" World<br />

Educating Engineers to Meet Real Needs with<br />

Minimal Environmental Effects"<br />

B.J. van de Laar b.van.de.laar@fwn.rug.nl Communication training as a key skill for<br />

sustainable education: experiences at the<br />

University of Groningen, the Netherlands<br />

G.H. Lameris Intellectually Responsible Teaching of Subjects<br />

with Strong Normative Content, Like<br />

'Sustainability', at Universities<br />

180 678<br />

161 602<br />

61 238<br />

180 678<br />

5 33<br />

95 341<br />

55 218<br />

G.H. Lameris Critical Teaching of Industrial Ecology 56 228<br />

J.J.M. Leinders Use of virtual communities for education in<br />

sustainable development<br />

S.M. Lemkowitz s.m.lemkowitz@tnw.tudelft.nl Development of MSc courses sustainable<br />

(chemical) technology design<br />

S.M. Lemkowitz s.m.lemkowitz@tnw.tudelft.nl Intellectually Responsible Teaching of Subjects<br />

with Strong Normative Content, Like<br />

'Sustainability', at Universities<br />

161 602<br />

49 198<br />

55 218<br />

S.M. Lemkowitz s.m.lemkowitz@tnw.tudelft.nl Critical Teaching of Industrial Ecology 56 228<br />

S.M. Lemkowitz s.m.lemkowitz@tnw.tudelft.nl Teaching sustainability in a world of subliminal<br />

enticement<br />

117 431


initials name e-mail address title paper abstr.no page no.<br />

D. Loorbach d.loorbach@icis.unimaas.nl Society in technology, technology in society<br />

transition-management and engineering<br />

C. Lundholm cecilia.lundholm@ped.su.se Learning about Environmental Issues in<br />

<strong>Engineering</strong> Programmes. A case study of firstyear<br />

civil engineering students' contextualisations<br />

of an ecology course.<br />

99 361<br />

47 189<br />

V. Macerauskas valtek@eaf.ktu.lt Internet based training programmes for e-learning 45 184<br />

Y. Maguire yeal@media.mit.edu ThinkCycle: Developing Online Tools and<br />

Curricula for Open Source Collaboration in<br />

Sustainable Design<br />

A. Malik Case Studies in Environmentally Sustainable<br />

Process Technology at Chalmers<br />

R. van Mansvelt Assessment and Policy development of<br />

sustainability in higher education with AISHE<br />

A.R. Martin Sustainable Energy <strong>Engineering</strong> - An International<br />

Master Degree Program<br />

I. Martinac Sustainable Energy <strong>Engineering</strong> - An International<br />

Master Degree Program<br />

P. Menger The development of a new study Sustainable<br />

Technology" in higher education"<br />

B. Miller brunom@mit.edu Teaching and Understanding the Design of<br />

Sustainable Livelihoods in the Space Between<br />

N. Monroy Effectiveness and perspectives for regional<br />

capacity building in cleaner production<br />

engineering through the use of internet based<br />

technology<br />

R. Mukherjee Conceptual Framework for criteria and indicator<br />

assessment of Sustainable Development<br />

S. Mukhopadhyay ibrad@giascl01.vsnl.net.in Conceptual Framework for criteria and indicator<br />

assessment of Sustainable Development<br />

K.F. Mulder k.f.mulder@tbm.tudelft.nl Interuniversity Masters curriculum Industrial<br />

Ecology<br />

K.F. Mulder k.f.mulder@tbm.tudelft.nl Integrating Sustainable Development into<br />

engineering courses. An overview and evaluation<br />

of experiences at the <strong>Delft</strong> University of<br />

Technology.<br />

D.D.A. van Noort Life cycle assessment in education at Einhoven<br />

University of Technology<br />

H. van Nunen Life cycle assessment in education at Einhoven<br />

University of Technology<br />

E.C. Obra ovpaacvf@info.com.ph An International Partnership to Enhance<br />

Sustainable Development Through Environmental<br />

<strong>Engineering</strong> Education and Research in the<br />

Philippines<br />

188 721<br />

124 450<br />

35 123<br />

146 535<br />

146 535<br />

101 370<br />

83 306<br />

131 470<br />

182 695<br />

182 695<br />

141 501<br />

143 518<br />

166 617<br />

166 617<br />

26 96


initials name e-mail address title paper abstr.no page no.<br />

N. Oleinik The management of sustainable development 78 283<br />

M. Orie Sustainable molecular science and technology,<br />

SMST. A new academic study in the field of<br />

physical sciences<br />

M.G.F. Overschie m.g.f.overschie@tbm.tudelft.nl Is the approach of competency learning sufficient<br />

to cover sustainable development in the fields of<br />

Marine Technology or should there be more?<br />

M.G.F. Overschie m.g.f.overschie@tbm.tudelft.nl Education on sustainable development at the<br />

Faculty of Architecture <strong>Delft</strong> University of<br />

Technology<br />

L.E. Paula Teaching sustainability in a world of subliminal<br />

enticement<br />

A. Pearce annie.pearce@gtri.gatech.edu Àn <strong>Engineering</strong> Undergraduate/Graduate Course<br />

on Sustainable Design and Construction<br />

A. Pearce annie.pearce@gtri.gatech.edu Built Environment Sustainability: An Integrated<br />

Approach to Education, Research, and Outreach<br />

A.R. Pearce annie.pearce@gtri.gatech.edu Sustainable Facilities & Infrastructure Training:<br />

Approaches, Findings, and Lessons Learned<br />

D.J. Peet d.j.peet@tbm.tudelft.nl Integrating Sustainable Development into<br />

engineering courses. An overview and evaluation<br />

of experiences at the <strong>Delft</strong> University of<br />

Technology.<br />

J. Petrie petrie@chem.eng.usyd.edu.au Decision Making for Sustainability - a Senior<br />

Chemical <strong>Engineering</strong> Course<br />

J. Pinkster Is the approach of competency learning sufficient<br />

to cover sustainable development in the fields of<br />

Marine Technology or should there be more?<br />

A.L. Porter aporter@isye.gatech.edu Impact Assessment and Sustainability in<br />

<strong>Engineering</strong> Education<br />

F. Prakke Pathways to sustainable industrial<br />

transformations: Cooptimising competitiveness,<br />

employment, and environment<br />

T. Prestero t.prester@mit.edu ThinkCycle: Developing Online Tools and<br />

Curricula for Open Source Collaboration in<br />

Sustainable Design<br />

Y. Quillien yvon.y.quillien@shell.com Sustainable Technology - E&P steps up to the<br />

challenge<br />

J. Quist j.n.quist@tbm.tudelft.nl Sustainable Entrepreneurship in <strong>Engineering</strong><br />

Curricula at <strong>Delft</strong> University of Technology:<br />

Context, Approach, Results, and<br />

Recommendations<br />

J. Quist j.n.quist@tbm.tudelft.nl A strategic approach to radical sustainable<br />

innovations: stakeholder involvement, visioning,<br />

back-casting, learning & engineering education<br />

C. Rammelt c.f.rammelt@tbm.tudelft.nl Arsenic Mitigation and Social Mobilisation in<br />

Bangla Desh<br />

147 543<br />

151 551<br />

173 638<br />

117 431<br />

106 385<br />

110 396<br />

118 440<br />

143 518<br />

175 644<br />

151 551<br />

38 149<br />

158 582<br />

188 721<br />

34 115<br />

97 351<br />

171 626<br />

179 669


initials name e-mail address title paper abstr.no page no.<br />

J. Reedijk Sustainable molecular science and technology,<br />

SMST. A new academic study in the field of<br />

physical sciences<br />

H. Remmerswaal j.a.m.remmerswaal@io.tudelft.nl Sustainable Product Development education for<br />

Industrial Design <strong>Engineering</strong> students<br />

J.A.M. Remmerswaal j.a.m.remmerswaal@io.tudelft.nl Success factors in education of Life Cycle<br />

Assessment Methodology<br />

J.A.M. Remmerswaal j.a.m.remmerswaal@io.tudelft.nl LCA case studies for students: added value for<br />

the integration in a sustainable mindset<br />

H. Riisgaard henrik@14auc.dk Paying Students to Pay Attention - and Nine other<br />

Ways to Teach Sustainable Design and LCA at<br />

Aalborg University<br />

L. Rodic-Wiersma rod@ihe.nl Teaching sustainable development to students<br />

from low-income countries<br />

N. Room Interuniversity Masters curriculum Industrial<br />

Ecology<br />

N. Roorda nroorda@planet.nl Integrating sustainable development in<br />

engineering education The CIRRUS approach<br />

N. Roorda nroorda@planet.nl Assessment and Policy development of<br />

sustainability in higher education with AISHE<br />

J. Rotmans Society in technology, technology in society<br />

transition-management and engineering<br />

S.B. Roy ibrad@giascl01.vsnl.net.in Conceptual Framework for criteria and indicator<br />

assessment of Sustainable Development<br />

M. Ruijgh-van der Ploeg m.p.m.vanderploeg@tbm.tudelft.nl Preparation and Participation of Students in the<br />

Arsenic Mitigation Program in Bangladesh.<br />

147 543<br />

24 80<br />

27 102<br />

64 262<br />

186 713<br />

125 457<br />

141 501<br />

1 4<br />

35 123<br />

99 361<br />

182 695<br />

61 238<br />

R. Rutkauskas valtek@eaf.ktu.lt Internet based training programmes for e-learning 45 184<br />

M. Saez de Buruaga Sustainable development in the food industry:<br />

education experiences in SMEs<br />

L. Sandberg From Environment to Sustainability - The<br />

development of educational programme at the<br />

Royal Institute of Technology in Stockholm<br />

R. Sans Experiences learnt from the implementation of the<br />

Environmental Plan of the Technical University of<br />

Catalonia (1996-2001)<br />

N. Sawhne nitin@media.mit.edu ThinkCycle: Developing Online Tools and<br />

Curricula for Open Source Collaboration in<br />

Sustainable Design<br />

P.P.A.J.van Schijndel p.p.a.j.v.schijndel@tue.nl Environmental engineering in Tanzania -<br />

experiences in environmental education for and in<br />

development countries<br />

177 664<br />

142 510<br />

36 139<br />

188 721<br />

145 527


initials name e-mail address title paper abstr.no page no.<br />

P.P.A.J.van Schijndel p.p.a.j.v.schijndel@tue.nl Life cycle assessment in education at Einhoven<br />

University of Technology<br />

S. Schön schoen@ztg.tuberlin.de Co-operation management as a Part of<br />

<strong>Engineering</strong> Education<br />

T. Severijn Integrating sustainable development in<br />

engineering education The CIRRUS approach<br />

T. Severijn Multidisciplinary projects as learning tool for<br />

sustainable approaches Experience and some<br />

critical assessment<br />

S. Silvester s.silvester@io.tudelft.nl An evaluation of the Sustainability impact of 100<br />

Design for Sustainability MSc projects.<br />

M. Simon m.simon@shu.ac.uk Life Cycle Thinking and LCA in engineering<br />

design education<br />

M. Skutsch Sustainable development in a north - south<br />

perspective: engineering in a development<br />

context<br />

166 617<br />

138 486<br />

1 4<br />

2 14<br />

25 89<br />

81 298<br />

139 494<br />

P.B. Smith p.b.smith@fwn.rug.nl Sustainability is not a Technological Problem 62 247<br />

J. Spaans Sustainable Entrepreneurship in <strong>Engineering</strong><br />

Curricula at <strong>Delft</strong> University of Technology:<br />

Context, Approach, Results, and<br />

Recommendations<br />

A. Stevels Experiences with Teaching Applied<br />

Environmental Design<br />

S. Szymkowiak apdd2@st-etienne-metropole.com The Introduction of Sustainable Development into<br />

Scientific Education, Objectives - Operational<br />

structure – Projects<br />

97 351<br />

12 55<br />

134 480<br />

S. Szymkowiak apdd2@st-etienne-metropole.com <strong>Engineering</strong> Education in the new Millenium 190 735<br />

P.G. Teeuw p.g.teeuw@bk.tudelft.nl Education on sustainable development at the<br />

Faculty of Architecture <strong>Delft</strong> University of<br />

Technology<br />

A. Temmink Sustainable short sea shipping A multidisciplinary<br />

project in education in sustainable development<br />

T. Thalib Case Studies in Environmentally Sustainable<br />

Process Technology at Chalmers<br />

H. Theliander Case Studies in Environmentally Sustainable<br />

Process Technology at Chalmers<br />

A. Thidell aake.thidell@iiiee.lu.se From Plant to Paper and Sea to Sandwich -<br />

Technical Implications of Product Chain<br />

Management in Real Life<br />

G. Thompson irss@igc.org Status and prospects of sustainable engineering<br />

education in some American universities<br />

173 638<br />

50 208<br />

124 450<br />

124 450<br />

86 324<br />

127 463


initials name e-mail address title paper abstr.no page no.<br />

A. Tillman After 10 years and 300 students - Our LCA<br />

teaching experience<br />

S.P. Tjallingi s.p.tjallingi@bk.tudelft.nl Education on sustainable development at the<br />

Faculty of Architecture <strong>Delft</strong> University of<br />

Technology<br />

163 611<br />

173 638<br />

A. Tugengold The management of sustainable development 78 283<br />

H. Udo de Haes Interuniversity Masters curriculum Industrial<br />

Ecology<br />

M. Urbaniec Environmental education and international knowhow-transfer<br />

between universities - results from a<br />

pilot project in cooperation with German, Polish<br />

and Czech universities.<br />

J. Vanegas j.vanegas@aepi.army.mil Àn <strong>Engineering</strong> Undergraduate/Graduate Course<br />

on Sustainable Design and Construction<br />

J. Vanegas j.vanegas@aepi.army.mil Built Environment Sustainability: An Integrated<br />

Approach to Education, Research, and Outreach<br />

J. Venselaar tertso.venselaar@planet.nl Integrating sustainable development in<br />

engineering education The CIRRUS approach<br />

J. Venselaar tertso.venselaar@planet.nl Multidisciplinary projects as learning tool for<br />

sustainable approaches Experience and some<br />

critical assessment<br />

J. Venselaar tertso.venselaar@planet.nl Integrating sustainable development in<br />

engineering education The case for chemistry and<br />

chemical engineering<br />

S. Verbeiren sara.verbeiren@vito.be Awareness-raising of researchers through the<br />

evaluation of projects on their contribution to<br />

sustainable development<br />

Ph.J. Vergragt ph.j.vergragt@io.tudelft.nl Pathways to sustainable industrial<br />

transformations: Cooptimising competitiveness,<br />

employment, and environment<br />

C. Vezzoli carlo.vezzoli@polimi.it Educational strategies, projects and tools for<br />

higher education improvement in the field of<br />

sustainable product and service development.<br />

Italian projects and tools co-ordinated by the<br />

Interdepetemental Research Centre in Innovation<br />

for Environmental Sustainability of the<br />

Politecnoco di Milano Univ.<br />

E. van der Voet voet@cml.leidenuniv.nl Interuniversity Masters curriculum Industrial<br />

Ecology<br />

J.G. Vogtländer Sustainable use of materials and products, <strong>Delft</strong><br />

University of Technology, The Netherlands<br />

A.M. van Voorden a.m.vanvoorden@its.tudelft.nl An example of laboratory exercises in renewable<br />

energy<br />

A.M. van Voorden a.m.vanvoorden@its.tudelft.nl Lectures and laboratory exercises in renewable<br />

energy systems<br />

141 501<br />

105 381<br />

106 385<br />

110 396<br />

1 4<br />

2 14<br />

3 23<br />

41 161<br />

158 582<br />

115 421<br />

141 501<br />

191 741<br />

77 278<br />

79 293


initials name e-mail address title paper abstr.no page no.<br />

J. Wampler Teaching and Understanding the Design of<br />

Sustainable Livelihoods in the Space Between<br />

C. Wehrmann c.wehrman@tbm.tudelft.nl Sustainable Entrepreneurship in <strong>Engineering</strong><br />

Curricula at <strong>Delft</strong> University of Technology:<br />

Context, Approach, Results, and<br />

Recommendations<br />

83 306<br />

97 351<br />

P. Wells wellspe@cardiff.ac.uk Towards a philosophy of sustainable engineering 11 48<br />

R. Wennersten rw@ket.kth.se From Environment to Sustainability - The<br />

development of educational programme at the<br />

Royal Institute of Technology in Stockholm<br />

A. Wieman The Duth network ‘Sustainable Development in<br />

Higher Education’-Lessons for the future in<br />

nowadays higher education<br />

J.B. Woudstra wa@thrijswijk.nl The development of a new study Sustainable<br />

Technology" in higher education"<br />

F.C.M. Zoller The development of a new study Sustainable<br />

Technology" in higher education"<br />

J. Zufia Sustainable development in the food industry:<br />

education experiences in SMEs<br />

142 510<br />

181 687<br />

101 370<br />

101 370<br />

177 664


Conference <strong>Engineering</strong> Education in Sustainable Development <strong>Delft</strong>, 24-25 October, 2002<br />

001 Integrating sustainable development in engineering education. The novel CIRRUS approach, J.<br />

Venselaar, N. Roorda, T. Severijn, Brabant University of Professional Education, The Netherlands ............... 4<br />

002 Multidisciplinary projects as learning tool for sustainable approaches. Experience and some critical<br />

assessment, L. Dejong, L. van Beek, T. Severijn, J. Venselaar, Brabant University of Professional Education,<br />

The Netherlands............................................................................................................................................... 14<br />

003 Integrating sustainable development in engineering education. The case for chemistry and chemical<br />

engineering, J.J. Hageman, J.J. van der Boom, J. Venselaar, University of Professional Education Brabant,<br />

The Netherlands............................................................................................................................................... 23<br />

005 <strong>Engineering</strong> education for the “real” world. Educating engineers to meet real needs with minimal<br />

environmental effects, Paul Anderson, Ph.D., Illinois Institute of Technology, John Paul Kusz, MBA, MFA,<br />

Stuart Graduate School of Business, USA....................................................................................................... 33<br />

007 Education in sustainable development at mechanical engineering. The successful use of projects for<br />

integration of sustainable development, Ir. A.R.C. de Haan, Prof.ir. J. Klein Woud, <strong>Delft</strong> University of<br />

Technology, The Netherlands .......................................................................................................................... 41<br />

011 Towards a philosophy of sustainable engineering. Dr P Wells, Cardiff Business School, UK................ 48<br />

012 Experiences with teaching applied environmental design. Casper Boks, Ab Stevels, <strong>Delft</strong> University of<br />

Technology, The Netherlands .......................................................................................................................... 55<br />

014 Earth systems engineering program in engineering for developing communities, Bernard Amadei, Prof.,<br />

University of Colorado, USA ............................................................................................................................ 65<br />

021 Implementing project orientation towards sustainability in the university. The issue of systemic change,<br />

Susanne Ihsen, VDI The Association of Engineers, Duesseldorf, Germany, Georg Schoeler and Dietrich<br />

Brandt, Aachen University of Technology, Germany ....................................................................................... 73<br />

024 Sustainable product development education for industrial design engineering students, Jan Carel Diehl<br />

M.Sc., <strong>Delft</strong> University of technology, The Netherlands................................................................................... 80<br />

025 An evaluation of the sustainability impact of 10 years of design for sustainability MSc projects. Prof. Han<br />

Brezet PhD, M.Sc., Sacha Silvester PhD, M.Sc, Jan Carel Diehl M.Sc, <strong>Delft</strong> University of Technology, The<br />

Netherlands.................................................................................................................................................... 89<br />

026 An international partnership to enhance sustainable development through environmental engineering<br />

education and research in the Philippines, Ma. Consuelo V. Flora, Bonifacio T. Doma Jr., and Edwin C. Obra,<br />

Mapúa Institute of Technology, Manila, Philippines, M. Hanif Chaudhry, Joseph R.V. Flora, Adrienne T.<br />

Cooper, University of South Carolina, South Carolina, USA............................................................................ 96<br />

027 Success factors in education of life cycle assessment methodology, Dr. J. Remmerswaal, <strong>Delft</strong><br />

University of Technology, The Netherlands ................................................................................................... 102<br />

028 Implementing a program in sustainability for engineers at University of Technology, Sydney. A story of<br />

intersecting agendas, Paul Bryce, Stephen Johnston, Keiko Yasukawa, University of Technology Sydney,<br />

Australia ......................................................................................................................................................... 107<br />

034 Sustainable technology. E&P steps up to the challenge, Yvon Quillien, Shell exploratrion & production<br />

....................................................................................................................................................................... 115<br />

035 Policy development for sustainability in higher education. results of AISHE audits, Niko Roorda, Rogier<br />

van Mansvelt, Dutch Committee for Sustainable Higher Education, The Netherlands .................................. 123<br />

036 Experiences of curriculum greening at the Technical University of Catalonia in the frame of the<br />

environmental plan (1996-2001), Didac Ferrer-Balas, Jordi Bruno, Ramon Sans, Technical University of<br />

Catalonia, Spain............................................................................................................................................. 139<br />

038 Impact assessment and sustainability in engineering education, Alan L. Porter, <strong>Delft</strong> University of<br />

technology, The Netherlands ......................................................................................................................... 149<br />

040 Sustainable development course for environmental engineering speciality in Kyrghyzstan, Dr Igor<br />

Hadjamberdiev, NGO, Kyrghyzstan ............................................................................................................... 157


Conference <strong>Engineering</strong> Education in Sustainable Development <strong>Delft</strong>, 24-25 October, 2002<br />

041 Awareness rising of researchers through the evaluation of projects on their contribution to sustainable<br />

development, Sara Verbeiren, Vlaamse Instelling voor Technologisch Onderzoek, Belgium ....................... 161<br />

042 Introducing sustainable development concepts into engineering curricula. Some proposals and<br />

implementations, Michel Installé, Université Catholique de Louvain, Belgium .............................................. 167<br />

043 Sustainable development training and educational challenges for business and universities, M. Hadfield,<br />

Bournemouth University, U.K., G. Howarth, York Science Park, U.K............................................................ 174<br />

045 Internet based training programmes for e-laerning, Leonas Balasevicius, Gintaras Dervinis, Vidmantas<br />

Macerauskas, Romas Rutkauskas, Kaunas University of Technology, Lithuania ......................................... 184<br />

047 Learning about environmental issues in engineering programmes. A case study of first-year civil<br />

engineering students’ contextualisation of an ecology course, Cecilia Lundholm, Stockholm University,<br />

Sweden .......................................................................................................................................................... 189<br />

049 Development of MSc courses sustainable (chemical) technology design, G.J. Harmsen, G. Korevaar,<br />

S.M. Lemkowitz; <strong>Delft</strong> University of Technology, The Netherlands ............................................................... 198<br />

050 Sustainable short sea shipping. A multidisciplinary project in education in sustainable development,<br />

Anja de Groene, <strong>Delft</strong> University of Technology, The Netherlands................................................................ 208<br />

055 Intellectually responsible teaching of subjects with strong normative content, like ‘sustainability’, at<br />

universities, S.M. Lemkowitz, G. Korevaar, J.A.B.A.F. Bonnet, and G.H. Lameris, <strong>Delft</strong> University of<br />

Technology, The Netherlands ........................................................................................................................ 218<br />

056 Critical teaching of industrial ecology. Case study in co-operation with industry: Planning an industrial<br />

ecology complex in Amsterdam harbour, Saul Lemkowitz, Gijsbert Korevaar, Geert Lameris, and Erkan Terli,<br />

<strong>Delft</strong> University of Technology, The Netherlands........................................................................................... 228<br />

061 Preparation of student participation in sustainable development projects in non-western countries, Otto<br />

Kroesen, Martine Ruijgh-van der Ploeg, <strong>Delft</strong> University of Technology, The Netherlands........................... 238<br />

062 Sustainability is not a technological problem, Philip B. Smith, University of Groningen, The Netherlands<br />

....................................................................................................................................................................... 247<br />

063 Learning for strategies in sustainable development, Drs. Jasper Grosskurth, University of Maastricht,<br />

The Netherlands............................................................................................................................................. 252<br />

064 LCA case studies: added value for the integration in a sustainable mindset, M.B.G.Castro;<br />

J.A.M.Remmerswaal; J.C.Brezet, <strong>Delft</strong> University of Technology, The Netherlands..................................... 262<br />

067 Eco-design for all. Incorporating sustainable and universal design into the engineering curriculum, M.A.<br />

Hersh, University of Glasgow, Scotland......................................................................................................... 269<br />

077 Lectures and laboratory exercises in renewable energy systems, A.M. van Voorden, G.C. Paap, L. van<br />

der Sluis, <strong>Delft</strong> University of Technology, The Netherlands........................................................................... 278<br />

078 The management of sustainable development, prof. Boguslavski I., ass. prof. Gerasimov V., ing. Oleinik<br />

N., State Institute of Management and Innovation, Russia, prof. Tugengold A., Don State Technical<br />

University, Russia .......................................................................................................................................... 283<br />

079 Lectures and laboratory exercises in renewable energy systems , A.M. van Voorden, G.C. Paap, L. van<br />

der Sluis, <strong>Delft</strong> University of Technology, Faculty of Information Technology and Systems, The Netherlands<br />

....................................................................................................................................................................... 293<br />

081 Life cycle thinking and LCA design education, Matthew Simon, Sheffield Hallam University, UK........ 298<br />

083 Teaching and understanding the design of sustainable livelihoods in the ‘space between’, Lara Greden,<br />

Bruno Miller, Jan Wampler, Massachusetts Institute of Technology, USA .................................................... 306<br />

084 Educating Engineers in Sustainability, Dr. Carol Boyle, University of Auckland, New Zealand............ 316<br />

086 From plant to paper and sea to sandwich. Technical implications of product chain management in real<br />

life, Peter Arnfalk, Åke Thidell, Lund University, Sweden .............................................................................. 324<br />

092 How green is that building? Learning and transformation in the construction industry, Rosamund Hyde,<br />

Ph.D., Canada................................................................................................................................................ 332


Conference <strong>Engineering</strong> Education in Sustainable Development <strong>Delft</strong>, 24-25 October, 2002<br />

095 Communication training as a key skill for sustainable education: experiences at the University of<br />

Groningen, the Netherlands, B.J. van de Laar, University of Groningen, The Netherlands.......................... 341<br />

097 Sustainable entrepreneurship in engineering curricula at <strong>Delft</strong> University of Technology. Context,<br />

approach, results and recommandations, Hans Bonnet, Daan Hoogwater, Jaco Quist, Johan Spaans,<br />

Caroline Wehrmann, <strong>Delft</strong> University of Technology, The Netherlands......................................................... 351<br />

099 Society in technology, technology in society, D. Loorbach, J. Rotmans, University of Maastricht, The<br />

Netherlands.................................................................................................................................................... 361<br />

101 A new study ‘sustainable technology’ in higher education, Ir. P. Menger, Ir. J.B. Woudstra, Ing. F.C.M.<br />

Zoller, Rijswijk Institute of Technology, The Netherlands .............................................................................. 370<br />

105 Environmental education and international know-how-transfer between universities. Results from a pilot<br />

project in co-operation with German, Polish and Czech universities, Dr. Jana Brauweiler, Dipl.-Kff. Maria<br />

Urbaniec, International Graduate School Zittau, Czech Republic.................................................................. 381<br />

106 An engineering undergraduate/graduate course on sustainable design and construction, Dr. Jorge A.<br />

Vanegas, Georgia Institute of Technology, Dr. Annie R. Pearce, Ms. Sheila J. Bosch, Georgia Tech Research<br />

Institute, USA ................................................................................................................................................. 385<br />

110 Built environment sustainability. An integrated approach to education, research, and outreach, Dr. Jorge<br />

A. Vanegas, Georgia Institute of Technology, Dr. Annie R. Pearce, Ms. Sheila J. Bosch, Georgia Tech<br />

Research Institute, USA................................................................................................................................. 396<br />

112 Labyrinths, stone walls, draw-bridges and side doors in the ivory tower. Challenges & opportunities for<br />

sustainable development in higher education, Dr. Fiona S. Crofton, Vancouver, Canada ............................ 408<br />

115 Educational strategies, projects and tools for higher education improvement in the field of sustainable<br />

product and service development. Educational experiences, projects and tools co-ordinated by the<br />

Interdepetemental Research Centre in Innovation for environmental sustainability of the Politecnico di Milano<br />

University, Carlo Vezzoli, Politecnico di Milano University, Italy .................................................................... 421<br />

117 Teaching sustainability in a world of subliminal enticement, Frans A.J. Birrer, Lino E. Paula, Leiden<br />

University, Hans (J.A.B.A.F.) Bonnet, Saul M. Lemkowitz, <strong>Delft</strong> University of Technology, The Netherlands431<br />

118 Sustainable facilities and infrastructure training. Approaches, findings, and lessons learned, Dr. Annie<br />

R. Pearce, Ms. Sheila J. Bosch, Georgia Tech Research Institute, USA ...................................................... 440<br />

124 Case studies in environmentally sustainable process technology at Chalmers, James Frederick, Lusi<br />

Hindiyarti, Azhar Malik, Themy Thalib, Urban Grén, Hans Theliander, Chalmers University of Technology,<br />

Sweden .......................................................................................................................................................... 450


Conference <strong>Engineering</strong> Education in Sustainable development <strong>Delft</strong>, 24-25 October, 2002<br />

125 Teaching sustainable development to students from low-income countries, Ljiljana Rodic-Wiersma,<br />

International Institute for Infrastructural, Hydraulic and Environmental <strong>Engineering</strong>, <strong>Delft</strong>, The Netherlands<br />

457<br />

127 Status and prospects of sustainable engineering education in some American universities, Gordon<br />

Thompson, Institute for Resource and Security Studies, Massachusetts, USA 463<br />

131 Effectiveness and perspectives for regional capacity building in cleaner production engineering through<br />

the use of internet based technology, Bart van Hoof, MSc.and Nestor Monroy MSc. Universidad de Los<br />

Andes / Sustainable Performance,Organization, Bogota, Colombia 470<br />

134 The introduction of sustainable development into scientific education, Sophie Szymkowiak, Association<br />

pour les Pratiques du Développement Durable, Saint-Etienne, France, 480<br />

138 Co-operation management as a part of engineering education, Dr. Susanne Schön, Technical<br />

University of Berlin, Germany 486<br />

139 Sustainable development in a North-South perspective, <strong>Engineering</strong> in a development context, Joy<br />

Clancy, Margaret Skutsch, University of Twente, The Netherlands 494<br />

141 Interuniversity masters curriculum industrial ecology, Ester van der Voet, René Kleijn, Helias Udo de<br />

Haes, Leiden University, The Netherlands, Leo Baas, Nigel Roome, Erasmus University Rotterdam, The<br />

Netherlands, Charles Hendriks, Karel Mulder, <strong>Delft</strong> University of Technology, The Netherlands 501<br />

142 From environment to sustainability, The development of educational programs at the royal institute of<br />

technology, Nils Brandt, Ronald Wennersten, Larsgöran Strandberg, Royal Institute of Technology, Sweden<br />

510<br />

143 Integrating SD into engineering courses that are not specifically SD targeted – The DRAIA method,<br />

D.J. Peet, K.F. Mulder, <strong>Delft</strong> University of Technology, The Netherlands 518<br />

145 Environmental engineering in Tanzania – experiences in environmental education for and in a<br />

development country, Patrick P.A.J van Schijndel and Frans J.J.G. Janssen, Eindhoven University of<br />

Technology, The Netherlands and Jamidu H.Y. Katima, University of Dar es Salaam, Dar es Salaam,<br />

Tanzania 527<br />

146 Sustainable energy engineering, an international master degree program, Andrew R. Martin, Hans<br />

Jonsson, Ivo Martinac, Royal Institute of Technology, Sweden 535<br />

147 Sustainable Molecular Science and Technology, SMST. A new academic study in the field of physical<br />

sciences, Ludo Juurlink, Mark Orie, Jan Reedijk, Leiden University, The Netherlands, <strong>Delft</strong> University of<br />

Technology, The Netherlands 543<br />

151 Is the approach of competency learning sufficient to cover sustainable development in the fields of<br />

Marine Technology? Or should there be more, ir. J.W. Frouws, Ing. H. Keimpema, ir. J. Pinkster and ir. M.G.<br />

F. Overschie, <strong>Delft</strong> University of Technology, The Netherlands 551<br />

152 Strategies for integrating sustainable development competences in engineering and natural sciences<br />

higher education. The Portuguese experience, José Bonfim, Manuel Mira Godinho , Technical University of<br />

Lisbon, Portugal 565<br />

158 Pathways to sustainable industrial transformations. Co-optimising competitiveness, employment, and<br />

environment, Nicholas Ashford, Massachussettes Institute of Technology, USA, Wim Hafkamp, Erasmus<br />

University of Rotterdam, Frits Prakke, Philip Vergragt, <strong>Delft</strong> University of Technology, The Netherlands 582<br />

159 Major challenges to engineering education for sustainable development: what has to change to make it<br />

creative, effective, and acceptable to the established disciplines, Nicholas A. Ashford, Professor of<br />

Technology and Policy, Massachusetts Institute of Technology, USA 592<br />

161 Use of virtual communities for education in sustainable development, Ivens, W.P.M.F.; van Dam-<br />

Mieras, M.C.E.; Kreijns; C.J, Cörvers, R.J.M.; Leinders J.J.M., Open University of the Netherlands, The<br />

Netherlands 602<br />

163 After 10 years and 300 students. Our LCA teaching experience, Anne-Marie Tillman, Henrikke<br />

Baumann, Chalmers University of Technology, Sweden. 611


Conference <strong>Engineering</strong> Education in Sustainable development <strong>Delft</strong>, 24-25 October, 2002<br />

166 Ecodesign and life cycle assessment in education at Eindhoven University of Technology (<strong>TU</strong>/e), A.F.<br />

Kirkels, D.A.A. van Noort, H. van Nunen, P.P.A.J. van Schijndel, Eindhoven University of Technology, The<br />

Netherlands 617<br />

171 A strategic approach to radical sustainable innovations. Stakeholder involvement, visioning, backcasting,<br />

learning & engineering education, Jaco Quist, <strong>Delft</strong> University of Technology, The Netherlands 626<br />

173 Education on sustainable development at the faculty of architecture <strong>Delft</strong> University of Technology,<br />

prof. ir. C.A.J. Duijvestein, ir. M.G.F. Overschie ir. P.G. Teeuw, dr. S.P. Tjallingii, Faculty of Architecture,<br />

<strong>Delft</strong> University of Technology, the Netherlands 638<br />

175 Decision making for sustainability. A senior chemical engineering course, Jim Petrie, Lauren Basson,<br />

University of Sydney, Australia 644<br />

176 A new methodology for teaching industrial ecology, Gemma Cervantes, Department of Chemical<br />

<strong>Engineering</strong>, Barcelona, Spain 653<br />

177 Sustainable development in the food industry: education experiences in SMEs, Esturo, Aintzane; Saez<br />

de Buruaga, Maite; Zufia, Jaime, Azti, Fundazioa, Sukarrieta, Spain 664<br />

179 Arsenic mitigation and social mobilisation in Bangladesh, C.F. Rammelt, J. Boes, <strong>Delft</strong> University of<br />

Technology, The Netherlands, K. Alam, Arsenic Mitigation and Research Foundation, Bangladesh 669<br />

180 Profitable environmental management in small and medium enterprises (SME), Martin Kranert,<br />

University of Applied Sciences Braunschweig/Wolfenbuettel, Andreas Behnsen, Kai Hillebrecht, GAM –<br />

Company for Waste Minimisation and Material Flux, Edith Kürzinger, Susanne Arlinghaus, Deutsche<br />

Gesellschaft für Technische Zusammenarbeit GmbH, Germany 678<br />

181 The dutch network ‘Sustainable Development in Higher Education’. -Lessons for the future in<br />

nowadays higher education, Drs. Antoine Heideveld, Drs. Anneke Wieman, University of Amsterdam, The<br />

Netherlands 687<br />

182 Conceptual framework for criteria and indicator for assessment of sustainable development. An<br />

illustration on joint forest management, S. B. Roy, Raktima Mukherjee, Indian Institute of Bio-Social<br />

Research and Development, Siddhartha Mukhopadhyay, Indian Institute of Technology 695<br />

183 „Embedding sustainability in the student’s head“ or „How the idea of sustainable product design can be<br />

implemented in education“, Marc Ernzer, Herbert Birkhofer, Darmstadt University of Technology, Germany<br />

703<br />

186 Paying students to pay attention - and 10 other ways to teach LCA and related issues at Aalborg<br />

University, Henrik Riisgaard, Aalborg University, Denmark 713<br />

188 ThinkCycle: Supporting open source collaboration and sustainable engineering design in education,<br />

Nitin Sawhney, Timothy Prestero†, Yael Maguire, Saul Griffith, Massachusettes Institute of Technolgy, USA<br />

721<br />

189 ‘A Proposal of citizen participatory technology development for sustainable development – from<br />

Japanese experiences’, Takao Kiba, Ph.D, National Institute for Research Advancement, Shibuya-ku, Tokyo<br />

730<br />

190 <strong>Engineering</strong> education in the new millennium, Vojislav Ilic, University of Western Sydney, Australia,<br />

Sophie Szymkowiak Association pour les pratiques du development durable, 735<br />

191 Sustainable use of materials and products, Prof.dr.ir. Ch.F. Hendriks, Dr.J.G, Vogtländer, <strong>Delft</strong><br />

University of Technology, The Netherlands 741


Conference <strong>Engineering</strong> Education in Sustainable Development <strong>Delft</strong>, 24-25 October, 2002<br />

001 Integrating sustainable development in engineering education. The novel<br />

CIRRUS approach, J. Venselaar, N. Roorda, T. Severijn, Brabant University of<br />

Professional Education, The Netherlands<br />

Introduction<br />

If sustainable development is to become an essential aspect of society and economical development, it has<br />

to become as well an essential part of education. In the Netherlands various initiatives have been taken to<br />

reach that aim. Different approaches exist on the various universities and UPE’s 1 . Several pilot and<br />

demonstration projects have been started.<br />

The CIRRUS project was set up as one of the earliest projects, to demonstrate the feasibility of a novel<br />

approach towards integration of sustainability and education and to develop the experience, knowledge, tools<br />

and methods other UPE’s and universities can apply 2 .<br />

Its novelty is the really complete integration of sustainable development in the studies, in all modules and part<br />

of the relevant subjects and activities through all phases. It is not being treated in a separate course or as an<br />

optional subject or additional specialisation, during or after the study. As far as we are aware such an<br />

approach is unlike what was, and mainly still is done elsewhere, in the Netherlands and abroad.<br />

That makes it indispensable that much effort is put into ‘training’ the teachers and developing clear learning<br />

goals. Learning materials are intended for the various lecturers as information and inspiration when<br />

implementing sustainability in their own subjects, courses and learning materials. Only to a minor extent<br />

specific materials are made for specific sustainability courses and projects. Those are intended only for<br />

introduction of concepts and to act as integration moments for all different aspects.<br />

Such far-reaching integration is an ambitious goal and poses many practical and educational complications.<br />

Nevertheless the fundamental idea behind this is that when we consider sustainable development to be<br />

essential for all activities within society and all sectors of economy, it cannot remain an isolated field of<br />

expertise but must form ‘mind-set’ for everyone.<br />

The CIRRUS project started in 1999 within the faculty Technology and Natural Sciences (FTN) of the Brabant<br />

University of Professional Education (HSB). It focussed in particular on introduction of STD on the technical<br />

faculties of UPE’s. FTN had already since 1991 a study that focuses on sustainable technological<br />

development in the department Environmental and Material Sciences. That formed the nucleus from which<br />

the project was initiated.<br />

The project is sponsored by the Knowledge Transfer and Implementation Program of the Dutch Organisation<br />

for Sustainable Technological Development (DTO-KOV), the national UPE Council, the Province Brabant,<br />

municipalities and several large and small industries, which all recognised the importance of this novel<br />

approach.<br />

The CIRRUS project was awarded in 2001 with ‘the egg of Columbus trophy’ by the Ministry of Environment,<br />

Housing and Spatial Planning for its innovative approach to introduce sustainable (technological)<br />

development in higher education.<br />

Officially it ends December 2002, although of course further care must given to develop it further and<br />

guarantee future progress.<br />

The challenge of sustainable education<br />

1UPE Universities of Professional Education are the Dutch institutes of higher education for applied sciences (in Germany:<br />

‘Hochschule’)<br />

2 Several other papers in this conference report on the experience gained by the CIRRUS project.<br />

- Multidisciplinary projects as learning tool for sustainable approaches, L. Dejong etal<br />

- Integrating sustainable development, the case for chemistry and chemical engineering, J. Hageman etal<br />

- Incorporating a life cycle perspective into chemical education: a first experience, J. Hageman etal<br />

- The AISHI method for auditing Sustainability in Higher Education, N. Roorda<br />

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Conference <strong>Engineering</strong> Education in Sustainable Development <strong>Delft</strong>, 24-25 October, 2002<br />

Requirements of sustainable development<br />

The Dutch development program “Sustainable Technological Development” (DTO) [1] has defined the basic<br />

characteristics of the most likely and feasible routes towards real sustainable development. The essential<br />

feature of such routes is based on a paradigm shift in developing, designing and implementing technology.<br />

Asked for are ’system innovations’ and ‘transitions’, aimed at satisfying needs and less at ‘just optimisation’ of<br />

the isolated performance of products and processes’. It is often not so much the character of technologies<br />

that influences ‘sustainability’ as the way they are used. A back-casting approach has been developed for<br />

generating some insight in what sustainable development could and should imply, technically, culturally as<br />

well as socio-economically.<br />

Students must be trained to handle such a ‘systems-approach’ for finding sustainable solutions and<br />

implementation options for the short and for the long term. It requires multidisciplinary and ‘lateral’ thinking.<br />

The attitude and the competencies to do that are essential for a really sustainable development oriented<br />

engineer.<br />

A sustainable future for education<br />

Defining how a STD oriented study and curriculum should look like, requires fundamental insight in the way<br />

society, industry and the professional requirements will develop in the future. It is logical to use also for this<br />

the ‘back-casting’ method to find out what has to change in education now when taking into account where<br />

we want to be in the short and the long term. [2]<br />

A visualisation of future developments should be translated requirements for a practical intermediate phase<br />

based on how will industry, business and other organisation, the students will work for, look like. From this<br />

the requirements, the present studies must train for should be deduced, with some leeway.<br />

Within the framework of the CIRRUS project we tried to orient ourselves on a study program fitting the<br />

requirements of society, as it will be around 2010. Several back-casting sessions have taken place, involving<br />

staff form the various departments and in some cases representatives form industry and authorities. The<br />

results strengthened the vision developed and added new requirements and issues to focus on.<br />

Specific new knowledge has to be taken up in the subjects learned. But education will have to concentrate<br />

too on the methods through which solutions are to be found, how resources, technology, materials and<br />

products are to be used and how acceptable and comfortable solutions, also in the long run, can be found<br />

and implemented to satisfy present and future human needs and still leaving room also for nature. And even<br />

more than already is the case, in view of the dynamic development of ‘sustainability’, students have to learn<br />

to learn.<br />

Sustainable competences<br />

‘Sustainable thinking and doing’ must be fitted in ‘competence focussed learning’, a new approach, with<br />

growing importance in Dutch higher education. That can be done easily.<br />

The task of a graduate working in a company or organisation that wants to act responsible with respect to<br />

sustainable development was during the backcasting formulated as follows:<br />

“Taking into account the quality of life for present and future generations<br />

in all activities, designs and business operations.”<br />

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Conference <strong>Engineering</strong> Education in Sustainable Development <strong>Delft</strong>, 24-25 October, 2002<br />

A formulation of the competence fitting that is:<br />

• Being able to define the influence (positive and negative) on the “critical sustainable conditions” regarding<br />

human quality of life, environment and ecology on the short and the longer term of existing and new<br />

products, processes and/or activities.<br />

• Being able to develop and use approaches that substantially contribute in decreasing negative influences<br />

and increasing positive ones and which eventually lead to a better quality of life and sustainable economy<br />

It is a rather abstract definition but the most practical to fit with the various sets of competences developed<br />

for the different studies in the departments of the faculty 3 .<br />

The CIRRUS project takes up the challenge<br />

In summary, the conditions set for the CIRRUS project approach are:<br />

• Including a paradigm shift in developing, designing and implementing technology, aiming at ‘system<br />

changes’ and not on ‘only developing and applying innovative technologies;<br />

• Attitude and insight are the essentials for a really sustainable development oriented engineer;<br />

• Students must be trained to handle a ‘system-approach’, which requires interdisciplinary and ‘lateral’<br />

thinking. Backcasting must be a part of developing a vision.<br />

• Students still have to become experts in their respective fields, but with ‘an extra’, being the competences<br />

mentioned in the points before.<br />

The practical steps taken were:<br />

• Developing a ‘model’ for integrating STD in the studies, fitting with those conditions<br />

• Definition of criteria and learning goals for such integration<br />

• Development of an implementation program, involving all departments and lecturers<br />

A model<br />

The model we developed has three components:<br />

(1) Each course, project and other activity in the ‘normal’ curriculum takes care of the issues relevant for<br />

sustainability connected with its own subjects such as materials use, energy, design approaches,<br />

economics, business operation methods, etc.<br />

(2) An introductory course on an early moment elucidates the concept; sets out the ‘line of approach’<br />

sustainability needs and creates the general framework for issues and details treated elsewhere.<br />

(3) Attitude, lateral thinking, interdisciplinary ability aimed at sustainability will get much attention throughout<br />

all activities in the study and increasingly so towards the end. Learning by doing the various tasks,<br />

practical work and projects offer the best opportunity for this.<br />

The goal must be: students will still become experts in their respective fields, but with ‘an extra’: those<br />

knowledge, competences and attitude needed for ‘ sustainable thinking and doing’.<br />

Figure 1 visualises this approach, from a basis of in depth and mostly specific ‘narrowly’ profession related<br />

knowledge and skills, building up towards broad capabilities and attitude for ‘real sustainable thinking and<br />

doing’ based on having broad view and working with an interdisciplinary system approach. It is dubbed the ‘Tmodel’<br />

for integrating sustainable development into curricula.<br />

The shading indicates that attention for sustainable aspects is really spread through all of the curriculum and<br />

not a well-defined and separate issue. The horizontal beam of the ‘T’ signifies the broader view including the<br />

‘systems approach’ needed as well as the inter- and multidisciplinary understanding needed to work with<br />

other experts from other fields, technical and non-technical.<br />

3 There is a tendency to include in the definition of the ‘sustainable competence’ broader and more general items such as: being an<br />

able professional, working in projects, innovation oriented, etc. In our opinion these are essential for a graduate in general and not<br />

exclusively connected to a sustainable competence. It is therefore undesirable to include those, because it would draw away attention<br />

for real relevant items.<br />

6


Conference <strong>Engineering</strong> Education in Sustainable Development <strong>Delft</strong>, 24-25 October, 2002<br />

Criteria and learning goals<br />

• broadening<br />

and integration<br />

• in depth<br />

knowledge, tools<br />

and insight<br />

attitude and vision for sustainable solutions<br />

interdisciplinary and system approach<br />

figure 1: Integration model for sustainability in a study: the T-model<br />

exercising<br />

readiness<br />

and abilities<br />

integration within tasks,<br />

applications and projects<br />

concepts and integration of<br />

issues<br />

specific issues per subject and<br />

curriculum activity<br />

introduction and setting the<br />

framework for sustainability<br />

Knowledge and capabilities to be integrated<br />

As result of a lot of brainstorming and inventory actions a whole multitude of issues is chosen to be essential<br />

for the ‘sustainable competence’ as defined. Those have to be covered and learned to a ‘sufficient’ level.<br />

They form the ‘learning goals’ for a curriculum intended to include sustainability and the criteria by which the<br />

extent sustainability is covered can be measured.<br />

They fall into three main theme’s which each has its own role and shows a specific angle to look at<br />

sustainability.<br />

(1) environment, ecology and socio-economic oriented issues as degradation and depletion, poverty and<br />

social disruption, for understanding the basic causes, policy development, history etc. It gives the ‘WHY’<br />

of sustainable development.<br />

(2) system oriented issues, as product chains and technology development. It gives the specific knowledge<br />

for methods, technologies, the overall approaches to be able to come to sustainable solutions and<br />

development routes. It gives the ‘HOW’.<br />

(3) human and society oriented issues, as need and function, cultural aspects, ethical issues, human<br />

behaviour etc. It gives the context that has to be taken into account and determines the gap between<br />

desirable and feasible. It gives the actual ‘SCOPE’ that counts.<br />

Level and extent<br />

Defining the detailed criteria and learning goals of ‘sustainable competence’ for the separate studies also<br />

necessitates that to each of those a level must be assigned.<br />

In education commonly four levels or categories of training and awareness are distinguished:<br />

• Knowledge<br />

• Understanding<br />

• Skills<br />

• Attitude<br />

For the different studies / professions such ‘thinking and acting in a sustainable way’ the required level and<br />

extent of the various issues will of course be different.<br />

The minimum level for key issues, spread over all three themes, is in our opinion as follows:<br />

Knowledge is required regarding the basic facts and concepts. That includes environmental pollution issues,<br />

resources, and possible technological solutions but also the present policies and history of the field, laws and<br />

regulations, scenario’s which have been developed.<br />

Understanding is required for how ‘things work’ (technical but certainly also socio-economical and cultural),<br />

problems occur and how sustainable options might function.<br />

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Conference <strong>Engineering</strong> Education in Sustainable Development <strong>Delft</strong>, 24-25 October, 2002<br />

In particular one must understand the different angles to look at options and constraints:<br />

• Function oriented: consumer-needs and preferences, requirements of society<br />

• Culture and structure oriented: socio-economic fitness, required adaptation of economic structures and<br />

behaviour, background of rebound effects, business management issues<br />

• Chain oriented: the cohesion of activities, potential for transfer of problems, local suboptimalisation<br />

• Multidisciplinarity: essential contributions of other disciplines, technical and non-technical issues<br />

involved, ethical and cultural aspects<br />

• Time oriented: learning from the past, short term options against long term strategy<br />

Skills are required for assessing effects, positive and negative, and designing in particular:<br />

• Use of ‘practical tools’ such as LCA, design methodologies as DFA and DFD, exergy analysis, water and<br />

energy pinch and the like<br />

• Handling integrated system oriented approaches, which involve communication, finding information,<br />

working together in projects, understanding other professions<br />

Attitude goes beyond it all. It is deemed essential not just to understand but also to be committed to<br />

sustainability. Only then knowledge, insight and skills are used ‘automatically’ and effectively.<br />

Level ����<br />

Theme<br />

Environment,<br />

ecology and<br />

socioeconomic<br />

oriented<br />

System<br />

oriented<br />

Human and<br />

society<br />

oriented<br />

Example of a set of learning goals to be attained throughout the study<br />

Knowledge Understanding Skills Attitude<br />

- causes of pollution,<br />

- resource availability<br />

- policies and laws,<br />

national and<br />

international<br />

- history of<br />

technological<br />

evolution<br />

- future scenarios<br />

- basic facts of<br />

various relevant<br />

technologies<br />

- overview of<br />

resource options and<br />

their drawbacks<br />

- set-up of care<br />

systems,<br />

- relation of the<br />

various actors in<br />

society<br />

- cause – effect<br />

relations for the<br />

various issues<br />

- function oriented<br />

character of<br />

sustainable<br />

approaches<br />

- the systems<br />

structure of fulfilling<br />

human needs<br />

- the role of other<br />

disciplines<br />

- broader ‘profits and<br />

costs’ assessments<br />

- relation of short term<br />

actions and long term<br />

strategies<br />

- consumer behaviour<br />

and rebound effects<br />

- cultural aspects in<br />

using technology<br />

table 1<br />

- developing a vision<br />

on possible<br />

developments and<br />

their effects,<br />

backcasting<br />

- finding and<br />

assessing relevant<br />

information<br />

- operate from<br />

existing laws and<br />

policies<br />

- LCA<br />

- design for<br />

sustainability<br />

- use of DFA and<br />

DFD methods,<br />

- energy analysis<br />

- water and energy<br />

pinch,<br />

- product chain<br />

management<br />

-multi- and<br />

interdisciplinarity<br />

- sustainable<br />

business operation<br />

- critical<br />

assessment of<br />

potential uses of<br />

technology<br />

- keep a view on<br />

possible and<br />

wished for<br />

developments<br />

- own, critical,<br />

opinion on<br />

sustainable<br />

development<br />

- ‘automatically’ use<br />

the knowledge,<br />

insight and skills<br />

effectively<br />

- willing to include<br />

inter- and<br />

multidisciplinary<br />

aspects<br />

- understanding<br />

own responsibility<br />

as an individual in<br />

society<br />

- critical attitude<br />

8


Conference <strong>Engineering</strong> Education in Sustainable Development <strong>Delft</strong>, 24-25 October, 2002<br />

Important learning goals are ‘systems thinking’, multidisciplinarity and capability to work from a future oriented<br />

vision. What is needed is not just knowledge and practical application of technology and methods, but also,<br />

and maybe even more, an all-encompassing attitude towards ‘sustainability’.<br />

Working in a ‘systems oriented way’ is seen as essential for a student to be able to really develop sustainable<br />

options. It however is one of the hardest to learn and to teach. ‘Problem oriented education’ and projects in<br />

which students, preferably from different studies, work together is seen as the best method to train this.<br />

A combination of learning goals and levels must form a complete set of criteria for each study that can be<br />

used to assess the ‘sustainability’ of a curriculum. It will differ for the different studies and can be made as<br />

extensive and detailed as needed. See the above example.<br />

Time involved and phasing<br />

A logical outcome of total integration in the form chosen is that sustainable development is a continuous area<br />

of attention in all phases of the study. The aspects treated and the specific learning goals to be attained differ<br />

in time, dependent on the specific subjects and courses in each phase.<br />

What is defined is a minimum amount of time, i.e. attention that has to be dedicated to ‘recognisable’ aspects<br />

of sustainable development and covering the specified learning goals.<br />

That amount of time is presently set on 5%, which signifies 80 study hours. In some studies in which<br />

sustainable development is already a strong issue, e.g. Building Design and Construction, that is already<br />

substantially more.<br />

As is indicated during all phases, short courses, projects and presentations are given to introduce and to<br />

integrate concepts and to stimulate specifically the development of ‘a sustainable way of looking, thinking and<br />

doing’.<br />

During the study there is a shift in attention for the three themes. In the first phase much attention is paid to<br />

the background: the environment, ecology and socio-economic oriented issues. That shifts in the later years<br />

towards the system and the human and society oriented issues. Understandably, during the last phase of a<br />

study, during practical work and the final project the system approach gets most attention.<br />

Some discussion is going on regarding the moment a complex issue as sustainable development can be<br />

introduced to students, when they are ready to become interested able to understand it. Consistent with the<br />

vision that sustainable development is an intrinsic aspect of all subjects; in the CIRRUS approach sustainable<br />

development is introduced in the earliest possible moment. That proved indeed to be possible and was<br />

actually quite effective and rewarding. If brought in a ‘light and easy way, in a short project students are very<br />

interested and early insight is easily gained, on which can be built later on. Such projects were commonly<br />

based on issues that concern ‘aspects of daily life’: own energy use, environmental effects of household<br />

products and activities and excursions to ‘sustainable building projects’. The latter were done actually already<br />

during the introduction weeks for the study.<br />

The implementation<br />

The choice made to aim for real and total integration, led to the following principles for the implementation:<br />

(1) All lecturers have to get involved and must therefore be trained.<br />

(2) Dealing with sustainable development will be done within the framework of the existing educational<br />

structure, although that might change somewhat under influence of new insights and approaches<br />

created by this new scope.<br />

(3) Teaching materials for sustainable development are developed mainly with the aim to help the lecturers<br />

to introduce the relevant issues and subjects in their own subjects and to let them develop their own<br />

teaching materials.<br />

Training the staff<br />

This is seen as the most essential part of the whole project. If this is insufficient and the majority of the staff<br />

remains indifferent and not involved, real integration is impossible.<br />

There are a large number of lecturers to be trained because of this approach. It had to start more or less<br />

from scratch because only few lecturers had prior knowledge above just some general idea about sustainable<br />

development. A two-step approach was chosen therefore.<br />

• A core group was formed of about 10 lecturers from all departments involved and trained.<br />

• This was made responsible for training the total of all staff involved (around 250 persons).<br />

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Conference <strong>Engineering</strong> Education in Sustainable Development <strong>Delft</strong>, 24-25 October, 2002<br />

outside experts<br />

companies<br />

advisor<br />

literature<br />

external courses<br />

core<br />

team<br />

broad<br />

and<br />

in depth<br />

expertise<br />

all<br />

lecturers<br />

basic training<br />

in<br />

sustainable<br />

development<br />

issues<br />

&<br />

background<br />

information<br />

for their<br />

subjects<br />

figure 2: Stepwise training of the whole faculty<br />

energy<br />

specialists<br />

designers<br />

chemists<br />

The core group responsible for the training of the other lecturers also formed the project team that functioned<br />

during the whole of the project. They also developed the various learning materials. Furthermore they will<br />

continue to act as an expertise group to continue the further development and implementation, and maintain<br />

the quality of what is reached. The training of this core group was in the hands of an outside expert on<br />

sustainable development who stayed on during the whole 4 years of the project and acted also as adviser on<br />

other project-connected issues.<br />

Training started through presentations and discussions by outside experts and visits to companies and<br />

institutions involved in sustainable projects. Gradually the members of the core group trained itself and one<br />

another through doing literature research, writing essays, setting up workshops and doing project with small<br />

teams. The basis of the approach is that lecturers start with their own specific expert knowledge, develop that<br />

further with respect to the related sustainability issues and teach one another with what they have learned<br />

themselves. The systems approach and the multi and interdisciplinary aspects are learned ‘ hands-on’ just by<br />

doing many projects. The written results of that training form part of the learning materials. Moreover,<br />

developing learning materials was excellent training too.<br />

The training of the whole staff was done through a series of introductory courses for all departments with<br />

groups of 20 persons. It was developed and given by the core group and concentrated on general aspects of<br />

sustainable development. It included a project/workshop with as case a more or less department related<br />

subject. The courses were concluded with a discussion on how to implement sustainable development in the<br />

specific study.<br />

Also here further training has to be done through self-study and by doing external courses. For sustainable<br />

use of energy a separate course was developed in cooperation with the UPE Enschede and ECN 4 ) and given<br />

for the about 20 lectures whose courses deal with items on energy which are deemed essential for<br />

sustainable development.<br />

Redesigning the curricula<br />

The different departments themselves have to take care of the implementation of sustainability in the various<br />

curricula, with assistance of their representative from the core group. Because new things start slowly, that<br />

representative did in fact at the beginning most of that, certainly for the first year. That forms however a good<br />

basis for the work of others for the successive years.<br />

First step in the process was a review done by the lecturers of all present subjects in the courses with respect<br />

to their relevance for sustainable development. That was to find all aspects and issues that were already<br />

dealt with, but maybe not explicitly related to sustainability. That review together with the learning goals<br />

4 Dutch Centre for Energy Research<br />

etc.<br />

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Conference <strong>Engineering</strong> Education in Sustainable Development <strong>Delft</strong>, 24-25 October, 2002<br />

defined for the specific studies formed the basis for a total program that defines which aspects and issue<br />

should be treated and their place in a study. How that has to be done is left to the lecturers themselves. The<br />

responsibility for the sufficient implementation lies with the lecturers and for the ‘sustainable quality’ of the<br />

program as a whole with the management of the department.<br />

An observation is that those studies in which the knowledge areas have clear links with specific issues of<br />

sustainable development (energy, designing) and where in actual practice someone working in that field is<br />

faced with much sustainable development already, implementation in the study is more easy and directly<br />

more ‘integral’. Examples are Building Design and Construction, Chemistry and Chemical <strong>Engineering</strong> (see<br />

separate paper) and to a large extent also Production and Operation Management.<br />

During the project it became clear that project and problem oriented education are very apt methods to<br />

develop the capabilities for systems approach and multidisciplinarity that are essential for real sustainable<br />

solutions. They form also the best tools to train a ‘sustainable view and attitude’. For that reason within the<br />

framework of the CIRRUS project a specific project was started to develop multidisciplinary projects and to<br />

find the right way to use those for ‘learning sustainable thinking and doing’. (See separate paper)<br />

Most of the separate introductory courses for sustainable development are based on problem oriented<br />

education and projects. For some studies this was already the standard way of working, for others it is a new<br />

approach, in which this introduction of sustainable development now is instrumental for introducing it in the<br />

whole study.<br />

Teaching materials<br />

As discussed learning materials are needed for:<br />

• The introductory and ‘integration’ courses, mostly in the form of short presentations and projects in which<br />

the students get acquainted with basic concepts and issues.<br />

The background information, which the lecturers must use to integrate the relevant sustainable development<br />

issues and aspects in own subjects, courses and learning materials.<br />

Additionally much literature and background information have been collected, also reports from institutes and<br />

groups active in that field, which is made available to the lecturers and students.<br />

Introductory reader<br />

To make available basic information for the introductory courses a reader was developed that deals with all<br />

relevant issues and concepts concisely. It gives the background on the “why and how” of sustainable<br />

development and treats the important issues, such as sustainable energy, use of materials building and<br />

consumption.<br />

Toolboxes<br />

For a number of issues that are important and/or have a large relevance for lecturers, so-called toolboxes are<br />

being developed. Those contain a basic amount of information, sufficient to understand the ins and outs of<br />

the issue and give its position and role within sustainable development as a whole. It supplies also some<br />

examples for teaching. Examples are: sustainable use of energy, sustainability and ethics, industrial ecology,<br />

consumer behaviour.<br />

For easy accessibility and use a standardised set up is followed: an introduction, the most relevant literature<br />

and websites and when available some examples of projects and other learning material. Of course students<br />

can also use it as initial information in projects and problem oriented learning, in which these issues are arise.<br />

Dissemination<br />

The CIRRUS project is set up as a demonstration project. So much effort is also given in making the results<br />

and the experience gained available to other UPE’s.<br />

The Introductory reader (although still a ‘draft’) has been distributed to all UPE’s, and is at least being used or<br />

functions as example in five of them.<br />

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Conference <strong>Engineering</strong> Education in Sustainable Development <strong>Delft</strong>, 24-25 October, 2002<br />

Much of the information is placed, or will be, on the project website www.projectcirrus.net (however mostly<br />

still in Dutch). On several occasions presentations are given and papers published, also in international<br />

forums.[2,3] In close cooperation with the Project and Training Centre of the University courses and<br />

workshops are being prepared to train lecturers of other UPE’s that are interested in implementing<br />

sustainable development and courses for specific subjects are set up.<br />

Furthermore the faculty is an active participant in the committees and projects of the Dutch Platform<br />

Sustainable Higher Education. Those activities included also the development of the AISHI auditing method<br />

[4] (see separate paper) and a review of the curricula of the departments Production and Operation<br />

Management of all Dutch UPE’s with respect to ‘sustainable content’.<br />

Exchange of information internationally is done through the Network of the European Copernicus Program.<br />

Present status, further implementation and securing progress<br />

In this phase full implementation has only been achieved in the first year of all studies involved.<br />

Implementation in the second year is done now. Nevertheless, already in various subjects and courses in<br />

other years sustainable issues are integrated because they prove to offer excellent challenges and training<br />

opportunities for the students, which are much interested in it too. A yearly award is established, starting this<br />

year, for the student whose final year project embodies the best contribution to sustainable development.<br />

As one of many others the Faculty has applied for the Dutch certification Sustainable Higher Education and<br />

received one. That will require further development and involve regular audits. An audit is planned for half of<br />

the departments involved at the end of 2002 using the AISHI protocol.<br />

Furthermore, a so-called knowledge centre linked to a lectorate ‘Sustainable Business Operations’, is being<br />

established at the Brabant University of Professional Education. Its role is to develop knowledge in that field,<br />

in particular practical approaches for small and medium sized enterprises and bring education in that field on<br />

a higher level. It serves also a wider role in acting as focal point and centre for further implementation of<br />

sustainable development in the faculty. An important characteristic of that knowledge centre will be the<br />

extensive interaction with external groups, companies, institutes, authorities etc. The intention is to stimulate<br />

‘knowledge circulation’ as was an important characteristic for the CIRRUS project too.<br />

Conclusions<br />

The approach chosen in the CIRRUS project was ambitious. The results, in our view, support however its<br />

feasibility. The first observations show that total integration is possible, rewarding and also can bring the<br />

whole of a study to a higher level. It is clear however that it asks much time and involvement, and requires<br />

patience and flexibility. Although obtaining acceptance was difficult, the validity of the approach is becoming<br />

apparent for most of the lecturers involved. An important factor for that was finding a good link with the<br />

existing subjects dealt with already in the studies, the actual sustainable development issues the profession<br />

is working on already and using as much as possible the existing set-up of the curriculum and education<br />

methodology<br />

The two-step structure to train the lecturers, worked very well. Not only because of its efficiency but it created<br />

a very competent and motivated nucleus of lecturers that is essential to assure progress of the<br />

implementation and future quality. Besides it forms a useful reservoir of expertise for exchange of information<br />

with industry, municipalities and other UPE’s.<br />

Supplying ‘just background information’, in the form of an introductory course and toolboxes, to the lecturers<br />

leaves them the responsibility and the challenge to upgrade their own courses and materials. Although it did<br />

and still does lead to a sometimes, at least initially, poorer content and level with respect to the criteria set, it<br />

took away much discussion, prevented emergence of a ‘not my idea’ attitude and in fact stimulated<br />

involvement. At the end that will guarantee good quality!<br />

Summarizing: sustainable development as a ‘systems approach’ and a way of ‘looking at problems and<br />

solutions’ is now getting ingrained in the studies of FTN, their content and their organisation. It is becoming<br />

part of the way students learn and the way lecturers teach. And others rapidly take up those ideas and<br />

approaches, at least parts of it, too.<br />

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Conference <strong>Engineering</strong> Education in Sustainable Development <strong>Delft</strong>, 24-25 October, 2002<br />

References<br />

Jansen, J.L.; Vergragt, Ph.; STD Vision 2040 – 1998: Technology, Key to Sustainable Prosperit Multidisciplinary<br />

Research Program Sustainable Technological Development, DTO; Den Haag, 1997<br />

Roorda, N.; Backcasting the future; Internat J. of Sustainability in Higher Education 1,2(2001),63-9<br />

Venselaar, J.; The CIRRUS approach towards integration of sustainable development in higher technical<br />

education, Proceedings European Congress on Chemical <strong>Engineering</strong>, Nuremberg, Junet 2001<br />

Roorda, N.; Auditing Sustainability in <strong>Engineering</strong> Education with AISHE.Proceedings ENTREE2000, pg13-<br />

30, Belfast, November 2000, ISBN 90.76760.02.0<br />

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Conference <strong>Engineering</strong> Education in Sustainable Development <strong>Delft</strong>, 24-25 October, 2002<br />

002 Multidisciplinary projects as learning tool for sustainable approaches.<br />

Experience and some critical assessment, L. Dejong, L. van Beek, T. Severijn, J.<br />

Venselaar, Brabant University of Professional Education, The Netherlands<br />

Introduction<br />

Importance<br />

For our modern society to develop to a true sustainable society some necessary transitions will have to take<br />

place. Such pioneering changes will partly be realized on traditional, monodisciplinary grounds, partly be the<br />

result of developments that go beyond separate disciplines and require an interdisciplinary collaboration.<br />

Such a collaboration, a multidisciplinary project, makes stringent demands on the participants who must have<br />

good human relations skills next to flexibility and a feel for each other’s language. And those last two skills in<br />

particular are not explicitly taught in the traditional engineering educations.<br />

To be adequately prepared for the future practicing of their profession as engineers, students in any<br />

(technical) discipline will have to learn through multidisciplinary projects:<br />

• to understand each other’s language<br />

• to start thinking in systems<br />

• to dedicate their specialism to a systems approach<br />

Due to the developments in higher vocational education toward competence-based learning, making<br />

increasingly higher demands on the student’s ability of self-reliant learning and regulation of their study,<br />

teaching methods such as project teaching and problem-based learning become more and more important.<br />

Multidisciplinary projects fit in seamlessly. They are essential for a professional education that focuses on the<br />

future, and are efficient.<br />

The framework<br />

Since 1998 there has been a project at the Faculty of Technology and Science of Hogeschool Brabant<br />

(Brabant University of Professional Education) to introduce sustainable development into all study<br />

programmes of the Faculty: the Cirrus project.<br />

The novel approach chosen for this aims for an integrated focus on sustainability in all the Faculty study<br />

programmes by integrating necessary knowledge, insight and competences in the different subjects, courses<br />

and projects. Specific attention paid to ‘sustainable development’ in dedicated courses and projects, merely<br />

serves to explain the background and main issues of sustainability and to give a framework for all further<br />

‘sustainable aspects’ treated elsewhere. The main aspects of this integration are creating an awareness of<br />

and a vision on sustainability as well as learning a systems approach when assessing issues and developing<br />

possible solutions.<br />

Objectives of our multidisciplinary projects program:<br />

• to gain experience with multidisciplinary projects<br />

• to develop an integrated course<br />

• to develop a protocol for multidisciplinary projects<br />

The most important problem definition:<br />

• How can we have students from various disciplines truly cooperate?<br />

• How can we make sure that multidisciplinary collaboration leads to sustainable solutions of the problems<br />

posed?<br />

Practical approach<br />

At the time of the start of the CIRRUS project, not much experience had been gained with multidisciplinary<br />

projects within the Faculty. Only occasionally had students from different study programmes worked together.<br />

Contacts with other institutes (e.g. through the Dutch Committee on Sustainability in Higher Education),<br />

descriptions of approaches in literature and reports of successful projects on the Internet, supplied us with<br />

sufficient inspiration and practical information, or so we thought.<br />

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Conference <strong>Engineering</strong> Education in Sustainable Development <strong>Delft</strong>, 24-25 October, 2002<br />

A major obstacle for us was that the structure of the different programmes differed quite a lot. Not only did<br />

the planning in time for practical work and projects differ, but also the actual set-up for preparation and the<br />

way students selected projects. This is changing now with the new clustering of studies and a broader<br />

introduction and integration in the study programmes of learning projects and problem-based learning.<br />

So we started with proposals for multidisciplinary projects during the practical work and the final year project<br />

planned in the final semesters of the study, usually in the fourth year.<br />

In time, the activities developed as follows:<br />

Directly at the start of the CIRRUS project a multidisciplinary project (ENO) was carried out, based on the<br />

insights we had from the sources given above. That proved to be an excellent learning experience.<br />

The results of that formed the input for a protocol we made with the objective to attain better coordination with<br />

all parties involved, within the Faculty and in the field.<br />

That protocol was used in three further projects and the results were evaluated.<br />

Protocol<br />

A great number of parties are involved in a multidisciplinary project, students and lecturers, but especially<br />

different departments, each with their own organisation, and parties in the field acting as principals and their<br />

contacts.<br />

Because of this, sound agreements and a clear thematic approach are essential for the preparation and<br />

execution of such a project.<br />

To that end a manual or protocol has been set up, initiated by the CIRRUS project, which has been used and<br />

tested in a number of projects.<br />

The protocol comprises the acquisition and assessing of new project assignments, the recruitment of the<br />

project team and the appointment of the project leader who is responsible for the execution of the project<br />

according to the plan, a verification of the project targets and if necessary an adjustment of the plan of<br />

approach.<br />

Commitment of the board of the Faculty was necessary and December 1999 we got that commitment to<br />

organize multidisciplinary projects under supervision of the Cirrus-project team.<br />

The protocol distinguishes two phases:<br />

• the ‘intake’ phase<br />

• the actual execution phase<br />

Both require continuous tuning within the Faculty as well as in the field.<br />

The first phase takes place within the Faculty, the second to a large extent in the field, involving a change in<br />

the tasks of the supervising lecturers and the supervisors of the principal.<br />

The protocol serves to align those responsibilities and tasks to prevent the project being disrupted and<br />

hampered by organisational and tuning problems. As it is, the multidisciplinary character alone requires a lot<br />

of time.<br />

The complete text of the protocol is available at www.projectcirrus.net.<br />

Working group Multidisciplinary Sustainable Projects<br />

To make sure that multidisciplinary projects will work according to that protocol, and to help getting the<br />

program going especially in the beginning, a small team was called into being: “working group<br />

multidisciplinary sustainable projects”, consisting of lecturers from the CIRRUS project team. The first<br />

projects were set up, supervised and evaluated by that group.<br />

As later the interests of the collaborating parties have to be brought into line, time can be a limiting factor and<br />

the assessing and safeguarding of the quality of the sustainable assignment calls for knowledge and<br />

experience, a special working group was introduced. This group consists of people who can shape the<br />

preparation of a sustainable assignment.<br />

Protocol preparatory phase.<br />

The ‘intake’ or the preparatory phase has been set up as follows:<br />

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Conference <strong>Engineering</strong> Education in Sustainable Development <strong>Delft</strong>, 24-25 October, 2002<br />

• Assessment project subject<br />

• Allocation people & resources<br />

• Acceptance people & resources / Project management document<br />

During the preparatory phase the suitability of the subject is assessed concerning weight and extent. The<br />

assignment must be of a suitable university level and be sustainable, multidisciplinary or interdisciplinary.<br />

Further at least 2 people need to be working on it for at least > 40% of their weekly hours and have an<br />

expected duration of * 10 [work placement] or n* 20 weeks (final project and work placement) respectively.<br />

In particular attention is paid to staffing next to the necessary resources. The project members must have<br />

good communication skills and dispose of sufficient knowledge of, insight in and skills in the fields they<br />

represent. In addition to this, it is essential that they have the willingness and ability to be able to think along<br />

with their colleagues from different fields about subjects from those fields. Crucial is the matching of the<br />

expectations of the participating students and the willingness to truly ‘behave in a multidisciplinary way’. The<br />

departments concerned will have to adjust and possibly accept the fact that the coaching and assessment<br />

may be a bit different from the way they are accustomed to in mono-disciplinary projects. Further the<br />

agreements on the targets and expectations concerning the project with the external parties are of the utmost<br />

importance. First and foremost work placements and final year projects are learning projects, i.e. they must<br />

serve an educational purpose. Sometimes this seems to be forgotten by parties from the field who have<br />

expectations the project group cannot possibly live up to.<br />

Protocol project execution phase<br />

This phase comprises the following steps each with their own specific focal points. It is the project team that<br />

is concerned with the execution of the project according to the project phasing mentioned below.<br />

Project phase Location<br />

D0 Start project Faculty<br />

D1 Orientation phase Partly Faculty, if possible partly in the field<br />

D2 Problem definition phase If possible in the field<br />

D3 Approach definition phase Idem<br />

D4 Design phase Idem<br />

D5 Implementation phase Idem<br />

D6 Project finalising and evaluation Idem<br />

Here the orientation is especially important. In this phase the students familiarize themselves with the<br />

problem at hand and more importantly with each other’s possible contribution. Teambuilding has to take<br />

place. From the following cases this turns out to be crucial.<br />

The next steps are in fact ‘normal’ phases in a project.<br />

At all times, however, focus must be on the contents being the guideline for tuning. It should not be a couple<br />

of monodisciplinary subprojects carried out in parallel.<br />

The project procedure is described in a separate document.<br />

Projects and learning experience<br />

ENO project<br />

Sustainable Energy in the Province of Noord Brabant, inventory of need for knowledge<br />

The student team consist of four participants from the study programmes of Electrical <strong>Engineering</strong> (E),<br />

Mechanical <strong>Engineering</strong> (ME), Information Management (IM) and Production and Operations Management<br />

(POM).<br />

The objective of the project was to assess the need for information on sustainable energy options that exist in<br />

households and in small and medium enterprises in the province in which our university is located. Based on<br />

such insight, a more effective strategy to inform and motivate people and business could (hopefully) be<br />

designed. The study was requested by the provincial working group “Brabant Energy 2050” whose task it is to<br />

promote the use of sustainable sources of energy.<br />

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Conference <strong>Engineering</strong> Education in Sustainable Development <strong>Delft</strong>, 24-25 October, 2002<br />

The study was done in the form of a questionnaire sent to 850 small and medium enterprises in six different<br />

sectors and to some 750 households randomly chosen from two sets of households, one for those renting<br />

houses and one for house owners. The response was satisfactory and some interesting conclusions could be<br />

drawn. Nevertheless, it can be considered to be a failure as a project, although quite a success as a learning<br />

experience.<br />

It was the first multidisciplinary project carried out within the framework of the CIRRUS project. There was<br />

much enthusiasm but no protocol and much confusion about how to manage such a project and about the<br />

relation with the external ‘client’.<br />

A wise move was to assign one of the students to follow and evaluate the ‘project process’ and the problems<br />

encountered.<br />

Major conclusions from this project concerning the students, their attitude and the way they cooperate, the<br />

project structure, organisation and the relation with external parties and ‘customers’ involved, are:<br />

• the duration of the project must be equal for each participant<br />

• the level of the participants must be more or less sort of equal<br />

• the participants must dispose of an equal amount of time for the project<br />

• the cohesion of the group of students is important and they must be willing to understand the various<br />

roles and be able to compromise;<br />

• interactivity: there must be sufficient time to recruit and select students and to select a project<br />

• the relation with an external party who proposes the project and often pays some fee, is not just that of a<br />

‘client’ expecting ‘value for money’. A university with students is not a commercial consultancy. They<br />

should be willing to take responsibility for the educational aspect and have a contribution in that.<br />

These experiences were the input for the protocol developed by the Cirrus team. As this protocol called for a<br />

collaboration between the various departments in bringing in line certain aspects of their programmes, the<br />

protocol was submitted to the Faculty management for approval, after which it was used and tested in three<br />

projects.<br />

Improving energy efficiency of a new home for the elderly.<br />

The subject: Energy economy of a home for the elderly still to be built. The student team consisted of three<br />

students from Constructional <strong>Engineering</strong> (CE), Building Management (BM) and Mechanical <strong>Engineering</strong><br />

(ME). The approach for the acquisition of the assignment and the recruitment of students followed the<br />

protocol that had just been developed.<br />

The project result exceeded all expectations. The design of the sun lounge has been adjusted on energytechnical<br />

considerations. It was a redesign, an intervention in the original architectural design. Apart from this,<br />

other energy-saving measures have been looked into. The project has actually been realised in practice.<br />

The results:<br />

Summer Winter<br />

Original design Forced cooling necessary Heating necessary<br />

Altered design Cooling through natural ventilation<br />

Photovoltaic solar energy<br />

Heating necessary (less heat loss)<br />

Normally it is “not done” in construction to meddle with an already approved design. In consultation with the<br />

architect, who was open to this experiment, the design itself was subject to analysis with the above result.<br />

At the start of the project at ECN Petten there was no clearly defined assignment.<br />

Apart from this there were problems with the possible approach of the project and the mutual cooperation.<br />

The student from Mechanical <strong>Engineering</strong> used a project model. The other two students were not familiar<br />

with working in projects. After agreements had been made on the procedure (according to protocol) and the<br />

mutual cooperation and the responsibilities had been laid down, the project went well. There was a lot,<br />

sometimes too much, consultation. The coaching of the teambuilding in the initial phase of the project turned<br />

out to be too labour-intensive for ECN, also through a lack of experience with teambuilding. This was largely<br />

taken care of by the Faculty.<br />

Experiences gained:<br />

(1) The main lines of the protocol worked well.<br />

(2) Coaching of teambuilding is too hard for supervisors in the field.<br />

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Conference <strong>Engineering</strong> Education in Sustainable Development <strong>Delft</strong>, 24-25 October, 2002<br />

However, it has been very instructive and encouraging that the students have reached such a good result as<br />

it means that a group of budding engineers are able to radically improve a ‘good’ design made according to a<br />

traditional approach, by working in a multidisciplinary way.<br />

Xerox, Venray: Re-use of a new generation of copiers.<br />

The assignment was: design a process to re-use parts of a new generation of Xerox copiers. The team<br />

consisted of four students of Electrical <strong>Engineering</strong> (E), Environmental Oriented Materials Technology (M2),<br />

Mechanical <strong>Engineering</strong> (ME) and Production and Operation Management (POM).<br />

Project result: recommendations for a changed set-up of re-manufacturing (due to a change of policy within<br />

Xerox not implemented.)<br />

From the start there were problems within the team due to differences in background. In addition to this, one<br />

of the students turned out to be an outsider who initially did not carry out his part of the project sufficiently.<br />

After a fine-tuning of the division of tasks, the process improved. Due to a long time spent on ‘problem<br />

definition’ it was not possible to get to a sufficiently worked out problem resolution as the time that was left for<br />

developing and underpinning the problem resolution was too short. Such a long introductory period was<br />

intentionally chosen to have the team members get used to each other, to enable the team to explore the<br />

complexity of the field and to figure out a demarcation of the problem area fitting the possibilities of the team.<br />

Experiences gained:<br />

(1) The most important issue turns out to be the willingness and ability of students to collaborate, apart from<br />

the level of the students. This must get more attention during the project preparation as well as during the<br />

entire education.<br />

(2) With large projects there is a risk that the demarcation of a problem definition that can be realised by<br />

students, is too time-consuming.<br />

ECN-project: Integration solar panels in wall.<br />

Eventually the team consisted of two students: Constructional <strong>Engineering</strong> and Electrical <strong>Engineering</strong>. It<br />

concerns a limited “MD-project”. Cause: lack of interest from students. The assignment developed too<br />

scientifically and became too much for the students involved. The E-student refused to look any further than<br />

the field of Electrical <strong>Engineering</strong>. Ultimately the project was carried out in a strongly adjusted form.<br />

Experiences gained:<br />

(1) The attitude is crucial.<br />

(2) The complete freedom students have in choosing assignments for work placements and final year<br />

projects proved to be fatal for the recruitment of students.<br />

(3) The time at which work placements and final year projects are positioned in the various study<br />

programmes, is too diverse.<br />

After these three projects, no more (final year) projects were undertaken due to a lack of student interest.<br />

This was another reason to properly evaluate the entire procedure.<br />

Observations, Conclusions and Recommendations<br />

Based on the cases described above and the observations made, several conclusions and recommendations<br />

in general are apparent.<br />

Those concern the students, their interest in such projects, their attitude and the way they cooperate, the<br />

project structure and the internal organisation and the relation with the external parties involved and of course<br />

the way the protocol could cope with all that.<br />

The students<br />

Main observations were:<br />

• recruitment of students is hard<br />

• ‘equivalence’ requires a lot of attention<br />

• collaboration and the realisation of the process within the group is hard<br />

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Conference <strong>Engineering</strong> Education in Sustainable Development <strong>Delft</strong>, 24-25 October, 2002<br />

The recruitment of students was very difficult. From interviews with students, coordinators of final year<br />

projects and lecturers it appears that:<br />

(1) A lot of good students do not want their final grades to be influenced by fellow-students. They have too<br />

often experienced that they had to do the work for others and because of that scored lower grades for<br />

their achievement.<br />

(2) As soon as some students hear that they are responsible for the technical know-how from their own<br />

specialism, they pull out.<br />

(3) The great amount of projects during their entire education with the resulting impact of consultation repels<br />

the boffins (the ‘makers’) among the students.<br />

Whichever way you look at it, equivalence is essential to bring about a successful project: an equivalent<br />

command of their own specialisms and a nearly equivalent power of persuasion. “Equivalent arguments” of<br />

various natures will have to be equally valued during discussions and decision-making processes (so head<br />

off one-sided dominance).<br />

Some teams had problems of various natures at the start-up: division of roles, communication, tasks and<br />

responsibilities, etc. They must be tackled right at the start. As soon as the team goes out into the field, this<br />

can hardly be efficiently done anymore. Because of this a special procedure concerning the process of<br />

teambuilding was developed. Core of the procedure: during the orientation phase of the project a coaching of<br />

the teambuilding takes place within the Faculty. That involves a better training and instruction for the students<br />

right at the start: enabling them to co-operate in a team, to learn each other’s way of thinking, to see the<br />

profits of co-operation and to accept results as a team effort. Group processes usually know several phases:<br />

Forming, Storming, Norming and Performing [1]. It appears wise to allow students to go to the company only<br />

after clear procedural agreements have been made (Norming-phase). Further having the students take a<br />

Belbin test seems necessary to make sure that all the team roles that Belbin recognized are performed<br />

collectively by the group of students; well-balanced composition [2].<br />

The organisation<br />

Main observation was:<br />

the bringing in line of department programmes remains a problem<br />

This proved to be a constant problem. For this there were two causes: phasing and the different ways of<br />

preparation. There are departments where final year projects only take place once a year. In other<br />

departments, however, these projects can be done twice a year. And then there is the preparation.<br />

Constructional <strong>Engineering</strong> has a ‘preparatory final project’ (in semester 7), during which the student<br />

produces a problem study and problem definition for the final year project. A potential project should then be<br />

a long way into the preparatory phase. As a result of this it is hard to realize a correctly composed student<br />

team in time. Internal adjustment of procedures and timetables of the various study programmes involved is a<br />

must. This will require increasing attention when broader multidisciplinarity is sought and other faculties and<br />

other universities get involved.<br />

Due to these and other aspects it could be considered that training through multidisciplinary projects had<br />

better not coincide with the final project and thesis, certainly in this phase of introduction of sustainability in<br />

the study programmes. To be able to make use of the positive experiences, we feel therefore that<br />

multidisciplinary projects should be planned throughout the Faculty at an earlier stage in the curriculum, e.g.<br />

in the second or third year of study. This would also meet the earlier mentioned resistance of students,<br />

especially against this kind of projects in the final phase of their studies.<br />

External parties<br />

Main observations were:<br />

• parties in the field having too high hopes<br />

• companies are usually quite taken with multidisciplinary projects, but think the impact of supervision to be<br />

too much for their own organization.<br />

• inexperience/ unfamiliarity of external supervisors with tackling problems in teamwork.<br />

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Conference <strong>Engineering</strong> Education in Sustainable Development <strong>Delft</strong>, 24-25 October, 2002<br />

Sometimes external parties have too high hopes of the results. It is not sufficiently recognized that the main<br />

objective is and will be education. An adjustment of expectations of companies and institutes hosting the<br />

projects and the constraints inherent to a project as an educational tool is therefore necessary. That implies<br />

larger involvement and less guarantees, e.g. in comparison with individual projects.<br />

ECN, Xerox (onetime) and Rockwool were able to define multidisciplinary assignments. Van Melle and<br />

NEDCAR could not. The main objection of companies is the impact three to five students have on a project<br />

positioned within the organization. The internal departments are not prepared for this and the supervisors are<br />

not properly trained to cope with such a project team.<br />

Recommendations:<br />

• have the teambuilding process take place within the Faculty. This has been planned for future projects.<br />

• have assignments of a multidisciplinary nature acquired in the field, take place as much as possible<br />

within the Faculty by means of a multidisciplinary project. This will take away the fear companies have for<br />

large groups of students that have to be in and out of the company for a long time; this approach is<br />

successful – see: Production and Operation Management, Hogeschool Brabant, semester 7 - strategy<br />

projects.<br />

The protocol<br />

In general the protocol has served its purpose well. The various observations and conclusions will have to<br />

lead to an adjustment of the protocol. As shown previously, this will have to concern:<br />

• the tuning with regard to the planning of the study programmes<br />

• agreements with the parties in the field, especially concerning the (im)possibilities of supervision<br />

• the teambuilding, a balanced composition of the student team and the division of roles and tasks within<br />

the team.<br />

Further proposals<br />

Specifically for our own situation some actions are envisaged. As said, smaller multidisciplinary projects are<br />

being considered at an earlier stage of the study. As such they can be made obligatory and also have an<br />

integrating’ function to combine the various sustainable aspects that have been taught in the different<br />

courses.<br />

Furthermore we intend to promote these smaller sustainable projects to students as well as companies, to<br />

show the potential of interdisciplinary projects. Examples that are being considered at the moment in<br />

consultation with companies and municipalities:<br />

• energy economy homes / estates in multidisciplinary projects (CE, E, ME, POM/BM)<br />

• low-energy and environmentally friendly tools (E [et], Chemical <strong>Engineering</strong>, ME [construction], POM)<br />

• sustainable faculty (FTN)-building (CE, E, ME, M2, POM/BM)<br />

Students would be able to experience the advantages of multidisciplinary projects by these small projects<br />

(the cultural differences and the differences in approach) that might increase the motivation for a<br />

multidisciplinary final year project.<br />

The programming of the studies has to be brought in line with this and this ‘opportunity’ for interdisciplinary<br />

learning must be taken into account during the current educational reform.<br />

Summary most important findings<br />

With regard to the surplus value and the appreciation by the students and companies, in our view the<br />

following can be said.<br />

Pro:<br />

• Such a project enriches the student’s learning process enormously. Collaborating in a multidisciplinary<br />

team calls for the ability to learn and appreciate each other’s language and way of thinking. Subsequently<br />

(very) good results can be achieved in the border areas of each other’s specialisms.<br />

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Conference <strong>Engineering</strong> Education in Sustainable Development <strong>Delft</strong>, 24-25 October, 2002<br />

• Companies, such as ECN and Xerox were quite taken with such projects.<br />

• Students must be better or become better in their own fields to be able to work in a multidisciplinary<br />

project.<br />

Neutral:<br />

• The teambuilding process can better take place within the Faculty.<br />

Con:<br />

• Students are tired of being levelled down due to group assessments; therefore recruitment of good<br />

students in particular is very difficult.<br />

• The programming of the studies, especially the start of the final year project and the positioning in the<br />

curriculum, differs greatly within the Faculty of Technology and Science.<br />

• The acquisition of external multidisciplinary assignments is hard; companies feel the supervision of a<br />

group of students with such a broad assignment to be problematic.<br />

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Conference <strong>Engineering</strong> Education in Sustainable Development <strong>Delft</strong>, 24-25 October, 2002<br />

References<br />

Belbin, R.M., Management team: why they succeed or fail, Heineman, London (1987) 1981<br />

Tuckman B.W. & M.A. Jensen, Stages of small-group development, in Group and Organisation Studies, 2 (4)<br />

1977, 419-427<br />

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Conference <strong>Engineering</strong> Education in Sustainable Development <strong>Delft</strong>, 24-25 October, 2002<br />

003 Integrating sustainable development in engineering education. The case for<br />

chemistry and chemical engineering, J.J. Hageman, J.J. van der Boom, J. Venselaar,<br />

University of Professional Education Brabant, The Netherlands<br />

Introduction<br />

The CIRRUS project that runs on the faculty Technology and Natural Sciences of the Brabant University of<br />

Professional Education (Hogeschool Brabant) has as goal the introduction of sustainable development as<br />

much as possible completely integrated in all studies. Sustainability is not to be treated ‘only’ in a separate<br />

course or as an optional subject or additional specialisation, during or after a study. The approach is<br />

discussed in a separate paper during this conference [1].<br />

Essential components for integration as we intent, are:<br />

(1) Each course, project and other activity in the ‘normal’ curriculum takes care of the issues relevant for<br />

sustainability connected with its own subjects such as materials use, energy, design approaches,<br />

economics, business operation methods, etc.<br />

(2) An introductory course on an early moment elucidates the concept; sets out the ‘line of approach’ needed<br />

for sustainable development, supplies a general framework and ‘integrates’ the separate issues and<br />

details treated in the various courses and projects.<br />

(3) Attitude, lateral thinking, interdisciplinary ability aimed at sustainability will get much attention throughout<br />

all activities in the study and increasingly so towards the end. Learning by doing through various tasks,<br />

practical work and the final project in the study offer the best opportunities for this.<br />

The goal must be: students will still become experts in their respective fields, but with basic knowledge,<br />

understanding and a ‘frame of mind’ necessary to have in their future jobs the competences and attitude for<br />

‘sustainable thinking and doing’. That is achieved not by extensive knowledge of specific (so-called<br />

sustainable) technology, but by knowing the conditions that are to be met when designing, developing and<br />

operating processes and products when caring for people, the planet and economic development, now and in<br />

the future.<br />

Bearing this in mind we have adapted the existing curricula based on a set of ‘minimum learning goals and<br />

criteria’ with the intention to integrate sustainability in the ‘normal subjects’ [1]. All lecturers of the<br />

departments involved have had an introductory course on sustainable development. Some have also<br />

followed more specialist courses in the field, e.g. on sustainable use of energy. Discussed is also the options<br />

they have within their subjects and activities to introduce specific aspects and issues for sustainability.<br />

Introductory and ‘integrative’ courses on sustainable development have been being developed for chemistry<br />

and chemical engineering curricula and have run for two years now.<br />

This paper describes our vision, approach and experiences with it.<br />

Role of chemistry and chemical engineering<br />

It is widely accepted that a truly sustainable society will use only renewable and recyclable resources and<br />

processes, which use resources extremely efficient, causing minimal pollution and disturbance. The<br />

contribution of chemistry and chemical technology is essential to achieve that. The practical issues in which<br />

chemists and chemical engineers have to play a major role are: making available raw materials, renewable<br />

and non-renewable and the efficient use of resources. Therefore is needed knowledge regarding recycling,<br />

development of high performance materials and of course the development of the required extremely efficient<br />

processes, products with minimal environmental impact and easy to recycle, and the production routes for<br />

sustainable energy sources, raw materials, food, etc.<br />

Resources, production processes and product use are linked and influence one-another. The total chains of<br />

material flows and product use have to be taken into account when developing products: their application, the<br />

processes to produce them, the available resources, and reducing their possible negative effects on the<br />

environment, nature and human health and welfare. Attention for the whole chain is the only way to attain real<br />

and practical sustainable solutions. That includes also attention for the cultural and socio-economic aspects<br />

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Conference <strong>Engineering</strong> Education in Sustainable Development <strong>Delft</strong>, 24-25 October, 2002<br />

and the broader consequences of the use of technology. At the same time they must satisfy actual needs.<br />

Only such solutions really lead to a substantial improvement of the eco-efficiency of the economy and lead to<br />

products people are interested in and therefore industry can make in a profitable way. That is the challenge<br />

we have when integrating sustainable development in training the future professionals, who have to achieve<br />

that.<br />

This requires attention for development in specific areas and at the same time a ‘systems approach’ that<br />

does not look at problems and solutions in isolation. Figure 1 gives the different areas of development we see<br />

as essential. This is the model we use as framework when introducing sustainable development to the<br />

students.<br />

process intensification product technology<br />

dematerialisation<br />

solar &<br />

renewables<br />

chemical production product use<br />

base materials<br />

reduction / optimisation<br />

resources<br />

chain management<br />

process integration / efficiency<br />

recycling<br />

environment<br />

sink/wastes<br />

(discarding)<br />

cleaning and prevention<br />

figure 1. Focal areas of chemistry and chemical engineering for sustainable development<br />

Sustainable structure for the chemistry and chemical engineering curricula<br />

On the Brabant University of Professional Education chemistry and chemical technology are presently<br />

separate studies given by different departments and in different clusters of studies. It is the intention however<br />

to bring both together in a cluster ‘Chemistry and Life Sciences’ in the near future, together with<br />

environmental and biomedical laboratory sciences.<br />

From the start on there has always been close cooperation between both and information, modules and<br />

project cases have been exchanged and used mutually. The approach taken is for both therefore more or<br />

less the same, in structure and to a large extent also content. In the sense that chemistry is more product<br />

oriented and chemical technology more process and (sustainable) technology oriented.<br />

The departments of chemistry and chemical engineering educate students to become employees in a wide<br />

variety of fields. The majority of them become research assistants in food, polymer, pharmaceutical and<br />

petrochemical industry. Many students end up in jobs like experts in process automation in process industry,<br />

environmental specialist, and head of an analytical laboratory, safety engineer, sales manager or teacher.<br />

Employers expect our students to be acquainted with state of the art technology, next to being good team<br />

workers, communicators and independent, self confident and open-minded individuals. Sustainable<br />

development and the competences to handle issues in connexion with that, is becoming part of that<br />

expectation.<br />

In order to achieve these qualities we apply a wide range of educational concepts, from simple lectures to<br />

challenging projects with real life problems. In those we have integrated all relevant aspects of sustainability<br />

we think are important for chemist and chemical engineer.<br />

The main lines of the approaches for both studies fit the three components as described above<br />

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Conference <strong>Engineering</strong> Education in Sustainable Development <strong>Delft</strong>, 24-25 October, 2002<br />

• Introduction of concepts and broader issues, integration of all aspects treated;<br />

• Treatment in the ‘normal’ subjects and projects;<br />

• Attention for attitude and a systems approach that asks for multidisciplinary and lateral thinking<br />

Minimum time explicitly spend on specific sustainability issues has to be 5% of the total study hours.<br />

A parallel development, to some extent stimulated by the discussion how to introduce sustainable<br />

development issues, is that for the curricula in general the way of teaching has shifted from ‘old fashioned<br />

class wise teaching’ to more interactive and problem oriented learning. That fits very good with the aims we<br />

have with learning ‘sustainable thinking and doing’.<br />

The various projects serve to create a sustainability-oriented attitude in the students. It must become selfevident<br />

to use these insights and methods. Projects are intended to show students that a systems approach,<br />

multidisciplinary and lateral thinking offers better solutions and are more rewarding also through the fact that<br />

they offer professionals a new challenge.<br />

In particular continuous attention is given in learning the ability to rise from a technical oriented pollution<br />

control approach to a more systems oriented approach including cultural and socio-economic aspects,<br />

commercial opportunities etc. That is: the step from environmental care to sustainable development.<br />

Much information and inspiration we took from the various approaches that have been described in literature,<br />

but mostly are intended for dealing with sustainable development in isolated courses [4]. That has been<br />

adapted for use in the introductory courses and projects and for integration in the various courses for<br />

chemistry and chemical engineering, such as organic synthesis, materials technology, thermodynamics,<br />

separation technology, process control and instrumentation etc.<br />

Chemistry<br />

In general terms in chemistry sciences the focus is strongly on products and ‘green chemistry’. Besides<br />

attention is paid to the role chemistry plays in environmental analysis and assessment of sustainability. The<br />

use of the learning-by-distance Internet tool (Blackboard) has become important.<br />

Profile of sustainability in the study<br />

Starting with the ‘learning goals and criteria’ which have to be satisfied for the whole four years of the study<br />

an outline was made what had to be the major areas of attention. As is discussed elsewhere [1] we formed<br />

three groups of sustainable development criteria and learning goals:<br />

(1) Background information concerning environmental, ecological, economic and social issues involved.<br />

(2) System oriented issues concerning the methods and technologies to assess problems and come to real<br />

solutions<br />

(3) The human and society oriented issues, which give the conditions that have to be taken into account<br />

All lecturers involved have been made responsible to take up the relevant issues in their own subjects. An<br />

evaluation has now to be made if all aspects and issues are indeed covered to a sufficient extent and with<br />

sufficient level.<br />

To create coherence and to prevent that sustainability ends up as a set of somewhat isolated issues, specific<br />

themes and focal areas of specific interest have been defined and small projects set-up in which the different<br />

issues are dealt with in a more integrated way. So the outline for introducing stainable (technological)<br />

development in chemistry is as follows.<br />

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Conference <strong>Engineering</strong> Education in Sustainable Development <strong>Delft</strong>, 24-25 October, 2002<br />

Schematic outline of STD in the department Chemical Sciences at the Brabant University of<br />

Professional Education<br />

Phase Learning<br />

goals<br />

1st year Background<br />

Human and<br />

society<br />

Background<br />

System<br />

2nd year<br />

2.1<br />

Themes<br />

Focal areas<br />

Background Environmental<br />

Chemistry<br />

2.2 Background Project<br />

Environmental<br />

analysis<br />

2.3 System<br />

2.4 System<br />

Human and<br />

society<br />

3rd year<br />

3.1<br />

Subject(s) Time<br />

(study<br />

hours)<br />

Introduction of STD • General introduction (backgrounds,<br />

incentives)<br />

• Simple LCA tools<br />

Project Flavours • Inventory of environmental effects of<br />

Chain Management<br />

and LCA for<br />

chemistry<br />

a 1-step synthesis<br />

• Sources and ways of emission,<br />

dispersion of pollutants<br />

• Environmental Laws<br />

• Toxicology<br />

• Legal rules on water, soil and<br />

pollutants<br />

• Standard Procedures for<br />

environmental analysis<br />

• Aspects on sampling<br />

• Chain management<br />

• Life cycle analysis<br />

• Pollution prevention<br />

• Green Chemistry<br />

Project Vanillin • Inventory of environmental effects of<br />

all aspects of the production process<br />

(resource, product, use, disposal)<br />

• Choosing the environmentally most<br />

benign process on the basis of this<br />

inventory<br />

System Polymers • Renewables (biopolymers)<br />

• The (im)possibilities of recycling<br />

• Effects of polymer additives<br />

• Biochemical production methods for<br />

polymers<br />

• Catalysis<br />

3.2 System Capita Selecta • Retro synthesis in organic chemistry<br />

• Role of chemical analysis in process<br />

In-company<br />

traineeship<br />

and<br />

examinatio<br />

n project<br />

3.3 – 4.4<br />

System<br />

Human and<br />

society<br />

control<br />

• Description of the activities of the<br />

company concerning STD<br />

• Inventory of aspects of sustainability<br />

in own research projects in relation to<br />

company’s interests and social<br />

interests<br />

total 320<br />

As can be seen in later years learning focuses strongly on the production chain, pollution prevention and life<br />

cycle aspects of chemical products, using as framework the approach as is shown in figure 1. Eventually all<br />

students are obliged to perform moderate life cycle assessment during practical projects.<br />

Illustration<br />

Early in the first year an introduction lecture is given on sustainability. Much attention is paid to the principles<br />

of ‘Green Chemistry’ [5] because that gives the students a direct feel for the role chemistry can play. And it<br />

40<br />

40<br />

20<br />

20<br />

40<br />

40<br />

40<br />

20<br />

80<br />

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Conference <strong>Engineering</strong> Education in Sustainable Development <strong>Delft</strong>, 24-25 October, 2002<br />

offers challenges students like to respond to. Specific examples worked out in the lecture, and later on used<br />

in projects, are:<br />

• the various options to use biomass for energy and feedstock for chemical processes such as<br />

(1) products from carbohydrates (C6 chemistry),<br />

(2) biomass based polymers (e.g. poly-lactic-acid and cellulose derivates)<br />

(3) through syngas production (as example a route to styrene)<br />

• hemp fibres to make high strength composite materials<br />

• organic photovoltaic cells, cheap and easy to produce and use<br />

• novel catalysts for high selectivity for instance enantio-selective catalysis<br />

• lightweight and super strong materials for construction<br />

• new dying technologies and ways to create colours in polymers and textile fibres<br />

• new analytic tools and methods for in line and direct process control, with attention on the fact that to<br />

remain competitive, analyses need to be smaller, cleaner, cheaper and faster.Such examples will to be<br />

used through the curriculum for cases and in projects.<br />

An example how a subject is used in the successive years is the vanillin project. It concerns the production of<br />

a synthetic flavour ‘vanillin’.<br />

In the first year the students are asked to make an inventory of the environmental effects of the synthesis and<br />

production. Students learn to look at environmental (and safety) aspects in relation to the actions and choices<br />

made for a specific synthesis and production.<br />

In the second year two possible syntheses are compared taking into account the total chain, starting with the<br />

choice of raw materials, wastes generated and effects of the side products. Their capability to look at the total<br />

chain, and use of an LCA methodology is tested. A look at the natural production of vanillin flavour could be<br />

included, taking into account socio-economic conditions in developing countries and the influence our ‘logic<br />

and simple choices’ have on those.<br />

In the third year the subject is used in a business-oriented project. As annex the main outline of this case is<br />

given. The case serves here in particular to make clear that the view that various actors have on<br />

sustainability issues can and quite likely will differ. It offers opportunities to discuss cultural views, business<br />

ethics and the fact that communication is often as important as technical expertise in evaluating and solving<br />

problems. It is a simple case with role-play but works quite well.<br />

By using the same case again to illustrate different issues, it shows that all those issues are connected,<br />

because the information from one project in which the case was used, is needed and influences the issue in<br />

another. Several other cases are used to deal with specific other issues<br />

Chemical technology<br />

In chemical engineering the set up is to a large extent the same as for chemistry. More focus is of course on<br />

process system integration to reduce the use of energy and reuse materials and water and optimised process<br />

control. The specific role chemical engineering has regarding recycling, making renewable resources<br />

practically available and to optimise pollution prevention gets specific attention in cases and small ‘integration<br />

projects’. Due to present rearrangement of the departments a definite outline for the whole study is not yet<br />

available. Nevertheless much work has been done on the introduction in the first year. That has developed<br />

from a text-guided course to a workshop approach.<br />

Introduction in first year<br />

We will shortly describe the three approaches that have been used. All were done early in the first year<br />

already.<br />

Introduction of general concepts followed by several short projects<br />

Introduction of concepts is done using the ‘general introduction module’ written as part of the CIRRUS<br />

project. The students are given several cases they have to work out and which are discussed and evaluated<br />

with the whole group. The cases are ‘simple’ issues from day to day life so the students have (mostly)<br />

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Conference <strong>Engineering</strong> Education in Sustainable Development <strong>Delft</strong>, 24-25 October, 2002<br />

sufficient own basic information and commonly have a personal view. The following cases were used up till<br />

now:<br />

• Shopping bags from paper or PE<br />

• Sustainability at home<br />

• Cleaner fuels for transport<br />

The general outline is that a first inventory is made of opinions and visions of the students. That is afterwards<br />

compared their possibly changed view due to the outcome of the project. The case is split in several separate<br />

activities that have to be done in parallel and which results have to be communicated, directly or at the end to<br />

get a total picture. The total course is spread over 8 weeks. Some multidisciplinarity, ‘system view’ and<br />

communicative skills are involved already.<br />

The shopping bag case involves a LCA approach, which the students have no knowledge on in this phase,<br />

but which they have to work out in a basic form of course for themselves and by literature research. They<br />

directly are confronted with a broad range of aspects, which many quite capably and creatively are able to<br />

cope with. This personal experience is a good base to work on when they are formally introduced to chain<br />

management and LCA.<br />

Sustainability at home case requires them to evaluate such common things as the consumption of energy<br />

and materials and the household emissions and wastes that are generated. Besides they are asked to relate<br />

that consumption to ‘available environmental space’ and ecological footprint. Here aspects as ‘rights’ and<br />

ethics, equity, economic development and technical challenges surface in a first and simple form.<br />

The ‘Cleaner fuels for transport’ case is more complex. It is based on programs that have run in the<br />

Netherlands. In particular the aspect of the ‘systems approach’ is relevant here. Aspects the students have to<br />

consider are:<br />

• why is traffic becoming jammed, structural and cultural aspects<br />

• what is the total structure around a ‘fuel system’, eg when changing to a hydrogen economy<br />

• which are the real problems concerning sustainability here, and are they solved by ‘just a cleaner fuel’?<br />

• etc.<br />

They are now asked to try to look at it as engineers, as policymakers and business people.This is done later<br />

in the first year so they know already to grapple with technical issues, although not so complex is this one.<br />

Her too sustainability case can lay the groundwork for further learning in chemical engineering as such.<br />

Introduction followed by short tasks and regular presentations by the students<br />

Basis is again the ‘general introduction module’ of which same parts are treated in successive weeks. The<br />

students get small tasks based on the subjects treated after which they have to give a short presentation.<br />

The results are discussed. In this way all major subjects related to sustainable development are being dealt<br />

with in an introductory manner. The cases are the same or comparable as those described above. This<br />

approach takes 8 weeks.<br />

Introductory lecture eg by expert in the field for outside the university and a workshop<br />

This set up was done with a group of students from different studies. That offered the possibility for more<br />

multidisciplinarity in the cases. Actually the concentrated workshop approach, involving only a few days, is the<br />

only (or at least logical) possibility because the structure and timing of the studies. Matching shared hours<br />

over a longer period is difficult.<br />

The advantage of an outside expert is that the impact of the information can be larger: “it is not just academic<br />

but in companies people are working on these issues”.<br />

The workshop had as subject the LCA of a ‘simple’ household apparatus eg a coffee machine. It is quite<br />

possible to address a multitude of sustainability issues in this way, form energy, choice of materials,<br />

production process but also business ethics, equity and global economics. So it is integrates the different<br />

issues into a ‘systems approach’. It further can show that broader sustainability is not just an issue for large<br />

multinational companies.<br />

Conclusion<br />

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Conference <strong>Engineering</strong> Education in Sustainable Development <strong>Delft</strong>, 24-25 October, 2002<br />

In view of the results obtained and the reactions by the students all three approaches seem to have their<br />

advantages. The relevant issues are treated to their fullest extent in the second one. The first and the third<br />

one had the most appeal for the students. The plan for the future curriculum is now to combine the last two in<br />

particular.<br />

For the coming year a program is therefore containing the following components:<br />

• Introduction, when possible with a role for an outside guest-lecturer<br />

• Workshop<br />

• Short tasks to be done in a week followed by a presentation<br />

The subjects of those tasks are parts of the ‘daily life’ cases as described in the first approach.<br />

Implementation in the main phases of the study<br />

The curriculum Chemical engineering is presently being adapted. Problem oriented learning and self-study<br />

based on projects in small groups will become major components. As discussed that is a perfect environment<br />

to integrate sustainability issues. Several projects and cases will be made around specific sustainable<br />

technology developments. In all projects students have to make explicit in what way they have involved the<br />

‘People, Planet, Profit’ triangle in assessing the problems and defining the solutions. In that way sustainability<br />

becomes an integrated and ‘normal’ part of the design process.<br />

Furthermore, as said already in all modules involving energy, materials, resources etc. the relation with<br />

sustainability will be made and the specific knowledge and tools required are treated specifically there.<br />

Specific modules on safety, environment and regulations, and on business operation do exist. These will be<br />

adapted such that they cover sustainable issues that fall in their area, in particular also the ‘non-technical’<br />

part of sustainable development.<br />

Results, discussion and suggestions<br />

Sustainable development is easily introduced in chemistry and chemical engineering. Actually in our opinion<br />

they have a strong connection, not only because C&CE is involved in much of the issues but also because of<br />

‘history’. Chemistry and chemical industry are strongly linked to the environmental issues that form one of the<br />

‘pillars’ of sustainable development. There is therefore much affinity for it. It is one reason more why<br />

sustainable development must be integrated in C&CE studies.<br />

Students proved to be in general quite interested, curious for new developments and co-operative. They were<br />

open minded to the concepts of sustainability and acknowledged in informal discussions its importance. They<br />

take part in the workshops and in the projects, which are done as introduction, commonly with much zeal and<br />

quite motivated.<br />

Nevertheless it appears to be difficult to translate the broad, global, and therefore sometimes abstract<br />

features of sustainability to a more practical and operational level. A lot of students seem to have difficulties<br />

with this. The question whether sustainability has really been internalised in their ‘thinking and doing’ still<br />

remains.<br />

A repeatedly occurring discussion is the apparent problem of ‘introducing new subjects’ in studies too<br />

crammed with subjects. Based on our experience and the proper arguments are:<br />

• priority setting when selecting subjects and the extent they are dealt with is a normal situation: the outside<br />

world changes, so must the study<br />

• the major change that is needed concerns the ‘mind-set’ and attitude of students and the new conditions that<br />

are to be observed when developing and designing products and processes<br />

• many aspects and items relevant for the sustainable issues are already part of the normal subjects dealt with.<br />

It is more a change of scope then of subjects<br />

Based on our experience the conclusion can be that the impact in time is not too large and crowding out of<br />

subjects does not really need to be large. Much background information has to be gathered anyhow by the<br />

students themselves when doing projects and cases.<br />

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Conference <strong>Engineering</strong> Education in Sustainable Development <strong>Delft</strong>, 24-25 October, 2002<br />

The shift in focus towards a ‘systems approach’ and multidisciplinarity can be achieved to a large extent by<br />

selecting suitable cases for projects and problem oriented learning. There is no need for time consuming<br />

extra courses.<br />

Further information<br />

Specific and detailed information on set-up of courses, learning materials and experiences is available<br />

through the project website ‘ www.projectcirrus.net ‘ (however only in Dutch language)<br />

A final remark and contribution to the discussion on the future of chemistry:<br />

As you have seen, the integration of sustainable development studies chemistry and chemical engineering is<br />

still unfinished. Progress is intermittently, partly due also to the restructuring of departments and studies that<br />

takes place on the same moment. Certainly that restructuring at the other hand offers opportunities for<br />

integration too<br />

Notwithstanding the obstacles, we see much profit in the route for integration we chose against a route with<br />

separate and ‘outside the ordinary’ courses, which of course because of their ‘isolation’ could be set up much<br />

more easily and more appeal to outside parties.<br />

The interest shown by the students, and the lecturers, confirms however that sustainability is seen as an<br />

essential part, although form and content are under discussion, and always will be.<br />

Secondly, our experience, confirmed by reactions from other universities and industries, indicates that<br />

sustainable development and the innovation oriented role in it for chemistry and chemical engineering can<br />

provide the study and the profession again with a challenging character that it seemed to have lost. Specific<br />

courses and lectures on sustainable chemical development do appeal to many students and others. That<br />

could be used more explicitly to increase the attractiveness for the study, which is still rapidly dwindling.<br />

In view of the necessary role chemistry and chemical engineering have to play in sustainable development,<br />

that will serve both.<br />

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Conference <strong>Engineering</strong> Education in Sustainable Development <strong>Delft</strong>, 24-25 October, 2002<br />

References<br />

Beer, E.P.W. de, B. Mast, M. van Stigt, Laboratorium en Milieu, 1 e druk, Houten, 1999, Bohn Stafleu Van<br />

Loghum<br />

Cann, M.C.; and Connelly, M.E. Real World Cases in Green Chemistry, American Chemical Society:<br />

Washington, DC, 2000<br />

Green, J.W., Incorporation of Pollution Prevention Principles Into chemical Science, 1 e ed., 1996,<br />

Keiski, R.L.; Green chemistry and production – Green chemistry education in environmental and process<br />

engineering study programs, proceedings of Entrée 2000, University of Ulster, Belfast Northern Ireland, 15 –<br />

18 November 2000<br />

Lemkowitz, S.M.; Korevaar, G.; Harmsen, G.J.; Pasman, H.J.; Implementation of sustainable development<br />

into (chemical) engineering education at universities, proceedings of Entrée 2000, University of Ulster, Belfast<br />

Northern Ireland, 15 – 18 November 2000<br />

Rooij, A.H.de; Mulderink, J.J.M.; Heugten, W.F.W.M. van (editors) Sustainable Technological Development<br />

in Chemistry, Improving the quality of life through chemistry and agriculture, Netherlands’ Foundation for<br />

Development of Sustainable Chemistry, DCO, Wageningen, 1999, ISBN 90-804863-1-0<br />

Schijndel, P. van.; Kasteren, H.; Principal tools for a cleaner chemical technology, proceedings of Entrée<br />

2001, University of Florence, Florence, Italy, 14 – 17 November 2001<br />

Hodgson, S; Perdan, S.; The imperative of integration: sustainability education and training for the UK<br />

chemical industry, proceedings of Entrée 2001, University of Florence, Florence, Italy, 14 – 17 November<br />

2001 university of Michigan<br />

Venselaar, J. Need and opportunity for sustainable process engineering NPT Procestechnologie 7, 1(2000),<br />

37- 39<br />

Venselaar, J., N. Roorda, T. Severijn, Integrating sustainable development in engineering education:The<br />

novel CIRRUS approach, this conference<br />

Sustainability in Chemical Education, Journal of Green Chemistry, 2000<br />

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Conference <strong>Engineering</strong> Education in Sustainable Development <strong>Delft</strong>, 24-25 October, 2002<br />

Annex<br />

An Example: The outline of a Role Play for the Introduction of Sustainability in Chemistry<br />

The case: Vanilla from the company Taste<br />

Its synthetical vanilla flavour contains a substance that is carcinogenic due to the specific production process and the substance is<br />

also in the air and water emitted. (specific information is given in a separte leaflet)<br />

Method: discussion by means of roles with specific background information<br />

5 Roles: general manager, research chemist, commercial manager, employee consumers organisation, journalist local newspaper.<br />

Product:<br />

Time schedule:<br />

press conference organised by general manager and commercial manager for a large group of journalists and<br />

representatives of consumers organisations, in which a solution will be presented for the problems facing the company in<br />

order to safe the company’s image.<br />

• 5 min<br />

role play:<br />

handing out en explaining roles to the entire group<br />

• 20 min discussion on the problem in own small team<br />

• 10 min preparation of the press conference in own small team<br />

press conference:<br />

• 30 min performing the press conferences to the entire group<br />

• 5 min final discussion on the case with the entire group<br />

role 1: Research Chemist<br />

Characteristics:<br />

• Performs research on preparation and extraction of vanilla<br />

• Is the only one with substantial expertise on vanilla production<br />

• Looks for solutions for technical problems (trouble shooter)<br />

Tasks:<br />

• During the role play the researcher tries to inform the manager and the commercial manager as good as possible with the information<br />

below;<br />

• During the press conference the researcher remains at the background as a consultant for the commercial manager.<br />

role 2: General Manager<br />

Characteristics:<br />

• Supervises the division Flavours<br />

• Stimulates people to solve problems<br />

• Knows some things about chemistry, but relies mainly on his/her expert.<br />

Tasks:<br />

• During the role play the manager will lead the discussion.<br />

• During the press conference the manager leads the discussion between the journalists and the marketeer.<br />

role 3: Commercial manager<br />

Characteristics:<br />

• Develops new applications for flavours<br />

• Takes care of the advertisement<br />

• Is the spokes man/woman of the company, takes care of PR<br />

Tasks:<br />

• During the role play the commercial manager must prepare the press conference for the company. It is his/her duty to avoid as much<br />

damage as possible to the image of the company. In order to explain the solutions the company has come up with he/she puts a few key<br />

notes on a overhead sheet.<br />

• During the press conference the commercial manager performs a short presentation and answers questions from journalists.<br />

Role 4: representative consumer organisation<br />

Characteristics:<br />

• Performs control tests to food products, e.g. from Taste.<br />

• Rapports irregularities to society, including journalists.<br />

Tasks:<br />

• The role-play starts when the representative of the consumer organisation reveals the discovery below to the public. After that the<br />

discussion in the small team can begin.<br />

• During the press conference the employee consumer organisation can assist the journalist in putting questions when another team<br />

performs their press conference. During the press conference of his/her own small team, the employee does not play a part.<br />

Role 5: The Journalist<br />

Characteristics:<br />

• Is seen as troublemaker by the company and is very critical;<br />

• Suspects the Consumer organisation to have found something and puts sharp questions<br />

Tasks:<br />

• During the role play the journalist should follow the discussion closely and formulate critical questions with regard to public health and<br />

environment, etc<br />

• During the press conference the journalist puts sharp questions to the other teams, when they perform their press conference.<br />

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Conference <strong>Engineering</strong> Education in Sustainable Development <strong>Delft</strong>, 24-25 October, 2002<br />

005 <strong>Engineering</strong> education for the “real” world. Educating engineers to meet real<br />

needs with minimal environmental effects, Paul Anderson, Ph.D., Illinois Institute of<br />

Technology, John Paul Kusz, MBA, MFA, Stuart Graduate School of Business, USA<br />

Changing Course in Education<br />

Over the past five years, we have partnered in teaching a required course in Stuart’s Environmental<br />

Management Program - “Industrial Ecology”. During that time we have been developing and refining the<br />

course and the program in which it is contained.<br />

We have come to realize that environmental management is evolving in the US and throughout the world<br />

from that of a regulatory and compliance activity that is focused on the mitigation of the effects of commerce,<br />

to an integrating activity that incorporates ecologically sensitive practices, based on emerging values about<br />

our role as stewards of place. This reality may challenge the constructs of many of the traditional disciplines<br />

engaged in a commercial enterprise, including those of the engineer, designer and others who make<br />

decisions about the products and services we chose to market and manufacture, and how we go about it.<br />

Drawing on over 50 years of engineering and industrial design experience in both academia and industry,<br />

much of it focused on the environmental effects of products and processes, we were challenged by the<br />

Environmental Management Program at the Stuart Graduate School of Business to develop a course that<br />

presented the concepts of Sustainable Development and Industrial Ecology to a range of students, including<br />

a significant number of engineering students and professionals.<br />

Bringing the teaching formats of design (studio) and engineering (lab) to the course while engaging<br />

disciplines other than engineering serendipitously resulted in an opportunity that mirrors what happens in the<br />

“real” world. This approach made it possible to create an integrated “Learn – Think – Do” model. It also<br />

allowed us to set up a dynamic in the classroom that reveals the complexities of systems (resource and<br />

energy flows) and the networks (people and culture) that drive and/or inhibit system efficiencies and<br />

effectiveness.<br />

In addition, a number of projects based on the “Learn – Think – Do” model were developed to engage<br />

students in an increasingly complex series of exercises. These proved quite successful in making concepts<br />

real and relevant to the students. Projects ranged from simple individual, short term projects to team projects<br />

based on learning related to concepts of industrial ecology, life cycle thinking, and sustainable enterprise<br />

models in the meeting of customer needs with products and services. Learning related to creative group<br />

problem solving was also part of the experience.<br />

Course components were evolved over the past five years in response to our assessments and student<br />

feedback. The current course provides a fast moving set of realistic experiences.<br />

The model for the course caused us to realize the need for more interdisciplinary education and course work,<br />

especially in an area as ecologically and culturally significant as Sustainable Development.<br />

As the title of this paper suggests, engineering for the real world is a challenge that takes a holistic view of<br />

enterprise and the place (the world) in which we operate. However, getting to a truly holistic view that sees<br />

our business models in the context of the real world will not be the result of another program like the quality<br />

assurance, or management systems of earlier eras. Getting there will require a strategic perspective that<br />

begins the process of integrating the three legs of sustainability - economic viability, environmental integrity<br />

and social equity.<br />

In the early 1990’sThe Stuart Graduate School of Business developed a traditional Environmental<br />

Management Program with courses that reflected a model of compliance with a “command and control”<br />

regulatory framework. These courses included Environmental Law, Risk Management, Air and Water<br />

Pollution Control, Solid and Hazardous Waste Management, and Industrial Health and Safety. The<br />

coursework reflected needs defined by industry and was crafted in the belief that the business community<br />

needed to be armed with a knowledge base that was able to contend with the regulatory framework – a<br />

framework that was largely viewed by many businesses as a restriction to the activity associated with a<br />

profitable enterprise.<br />

Knowledge in these traditional areas is essential to managing an entity within a compliance model, but the<br />

knowledge to create greater efficiencies and new business models that resonate with a sustainable<br />

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Conference <strong>Engineering</strong> Education in Sustainable Development <strong>Delft</strong>, 24-25 October, 2002<br />

enterprise was not being presented and explored. We determined that we needed to differentiate the<br />

program and shift the curriculum from one that solely presents traditional courses to a curriculum that<br />

includes the creative and proactive integration of an environmentally conscious model of sustainability with an<br />

integrated, multi-disciplined business model. As a result, we introduced and refined courses that redirect the<br />

program toward a model of proactive assertion of strategies that reposition and expand the role of those<br />

disciplines that contribute to an organization’s success. The new model moves from managing environmental<br />

effects at the end of the pipe and on the factory floor to one that includes participation with strategic planning,<br />

marketing, product design/development, engineering and management in the corner offices and in the<br />

boardroom. A new view emerges, wherein environmental management is seen as allied with strategic<br />

concerns of the enterprise.<br />

We ask the students, many of whom are already engaged in industry; to assess how environmental<br />

management is viewed by the organization’s leadership. We then ask them to speculate about the perception<br />

of that leadership with a simple question:<br />

“Is environmental management in your organization viewed as a<br />

’money maker’, ‘money saver’ or ‘money taker’?”<br />

The response is typically the least favourable, that is, environmental management is viewed as taking money<br />

from the firm. It is viewed as a cost centre. As such, environmental management has little power in the<br />

decision-making that drives strategy. It is our view that environmental management should be repositioned<br />

and integrated as a contributor to the bottom line as a source of new wealth based on both efficiency gains in<br />

the operation of the enterprise and on the role of environmental management in promoting and developing a<br />

vision of sustainability within the organization that is directed to the larger concept of “sustainable<br />

development.”<br />

By integrating environmental management into traditional disciplines such as engineering an enterprise can<br />

significantly contribute to the role that it plays in the natural ecology with its own designed industrial ecology.<br />

The environmental management strategy in the new scenario may help a firm pose and address questions<br />

such as:<br />

• Does our commercial success, as we know it, conflict with environmental health and integrity, and<br />

ultimately sustainability?<br />

• If it does, can the conflict be resolved?<br />

• What is our role, the role of our business and our products/services, in that resolution?<br />

Answering these questions effectively may be key to survival in a sustainable future.<br />

Our view in with regard to the source of sustainability is supported by continuing research such as a survey<br />

conducted by A.D. Little in 1999. It asked nearly 500 business leaders from around the world about where<br />

they could make the most progress toward achieving their sustainable development goals across the lifecycle<br />

of their products. In both Europe and the United States, the greatest potential for progress was seen to be at<br />

the beginning of the product life cycle in research, development and design. The decisions taken at this first<br />

phase of the product lifecycle affect all the subsequent phases and are therefore the most critical. Since<br />

these decisions are taken at the strategic and business and product planning level in any enterprise, it follows<br />

that the environmental benefits and consequences of these decisions must be considered at the strategic<br />

and business and product planning level as well. (See figure below.)<br />

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Conference <strong>Engineering</strong> Education in Sustainable Development <strong>Delft</strong>, 24-25 October, 2002<br />

Our effort to reposition and expand the role of environmental management has included the development<br />

and refinement of three required courses in the Environmental Management Program, “Industrial Ecology”<br />

(EM-507) “Contemporary Issues and Global Sustainability (EM-520) and “Business Strategy: The<br />

Sustainable Enterprise” (EM-590). We continue to refine these courses and add others. We are also<br />

exploring the development of an MBA with a concentration in Sustainable Enterprise Management.<br />

By exploring both the systems and the networks that support a business and its products, students develop<br />

an understanding of the elements that influence product choices from the perspective of multiple disciplines<br />

and multiple stakeholders.<br />

Theory and the case study approach are critical to understanding the conditions necessary for the promotion<br />

and development of sustainable enterprise. In the Business Strategy and Industrial Ecology courses, case<br />

studies are complimented by final projects that require the development of new product and business<br />

models. These reflect the learning and insights developed throughout the semester. Using real products and<br />

real businesses, the students are challenged to reduce the environmental footprint associated with the<br />

respective products and industries. The process is one of learning, thinking and doing.<br />

LEARN THINK DO<br />

The “Learn, Think, Do” model was developed in the Industrial Ecology course nearly four years ago to<br />

engage the learning of theory, and applied theory (tools/methods/case studies) with creative thinking towards<br />

a solution that integrates the needs of all the stakeholders, including the environment. Finding the elusive<br />

“common set” is the challenge. It involves a great deal of “Doing”.<br />

Bringing practice into the real world<br />

The centre for sustainable enterprise<br />

A community-based platform for action (learning thinking doing)<br />

As the Environmental Management program progressed, we realized that we and our students would benefit<br />

by more “doing” - applying the learning related to sustainable development to local industries and institutions<br />

while providing those same organizations with a venue for learning and exploration that might provide<br />

sensitisation to the issues, education about the tools, methods and innovations, and the empowerment to<br />

affect the changes needed to move toward sustainability In the process, we might also secure a more<br />

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Conference <strong>Engineering</strong> Education in Sustainable Development <strong>Delft</strong>, 24-25 October, 2002<br />

desirable present and future for all of us and our city (Chicago).The seed for the Centre of Sustainable<br />

Enterprise at the Stuart Graduate School of Business was sown.<br />

In April of 2000, we developed a plan for the centre, presenting it to the business, governmental and nongovernmental<br />

communities, in July of that year. The reception and feedback were beyond our expectations,<br />

and with refinement of mission and principal activities, the Centre for Sustainable Enterprise was established<br />

at Stuart.<br />

The Stuart Graduate School of Business is ideally positioned to be<br />

the platform for a centre dedicated to the sustainability of Chicago<br />

and Illinois at the enterprise level. Within Stuart as its core, The<br />

Centre for Sustainable Enterprise is designed bring the many<br />

disciplines resident at the Illinois Institute of Technology together in a<br />

collaborative relationship with business corporations, other academic<br />

institutions, government agencies and members of the NGO<br />

community to identify, develop, communicate, and help implement<br />

practical and equitable business strategies that advance the<br />

ecological sustainability of the Greater Chicago Area, while fostering<br />

our current and future economic viability.<br />

It is platform of excellence that can merge the diverse elements<br />

necessary to learn about, develop, test and help implement new<br />

enterprise models that are designed to protect, complement and<br />

restore the natural capital that is essential for sustainability.<br />

The mission of the Centre for Sustainable Enterprise:<br />

To serve as a resource centre where business, academic, government agency and NGO communities<br />

collaborate to identify, develop, communicate, and help implement practical and equitable business strategies<br />

to advance the ecological and economic sustainability of the Greater Chicago Area, and beyond…<br />

The principal activities of the Centre for Sustainable Enterprise include:<br />

• Providing a Common Ground.<br />

Serve as a forum where groups can collaborate to remove barriers to achieving ecological and economic<br />

sustainability while learning, teaching and sharing the elements of sustainable enterprise. (This is be the<br />

foundation for all the centre projects and activities.)<br />

• Executive Education.<br />

Educate, sensitise and empower key corporate executives and small/medium business owners with<br />

practical and equitable business strategies that foster ecological and economic sustainability<br />

• Educational Support<br />

Provide sustainable enterprise instruction, curricula and internship projects to university-based programs<br />

and community colleges within the Greater Chicago Area.<br />

• Commercial Applications of Research<br />

Provide the platform for quick and efficient transfers of university-based research and proven industrybased<br />

applications to companies, especially small and medium enterprises.<br />

• Focused Business Support<br />

Work with existing businesses and organizations to develop the tools for success in an emerging,<br />

sustainable economy.<br />

• New Business Development<br />

Incubate start-up companies that promote sustainable environmental technologies and/or practices with<br />

the centre’s Strategic Workgroup on Alternative Paradigms. (SWAP)<br />

• Research.<br />

Gather data on current use of elements of sustainability and develop reliable metrics and feedback loops<br />

that demonstrate the benefits related to the use of sustainable strategies.<br />

• Information Sharing<br />

Expand the benefits of the learning and teaching efforts of the centre by sharing the systems, methods,<br />

and technologies developed through the centre with other organizations and businesses, locally and<br />

nationally.<br />

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Conference <strong>Engineering</strong> Education in Sustainable Development <strong>Delft</strong>, 24-25 October, 2002<br />

• Since inception, we have embarked on several projects, with others pending, that meet the CSE mission.<br />

They are aligned with its principal activities and provide the real world experience that is essential to<br />

students.<br />

• Some of the programs and projects include:<br />

• A research and implementation project dedicated to exploring wind power with an innovative turbine<br />

technology that provides approximately 30% more energy than conventional wind turbines. The centre<br />

and its partners will evaluate the technology, demonstrate it with the City of Chicago, Department of the<br />

Environment and, if feasible, engage in the development of green energy systems that combine wind,<br />

solar and clean energy storage in a reliable off-grid system.<br />

• A Information Management project that will synchronize environmental and industrial data from over 60<br />

organizations on a newly established 6,000-acre brown field redevelopment on Chicago’s southern<br />

border. The redevelopment will include future refinement management of the data with IT and GPS to<br />

create baseline information on the site, identify opportunities for environmental improvement, and<br />

potentially remediate approximately 3,000 acres of the site for wetland and fly-though habitat.<br />

• A homeowners’ energy analysis in conjunction with the City of Chicago, Department of the Environment<br />

and Home Depot that brings students into the community to assist homeowners in reducing their energy<br />

bill through comparative analysis, rewarding the homeowners who participate with vouchers for energy<br />

saving purchases such as insulation.<br />

• An industrial metabolism project with a Real Estate Investment Trust, in which we will work with the<br />

developer in selecting energy efficient systems for a new multi-purpose project in the heart of Chicago. In<br />

addition, we will convene with tenants of the project to evaluate purchases from interior treatments to<br />

supplies in order to minimize the environmental effects of their choices and to create synergies in<br />

selections that will further reduce environmental impacts by reducing redundancies and enhancing<br />

complimentary effects.<br />

• Other planned projects include sector specific stakeholder group projects in industries that have major<br />

impacts on the viability of large urban centres. (See: CSE website - www.stuart.edu/cse )<br />

Validation<br />

The work that we’ve put into the program as we’ve redirected its course has not gone<br />

unnoticed. The World Resources Institute has recognized the Environmental Management<br />

Program at Stuart for the second time in its ranking of MBA programs. Stuart Graduate<br />

School of Business at Illinois Institute of Technology has been ranked among the world’s 15<br />

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Conference <strong>Engineering</strong> Education in Sustainable Development <strong>Delft</strong>, 24-25 October, 2002<br />

leading MBA programs incorporating environmental management. And the environmental management<br />

curriculum is ranked among the top six in the nation.<br />

The rankings were released in a report issued jointly by the World Resources Institute and the Aspen<br />

Institute’s Initiative for Social Innovation through Business. The report, Beyond Grey Pinstripes<br />

2001:Preparing MBAs for Social and Environmental Stewardship, is the only business school survey<br />

evaluating how well MBA programs integrate social, environmental and sustainability topics into business<br />

training. (The complete report is available on the Internet at: www.beyondgreypinstripes.org.)<br />

Crain’s Chicago Business featured the Environmental Management Program as a key<br />

to the success in the transition of a recent graduate Laura Sylvester, a manager at<br />

Fisher Service Co., and how she now uses what she learned in the program and how<br />

that learning, and the philosophy it engendered, contributes to the bottom line of her<br />

employer, Fischer Service Company.<br />

In a report entitled: Environmental Training Makes the Grade, Not the old school,<br />

September 9, 2001, quotes like the ones below attest to the benefits of the reshaped<br />

Environmental Management Program at the Stuart Graduate School of Business.<br />

• …now she advises clients about why they should reduce emissions and how<br />

Fisher products can help.<br />

• "Our biggest problem is getting our customers on board with emission controls", says Scott R. Grunwald,<br />

Ms. Sylvester's boss. "We want Laura to be able to go in and talk to them about their emissions. We see<br />

it as an increased sales channel". Ms. Sylvester says the program "gave students a vision of what<br />

sustainability is, and more than that, it taught you how to incorporate that vision into the manufacturing<br />

and service division."<br />

• A closer look at industrial ecology at the Stuart Graduate School of Business<br />

Industrial Ecology is an interdisciplinary field involving technology (science and engineering), public policy and<br />

regulatory issues, and business administration. Within that framework the major goal of the course is to<br />

promote creative and comprehensive problem solving in the application of Industrial Ecology<br />

Specific objectives of the course include:<br />

• introduction of the philosophy of industrial ecology<br />

• introduction of the tools of industrial ecology and opportunities to explore and apply tools such as<br />

industrial metabolism, input-output analysis, life cycle assessment accounting, design for the<br />

environment<br />

A key concept in the practice of Industrial Ecology is related to design and creativity. With Industrial Ecology,<br />

we DESIGN industrial infrastructures as if they were a series of interlocking ecosystems.”<br />

The design of Industrial Ecology is based on the Philosophy of IE as forwarded by Hardin Tibbs in his seminal<br />

work in 1992:<br />

• industrial activities balanced with nature<br />

• industrial growth with low environmental impact<br />

• industrial development that is sustainable<br />

• technology is the expression of human curiosity and ingenuity with technology and innovation designed<br />

for social and environmental yield<br />

• human activities are not intrinsically “unnatural”<br />

• today’s problems can only be solved by future newness – there is no “way back”<br />

In the Industrial Ecology course students are asked to employ the learning and philosophy from coursework<br />

in “product-centred” exercises and projects. The student experience includes examination of the product as<br />

the means to meeting a “need”; understanding what needs, and whose needs, are being met; exploring the<br />

many forces that shape the product, including systems and networks; and finally, proposing viable<br />

alternatives that are designed to reduce or eliminate negative environmental consequences.<br />

“Product-centred” exercises and projects have been created to replicate the product development process.<br />

The coursework includes an introduction to several emerging tools and strategies that are changing the way<br />

we might address a need in the marketplace.<br />

Starting with an overview of the basic principles of ecology, students explore the relationship of Natural<br />

Systems and the innate intelligence within Nature to the emergence of human-made systems and the<br />

constructs born of human intelligence that manage those systems. Much of the investigation of the humanmade<br />

systems explores the “unintended consequences” of seemingly good intentions that are not initially<br />

obvious to the system designers.<br />

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Conference <strong>Engineering</strong> Education in Sustainable Development <strong>Delft</strong>, 24-25 October, 2002<br />

The course starts with a project based on defining products that are not sustainable. Looking at products in<br />

relationship to economic viability, environmental integrity, and social equity, students are asked to find a<br />

product that manifests “unsustainability.” Named “The Dumb Products Contest”, the exercise helps in the<br />

understanding of how much waste and “unsustainable” product is being created.<br />

As the course progresses, students are introduced to concepts and tools such as:<br />

• “Natural Capitalism”<br />

• “Life Cycle Assessment”<br />

• “The Natural Step”<br />

• “Input/Output Analysis”<br />

• “Environmental Cost Accounting”<br />

• “Product Footprint Reduction Strategies”<br />

These are supplemented with information about cultural needs assessment based on the theory of Abraham<br />

Maslow and exercises in creativity and teamwork based on Edward de Bono and Christopher Barlow.<br />

The learning is applied to, and is centred on, a team project. The project takes a product and assesses it in<br />

detail with the application of the tools and concepts that were explored in the class. The investigation literally<br />

dissects the product and ends with an exploration of viable alternatives that have a smaller footprint and may<br />

approach a sustainable solution set to the utility being provided.<br />

A systems view is furthered with life cycle conceptualisation and visioning that includes the designer of the<br />

system. Viewing the complete flow of resources and energy embedded in a product allows for opportunities<br />

to redirect and/or eliminate particularly offensive environmental effects associated with a product.<br />

Natural Capital<br />

Extraction<br />

Conversion<br />

Design Artifact?<br />

Manufacture<br />

Distribution<br />

Recovery<br />

Industrial Ecology<br />

Acute and Chronic<br />

Entropy & Diffusion<br />

“Return to Sender”<br />

Β<br />

Natural Systems<br />

View/Self-view<br />

View/Self-view<br />

Use/Abuse/Reuse The View<br />

The View<br />

Today?<br />

Tomorrow?<br />

DESIGNING TOMORROW TODAY,<br />

JP Kusz, Ltd -<br />

With the redesign of systems that include both humans and our propensity to underestimate the<br />

consequences of our often, incomplete constructs, issues of unintended consequences that emanate from<br />

our otherwise good intentions to organize flows into productive systems are explored. Some examples are<br />

the vaporization and release of mercury from the well intended recycling of automotive carcasses, and the<br />

more recent misstep related to recycling of protein in animal feed that resulted in bovine spongiform<br />

encephalopathy (BSE), also known as Mad Cow Disease.<br />

Included in the discourse on consequences are the issues related to population expansion and contraction<br />

and the social and political implications of managing the resource that is us.<br />

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Conference <strong>Engineering</strong> Education in Sustainable Development <strong>Delft</strong>, 24-25 October, 2002<br />

Included also are issues of political and social structure that have created the linear framework upon which<br />

current linear, business models are built, and how they may need<br />

to be revisited or changed to accommodate for healthier,<br />

sustainable systems. These are discussed in the context of time,<br />

how our assumptions are affected by new knowledge through<br />

history, and how those assumptions may need to be rethought<br />

and/or updated.<br />

The effects of our assumptions and the resulting constructs are<br />

juxtaposed on the interaction that results between people, their<br />

products and the processes they devise to create those products.<br />

Lastly, the dynamic of People + Product + Process (P+P+P) is<br />

studied in terms of our role as creative, eco-literate, facilitators of<br />

the P+P+P interactions and how our efforts might affect the place<br />

where it all happens, right here on this abundant and limited planet<br />

called Earth.<br />

Creative, Eco-literate,<br />

Multi-disciplined, Facilitator<br />

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Conference <strong>Engineering</strong> Education in Sustainable Development <strong>Delft</strong>, 24-25 October, 2002<br />

007 Education in sustainable development at mechanical engineering. The<br />

successful use of projects for integration of sustainable development, Ir. A.R.C. de<br />

Haan, Prof.ir. J. Klein Woud, <strong>Delft</strong> University of Technology, The Netherlands<br />

Abstract<br />

Mechanical <strong>Engineering</strong> uses projects for 50% of its curriculum, to teach their students. Advantage of this<br />

approach is that the term Sustainable Development, sometimes seen as vague or un-measurable, can be<br />

made very concrete. Despite some negative views on the use of technology for reaching sustainability, it is<br />

our belief that Technology is at least part of the strategy to be implemented for Sustainable Development.<br />

The mostly used operational description of Sustainable Development in these projects is, not surprisingly,<br />

“Creating capacity for continuity”. All the learning objectives we have in teaching our students in Sustainable<br />

Development, are spread over the first three years. The can be summarized by the terms: Recognition of<br />

trends (1 st year), Design strategies (2 nd year), and, Policy & Management strategies (3 rd year)<br />

.<br />

By giving more feedback in small groups, rather than spending a lot of hours in front of the classroom<br />

lecturing, the implementation of Sustainable Development by the students really makes a lot of sense. A<br />

possible disadvantage of the concrete project approach at Mechanical <strong>Engineering</strong>, is that students see<br />

Sustainable Development rather as a formula in which one has to substitute the right values and the correct<br />

answer follows automatically. The intensive feedback offers the teacher the chance to overcome this and to<br />

make Sustainable Development rather a strategy for the design process than a preset list of requirements<br />

that has to be met. Our students will be in the position of setting the policy right and make visions for the<br />

future of their enterprise, therefore needing to form strategies rather than applying strict rules.<br />

Sustainable Development<br />

“Our design is made for 100% out of pure steel that can be recycled at the end of its lifetime for 100%, now<br />

you tell me why this design is not completely sustainable!”<br />

During the same time when the popularity of the terms Environment and Sustainable Development rose, both<br />

terms became more and more vague. It is therefore necessary to make the distinction between those terms<br />

clear and make both terms concrete so the can be used for the subject of this article, aviation.<br />

In the last three decades of the past century The Environment became hot issue. Governments tried to force<br />

people in using less energy as the general idea in the late seventies was that the oil fields capacity decreased<br />

rapidly. The accident at the Union Carbide firm in India contaminated a large area and killed lots of people.<br />

Society asked for better security and better standards of living in densely populated areas. Waste pipes were<br />

stretched, filters were placed, some insecticides were banded, the frog returned to the pools near factories. A<br />

lot of troubles seemed to be solved by what we now call end of pipe solutions, i.e. not changing the process<br />

itself, but making its negative side effects less harmful.<br />

In the eighties the efforts made appeared to be not enough. Scientist warned for the enormous rise in cancer<br />

casualties when the decrease of the ozone layer would not be stopped. Other scientist warned for an even<br />

bigger problem of climate change and all its hazardous effects. After the nuclear accident at Tsjernobyl near<br />

Kiev in 1986 society deeply realized that effects of its handling on Earth did not only effect local area, but<br />

could also lead to global deterioration of planet Earth (Mulder in De Haan, 2000).<br />

Sustainable Development as a concept was introduced in the 1987 United Nations report of the Brundtland<br />

comity. Her comity defined Sustainable Development as follows (Brundtland, 1987):<br />

Sustainable Development is a development that meets the needs of the present without compromising the<br />

ability of future generations to meet their own needs, It contains within it two concepts:<br />

(1) the concept of needs, in particular the essential needs of the world’s poor, to which overriding priority<br />

should be given; and<br />

(2) the idea of limitations imposed by the state of technology and social organization on the environment’s<br />

ability to meet present and future needs.<br />

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Conference <strong>Engineering</strong> Education in Sustainable Development <strong>Delft</strong>, 24-25 October, 2002<br />

The popularity of the concept Sustainable Development is enormous and ever increasing. Sustainable<br />

Development is like the concept Democracy; nobody will argue its need. At the same time the concept, at<br />

least in this definition, is open and can mean a lot of things. In that sense there is a distinction between<br />

Environment and Sustainable Development (De Haan, 2001). Everybody knows what his or her environment<br />

is. It is local, both in time and space and it is something you can see, touch, feel, hear, smell et cetera, but<br />

what does the open term Sustainable Development mean? <strong>Engineering</strong> students like to have a more direct<br />

definition, and although maybe not completely accurate, we often discuss about Sustainable Development<br />

with our students using the following description (De Haan, 2001):<br />

Sustainable Development is creating capacity for continuity.<br />

This description clearly states Sustainable Development as a long-term view on activities and therefore also<br />

concerning a geographically wide scoop. A good and healthy Environment is therefore part of a Sustainable<br />

Development, but is surprisingly not always a required condition for Sustainable Development.<br />

Take as an example the lightweight automobile. Traditionally, cars were made out of steel, relatively low<br />

pollution in the production process, and almost for 100% recyclable at the end of its lifetime. New materials,<br />

like composites, were introduced to make the car lighter and let it use less petrol per kilometre. Unfortunately,<br />

the production has severe effects on local environment and at the end of its lifetime, the car can be<br />

shreddered, but the shredder parts cannot be used again and can only be land filled. The question now is if<br />

the lesser use of petrol during the use phase in the cars life is worth more than the adverse effects in the<br />

production and wasting phase. The answer to this question must come from a detailed Life Cycle Analysis<br />

(LCA), which is described in Tempelman (1999) and critically analysed in Bras-Klapwijk (1999).<br />

Technology for sustainability; a Trojan horse?<br />

Though technology brought human beings a lot of welfare, the use of technology gave mankind also some<br />

major both local and global problems to solve. Still, the belief in a technology that can solve every occurring<br />

problem is substantial. Especially governmental agencies appear to think ‘Technology is Heaven’ and that it<br />

is worth more to show advanced technologies solving the problems, than trying to change people’s behaviour<br />

causing those troubles.<br />

Some people see ‘Technology as Hell’, as something that is inevitably leading mankind to disaster. For<br />

instance the French philosopher Jacque Ellul (figure 1), who died in 1994, shows in his famous work Le<br />

Systéme Technicien (1977) that technology can only solve a problem by introducing more new problems.<br />

Unfortunately he is only diagnosing and not giving any clues to break through this vicious spiral process.<br />

figure 1: The French philosopher Jacque Ellul (1912-1994)<br />

Ellul’s interesting work forces engineers and other people to think about the role we would like technology to<br />

play in our society. Engineers are warned by Ellul’s work, but they are not that sceptical. Engineers see it as<br />

their responsibility to use technology to give their part of the answer on the call for a more sustainable<br />

society.<br />

Nevertheless, engineers have to remember both Ellul’s warning and the concept of Sustainable Development<br />

to not solve problems locally or for short times. Sustainable Development is about creating visions for the<br />

long term and working out scenarios to make a sustainable society reality.<br />

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Conference <strong>Engineering</strong> Education in Sustainable Development <strong>Delft</strong>, 24-25 October, 2002<br />

Lots of people think the problems of society today in terms of environment and sustainability can be solved by<br />

technology. By looking around it appears this is not happening automatically. Therefore, the question “Can<br />

technology change?” out of the last paragraph should be expended by one word: “Can technology be<br />

changed?”<br />

According to Ellul, technological development is a complete autonomous process that cannot be influenced<br />

by men. The ultimate goal of the process is reaching optimal efficiency, and technology has been doing so<br />

ever since, according to Ellul.<br />

If this were the case, no effort would have to be spent on making aviation more sustainable by introducing<br />

new technologies. The only way in which technology could contribute to sustainability would be when higher<br />

efficiency would incorporate more sustainability. This may be so in some occasions, but not in all. For<br />

instance, if raising the efficiency of burning fuels in aircraft engines leads to lower ticket prices, more people<br />

would fly. This requires more flights and will eventually burn up more fossil fuels than in the situation before,<br />

the so-called rebound effect.<br />

Authors like Latour (1986) and Bijker (1989) see technology as socially constructed. They believe technology<br />

can be changed. Tempelman (1999) states that technology is both part of the problem and part of the<br />

solution. Technological development therefore has something ambiguous, but when responsibly monitored,<br />

could indeed play a large role in creating a sustainable society.<br />

Education by using projects<br />

The traditional lecture is still a widely used way to teach students, but other forms of instruction have also<br />

evaluated. The faculty of Design, <strong>Engineering</strong> and Production at the <strong>Delft</strong> University of Technology has<br />

introduced projects on a large scale in the curricula of Mechanical <strong>Engineering</strong> and Maritime Technology<br />

(figure 2).<br />

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Conference <strong>Engineering</strong> Education in Sustainable Development <strong>Delft</strong>, 24-25 October, 2002<br />

figure 2: Students working in groups on a particular project.<br />

By working on a particular design or process, students gather all the necessary information and tools they<br />

were traditionally taught in lectures and mono disciplinary practical sessions. Better results and a much<br />

higher satisfaction among student makes this way of teaching very interesting to use more widely. It also<br />

comes closer to the engineering cultural aspect of actually creating something.<br />

Changing from traditional lectures to defining and guiding projects has asked for offers by the educational<br />

staff. Teaching large groups of students (over 175 first year students in 2001!) by using lectures takes less<br />

time than supporting them individually in projects.<br />

Topics like application of mechanics, safety issues, economics, et cetera, have been split up in smaller parts,<br />

as almost every project needs this input. The same holds true for Sustainable Development that has parts in<br />

the first, second, third and fourth year. Next to these adverse effects stand the advantages of the<br />

interdisciplinary approach that is so welcomed by business organizations.<br />

Traditional theoretical courses on the so-called soft side of engineering, like economy, legal rights and<br />

philosophy, are now part of a project, instead of a separate course. It forces teacher to think practically, how<br />

students will have to cope with problems of this kind in their working relations. ig advantage is the motivation<br />

for these kind of courses among students, as they very practically experience that these ‘soft’ questions<br />

indeed play a role in their engineering practice.<br />

A negative side effect, that surely has to be overcome, is that the theory of these courses plays a minor role.<br />

Using the containments of the course is in first position; theory comes only in second place. A possible<br />

learning result for the students can be that they start seeing soft academic disciplines as tools and processes<br />

as if they were formulas. Just substitute the right values for the given parameters and the optimal answer<br />

runs out automatically. Psychology or Sustainable Development is not a toolbox; there are several academic<br />

disciplines behind it. Our approach with intensive feedback loops on the student’s work overcomes this<br />

problem, although we see it appear quite often.<br />

Sustainable Development in the Mechanical <strong>Engineering</strong> curriculum<br />

All traditional aspects of Sustainable Development that are taught on the several faculties at the <strong>Delft</strong><br />

University of Technology are part of the Mechanical <strong>Engineering</strong> courses as well. Here they are spread over<br />

three years, as Sustainable Development is part of a project in the first three years of the curriculum. The<br />

approach we take in the different projects, can be summarized by the following:<br />

• First year: Trend Recognition<br />

• Second year: Design Process<br />

• Third year: Designing and Running a Business<br />

Trend Recognition, 1 st year project on an installation for the burning of household waste<br />

Societal wishes towards more Sustainable Developments in different sectors are recognizable in the<br />

developments of trends. Students list these trends on, for instance, transport, waste handling or environment.<br />

Next to these listed trends come the possibilities and opportunities for technology, society and the ecological<br />

system.<br />

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Conference <strong>Engineering</strong> Education in Sustainable Development <strong>Delft</strong>, 24-25 October, 2002<br />

We force students to translate their vision on Sustainable Development into industrial norms that have to be<br />

met. Some of them are already possible to achieve, others require further developments in (technological)<br />

processes.<br />

The industrial norms of today should be met in the first place, but that is not the most interesting part. Much<br />

more interesting for the students is to study how these norms of today were developed and how they will<br />

change over time under the influence of societal, political and technological trends. What norms should the<br />

technical system be able to meet in, for instance, 20 years? These large industrial complexes are supposed<br />

to have a lifetime of at least this period.<br />

Some interesting learning objectives for this first year course can be summarized by:<br />

• Let the student get an idea on the possibilities and especially the non-possibilities for the government to<br />

influence processes and developments.<br />

• Give the student the insight that a lot of non-technical aspects determine the technological requirements<br />

of a certain design.<br />

Design Process, 2 nd year project on Cogeneration and Heat Pumps<br />

Central theme in this project is the design of an artifact; in this case a Cogeneration unit or a Heat Pump<br />

itself.<br />

First step in the process is the theoretical model of both artifacts. Questions like ‘What are the theoretical<br />

possible boundaries in terms of Heat Transfer?’ or ‘How does the size of the unit influence the theoretical<br />

efficiency possible?’ are handled in this phase. Results of this theoretical exercise give the students the<br />

possibility to determine the maximum possible contribution of the particular design to Sustainable<br />

Development. That is, if the students are able to translate this concept of Sustainable Development into a<br />

practical ‘list of requirements’. This is, of course, where the discussion starts… The first step in the design<br />

process finishes with an advice of the students towards a governmental agency whether to invest or not in<br />

this technology for sustainable reasons.<br />

Second step in the process is the actual design of a concrete machine. The maximum theoretical possibilities<br />

of the first step can, of course, not be reached for all kind of practical reasons. Students have to choose.<br />

They have to determine what is included in the practical design and what not. Important thing to notice her, is<br />

that the students will have to drop certain aspects that may have lead to a better design, but cannot be<br />

implemented for technical, practical, economical or sustainable reasons. Imagine that this is an important<br />

learning step for engineers who have the intention to choose for optimum technical designs.<br />

The part of the project that handles with sustainability finally gives an advice to the governmental agency<br />

whether or not to stimulate further developments in the technologies of Cogeneration and Heat Pumps for the<br />

goals that the government wants to reach in Sustainable Development. Or is it better to invest the money in<br />

more promising alternatives?<br />

Some important objectives of this project are:<br />

• Determine a set of sustainability requirements for Cogeneration and Heat Pump technology.<br />

• Make a relation between local and global Environmental and Sustainable affairs.<br />

Business design, 3 rd year project Industrial Production<br />

The third year project Industrial Production is some sort of a synthesis exercise, an exercise in which all<br />

knowledge gathered in the earlier years has to be used in order to finish the project successfully. A group of<br />

students (8 to 10 people) have to start up from scratch a production facility for a certain product like a scooter<br />

or drilling machine. The facility must be completely operational (on paper of course...) including organizational<br />

scheme, finance, legal permits, production line, material routing, etc.<br />

The founders of this new production facility have to determine in their mission statement what role they want<br />

Sustainable Development to play in their firm to get a healthy, long lasting corporation. The most interesting<br />

groups are the ones that let Sustainable Development play an extreme role, i.e. everything is sustainable, or<br />

nothing is. These groups reach the learning objectives the most, as the encounter all kinds of other<br />

requirements that have to be taken into account to keep the facility rolling. As engineers, as stated before,<br />

strife to perfection, it is, even in the third year, always hard for the students to drop certain requirements<br />

because they oppose other requirements.<br />

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Conference <strong>Engineering</strong> Education in Sustainable Development <strong>Delft</strong>, 24-25 October, 2002<br />

A final evaluation ends the course. In this evaluation, students try to describe the process from their mission<br />

statement ideas on Sustainable Development, to their practical implications. Where did they drop, or include<br />

sustainability requirements, for what reasons and what were the results? Important learning moments are the<br />

realization that not always only hard technological requirements determine to total outcome of the process in<br />

designing and operating a production facility. One cannot at the same time meet the optimal technical,<br />

environmental and safety requirements on a certain aspect in the production process and a compromise will<br />

have to be made.<br />

Some interesting learning objectives:<br />

• Taking decisions in the tension field between Vision and Reality.<br />

• Making Long Term objectives and developing Policy to reach these.<br />

Conclusions<br />

The approach of Mechanical <strong>Engineering</strong> towards teaching their students for 50% of the curriculum in<br />

projects is a very good opportunity to teach the concept of Sustainable Development. Sustainable<br />

Development never becomes “another soft course that one has to finish once in the study career”.<br />

After finishing our courses students see Sustainable Development generally as an important part of their<br />

study (scores around 7.5 on a scale of 1 to 10). Important is, that they see Sustainable Development also as<br />

an important part of their particular projects (scores around 7.2). It is rather unique in design projects that<br />

students tend to score these two almost the same. Usually, they see Sustainable Development important for<br />

the study, but far less useful for their own particular design project.<br />

By an integrated approach with intensive feedback, one overcomes the problem that Sustainable<br />

Development is seen rather as a tool, a formula in which one has to substitute the values and the right and<br />

absolute answer roles out automatically.<br />

Next to other approaches of teaching students the concept of Sustainable Development, we think our<br />

approach is a valuable addition, which we would like to advise to people who are thinking about introducing<br />

the concept of Sustainable Development into their courses or curriculum.<br />

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Conference <strong>Engineering</strong> Education in Sustainable Development <strong>Delft</strong>, 24-25 October, 2002<br />

References<br />

Bijker, W.E. et al; The social construction of technological systems, London: MIT press, 1989<br />

Bras-Klapwijk, R.M.; Adjusting life cycle assessment methodology for use in public policy discourse, <strong>Delft</strong>:<br />

<strong>Delft</strong> university of Technology, 1999<br />

Brundtland et al; Our Common Future, New York: United Nations report, 1987<br />

Ellul, J.; Le Systéme technicien, Paris: Calmann-Lévy, 1977<br />

Haan, A.R.C. de; Glare as part of Sustainable and Environmental sound engineering, Amsterdam: Kluwer<br />

Academic Publishers, 2001<br />

Haan, A.R.C. de; Aerospace <strong>Engineering</strong> in Sustainable Development, <strong>Delft</strong>: Faculty of Aerospace<br />

<strong>Engineering</strong>, 2000; Reader for the course, parts in Dutch and English<br />

Latour, B., S. Woolgar; Laboratory Life, Princeton: Princeton University Press, 1986<br />

Tempelman, E.; Sustainable Transport and Advanced Materials, Haarlem: Eburon publishers, 1999<br />

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Conference <strong>Engineering</strong> Education in Sustainable Development <strong>Delft</strong>, 24-25 October, 2002<br />

011 Towards a philosophy of sustainable engineering. Dr P Wells, Cardiff Business<br />

School, UK<br />

Introduction<br />

This paper is based on the premise that engineering, as an important aspect of human endeavour, has a vital<br />

contribution to the process of sustainable development. However, engineering education needs to be<br />

embedded in the concepts and philosophy of sustainability. In many respects such an approach involves<br />

removing engineering from the confines of the ‘hard’, quantified and scientific world and introducing many<br />

more nebulous, uncertain and ‘soft’ aspects that speak directly to core values. Still, this need not be the<br />

revolution that it at first appears. <strong>Engineering</strong> has rarely been a ‘pure’ discipline, and certainly applied<br />

engineers have to work within all sorts of constraints and value systems. Such constraints might include the<br />

commercial requirements of the business that employs them, or the need to reflect the brand values of that<br />

business. Similarly in the public sphere, engineering has reflected the values and aspirations of politicians<br />

and bureaucrats – as much in the choice of what is engineered as in how it is executed.<br />

This paper starts with an exploration of some of the many historical and cultural roots of the concept of<br />

sustainability, to illustrate the varied, fluid and discursive nature of the concept. Importantly, sustainability is<br />

not ‘located’ within any one academic discipline but demands insights and contributions from many<br />

disciplines – indeed in the long run it may even challenge the notion of disciplines at all. In the following<br />

section consideration is given to how sustainability has been treated in an engineering sense (e.g. Life Cycle<br />

Analysis; technology roadmaps; social-technical forecasts), and how engineering itself can be permeated by<br />

the concept of sustainability.<br />

A concrete example is given in the following section with a discussion of Micro Factory Retailing. This is a<br />

business model developed for the automotive industry that illustrates how; through the re-conceptualisation of<br />

the industry from sustainability perspective yields a very different type of industry. In effect this approach<br />

illustrates the space available for creative engineering when problems are redefined, but also shows how<br />

technology developments need to be aligned with environmental, social and economic requirements.<br />

The conclusions offer some tentative comments on the creation of a philosophy of engineering, at least from<br />

the perspective of a social scientist.<br />

The roots of sustainability<br />

The concept of sustainability has diverse roots including journalism (Carson, 1962), politics (WCED, 1987;<br />

Bookchin, 1971), science (Lovelock, 1979), the law (Rowlands and Green, 1992) and of course technology<br />

(Dickson, 1974). Indeed, beyond these immediate forebears are the philosophical, religious, moral, political<br />

and ideological traditions of diverse societies around the world. Some, such as the aboriginal Australians,<br />

might be said to have lived an implicit sustainability, with no need to articulate those deeply entrenched<br />

values. The growth of industrial societies, the spread of consumerism and material wealth, the greater<br />

expectations for health and welfare have all been factors in creating the need to be ‘sustainable’ in a more<br />

considered, deliberate manner. Sustainability embraces social, economic and environmental dimensions that<br />

extend well beyond the traditional discipline boundary of engineering or indeed any other single discipline.<br />

These diverse roots are important because they help to explain both the ambiguity and the vitality of the<br />

concept of sustainability. Indeed the sustainability concept is constantly being torn apart and rebuilt,<br />

combined and dis-aggregated as different and often opposing ideologies and value systems engage. It is<br />

probably fair to argue that the concept of sustainability emerged in the first instance out of the twin concerns<br />

of environmental degradation and resource depletion, in the notion that there were very real ‘limits to growth’<br />

if things carried on as they were. Related to this has been the longstanding Malthusian concern with overpopulation,<br />

that too many people would simply overwhelm the carrying capacity of the land upon which they<br />

lived. This sense of impending doom was given impetus by major geo-political events such as the 1973<br />

OPEC-induced oil crisis that exposed the strategic vulnerability of apparently ‘advanced’ Western societies.<br />

That is, there has been a growing ‘dispassionate’ interest in the state of the planet as a result of human<br />

activity, a debate rekindled by Lovelock (1979). It was continued with the Earth Summit in Rio, 1992, and is<br />

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Conference <strong>Engineering</strong> Education in Sustainable Development <strong>Delft</strong>, 24-25 October, 2002<br />

still underway on the theme of the anthropogenic content of global warming together with its consequences.<br />

The extinction of species, the loss of habitat and issues such as reduced bio-diversity, continue to be the<br />

subject of scientific research and public debate.<br />

However, alongside this scientific (and occasionally highly charged) debate has been a much more complex<br />

social and political discourse on social justice, economic equality and access to resources. It is difficult to<br />

evade some key political points, that for example the US comprises some 5% of the global population but<br />

consumes 20-25% of global energy. Environmental destruction tends to hit the poor hardest. So issues such<br />

as the North-South divide between the rich industrialised nations of the world and the bulk of the remaining<br />

poor nations became central to the overall theme of sustainability (WCED, 1987). Over time this has meant<br />

that more and more attention has been given to the social and economic structures that replicate and<br />

consolidate inequality and environmental problems.<br />

Unsurprisingly then there is a broad spectrum of views as to what constitutes sustainability, and equally<br />

importantly how it might be achieved from the current starting point. For radicals, business and the market<br />

economy is simply not compatible with sustainability – society has to find other ways to allocate scarce<br />

resources than the market mechanism (Bookchin, 1971; Schumacher, 1977). In essence this is the message<br />

of the anti-globalisation protests at Seattle, Barcelona and elsewhere. For others this vision is too disruptive,<br />

too apocalyptic. For them the issue is one of migrating, of managing a transition towards (although possibly<br />

never reaching) sustainability (for a typical governmental / automotive example see SMMT, 2001). So<br />

sustainability becomes a process rather than a fixed point, an ideal rather than a fact, a vision rather than<br />

steady state. It becomes a relative concept, a notion of ‘more’ sustainable than that which went before. It<br />

becomes something for which indicators can be developed, milestones to provide reassurance that we are<br />

making ‘progress’. Society uses less energy per head, consumes fewer resources, generates less waste and<br />

hence is on a trajectory or path that is more sustainable.<br />

Embedding sustainability into engineering<br />

<strong>Engineering</strong> needs all students to be introduced to the basics of sustainability as a socio-political discourse<br />

that cannot be reduced to scientific rationality. This should include theoretical principles and visions of the<br />

future. Of course engineering has itself made a substantial contribution to aspects of sustainability already,<br />

most notably in terms of the provision of tools such as Life Cycle Analysis (LCA) that allow a more structured,<br />

rational and coherent treatment of engineering choices.<br />

LCA shows both the potential contribution and the limitations of a purely scientific or engineering approach to<br />

problems. Originally developed by the Society for Environmental Toxicology and Chemistry (SETAC, 1990),<br />

LCA provides a methodology to define and put values against key environmental criteria for the production,<br />

use and disposal of products. It has been applied directly to the automotive industry (Keoleian et al, 1997;<br />

Tempelman, 1999; DeCicco and Thomas, 1999). However, as Tempelman (1999) shows, the approach has<br />

limitations: massive (and almost limitless) data requirements and heroic assumptions are the key<br />

methodological weaknesses. Moreover, LCA is unable to reconcile conflicting variables. In the case of the<br />

automotive industry, for example, how can emissions of particulate matter be compared with those of carbon<br />

dioxide? These are essentially about social and political priorities. LCA might help understanding of some of<br />

the judgements to be made, but is not a judgement in itself. Neither is LCA a guide to innovation. It can only<br />

measure what is there.<br />

More recently the methodology of ‘technology roadmaps’ has come to the fore. Developed initially to guide<br />

US technology policy, the idea has started to permeate corporations and other governments. Technology<br />

roadmaps seek to identify the key development points along a trajectory of change over time, and work best<br />

when a clear vision or goal has been identified. Again, from a social science perspective technology<br />

roadmaps appear unduly determinist, that social and sustainability problems can be resolved by technology<br />

alone – all we need is a clear plan.<br />

Engineers may also contribute to Delphi forecasting and, more ambitiously to socio-technical forecasting<br />

(Elzen, et al 2002). These are non-prescriptive approaches that have increasingly been applied to the task of<br />

societal transition for sustainability. The ideas here draw upon the notion of technology paradigms and,<br />

ultimately, Schumpeterian long-wave theory (see for example Perez, 1985; Robbins, 1992) in which<br />

transformative new technologies not only diffuse through society and across geographic space, but the<br />

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Conference <strong>Engineering</strong> Education in Sustainable Development <strong>Delft</strong>, 24-25 October, 2002<br />

process of diffusion is also the engine of economic growth. <strong>Engineering</strong> (of key products) is perhaps the<br />

starting point for such transformations, but they involve many other aspects such as infrastructures and the<br />

built environment, regulation, cultural attitudes and new consumption norms, etc. Such an approach therefore<br />

speaks to the engagement of <strong>Engineering</strong> with other disciplines as society seeks to make sustainability real.<br />

Micro factory retailing: An automotive industry case study<br />

The concept of Micro factor retailing (MFR) illustrates a cohesive vision of sustainability that has clearly<br />

articulated values including concepts such as democratisation, locality, work enrichment and empowerment<br />

(Wells and Nieuwenhuis, 2000; Wells, 2001). It is not offered here as a prescriptive solution for the<br />

automotive industry or indeed for engineering. However, it does illustrate how a philosophy of sustainable<br />

engineering is both practical and idealist. Engineers have a leading part to play in developing key innovations<br />

(Lovins et al, 1995) for concepts like MFR, but have to appreciate that technological innovation is not in itself<br />

sufficient.<br />

There are economic, business and environmental reasons why the existing automotive industry paradigm<br />

should be abandoned (Nieuwenhuis and Wells, 1997). The contemporary car is a barely adequate product<br />

that requires the consumption of precious raw materials, involves boring and unrewarding work, and is barely<br />

functional for most uses. The corporate attitude of ‘fire and forget’ production is rapidly becoming untenable<br />

in world of producer responsibility, resource depletion, and take-back legislation. The emerging ethos is one<br />

of life-cycle care and corporate social responsibility, not least because the vast majority of profits earned by a<br />

vehicle during its lifetime are in use, not in the manufacture and sale of new cars. Quite simply, the<br />

automotive industry as currently constituted is not sustainable. However, changing the fundamentals of car<br />

(product) technology means changing the fundamentals of car production (process technology) and that<br />

existing organisational structures must be abandoned.<br />

All the elements of MFR are some sense available. MFR therefore represents a new organising concept, a<br />

new philosophy of the automotive industry, in which product the production process, the distribution system<br />

and ultimately the way that cars are used are considered as a holistic entity. The case for alternative car<br />

technologies is strong, but has always been held back by the need to compete with the all-steel body on its<br />

own terms. Conventional production means high-volume, low unit cost output of exactly the same models<br />

that are sold through a conventional franchised dealer system to achieve economies of scale in<br />

manufacturing.<br />

Rather than seeking to match this, MFR refutes conventional logic by placing small factories within the<br />

markets they serve - and so eliminates the distinction between production and retailing, service, maintenance<br />

and vehicle disposal. In one step this makes alternative technologies that are viable at low volumes and long<br />

cycle times, competitive with the all-steel body. Rather than having one large plant producing, say 250,000<br />

cars per annum the MFR approach would involve 50 plants, each assembling 5,000 cars per annum (i.e.<br />

250,000 in total). There would be no separate distribution channels or sales outlets: the factory is also the<br />

sales, maintenance, service and repair location. Powertrain components and other generic items could be<br />

centrally produced in conveniently located highly automated facilities for distribution to the decentralised<br />

assembly plants, thus benefiting from economies of scale. Ironically this would conform to the early Ford<br />

dictum of ‘Manufacturing near the source of supply and assembling near the point of distribution’.<br />

The business case for MFR has many aspects, not all of which can be captured in a like-for-like comparison<br />

with traditional manufacture and distribution. Indeed this is the least favourable way of considering MFR. Not<br />

least, MFR is not dependent upon continued consumption of raw materials or continued production of cars.<br />

However, it is useful to consider the basic investment costs of the two. Table 1 provides a summary of a<br />

hypothetical case to produce 250,000 cars per annum.<br />

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Conference <strong>Engineering</strong> Education in Sustainable Development <strong>Delft</strong>, 24-25 October, 2002<br />

Item MFR Traditional<br />

Volume per plant 5,000 250,000<br />

No. of plants 50 1<br />

Workers per plant 100 3,000<br />

Total staff in production 5,000 3,000<br />

Investment per plant £50 m £1.5 bn<br />

Total investment in production £2.5 bn £1.5 bn<br />

Model R&D cost £100 m £500 m<br />

Model specific dies, etc. £250 m £500 m<br />

Total investment in model £350 m £1.0 bn<br />

No. of dealerships 0 500<br />

Staff in distribution 0 5,000<br />

Investment per dealer £0 £1 m<br />

Total investment in distribution £0 £500 m<br />

Total investment £2.85 bn £3.0 bn<br />

table 1: The investment costs of MFR compared with traditional manufacture and distribution5<br />

Table 1 almost certainly understates the capital cost of MFR compared with traditional manufacture. For<br />

example, dealership costs are likely to be higher than £1 million if land acquisition and other factors are taken<br />

into account. Traditional car plants need vast, flat sites whereas MFR could be undertaken in a classic light<br />

industrial unit. Moreover, alternatives to the all-steel body generally require much smaller investments in<br />

design and tooling than has been allowed in Table 1. It is also the case that the character of the investment is<br />

different. MFR can be undertaken in many incremental steps, not one large (and hence risky) capital<br />

investment. Table 2 summarises some of the operational advantages over traditional manufacturing and<br />

retailing. The MFR concept is not just traditional car manufacturing on a small scale, it necessarily involves a<br />

radically different product technology and body production process. One of the nearest contemporary<br />

examples is the Ford TH!NK. This is a vehicle built on a folded steel platform onto, which is fixed an<br />

aluminium body frame, which holds thermoplastic outer panels.<br />

5 Source: Wells and Nieuwenhuis, 2000.<br />

Note: All-steel body of traditional manufacturing accounts for high per-model R&D costs<br />

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Conference <strong>Engineering</strong> Education in Sustainable Development <strong>Delft</strong>, 24-25 October, 2002<br />

Product<br />

Technology<br />

Light weight, fuel<br />

efficient,<br />

alternative<br />

technology<br />

Purpose specific<br />

with reduced<br />

redundancy<br />

Process<br />

Technology<br />

No paint shop, fewer<br />

process steps, fewer<br />

components<br />

Short assembly<br />

lines, long cycle<br />

times, job<br />

enrichment<br />

Modular design Suitable to many<br />

process<br />

configurations<br />

Retrofit capable Compatible with long<br />

Product<br />

longevity, less<br />

depreciation<br />

cycle times<br />

Compatible with<br />

frequent upgrades<br />

Capital<br />

Requirements<br />

Small<br />

investments<br />

Incremental<br />

expansion of<br />

capacity<br />

Geographical<br />

expansion of<br />

capacity<br />

Less capital<br />

intensive<br />

More flexible<br />

assets<br />

table 2: The advantages of MFR: a summary6<br />

Corporate Strategy Corporate<br />

Sustainability<br />

Multiple market Not just<br />

niches can be production<br />

accessed<br />

driven<br />

Revenue capture<br />

from downstream<br />

activities<br />

Low cost, low risk<br />

market entry<br />

External economies<br />

of scale<br />

Meets need for<br />

corporate<br />

responsibility<br />

Geographic<br />

distribution of<br />

jobs<br />

Low impact<br />

manufacturing<br />

Low impact<br />

product<br />

Whole life cycle<br />

view<br />

The contemporary automotive industry is already undergoing seismic shifts. Mergers and acquisitions are<br />

creating ever-larger corporate entities, yet cost saving measures and rationalisation appear unable to recover<br />

profitability or convince the global financial community. The centre of gravity of the industry is being<br />

inexorably drawn downstream into the vehicle use phase, while a diverse range of alternative technologies<br />

from hybrid drive to aluminium space frames are appearing on the market. In this highly unstable<br />

environment it is clear that traditional manufacturing is in any case under severe attack. MFR offers an<br />

alternative and coherent vision for the future of the industry. The combined fixed cost of traditional<br />

manufacturing and distribution, including the franchised dealer network, is indeed substantial. Compared with<br />

this, the fixed costs for MFR are probably an order of magnitude lower. Perhaps more important than the<br />

simple investment cost comparison are the many strategic possibilities which flow from MFR. A few potential<br />

advantages are listed below:<br />

• Investments in assembly capacity can be incremental, and thereby expand or contract in line with the<br />

market. Each MFR unit would have an investment cost well below that of a traditional manufacturing<br />

plant – although the cumulative investment cost for the same production capacity may be higher.<br />

• The incremental expansion of capacity can also have a geographic component in that new plants can be<br />

added to develop new market territories.<br />

• New products can be introduced incrementally, on a factory-by-factory basis.<br />

• The factory becomes the location for repair, spare parts, in-use modification (e.g. external panel refresh,<br />

power-train upgrades) that allows the manufacturer to benefit directly from profitable after-market<br />

activities.<br />

• The factory becomes the centre for End of Life Vehicle recycling and hence becomes the embodiment of<br />

product stewardship.<br />

• The factory can undergo a transition over time from an essentially new car production focus, to one more<br />

involved in service and repair. That is, the factory does not depend absolutely on the continued sale of<br />

new cars.<br />

• Customers can be taken around the plant, can meet the people who will make their car, and can thereby<br />

feel ‘closer’ to the product. Information on customer life-styles, aspirations and mobility needs goes direct<br />

to the factory to inform product development.<br />

• There is no conflict of interest between production and retailing. The vehicle manufacturer can have<br />

direct control over the retail business and captures a greater share of the downstream value chain.<br />

• The inherent flexibility of MFR is the practical basis upon which new levels of customer care can be built.<br />

MFR makes possible flexible response, shorter lead times, and late configuration.<br />

• The MFR concept takes advantage of the possibilities offered by the Internet, which becomes the main<br />

medium, by which customers order vehicles, spares, etc.<br />

6 Source: Wells, 2001<br />

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Conference <strong>Engineering</strong> Education in Sustainable Development <strong>Delft</strong>, 24-25 October, 2002<br />

• Stronger worker commitment to the product and to customers. These small factories escape from the<br />

‘mass’ culture of traditional high volume manufacturing.<br />

• MFR is the best means to take advantage of modular supply strategies combined with commodity or offthe-shelf<br />

purchasing. In transport terms, it is more efficient to move components and sub-assemblies<br />

rather than complete vehicles.<br />

• Product can be customised to local market conditions.<br />

• Manufacturing processes have a lower environmental impact compared with traditional high-volume<br />

manufacturing and even give the option of doing without a paint plant.<br />

• MFR does not require a large, flat dedicated site with extensive support services. A modern car plant<br />

occupies several square kilometres of land. Compared with this, MFR requires a classic ‘light industrial’<br />

facility.<br />

• The MFR concept clearly resonates with social and political objectives in many countries by creating local<br />

employment in high-value manufacturing activities. It also embodies the growing desire to increase<br />

labour and reduce fixed investment in order to reduce cost, increase flexibility and increase social<br />

cohesion.<br />

• A version of the MFR is therefore also ideally suited to investments in emerging markets. In these<br />

markets the investment costs of a major plant would be prohibitive. MFR could replace the existing<br />

approach of kit-assembly in such locations.<br />

• Through duplication of MFR sites substantial investment savings could be realised through the multiple<br />

ordering of machines and equipment and the use of a standardised layout.<br />

Conclusions: A philosophy of sustainable engineering<br />

To connect with the detail of much real world engineering it is necessary to have a clear concept of the wider<br />

social project within which engineers are engaged. This means treading lightly on the earth, fostering<br />

economic stability and resilience, and enriching the diversity of life.<br />

The absolute achievement of sustainability is an unrealistic target, but the MFR example suggests that the<br />

task of working towards sustainability is rich in engineering content. In the past, many early industrialistengineers<br />

were also noted for their paternalism and wider social concerns. The need for social acceptance in<br />

some cases resulted in the emergence of the ‘company town’ and with it the notion of corporate paternalism.<br />

In brief, the company sought to provide more than mere jobs, but became integral to the social fabric of the<br />

town as a whole through the provision of recreation facilities, libraries, schools, medical facilities, housing,<br />

open spaces and much more (Urry, 1980). In the UK the most advanced expressions of this idea were in<br />

places like Port Sunlight (Lever Brothers), Barrow-In-Furness (Vickers), Swindon (Great Western Railway),<br />

New Lanark (Robert Owen), and Bourneville (Cadbury). Entire new communities were created in deliberate<br />

and sharp distinction to the squalor, poverty and degradation of the urban slums that prevailed at the time.<br />

Driven in many cases by key individuals with a philanthropic vision of a ‘better’ future, these paternalistic<br />

environments were indeed qualitatively better than much that otherwise existed, and represented a triumph of<br />

benevolent rationalism. Moreover there was a distinct religious and moral tone to the project of corporate<br />

paternalism, with many of the early examples of leading industrialists being non-conformist Quakers<br />

(Cannon, 1994). In this movement, corporate paternalism, the company town, and self-improvement of<br />

workers for their own moral welfare went hand in hand. Indeed, the notion of ‘improvement’ also came to<br />

underpin the so-called ‘garden cities’ movement in the UK where, in a triumph of physical determinism, it was<br />

believed that social vices could be engineered out of existence in a suitable urban environment. In the UK, as<br />

with many other locations, these model townships have become swamped by urban sprawl, just as the<br />

paternalist companies that founded them have been swamped by ‘normal’ capitalism (Oberdeck, 2000). This<br />

is not to argue for a return to industrial-engineering paternalism, but to illustrate that engineering does<br />

embody implicit and sometimes explicit social and political values.<br />

To embed sustainability in engineering education then probably requires students to be given an historical<br />

understanding of the diverse roots of sustainability, to be shown how social, political and moral values can be<br />

part of engineering. Sustainable engineering is not (much) about designing better machines and processes; it<br />

is (much more) about matching engineered solutions to social and environmental needs.<br />

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Conference <strong>Engineering</strong> Education in Sustainable Development <strong>Delft</strong>, 24-25 October, 2002<br />

References<br />

Bookchin, M. (1971) Post-scarcity anarchism, Berkeley: University of Berkeley California Press.<br />

Cannon, T. (1994) Corporate Responsibility, London: Pitman Publishing.<br />

Carson, R. (1962) The silent spring, New York: Fawcett.<br />

DeCicco, J. and Thomas, M. (1999) Green guide to cars and trucks. Model year 1999, Washington DC<br />

American Council for an Energy-Efficient Economy.<br />

Dickson, D. (1974) Alternative technology and the politics of technical change, London: Fontana.<br />

Elzen, B.; Geels, F.; Hofman, P. and Green, K. (2002) Socio-technical scenarios as a tool for transition<br />

policy: an example from the traffic and transport domain, Paper for workshop on ‘Transitions to sustainability<br />

through system innovations’ Enschede: University of Twente, 4-6 July.<br />

(Keoleian et al, (1997) Industrial ecology of the automobile: a life cycle perspective, Warrendale, PA: Society<br />

of Automotive Engineers.<br />

Lovelock, J. (1979) Gaia: a new look at life on earth, Oxford: Oxford University Press.<br />

Lovins, A. et al (1995) Supercars: the coming light vehicle revolution, Snowmass, CO: Rocky Mountains<br />

Institute.<br />

Nieuwenhuis, P. and Wells, P. (1997) The death of motoring?, Chichester: John Wiley.<br />

Oberdeck, K.J. (2000) From Model Town to Edge City: piety, paternalism and the politics of urban planning in<br />

the United States, Journal of Urban History, 26(4), 508-518.<br />

Perez, C. (1985) Microelectronics, long waves, and world structural change: new perspectives for developing<br />

countries, World Development, 13 (3), 441-463.<br />

Robbins, K. (ed) (1992) Understanding information: business, technology and geography, London and New<br />

York: Belhaven Press.<br />

Rowlands, I.H. and Green, M. (1992) Global environmental change and international relations, London:<br />

Macmillan.<br />

Schumacher, E.F. (1977) Small is beautiful: a study of economics as if people mattered, London: Blond and<br />

Briggs.<br />

SETAC (1990) A technical framework for lifecycle assessment, Workshop Report: Vermont, USA: Society for<br />

Environmental Toxicology and Chemistry.<br />

SMMT (2001) Towards sustainability: the automotive sector, London: Society of Motor Manufacturers and<br />

Traders.<br />

Tempelman, E. (1999) Sustainable transport and advanced materials, <strong>Delft</strong>: Eburon.<br />

Urry, J. (1980) Paternalism, management and localities, Lancaster: University of Lancaster Press.<br />

WCED (1987) Our common future, World Commission on Environment and Development, New York: Oxford<br />

University Press.<br />

Wells, P. and Nieuwenhuis, P. (2000) Why big business should think small, Informa Automotive World,<br />

July/August, 32-38.<br />

Wells, P. (2001) Micro Factory Retailing: a radical new product, manufacturing and marketing strategy for the<br />

automotive industry, pp331-336 in Pham, D.T.; Dimov, S.S. and O’Hagen, V. (Eds) Advances in<br />

manufacturing technology, London: Professional <strong>Engineering</strong> Publishing Ltd.<br />

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Conference <strong>Engineering</strong> Education in Sustainable Development <strong>Delft</strong>, 24-25 October, 2002<br />

012 Experiences with teaching applied environmental design. Casper Boks, Ab<br />

Stevels, <strong>Delft</strong> University of Technology, The Netherlands<br />

Introduction<br />

The Design for Sustainability (DfS) unit, part of the Faculty of Industrial Design <strong>Engineering</strong> at <strong>Delft</strong> University<br />

of Technology, is an established and widely known interdisciplinary research group devoted to work in a<br />

variety of environmental areas. Most of these areas can be categorised under the umbrella of ecodesign/innovation<br />

methodologies, strategies for sustainable products, processes and services, and practical<br />

design work. Subjects vary from sustainable transport, sustainable households and offices, improvement of<br />

environmental performance of a variety of products, to recycling strategies and alternative energy<br />

applications.<br />

Apart from the research conducted in this unit, over time various courses, both compulsory and elective, have<br />

been developed and taught. Starting in January 2001, a new elective course was added, with the name<br />

Applied Environmental Design (AED). In this paper the backgrounds for doing so as well as the organisation<br />

of the course itself are explained.<br />

The second part of this paper focuses on the evaluation of the course. Essentially, two perspectives are<br />

addressed. Firstly, it is discussed how it can be assessed whether students have actually learned to integrate<br />

theoretical knowledge with a sense of industrial applicability, i.e. if they have become able to look at ecodesign<br />

from a business perspective.<br />

Secondly, it is explained how the course evaluation – by the staff as well as the students – has been used to<br />

improve the course, and what considerations these changes were based on. The role of internet-based and<br />

reader-based course material, as well as the role of assignment formats, is briefly discussed in relation to this<br />

topic.<br />

The importance of teaching Applied Environmental Design<br />

The DfS unit is responsible for teaching environmental subjects in the faculty of Industrial Design<br />

<strong>Engineering</strong>, although students can incorporate courses offered at other faculties in their studies as well, and<br />

vice versa.<br />

The main objective of the courses taught by the<br />

Design for Sustainability Programme is to<br />

enable students to integrate sustainability<br />

aspects of products and systems design into<br />

their future jobs (Diehl, 2001). Therefore, these<br />

courses aim to cover the complete field of ecodesign.<br />

In figure 1, the various levels of ecodesign,<br />

or rather environmental innovation, are<br />

shown. In table 1, it is shown that the various<br />

DfS courses are closely linked to these levels of<br />

environmental innovation.<br />

figure 1: Stages of environmental innovation<br />

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Conference <strong>Engineering</strong> Education in Sustainable Development <strong>Delft</strong>, 24-25 October, 2002<br />

Course Code Type Credits Students Focus<br />

Introduction to Ecodesign<br />

ID2431 Compulsory 80 hours 250 Introduction to all levels<br />

Design 5 (practical<br />

exercise)<br />

IDE405 Compulsory 120 hours 250 Integration of all levels<br />

Technical Product ID5151 Elective 80 hours 50 Incremental improvement/<br />

Analysis<br />

Product Innovation<br />

Sustainable Product ID5281 Elective 80 hours 25 Function and system<br />

and System Design<br />

innovation<br />

Applied<br />

Environmental<br />

Design<br />

ID5351 Elective 80 hours 25 Incremental improvement<br />

table 1: Eco-design courses offered in the Industrial Design <strong>Engineering</strong> curriculum<br />

Though most of the courses in table 1 offer a wide range of topics, their common denominator is a<br />

combination of a scientific/methodological and a technical approach.<br />

• The Design 5 exercise focuses on the integration of disciplines and skills acquired in the first years of the<br />

curriculum. The focus is on the initial phases of product development such as determination of product<br />

design strategy. However, environmental aspects of product development and strategy are an important<br />

dimension of this course as well.<br />

• The aim of the Technical Product Analysis course is that students can perform correct Life Cycle<br />

Assessments of products in order to evaluate their sustainability improvement potential. Data collection,<br />

setting system boundaries and determination of functional units are important elements of this course.<br />

• The Sustainable Product and System Design aims to set the stage for exploration at so-called factor 20<br />

improvements. In these courses, students are encouraged to develop sustainable products and systems<br />

for the future, and to determine roadmaps to get there – for example by back casting techniques.<br />

Starting in 2001, the elective course on Applied Environmental Design has been organised and taught. The<br />

main idea behind this course is to broaden the scope of existing eco-design education, by putting the most<br />

relevant eco-design topics in a business context and thus providing a support for students to (better) apply<br />

and implement some of the regular course material in their future professional careers. Whereas the other<br />

courses, as indicated above, focus on environmental improvements as such, the implementation of these<br />

improvements in every-day business receives relatively little attention. The very implementation of eco-design<br />

is therefore the main focus of the AED course, something, which is made practical by integration of everyday<br />

experiences from within companies, and by using many real-life examples of successes and failures.<br />

The structure of the Applied Environmental Design course<br />

Already in 1996, a comprehensive set of teaching modules on eco-design for competitive advantage were<br />

developed for in-company training at various departments of Philips Consumer Electronics. Since then,<br />

additional modules have been added, and have partly been made suitable for external training (Stevels,<br />

2001).<br />

The training program, from which the Applied Environmental Design course is derived, is subdivided in nine<br />

building blocks or modules, each with their own sub modules. Consequently, the course program consists<br />

also of nine modules, as represented in figure 3.<br />

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Conference <strong>Engineering</strong> Education in Sustainable Development <strong>Delft</strong>, 24-25 October, 2002<br />

figure 3: The structure of the Applied Environmental Design course<br />

In the course, these nine modules are taught in the eight classes that are usually available per half semester.<br />

In the section 3.1, the topics addressed in each class are briefly explained.<br />

Explanation of course modules<br />

The nine course modules address the following topics:<br />

First meeting: Introduction to Applied Environmental Design.<br />

In this meeting, environmentally conscious design is explained from a business perspective. Different<br />

perceptions of environment (scientific, company, government, and society) are explained, interrelationships<br />

with stakeholders are discussed, as well as the different levels of eco-design (figure 1).<br />

Second meeting: Environment in the business perspective.<br />

The managerial aspects of making money while being green are considered, such as the creation of vision,<br />

policy and roadmaps. The organisation of the design process of idea generation, validation, and product<br />

creation in the context of other business processes (purchasing, sales and marketing, supply chain) is<br />

discussed. Also, the importance of various success and failure factors and the advantages of moving from<br />

defensive to proactive actions are explained.<br />

Third meeting: Environmental Benchmarking and Validation.<br />

Environmental Benchmarking is presented as a business tool to integrate eco-design into a large company.<br />

By focusing on five focal areas Energy Consumption, Material Application, Packaging, Chemical Content and<br />

Recyclability the basic environmental spectrum is covered. In relation to this the application of LCA<br />

techniques like the Eco-Indicator method (Goedkoop and Spriensma, 2000) in a business context is<br />

discussed.<br />

Fourth meeting: Disassembly Session.<br />

After three meetings, students possess the basic skills and background to perform a disassembly analysis of<br />

an electronic consumer product. The basis of the assignment is a disassembly session, organised about<br />

halfway the course. In this session, which takes up to a full day, students receive an electronic product for<br />

them to analyse. As this session is surprisingly often the first time that students have the opportunity to ‘break<br />

down’ a product of considerable size and analyse it for smart or dumb design solutions. This process often<br />

creates an exciting as well as a cosy atmosphere, and is generally highly appreciated by the students.<br />

Assistance is given throughout the day, which proves to be essential as the students raise many questions<br />

and points of discussion during the disassembly of products, such as:<br />

• Why would they use this strange type of screws to fix the housing?<br />

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Conference <strong>Engineering</strong> Education in Sustainable Development <strong>Delft</strong>, 24-25 October, 2002<br />

• Why would they use plastic parts this thick?<br />

• What is this type of coating made of?<br />

• Are these printed circuit board components hazardous?<br />

• Are these parts eligible for reuse?<br />

Fifth meeting: How to improve products.<br />

Four out of five focal areas are covered in this meeting. Based on experienced and examples, it is explained<br />

what type of design improvements one can look for. For example design improvements based on smart<br />

technological solutions and intelligent catalogue work (Energy Consumption), material substitution and joining<br />

techniques (Material Application), function analysis (Packaging), and managing lists of banned substances<br />

and reducing relevant substances (Chemical Content).<br />

Sixth meeting: Take-back and recycling.<br />

In this meeting, the environmental and financial consequences of product take-back and recycling legislation<br />

are discussed. Some background on material recovery processes and material compatibility issues is given.<br />

In relation to this it is discussed how companies can develop end-of-life strategies for their products, and how<br />

products can be improved from a Recyclability perspective (fifth green focal area).<br />

Seventh meeting: Green marketing and communication, and Green supply chain management.<br />

This meeting is about the different archetypes of consumer orientation towards environmental product issues,<br />

and how to link these issues to other consumer benefits (material, immaterial and emotional). It is explained<br />

that communication is often more important than technical issues. The second part of this meeting deals with<br />

how to improve environmental performance through (roadmaps for) supplier relationships and how to<br />

determine best practice management.<br />

Eighth meeting: Presentation of assignments.<br />

In a final meeting at the end of the course, all students are required to orally present their assignment report.<br />

Feedback is given to each other’s accomplishments and the course is reflected on.<br />

Course reading material<br />

In preparation for the first year’s course, a number of publications were selected as reading material for the<br />

students in addition to the material orally presented in the course meetings. These publications consisted of<br />

eight journal and conference articles that focus on a particular topic addressed in the course. Three of these<br />

publications were earmarked as required reading material, whereas the remainder was presented as<br />

suggested literature for additional reading. These publications were provided to the students using the<br />

university’s Blackboard system, a course management system introduced in 1999 as a university wide<br />

Internet course platform. This system also provides additional assistance to course management (see also<br />

Diehl, 2001), for example by:<br />

• enabling and structuring discussions between supervisors and students, and between students<br />

themselves<br />

• the possibility to present and evaluate course assignments over the internet<br />

• the possibility to make course announcements<br />

• directly linking to additional information resources, such as internet links<br />

• continuous availability<br />

In addition, students were encouraged to approach the supervisors for additional analysis material, for<br />

example product data or environmental benchmark reports applicable to their particular assignment.<br />

In section 4 it will be further explained how experiences from the first year’s course did affect the way course<br />

information was provided to the students in the second year’s course.<br />

Course assignment and envisaged learning<br />

The students participating in the IDE5351 Applied Environmental Design course receive a grade based on<br />

the contents of a report to be written as final assignment. In the 2001 AED course, the assignment was<br />

phrased as follows:<br />

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Conference <strong>Engineering</strong> Education in Sustainable Development <strong>Delft</strong>, 24-25 October, 2002<br />

“During the ID5351 course you will be provided with a lot of information on applied environmental design. In<br />

the first week a date will be fixed on which a disassembly session will be organised. In this disassembly<br />

session, students (in small groups) will take apart a product. This product needs to be assessed from a lifecycle<br />

perspective, taking into account environmental issues such as energy use, packaging, hazardous and<br />

valuable materials and components, recyclability and some logistics issues. You are expected to use this<br />

assessment, together with the information provided throughout the course, to prepare a report in which all<br />

these environmental issues are addressed. In addition, improvement options need to be generated to<br />

increase the environmental performance of the product. It is important to include business aspects in your<br />

report rather than just scientific considerations.”<br />

In the 2001 course, the assignment was made available over the Internet and orally clarified several times. It<br />

was also explained that in principle the structure of the assignment is rather straightforward. The structure<br />

expected by the teachers was, in a nutshell, the following:<br />

• short product description<br />

• presentation of disassembly session measurements<br />

• design solutions that strike attention<br />

• environmental analysis using five focal areas<br />

• analysis of data, generation of design improvements<br />

• evaluation and ranking of proposed design improvements<br />

• placing the design improvements in a business context using information provided in the course<br />

• general conclusions/recommendations<br />

It was made clear to the students that for their assignment, a well-documented disassembly analysis was the<br />

basis on which to elaborate further. Next, although no explicit requirements of this nature were made, it was<br />

made clear that an environmental analysis and/or an environmental benchmark were logical steps to proceed<br />

towards generating suggestions for environmental improvement of the case study product. Also, a tool called<br />

the Eco-design Matrix was suggested to the students as a means to prioritise options for improvement. With<br />

this matrix, options can be evaluated on basis of corporate, customer, societal and environmental benefits,<br />

taking into account issues such as technical, practical and financial feasibility.<br />

Course evaluation<br />

Results and evaluation of the first year’s AED course<br />

An analysis of the reports from the first year’s course revealed that whereas some of expected elements<br />

were in most cases present in the reports, a number of other aspects were however poorly represented, as<br />

indicated in table 2.<br />

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Conference <strong>Engineering</strong> Education in Sustainable Development <strong>Delft</strong>, 24-25 October, 2002<br />

Topic that should preferably be addressed in the student’s assignment Percentage of<br />

students that<br />

addressed this topic<br />

in their report<br />

Measurements from disassembly session 100%<br />

General comments about architecture 90%<br />

Suggestions for improvement in architecture (in writing) 80%<br />

Suggestions for improvement in architecture, with some sketching or modelling 20%<br />

Environmental (LCA) analysis of the disassembled product 80%<br />

Environmental Benchmark (comparison with other products) 60%<br />

Consistently addressing five focal areas 40%<br />

Conclusions from the environmental analysis (not just facts, but interpretation) 50%<br />

Separate list of suggestions for redesign 40%<br />

Attempts to make an Ecodesign matrix 20%<br />

Detailed / well ranked Ecodesign matrix 0%<br />

Additional comments on business perspective (green marketing, suppliers, etc.) 20%<br />

General conclusions 50%<br />

table 2: Analysis of first year’s assignments<br />

A number of observations and conclusions result from table 2:<br />

• Generally, students faithfully carry out the disassembly analysis; they document their findings well, and<br />

report them. Most of them are able (or do not forget) to give a general impression of the product and to<br />

interpret the data. They usually are able to come up with logic or even creative suggestions for<br />

improvements in the product architecture. However, the make very limited use of sketching or modelling<br />

techniques to explain about their suggested improvements.<br />

• In about 60% of the assignments, students took up the suggestion of environmental benchmarking<br />

against similar products, and in most cases they were able to interpret the results well. However, a<br />

subsequent part of environmental benchmarking is the systematic translation of benchmark facts into<br />

options for environmental product improvement, for example using the Eco-design Matrix. Only in 20% of<br />

the cases, students made an attempt to incorporate this last step of the methodology in their assignment.<br />

• A LCA analysis was carried out in 80% of the assignment, though the quality varied considerably. In<br />

some cases estimates were made for the main subassemblies, whereas in other cases a rather detailed<br />

analysis was made. Though in most cases students were able to interpret the analysis well, it also<br />

happened that analysis results were presented without actually exploiting them by deriving ideas for<br />

improvement.<br />

• In only 20% of the assignments, students were able or made an effort to position their findings in a wider<br />

industrial context by addressing course topics not directly related to product evaluation (such as the<br />

classes on green marketing or green supply chain management).<br />

• In half of the assignments, students made an effort to summarise their findings in a type of management<br />

summary.<br />

• These observations provide very useful lessons for the organisations of the second year’s course.<br />

• Students are able to apply the information presented in the course into their assignments, especially<br />

when they are presented as being mandatory. The subsequent exploitation of results is something that<br />

would require further attention in the next course.<br />

• The amount of students applying approaches and techniques that are presented as useful but optional is<br />

smaller. Also, when they do not apply these techniques, they hardly take the initiative to use common<br />

sense for developing alternatives. This would mean that to improve the quality of the assignments, either<br />

more emphasis was to be put to the application of such techniques or to developing alternative evaluation<br />

techniques, for example by personal creativity.<br />

• Students were either unable or did not find it useful to distil additions to their assignments from the<br />

course material addressing issues that belong to the business context rather than to the actual product<br />

evaluation techniques. This led to the question whether students a) did not understand this part of the<br />

course material, b) did not know how to use it, or c) did not deem it necessary to improve the quality of<br />

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Conference <strong>Engineering</strong> Education in Sustainable Development <strong>Delft</strong>, 24-25 October, 2002<br />

their assignments by using this part of the course material. For the staff, it was therefore difficult to<br />

assess whether this part of the course material provided the expected learning effect.<br />

For the second year’s course, the above considerations led to a number of changes in the way the course<br />

was presented.<br />

Changes made in the organisation of the second year’s AED course<br />

First of all, the methodology of environmental benchmarking was presented more as a core issue in the<br />

course rather than presenting it as an optional tool for applied eco-design. Consequently, the application of<br />

the eco-design matrix was given more attention, not only by presenting examples from industry, but also by<br />

presenting (one of the really good) examples from the previous year’s assignments.<br />

Secondly, a guest speaker was invited to address the issues of implementing eco-design in a large<br />

multinational company. This speaker (a person with a similar background as the students) was asked to<br />

particularly address both the obstacles and opportunities, which a designer has for making environmental<br />

improvements to products while being confronted with the reality of budget restrictions, quality issues, various<br />

stakeholder interests and perhaps even the absence of management commitment, etceteras. It proved that<br />

inviting this guest speaker was very much appreciated by both the students and the guest speaker himself.<br />

Thirdly, a change was made to the way the course material was presented. Based on the experiences in the<br />

first year, the conclusion was drawn that although most students used the opportunity to ask for publications<br />

and reports from the supervisors which could be relevant to their own project, little use was made of the<br />

reading material offered through the Blackboard system. Several reasons are expected to exist for this. The<br />

chief one turned out to be that the majority of the publications was presented as optional, and therefore<br />

probably regarded as not essential for getting a good grade. Another likely reason is the fact that since the<br />

Blackboard system was not used for most of its features (such as electronic submission and evaluation of<br />

assignments), it was not used for consulting the offered literature either.<br />

In preparation of the second year’s course, it was therefore decided to develop a reader, to include the<br />

framework of the course (see section 3.1), a (revised and updated) selection of ten papers applicable to the<br />

course – all presented as required reading material, and a more elaborate description of the final assignment,<br />

which reads as follows (text in italics):<br />

Product:<br />

• Describe in short the product assigned to you and to be analysed by you<br />

• Disassemble the product<br />

• Measure all physical quantities relevant to the five focal areas (weight, recyclability, chemical content,<br />

energy and packaging) in case they are relevant. In case of end-of-life products, energy and packaging<br />

are likely to be difficult, instead describe characteristics such as wear, repairs, etc.<br />

• Compare the results with literature (for example available benchmark reports)<br />

• Identify green options for the product design, using design rules and your own creativity<br />

o In case of new products: identify options for improvement<br />

o In case of old products: identify solutions that would have been preferred over present solutions<br />

• Fill in the Ecodesign matrix, prioritise the green options<br />

Context:<br />

• Suggest ways how to implement the green options with the highest priorities in a company<br />

• Address the life-cycle perspective, place your green options in the context of the full life cycle<br />

• Address the applicable take-back system for your product<br />

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Conference <strong>Engineering</strong> Education in Sustainable Development <strong>Delft</strong>, 24-25 October, 2002<br />

Focal topic:<br />

• Decide upon a certain angle or topic, or opinion (which does not have to related directly to the<br />

disassembled product) and address this in some more detail. For example:<br />

o A technical issue: integrate knowledge you already have. For example<br />

� Solutions for energy consumption<br />

� Restructure product architecture, connections, wiring, etc.<br />

� Alternative material applications<br />

o Make an analysis. For example:<br />

� Compare your product with similar but different products<br />

� How have environmental characteristics of products developed over time<br />

� Short term versus long term improvements<br />

o Do a literature search. For example:<br />

� Would some product-specific end-of-life processing be meaningful?<br />

� Green marketing<br />

� Opportunities for life time extension<br />

o Express an opinion, or formulate a point-of-view about how things should be different, with clear<br />

arguments. For example:<br />

� Attention of companies for environmental issues<br />

� Alternative function fulfilment<br />

� Changes in use infrastructures (e.g. products versus services)<br />

The main point is to make clear in your report that you have<br />

understood the topics addressed in the course meetings, and<br />

that you are able to apply them in the ‘real world’.<br />

Upfront, the new assignment gave rise to several types of concern. For example, the question came up<br />

whether this assignment would take away student’s creativity, by spelling out so many aspects of the<br />

assignment. This concern was taken care of by specifically adding the requirement of including a focal topic<br />

in the assignment. This requirement was an opportunity for the students to choose for themselves a<br />

particular topic, which they would like to use to show that they indeed understood the topics, addressed in the<br />

course meetings without specifically having to relate this to the disassembly session itself. For the<br />

supervisors this was at the same time an opportunity to assess if students were successful in doing so. An<br />

additional benefit was the ability to clearly distinguish between individual accomplishments, as most<br />

disassembly activities were performed in groups of two or three students, resulting in similar chapters in their<br />

reports.<br />

Another soothing assessment was that by spelling out the requirements more specifically than in the previous<br />

year, students would actually have more time to addresses additional issues rather than having to rethink the<br />

basics of the course when doing the assignment.<br />

In the next section it is evaluated how the changes made to the second year’s course affected the quality of<br />

the students’ final assignments.<br />

Results and evaluation of the second year’s AED course<br />

For a fair comparison it should be noted that the number of students participating in the 2002 course was low,<br />

about seven students handed in a final assignment, about half of those taking the 2001 course. This was<br />

mainly due to a wrong advertisement in the course book, stating the course would be offered in the 2 nd half of<br />

the semester instead of the 1 st half of the semester. Furthermore, a lot of elective courses in that period<br />

experienced a lower number of participants due because of a disproportionately high number of courses<br />

offered.<br />

For this reason, a detailed breakdown of topics addressed as done in table 2 is not considered to be fair<br />

comparison. Nevertheless, from the reports that were handed in a number of interesting conclusions could be<br />

drawn:<br />

• Almost without exception the 2002 reports contained most of the basic elements listed in table 2.<br />

• The quality of suggestions for improvement was generally higher (see figure 2). In particular, in almost all<br />

cases sketching techniques were used, something that was not actively promoted but apparently proved<br />

to be a positive side effect from the way the 2002 course was organised.<br />

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Conference <strong>Engineering</strong> Education in Sustainable Development <strong>Delft</strong>, 24-25 October, 2002<br />

OLD NEW<br />

figure 4: Examples of improvement of speaker system and screw mounts (report S. Koponen)<br />

• Students seem to have little difficulties with understanding the Eco-design Matrix concept, but some<br />

continue to have difficulties with properly ranking improvement options and deriving management<br />

recommendations from it.<br />

• The addition of a focal area requirement proved to result in ‘more interesting to read’ assignments. Focal<br />

areas chosen included for example the environmental consequences of the “Battle of the standards” (in<br />

this case for VCR and DVD products), and the environmental consequences of various design solutions<br />

for improving the acoustics in a sound machine.<br />

Concluding remarks about the evaluation of the AED course<br />

Based on discussions with the students, but also based on for example the high percentage of course<br />

participants looking for further (graduation) assignments in the area of Applied Environmental Design, it is<br />

clear that the course obviously fulfils a need to put environmentally conscious product design in a business<br />

context. After completing the course, the participants frequently made comments like:<br />

• “Now I have the feeling that I know how to take this issue on board in a future job”,<br />

• “Now I know that eco-design is not just about LCA”, and<br />

• “I learned so much from taking that product apart although I felt bad to destroy a brand new product”.<br />

As for the course itself, it is believed that, although already a success in the first year, in the second year it<br />

has improved in general, and in particular in terms of structure and in terms of communication to the<br />

students. It is expected that in future courses, in anticipation of a larger number of students, internet-based<br />

communication will play an important role again.<br />

As regards the content of future courses, it is believed that the course material offered in the first two years is<br />

too comprehensive to present in depth in the available time, especially as it is the wish of the supervisors to<br />

allow for spontaneous discussions on adjacent issues, which are frequently brought up by the students. This<br />

brings a dilemma between offering less material with sufficient depth, and offering a wide range of subjects to<br />

provide a general overview without going very much into detail on separate issues. Currently, the first option<br />

is explored in preparation of the 2003 course. Elaborating on this, it is envisaged that topics like green supply<br />

chain management and green marketing should be integrated in existing courses as they provide both an<br />

extension to the traditional teaching material in these areas, as well as a link between these traditional<br />

courses and the eco-design courses mentioned in table 1. Also, course subjects such as chemical content<br />

issues and environmental value chain analysis would lend themselves ideally as separate courses in the IDE<br />

curriculum, providing the possibility to go more into detail on these increasingly important issues. In the ideal<br />

situation, an AED course could then focus on a large enough number of issues to provide a meaningful<br />

overview, but with enough depth to enable the explanation of cross-functional links between the various<br />

issues presented. In anticipation of an IDE curriculum allowing for these proposed changes, the present<br />

topics will continue to be part of the AED course, be it that a number of emphasis changes will be necessary<br />

to further balance number and elaboration of topics.<br />

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Conference <strong>Engineering</strong> Education in Sustainable Development <strong>Delft</strong>, 24-25 October, 2002<br />

References<br />

Diehl, J.C., 2001, Internet Based Ecodesign Education, Proceedings of Ecodesign 2001, December 11-15,<br />

Tokyo, Japan<br />

Goedkoop, M., Spriensma, R., The Eco Indicator ’99, a damage oriented method for Life Cycle Impact<br />

Assessment. Final report, National Reuse of Waste Research Program, Pré consultants, Amersfoort, The<br />

Netherlands, 2000<br />

Stevels, A., 2001, Teaching Modules on Eco Design for Competitive Advantage, Proceedings of the 6th<br />

International auDes Conference – Bridging Environmental Education & Employment in Europe, April 5-7,<br />

Venice, Italy<br />

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Conference <strong>Engineering</strong> Education in Sustainable Development <strong>Delft</strong>, 24-25 October, 2002<br />

014 Earth systems engineering program in engineering for developing<br />

communities, Bernard Amadei, Prof., University of Colorado, USA<br />

Abstract<br />

<strong>Engineering</strong> curricula in modern universities are mostly designed toward solving the problems of the one<br />

billion rich and not the needs of the five billion poor. This is unfortunate as the demand of the developing<br />

world for engineering solutions is likely to increase in the forthcoming years due to population growth. There<br />

is a need for training a new generation of engineers who could better meet the challenges and needs of the<br />

developing world. The challenge is the education of engineers:<br />

(1) who have the skills and tools appropriate to address the issues that our planet is facing today and is likely<br />

to face within the next 20 years<br />

(2) who are aware of the needs of the developing world<br />

(3) who can contribute to the relief of the endemic problems of poverty afflicting developing communities<br />

worldwide.<br />

In the College of <strong>Engineering</strong> at the University of Colorado at Boulder, we are developing a new program in<br />

<strong>Engineering</strong> for Developing Communities (EDC) with the underlying theme that “The Developing World is the<br />

Classroom of the 21 st Century.” The overall mission of the program is to create internationally responsible<br />

students who can offer sustainable and appropriate technology and business solutions to the endemic<br />

problems of poverty faced by developing communities worldwide (including the US). The components of the<br />

new program include education, research and development, and outreach and practice. Finally, the new<br />

program can serve as a blueprint for the education of engineers of the 21 st century who are called to play a<br />

critical role in contributing to peace and security in an increasingly challenged world.<br />

Introduction<br />

With a current population of 6 billion, the world is becoming a place in which human populations are more<br />

crowded, more consuming, more polluting, more connected, and in many ways less diverse than at any time<br />

in history. There is growing recognition that humans are altering the Earth’s natural systems at all scales from<br />

local to global at an unprecedented rate in the human history. Such changes can be understood only by<br />

comparison with events that marked the great transitions in the geo-biological eras of Earth’s history (Berry,<br />

1988). The question now arises whether it is possible to satisfy the needs of an exponentially growing<br />

population while preserving the carrying capacity of our ecosystems and the diversity of our cultural systems.<br />

In the next two decades, almost 2 billion additional people are expected to populate the Earth, a number<br />

roughly equivalent to the world’s total population in 1940. It is estimated that 95% of that growth will take<br />

place in developing or under-developed countries (Bartlett, 1998). This growth will create demands on an<br />

unprecedented scale for energy, food, land, water, transportation, materials, waste disposal, earth moving,<br />

health care, environmental cleanup, and infrastructure. The role of engineers will be critical in fulfilling those<br />

demands since most of the growth will take place in large urban areas (megacities) and mostly in the<br />

developing world (UN, 1998). If engineers are not ready to fulfill that demand, who will? As remarked by<br />

Bugliarello (1999), the emergence of large urban areas is likely to affect the future prosperity and stability of<br />

the entire world. Large increases in urban population will create problems such as additional poverty,<br />

massive infrastructure deficits, pressures on land and housing, environmental concerns, disease, capital<br />

scarcity, and economic dependence on federal and state governments.<br />

In order to address the global problems that planet Earth is facing today and is likely to face in the future,<br />

humans need to acquire a broader perspective. In general, most human-made projects involve the<br />

interactions of non-natural systems (built environment, anthrosphere) with natural systems (biosphere,<br />

atmosphere, geosphere, and hydrosphere). <strong>Engineering</strong>, being a central element of human society, needs to<br />

understand and take into account the relationships between natural and non-natural systems when creating<br />

structures needed to sustain the quality of life of current and future generations.<br />

Thus far, however, humans have demonstrated limited understanding of the dynamic interaction between<br />

natural and non-natural systems. This is associated with the complexity of the problems at stake. On one<br />

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Conference <strong>Engineering</strong> Education in Sustainable Development <strong>Delft</strong>, 24-25 October, 2002<br />

hand, natural systems are traditionally non-linear, chaotic and open dissipative systems. They are<br />

characterized by interconnectedness and self-organization. Small changes in the parts of a system can have<br />

a big impact on the entire system. On the other hand, non-natural systems are designed and built using a<br />

Cartesian mindset. Understanding the relationship between natural and non-natural systems still remains a<br />

challenge for many especially traditional scientists and engineers.<br />

The problem remains that engineering practice and engineering education are based on a paradigm of<br />

control of nature rather than cooperation with nature. In the control of nature paradigm, humans and the<br />

natural world are divided and humans adopt an oppositional and manipulative stance toward nature. Despite<br />

its reductionistic view of natural systems, this approach has led to remarkable engineering achievements<br />

during the 19 th and especially 20 th centuries. For instance, civil and environmental engineers have played a<br />

critical role in improving the condition of mankind on Earth. Better sanitation, water resource development,<br />

and transportation systems combined with progresses in medicine and agricultural engineering have had<br />

beneficial impacts in improving human conditions and longevity. Ironically, these successes have also<br />

unintentionally contributed to more problems due to the resulting population growth (Roberts, 1997).<br />

Most of the past engineering achievements have often been developed without considering their social,<br />

economic and environmental impacts on natural systems, however. In particular, not much attention has<br />

been placed on minimizing the risk and scale of unplanned or undesirable perturbations associated with<br />

engineering systems. In many instances, engineering projects have contributed to the degradation of earth<br />

natural systems and to the making of a waste world instead of a promised technological wonder world (Berry,<br />

1988).<br />

A worldwide transition to a more holistic approach to engineering will require: (i) a major paradigm shift from<br />

control of nature to participation with nature, (ii) an increasing awareness of ecosystems, ecosystems<br />

services and natural capital preservation and restoration, and (iii) a new nature and human mutuallyenhancing<br />

mindset that embraces the principles of sustainable development, renewable resources<br />

management, appropriate technology, natural capitalism (Hawken et al., 1999), biomimicry (Benyus, 1997),<br />

bio soma (Bugliarello, 2000), and systems thinking. As emphasized by David Olsen, president of the CEO<br />

Coalition to Advance Sustainable Technology, at the Earth Systems <strong>Engineering</strong> Workshop in Boulder on<br />

October 4-6, 2001, we need integrative engineering design “in which technologies and buildings, materials<br />

and energy use, work with and support natural systems rather than work against them”.<br />

<strong>Engineering</strong> programs in US universities are widely recognized for their ability to produce graduates with the<br />

excellent technical and analytical capabilities held in great demand by employers around the world. In today’s<br />

world, however, engineers must be able to complement their technical and analytical capabilities with a broad<br />

understanding of issues that are non-technical. In many instances, social, environmental, economic, cultural,<br />

and ethical aspects can be more critical to a project than the technical components. Unfortunately, most<br />

engineering curricula fail to expose young engineers to non-technical issues and students are not provided<br />

with the tools they need to address such issues. Upon graduation, young engineers are often parachuted into<br />

a “real world” for which they are clearly ill prepared.<br />

Another issue of equal importance is the education of engineers interested in addressing the problems that<br />

are most specific to developing communities. Problems include water provisioning and purification, sanitation,<br />

power production, shelter, site planning, infrastructure, food production and distribution, and communication,<br />

among many others. Since such global problems are not usually addressed in engineering curricula in the<br />

US, we do not have engineering schools that educate engineers to address the needs of the most destitute<br />

people on our planet, many of them living in industrialized countries. This is unfortunate as it is estimated that<br />

20% of the world’s population lack clean water, 40% lack adequate sanitation, and 20% lack adequate<br />

housing.<br />

Furthermore, engineers have a critical role to play in addressing the complex problems associated with<br />

refugees, displaced populations, and large-scale population movement worldwide resulting from political<br />

conflicts, famine, land shortage, or natural hazards. Some of these problems have been brought back to our<br />

awareness on a daily basis since the tragedy of September 11, 2001. The engineer’s role is critical to the<br />

relief work provided by host governments and humanitarian organizations. It can take multiple forms ranging<br />

from creating physical infrastructures and sustainable and durable solutions that contribute to peace, welfare<br />

and security, to designing solutions that promote sound environmental management practices in order to<br />

reduce environmental degradation associated with displaced populations. According to the World Health<br />

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Conference <strong>Engineering</strong> Education in Sustainable Development <strong>Delft</strong>, 24-25 October, 2002<br />

Organization (WHO), currently 1.8 billion people (30% of the world’s population) live in conflict zones, in<br />

transition, or in situations of permanent instability.<br />

It is clear that engineering education needs to change (or even be reinvented) in order to address the<br />

challenges associated with the global problems mentioned above. Today, there is still a strong disconnect<br />

between what is expected of young engineers in engineering firms, the magnitude of the problems that we<br />

are facing in our global economy, ABET 2000’s engineering criteria (criteria 3 and 4 for instance), and the<br />

limited skills and tools traditionally taught in engineering programs.<br />

Engineers of the future will have to be trained to make intelligent and harmless decisions that enhance the<br />

quality of life on Earth rather than endanger it. They will also be called to make decisions in a professional<br />

environment where they will have to interact with others from many technical and non-technical disciplines.<br />

Earth Systems <strong>Engineering</strong><br />

In response to the global nature of the problems that Earth is facing today and is likely to face in the near<br />

future, we have started a new initiative called Earth Systems <strong>Engineering</strong> (ESE) in the Department of Civil,<br />

Environmental, and Architectural <strong>Engineering</strong> at the University of Colorado at Boulder. Further details about<br />

the initiative can be found on the web (http://ese.colorado.edu). In general, the initiative emphasizes the role<br />

of civil, environmental and architectural engineering in society and the interaction between the built<br />

environment and natural and cultural systems. It is based on the more general definition of ESE adopted by<br />

the U.S. National Academy of <strong>Engineering</strong> in 2000:<br />

“ESE is a multidisciplinary (engineering, science, social science, and governance) process of solution<br />

development that takes a holistic view of natural and human system interactions. The goal of ESE is to better<br />

understand complex, non-linear systems of global importance and to develop the tools necessary to<br />

implement that understanding”<br />

The term, Earth Systems <strong>Engineering</strong>, had first been used by Allenby (1998) with reference to industrial<br />

ecology. Industrial ecology is an emerging field of engineering defined as “the multidisciplinary study of<br />

industrial systems and economic activities, and their links to fundamental natural systems” (Allenby, 1999).<br />

As a first step in our ESE initiative, a NSF-sponsored workshop on ESE was conducted at the University of<br />

Colorado at Boulder on October 4-6, 2001. The workshop was three days in length and brought together<br />

about 90 industry, government and university participants from engineering, physical sciences, biological<br />

sciences, and social sciences. The overall purpose of the workshop was three-fold:<br />

(1) provide an intellectual framework for interdisciplinary exchange<br />

(2) provide recommendations on the future course of engineering education, research, and practice in the<br />

understanding of the interaction between natural and non-natural systems at multiple scales from local to<br />

regional and global<br />

(3) create an action plan to implement the recommendations. More specifically, the workshop addressed the<br />

interaction of natural systems with the built environment. Research, education and outreach were<br />

addressed throughout the workshop.<br />

The workshop participants unanimously proposed the following definition of the “engineer of the future”:<br />

“The engineer of the future applies scientific analysis and holistic synthesis to develop sustainable solutions<br />

that integrate social, environmental, cultural, and economic systems.”<br />

The workshop participants also recommended that there is a dire need for a transformative model of<br />

engineering education and practice for the 21 st century that:<br />

• Unleashes the human mind and spirit for creativity and compassion;<br />

• Expands engineers’ professional and personal commitments to include both technical and non-technical<br />

disciplines;<br />

• Inspires engineers to embrace the principles of sustainable development, renewable resources<br />

management, appropriate technology, and systems thinking; and<br />

• Prepares engineers for social, economic and environmental stewardships.<br />

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Conference <strong>Engineering</strong> Education in Sustainable Development <strong>Delft</strong>, 24-25 October, 2002<br />

The ESE initiative has been selected as one of five major initiatives in the College of <strong>Engineering</strong> at the<br />

University of Colorado at Boulder along with Assistive Technologies; BioTechnology; Computational Science<br />

and <strong>Engineering</strong>; and Micro/Nano Systems for <strong>Engineering</strong> and Life Sciences. In general, the ESE initiative<br />

involves all components of engineering education, research and development, and outreach and practice.<br />

Earth Systems <strong>Engineering</strong> is a general concept that embraces the principles of sustainability, appropriate<br />

technology, industrial ecology, renewable resources, natural step and natural capitalism, bio mimicry, and<br />

system thinking. Examples of application of ESE to engineering include: engineering for developing<br />

communities; sustainable infrastructure; green development and construction; city planning and design;<br />

transportation; and restoration of natural systems; among many others.<br />

Program in engineering for developing communities<br />

Need for a new program<br />

<strong>Engineering</strong> schools in the US do not usually address the needs of the most destitute people on our planet,<br />

many of them living in industrialized countries including the US. <strong>Engineering</strong> curricula in modern universities<br />

are mostly designed toward solving the problems of the one billion rich and not the needs of the five billion<br />

poor. This is unfortunate as the demand of the developing world for engineering solutions is likely to increase<br />

in the forthcoming years due to population growth. How can engineers in the industrialized world contribute to<br />

the relief of the unnecessary hunger, exploitation, injustice and pain (physical and psychological) of those<br />

who are trying to survive at the end of each day on our planet?<br />

It is clear that there is a need for training a new generation of engineers who could better meet the challenges<br />

and needs of the developing world. The challenge is the education of engineers:<br />

• Who have the skills and tools appropriate to address the issues that our planet is facing today and is<br />

likely to face within the next 20 years;<br />

• Who are aware of the needs of the developing world; and<br />

• Who can contribute to the relief of the endemic problems of poverty afflicting developing communities<br />

worldwide.<br />

A vision to meet the challenge<br />

At the University of Colorado at Boulder, we are developing a new program in <strong>Engineering</strong> for Developing<br />

Communities (EDC) with the underlying theme that “The Developing World is the Classroom of the 21 st<br />

Century.” The overall mission of the program is to create internationally responsible students who can offer<br />

sustainable and appropriate technology and business solutions to the endemic problems of poverty faced by<br />

developing communities worldwide (including the US).<br />

The EDC program involves engineering and non-engineering disciplines (business, sociology, history, etc.)<br />

and strong partnership between a wide range of academic and non-academic groups including: universities,<br />

technical, vocational schools, and individuals in host communities; engineering companies; humanitarian<br />

organizations; NGOs; and interested individuals. The new program emphasizes the issues of water,<br />

sanitation, energy, shelter, jobs and capital for poor communities ranging between villages and refugee<br />

settlements. Finally, the components of the new program include outreach and practice, research and<br />

development, and education.<br />

The EDC program is currently in its implementation and development phase which is scheduled to last until<br />

winter 2002. It is expected to be in operation by spring 2003.<br />

Outreach and Practice - Student Learning and Work in Developing Communities<br />

The outreach and practical component of the new program is well underway in the College of <strong>Engineering</strong> at<br />

the University of Colorado at Boulder with the launching in fall 2001 of a new activity called Engineers Without<br />

Borders. This new activity was created as a follow-up to fieldwork in May 2001 when the author took ten<br />

undergraduate students from the Department of Civil, Environmental and Architectural <strong>Engineering</strong> to help<br />

with the construction of a water distribution system for a small Mayan village in southern Belize.<br />

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Conference <strong>Engineering</strong> Education in Sustainable Development <strong>Delft</strong>, 24-25 October, 2002<br />

The work in Belize led to the creation of a non-profit 501 (c)(3) tax-exempt corporation called Engineers<br />

Without Borders TM – USA created under the laws of the State of Colorado. The first chapter of EWB-USA<br />

(called EWB-CU) was formed at the University of Colorado at Boulder in late fall 2001. Other student<br />

chapters in the US are expected to come on-line in 2002 and 2003.<br />

In general, EWB-USA is dedicated to helping developing areas worldwide with their civil and environmental<br />

engineering needs, while involving and training a new kind of internationally responsible engineering student.<br />

Most EWB-USA projects involve the design and construction of water, sanitation, and energy systems. These<br />

projects are initiated by, and completed with,<br />

Students, Technology,<br />

contributions from the host community, which is trained<br />

to operate the systems without external assistance. All<br />

Training, Education<br />

EWB-USA projects are designed to be appropriate and<br />

self-sustaining. They are conducted by groups of<br />

engineering students under the supervision of<br />

professional engineers and university professors. The<br />

students select a project and go through all phases of<br />

conceptual design, analysis and construction during the<br />

University<br />

<strong>Engineering</strong><br />

Programs<br />

(Education, R&D)<br />

Univer sity<br />

Chapter s<br />

Partnership<br />

EWB<br />

Engineers Without<br />

Borders – USA<br />

(Projects, Internships,<br />

EWB model)<br />

school year with implementation during breaks and the<br />

summer months. By involving students in all steps of<br />

the projects, the students become more aware of the<br />

social, economic, environmental, political, ethical, and<br />

cultural impacts of engineering projects.<br />

Case Studies,<br />

Results, Applications,<br />

Needs<br />

The mission of EWB-USA ranges from the construction of sustainable systems that developing communities<br />

can own and operate without external assistance, to empowering such communities by enhancing local<br />

social, technical, managerial, and entrepreneurial skills.<br />

The figure depicts the important symbiotic relationship that is being sought between EWB-USA and its<br />

university chapters. University engineering programs focus on academic student education, and research.<br />

These activities are complemented by field experience opportunities that result in case studies, practical<br />

applications responsive to local needs, contributions to local development, and multi-disciplinary practical<br />

experience that feeds back into meeting academic requirements.<br />

<strong>Engineering</strong> students at the University of Colorado at Boulder have shown a strong interest in EWB projects.<br />

The number of projects led by EWB-CU has grown rapidly. On-going projects now include:<br />

• San Pablo, Belize – Design, construction, and improvement of water distribution, sanitation, and power<br />

generation systems;<br />

• Punta Gorda, Belize – Technical assistance to the Tumul Kin Mayan Center of Learning;<br />

• Foutaka Zambougou, Mali – Using appropriate technology to solve water and electricity problems;<br />

• Bir Moghrein, Mauritania – Design and construction of a photovoltaic water pumping system;<br />

• Jalapa Valley, Nicaragua – Using appropriate technologies to improve source water, sanitation, energy<br />

and communication;<br />

• Santa Rita, Peru – Solving local rainfall-induced slope stability problems; and<br />

• Bayonnais, Haiti – Providing basic electricity to a rural school.<br />

All EWB-CU projects have been financed by small grants from the University of Colorado at Boulder<br />

(Outreach Committee; <strong>Engineering</strong> Excellence Fund; Undergraduate Research Opportunity Program) and<br />

private donations. During academic year 2001-2002, a total of 25 engineering students participated in the<br />

projects. Detailed description of these projects can be found on the web (www.ewb-usa.org).<br />

Research and Development – Appropriate and Sustainable Technology<br />

The outreach component of the EDC program has revealed that there is an urgent need to develop<br />

appropriate technologies that are more specific to the developing world. Appropriate technology is usually<br />

characterized as being small scale, energy efficient, environmentally sound, labor-intensive, and controlled by<br />

the local community. It must be simple enough to be maintained by the people using it. Furthermore, it must<br />

match the user and the need in complexity and scale and must be designed to foster self-reliance,<br />

cooperation and responsibility (Hazeltine and Bull, 1999).<br />

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Conference <strong>Engineering</strong> Education in Sustainable Development <strong>Delft</strong>, 24-25 October, 2002<br />

The field of appropriate technology is not usually addressed in engineering education, as it is often perceived<br />

as “low tech” and unimportant. Studies by the World Bank and the United Nations have shown, however, that<br />

appropriate technology is critical to bringing more than 3 billion people out of poverty.<br />

As the R&D component of the EDC program, our vision is to develop a new line of research dedicated to the<br />

innovation, development and testing of different types of appropriate technology. The emphasis is on solving<br />

issues of water, sanitation, energy, shelter, and health for developing communities ranging between villages<br />

and refugee settlements. A wide range of appropriate technology systems already exist on the international<br />

market. Many of these systems have not been tested in the laboratory and in real life settings or have been<br />

partially tested under limited conditions. Furthermore, many of the systems have been poorly documented.<br />

There is a need to test existing technologies, identify their range of application, assess their short and long<br />

term sustainability, propose necessary modifications, and build a detailed and thorough database. Further,<br />

new technologies need to be developed to meet the challenging needs of the developing world.<br />

The R&D component of EDC is being developed in collaborative partnership with the International Center for<br />

Appropriate and Sustainable Technology (ICAST), a non-for-profit corporation registered in the State of<br />

Colorado. The mission of ICAST is to provide sustainable and appropriate technology solutions to<br />

engineering problems faced by communities worldwide. These solutions require technologies that have a<br />

proven record under controlled conditions. Laboratory and field-testing and verifications conducted by teams<br />

of undergraduate and undergraduate students under the supervision of faculty and professional engineers<br />

are critical for industry to adopt sustainable and appropriate technology solutions in engineering projects.<br />

More information about ICAST can be found on the web (www.ic-ast.org).<br />

It is noteworthy that students and faculty in the Civil, Environmental and Architectural <strong>Engineering</strong><br />

Department at the University of Colorado on various types of appropriate technologies for developing<br />

communities have already conducted several studies. They include:<br />

• Development of prototype rope pumps for water wells and ram pumps;<br />

• Improvement of existing earthenware cooling techniques to provide storage of food and maintain the<br />

viability of vaccines at low cost (in collaboration with the Sustainable Village in Boulder, CO); and<br />

• Improvement of existing clay pots units (Filtron system) for filtering purposes at low costs (in<br />

collaboration with Potters for Peace in Managua, Nicaragua).<br />

These research topics originated from needs that arose from the EWB-CU projects in Belize and Mali.<br />

Education – Teaching sustainability and appropriate technology<br />

The success of EWB-CU has also convinced the author that new engineering courses are needed so that<br />

engineering students possess better tools and skills to address the more global problems that our planet is<br />

facing today. For instance, a new course entitled “Sustainability and the Built Environment” was taught in<br />

spring 2002 in the College of <strong>Engineering</strong> at the University at Colorado at Boulder. The course introduced<br />

undergraduate and graduate students to the fundamental concepts of sustainability and sustainable<br />

development. Emphasis was placed on understanding natural systems, the interaction of the built<br />

environment (infrastructure) with natural systems, and the role of technical and non-technical (economic,<br />

social, ecological, ethical, philosophical, political, psychological, cultural) issues in shaping engineering<br />

decisions. Information about the new course can be found at http://ese.colorado.edu/4838-5838.htm.<br />

A new engineering design course for undergraduate students (engineering freshmen) is also willing to be<br />

offered by the author in fall 2002. The main emphasis of the course will be on appropriate technology and on<br />

the use of such technology in solving water, sanitation, energy, and health problems in developing<br />

communities. The new course will give students a thorough understanding of some of the most common and<br />

important technologies being introduced in small-scale community developments. Students will be asked to<br />

create, design and construct appropriate technological systems, processes and devices for a variety of<br />

settings associated with the developing world. Of equal importance, special emphasis will be placed on<br />

introducing students in the early part of their engineering education to the societal impact and implications of<br />

appropriate technological systems and engineering in general.<br />

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Conference <strong>Engineering</strong> Education in Sustainable Development <strong>Delft</strong>, 24-25 October, 2002<br />

It is clear that new courses need to be developed soon to complement not only the courses mentioned above<br />

but also existing courses at the University of Colorado that emphasize issues critical to the understanding of<br />

the developing world. The objective is to provide by spring 2003 an opportunity for engineering undergraduate<br />

and graduate students at the University of Colorado to enrol in a regular program of study in the College of<br />

<strong>Engineering</strong> (BS, MS, PhD) and to take at the same time a imited number of their required socio-humanistic<br />

electives and independent study from a pool of courses emphasizing engineering for developing<br />

communities. Upon completion of a certain number of courses (to be determined), students will be able to<br />

receive at graduation an EDC certificate in addition to their respective regular degrees.<br />

Conclusion<br />

The new program in <strong>Engineering</strong> for Developing Communities described in this paper provides a unique<br />

opportunity to promote engineering, a discipline that has traditionally been taken for granted by government<br />

agencies and political groups. It also provides higher visibility to a profession that is called to play a critical<br />

role in creating structures and technology needed to sustain the quality of life of current and future<br />

generations, especially in the developing world.<br />

The new program presents many opportunities for engineering practice to become involved in engineering<br />

education through projects in developing communities around the world (including the US). Finally, it provides<br />

an innovative way to educate young engineers interested in addressing more specifically the problems faced<br />

by developing countries and communities. It is clear that engineers of the 21 st century are called to play a<br />

critical role in contributing to peace and security in an increasingly challenged world.<br />

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References<br />

Allenby, B. 1998. Earth systems engineering: the role of industrial ecology in an engineered world, J. of<br />

Industrial Ecology, Vol. 2, No. 3, pp. 73-93.<br />

Allenby, B. 1999. Industrial Ecology: Policy Framework and Implementation, Upper Saddle River, N.J:<br />

Prentice Hall.<br />

Bartlett, A.A. 1998. Reflections on sustainability, population growth and the environment, Renewable<br />

Resources Journal, Vol. 15, No. 4, pp. 6-22.<br />

Benyus, J. M. 1997. Biomimicry: Innovation Inspired by Nature, New York: Quill, Willaim Morrow<br />

Berry, T. 1988. The Dream of the Earth, San Francisco: Sierra Club Books.<br />

Bugliarello, G. 1999. Megacities and the developing world, The Bridge, Vol. 29, No.4, pp. 19-26.<br />

Bugliarello, G. 2000. Biosoma: the synthesis of biology, machines and society, Bulletin of Science,<br />

Technology and Society, Vol. 20, No. 6, pp. 454-464.<br />

Hawken, P., Lovins A. and Lovins L. H. 1999. Natural Capitalism, Boston: Little, Brown and Company<br />

Hazeltine, B. and Bull, C. 1999. Appropriate Technology: Tools, Choices and Implications, San Diego:<br />

Academic Press.<br />

Roberts, D. V. 1997. Sustainable development in geotechnical engineering. Lecture presented at GeoLogan,<br />

ASCE.<br />

United Nations 1998. Trends in urbanization and the components of urban growth. In Proc. Of the Symp. On<br />

Internal Migration and Urbanization in Developing Countries, 22-24 January 1996, New York, United Nations<br />

Population Fund.<br />

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Conference <strong>Engineering</strong> Education in Sustainable Development <strong>Delft</strong>, 24-25 October, 2002<br />

021 Implementing project orientation towards sustainability in the university. The<br />

issue of systemic change, Susanne Ihsen, VDI The Association of Engineers,<br />

Duesseldorf, Germany, Georg Schoeler and Dietrich Brandt, Aachen University of<br />

Technology, Germany<br />

Abstract<br />

The question needs to be faced today how society can influence societal developments and create changes<br />

under conditions of ever increasing complexity of all social systems. This question leads to investigating the<br />

fundamental changebility of institutions. This paper deals with explaining the sluggish and superficial<br />

attitudes of universities towards changes needed to sustainability as a main theme in engineering education.<br />

Furthermore an intervention concept for institutional change is suggested. It is applied to examples of<br />

implementing project orientation in the university, which serves here as an example of a fairly changeresistant<br />

social system.<br />

Introduction<br />

The Universities of Technology worldwide are increasingly challenged by the demand to increase their<br />

commitment towards the theme of sustainability in research and education. Actually, about all engineering<br />

undergraduates would need to perform first exposure to such questions during their period of studying in<br />

order to come up to the expectations of society today.<br />

Increasing numbers of students take advantage of placements in industrial companies. About all countries<br />

offer today such programmes to students to expose themselves to industrial experiences, many of them<br />

going abroad, into the different European countries or in any country around the world.<br />

In this paper, the present state of these programmes and their future perspectives are discussed against the<br />

background of changes towards sustainability which are needed, and how universities are expected to<br />

respond in order to educate the engineers of the future towards such sustainability.<br />

Industry-oriented graduate research projects<br />

Today industry-oriented research projects are increasingly offered as an important part of the engineering<br />

curriculum and research activities. Many courses expect engineering graduate students to do different<br />

research and development projects in engineering. These projects may be performed in close co-operation<br />

with industrial enterprises. Many universities worldwide, however, have adopted such approaches to project<br />

work only very reluctantly. According to what is needed in terms of sustainability today, universities would<br />

specifically be expected to offer R&D projects to their engineering students who could be<br />

• truly interdisciplinary<br />

• genuinely linked to the challenges of sustainability in industry today<br />

• following as much as possible the individual aims and areas of interests of the students involved<br />

Only in this way it seems likely that the future engineers are being prepared for the changes which need to<br />

take place in industry today, already during their studies. The overall scope of these truly professional<br />

projects can be derived from an understanding of engineering as an activity or driving force with a purpose<br />

within society. This purpose would correspond to the challenges – specifically the challenges of sustainability<br />

- which technology today has to face.<br />

In the following paragraph, two examples are given how at the University of Technology (RWTH) Aachen,<br />

Germany, such project orientation has been put into practice. These examples represent the commitment<br />

within this university to offer to their engineering students, genuine interdisciplinary projects that deal with<br />

issues of sustainability. Since the introduction of such project options in the 70s, some hundreds of students<br />

have taken advantage of these options in co-operation with industrial companies across Germany and<br />

abroad. Thus they have contributed to changes within society as well as to changes inside the university<br />

education system.<br />

Project orientation in university engineering education: Some Examples<br />

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Conference <strong>Engineering</strong> Education in Sustainable Development <strong>Delft</strong>, 24-25 October, 2002<br />

The Environmental Technology Park<br />

The concept of technology or industrial (business) parks is not uncommon: different companies settle within<br />

an enclosed geographic area generally as a result of industrial and regional government policy. Those<br />

companies, which are more resource intensive (in terms of consumption of energy, water, equipment, and<br />

waste production, etc.), are usually unwanted on such sites. It is, however, possible to incorporate these<br />

companies by establishing parks, which allow the shared and effective use of infrastructure and resources.<br />

One example may illustrate this concept.<br />

The first Environmental Technology Park was established at Bielefeld as an innovative industrial network in<br />

Germany. Originally, the Aachen University in co-operation with an industrial company suggested it. It is<br />

centred on a large textile finishing plant, which had to give up business at that time. Today it consists of a<br />

cluster of specially selected companies taking up residence in unused areas of the site. The basic features of<br />

re-establishing the companies on this site are: shared use of electricity generated on site; fresh water supply<br />

from the site’s own wells; utilising the existing, but under-used sewage treatment plant; shared use of<br />

maintenance as well as other facilities, etc. Thus more than 30 companies have been relocated onto this site<br />

since 1997. Among them are two large commercial laundries and a car-wash business, several trading,<br />

marketing and software companies, etc. They have experienced cost reductions of up to 80 through shared<br />

use and re-use of resources.<br />

The same concept of the environmental Technology Park is presently being reworked for the whole of the<br />

Aachen region in close co-operation of the Regional Council, the Chambers, several enterprises and the<br />

university. This project of the Environmental Technology Park, is an example of how economic and<br />

environmental objectives can be brought together in order to improve environmental performance in industry<br />

and service through regional networking.<br />

These projects of integrating environmental concerns and economic advantages have been projects of<br />

Graduates of the University (RWTH) Aachen leading to their Masters Degree. They are examples of linking<br />

engineering to elements of economy and business studies, also taking into account issues of regional<br />

politics.<br />

Relektra: Recycling of electr(on)ical products after use<br />

A group of graduates from the universities of the region started as students to set up a company to manually<br />

disassemble and pre-sort on a large scale, computers and TV equipment etc.. Their aim is to re-gain raw<br />

materials in order to deliver them to certain production factories for re-use and further exploitation. These<br />

materials comprise copper wiring, glass tubes, condensers and circuit boards, plastic materials etc. The<br />

computers are collected region-wide. Today the company is successful in economic terms and it is still run by<br />

one of the former student entrepreneurs. The company shows some interesting features, which are briefly<br />

described here.<br />

The workers on the plant experience both a new qualification as craftsmen, and personal satisfaction to be<br />

needed for a task, which they themselves consider valuable in terms of both environment and society. As a<br />

side-job, some of these workers create strange and beautiful works of art out of the technology waste. The<br />

company is part of a network of regional political administration, university, industry and the institutions and<br />

chambers responsible for employment and qualification. Their common aim is the lasting integration of<br />

structural economic improvements and improved labour market policy. Figure 1 shows the basic structure of<br />

the network. The following quotation has been taken from the official report of the review team who visited<br />

the company on behalf of the partly funding Government institution:<br />

”Here, new ways of removal and utilisation of electronic waste have been developed in parallel which have<br />

triggered a process of structural change into a good direction. The Aachen network of electronic waste<br />

treatment is a model of a new integrative strategy that is economically as well as ecologically viable.“<br />

(von Weizsaecker, 1999, p.4)<br />

This example illustrates how engineering students are not only getting involved into research activities<br />

towards sustainability but go beyond it by developing genuine business plans to set up their own enterprise.<br />

Their aim is, thus, not merely to make profit for themselves but to contribute through their business to<br />

improving conditions of sustainability in society.<br />

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Conference <strong>Engineering</strong> Education in Sustainable Development <strong>Delft</strong>, 24-25 October, 2002<br />

Disassembly<br />

Entreprise<br />

City Councils<br />

Training Centre<br />

Chamber of Trade<br />

and Commerce<br />

Producer<br />

Factories<br />

figure 1: Structure of co-operation network for recycling of electr(on)ical products in the region of Aachen.<br />

In these regional innovation processes, the Universities make up an evident and natural main actor. It may be<br />

considered one of the main tasks of universities to supply services to their local and regional communities by<br />

providing the knowledge needed for change and innovation. These have been the experiences in many<br />

regional innovation processes to be observed across the whole of Europe. One particularly important<br />

example is the large German-based project SENEKA that is based at the University of Technology (RWTH)<br />

Aachen, Department of Computer Science in Mechanical <strong>Engineering</strong>. . It comprises a large network of<br />

research institutes integrating also several large enterprises and SMEs and making up a total of 30 national<br />

partners and additional 25 international associated partners. It has being funded by the German Federal<br />

Government (20 Mio EURO).<br />

Systemic identity and change processes<br />

As discussed in the previous paragraphs, the qualification of future engineering graduates is expected to<br />

correspond to the industrial and societal demands. Here, in particular, we are concerned about the issues of<br />

sustainability as the most important challenge to the future’s society.<br />

But although all around the world, many responsible groups within the scientific community have been<br />

discussing about such necessary changes in contents and methods of engineering education, no satisfying<br />

results in the curricula improvements have so far been achieved - although the universities maintain the<br />

opposite opinion. An endless number of committees from engineering, industry and unions, science, politics<br />

and economy have produced several lists of the necessary qualifications, which engineering graduates need<br />

to master in order to be “fit for their future“. But during all that time only a few changes have been realised in<br />

the engineering courses at university. It seems as though universities are “blind“ not only against the actual<br />

needs of industry and society, but also against requirements related to the overall developments of society.<br />

Following this conflict between change and continuity, one possible explanation for the behaviour of<br />

universities and engineering departments seems to be that the university and its departments are social<br />

systems. Each system shows a specific culture and identity which has developed out of their own mission<br />

and which is necessary to support the system against the environment. This demarcation is necessary for<br />

keeping the system alive, but it may make it also “blind“ against environmental demands. (figure 2)<br />

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Conference <strong>Engineering</strong> Education in Sustainable Development <strong>Delft</strong>, 24-25 October, 2002<br />

environment<br />

system border<br />

Input<br />

infrastructure<br />

history<br />

economy<br />

politics<br />

members<br />

innovation<br />

future<br />

underworld<br />

figure 2: The system, its sub-systems and its borders<br />

Output<br />

This description about university as an autopoietic system explains to some extent how several elements<br />

make up the specific identity of each faculty (Rieckmann/Weissengruber 1990): Such elements of the faculty<br />

as a system are, e.g.., the teachers, researchers, technicians, and the students (as the members of the<br />

system), the faculty office (which may frequently represent some economic system influences), the research<br />

departments (which may represent some system innovation through their research), the different academic<br />

boards (which represent some aspects of politics within the university).<br />

These elements work together as one faculty (infrastructure) and they develop their identity against other<br />

systems, e.g. other faculties, the national science policy and industrial demands (system environment). Each<br />

faculty, also each university as a whole, exists and acts on the basis of its own specific historical<br />

development (the history of the institution). It includes dealing with taboos, contradictions and conflicts (a<br />

certain underworld of the system) and dealing with more or less concrete perspectives and planning<br />

processes (in order to master the future of the system).<br />

The university represents such a system integrating the faculties and departments as traditionally grown subsystems,<br />

each with a special identity that is based on a specific mission. This system view describes the<br />

systemic identity of the system and applies to the system within its environment. This specific identity<br />

includes the system’s own goals, strategies and rules, but also its influencing power and its leadership.<br />

Values and standards are transmitted by the typical attitudes of its actors (e.g. linguistic symbols, stories and<br />

myths, ideologies) but also through standardised attitudes (e.g. customs, rites).<br />

Such symbolic actions are, especially in traditionally grown systems, a central element of their internal<br />

culture, which is only applied by its actors because of a common understanding of the symbols. In a faculty<br />

this communication includes jokes, the formation of categories and self-made borders for thinking and acting.<br />

Also the power shows symbolic interpretations. System changes are difficult to achieve because the input<br />

filters of the system tend to prohibit the influx of change actions into the system (figure 3). Thus there occur<br />

points of conflicts around the input areas, which trigger the system to respond through resistance against<br />

such changes (figure 4).<br />

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Conference <strong>Engineering</strong> Education in Sustainable Development <strong>Delft</strong>, 24-25 October, 2002<br />

Input filter<br />

System border<br />

Sub-systems<br />

Input Output<br />

System border<br />

Point of Sub-systems<br />

conflict<br />

Input Output<br />

figure 3: The system and the input filter figure 4: Points of conflicts at the system borders<br />

The Intervention concept<br />

The way to change such a system is to integrate new elements into the system as if they were already<br />

internal elements and components of this system. If the system “feels“, thus, disturbed by internal impulses<br />

(“autopoietic turning“) it cannot easily reject them as conflicts from outside any longer. It then has to react on<br />

these change components in order to get back to its systemic harmony even if on a new level. This<br />

implantation (“mirroring“) of change components into the system is the beginning of an accepted change<br />

process in the system’s culture (figure 5).<br />

Such mirroring in the meaning of “optical reflection”, changes the self-perception of the actors within the<br />

system, it shows the system’s own borders but also the “blind spots“ in self-observation. This reflection<br />

obviously contributes to changes within the system (Maturana/Varela 1987; Goorhuis 1996).<br />

Conflict management for system change requires integrated consultant intervention. It leads to the<br />

transformation of external demands into specific internal structures and helps to consolidate the change<br />

process.<br />

Organization<br />

figure 5: The mirroring of change action into the system<br />

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Conference <strong>Engineering</strong> Education in Sustainable Development <strong>Delft</strong>, 24-25 October, 2002<br />

The examples of student projects reported here demonstrate the application of this integrated consultant<br />

intervention. Each of these examples is from university change projects, e.g. changing engineering teaching<br />

and learning within traditional structures. They were instigated and supervised by committed university staff<br />

members in the roles of these integrated consultants. They took up the challenges from outside the system in<br />

order to transform them into internal change stimuli. Nevertheless, universities need much more fundamental<br />

and broad change processes than those so far observed here. Or, in other words:<br />

"With their universities, society has the possibility to work experimentally on conflicts and to find solutions for<br />

them with reduced risk. (...) It is the urgent task of universities on behalf of society to test and open up new<br />

ways of resolving societal conflicts." (Eckstein 1972)<br />

Conclusion<br />

The concept of integrated consultant intervention is needed in all kinds of systemic change. It concerns<br />

particularly all complex socio-technical systems (e.g. universities structured by both human processes, and<br />

information and automation technology). These systems are today under increasing pressure of continuous<br />

change – particularly towards improving sustainability across society. Through the strategy described here,<br />

the changing system experiences improved conflict consciousness and awareness, and thus it develops<br />

improved action competence towards its future.<br />

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References<br />

Eckstein, B. (1972), Hochschuldidaktik und gesamtgesellschaftliche Konflikte, Frankfurt a.M.<br />

Goorhuis, H. (1996), Universitaere Weiterbildung im “neuen Kapitalismus“, ETH Publ., Zurich<br />

Maturana, H., Varela, F., Der Baum der Erkenntnis, Bern, Muenchen 1987<br />

Rieckmann, H. and Weissengruber, P.H. (1990), Managing the Unmanageable?, Management Development<br />

im Wandel (Kraus, H., Kailer, N., Sandner, K., Eds.) pp. 27-96. Mack, Wien.<br />

VDI (2000), Memorandum on the World Engineers’ Convention 2000, UNESCO World <strong>Engineering</strong> and<br />

Technology Report No.1, The Association of Engineers VDI, Duesseldorf<br />

von Weizsaecker, E.-U., G.I.B., ISA Consult (eds.) (1999), Electronic waste recycling in the Aachen region<br />

(Kooperationsverbund Eletro(nik)schrott-Recycling in der Region Aachen), Bottrop.<br />

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Conference <strong>Engineering</strong> Education in Sustainable Development <strong>Delft</strong>, 24-25 October, 2002<br />

024 Sustainable product development education for industrial design engineering<br />

students, Jan Carel Diehl M.Sc., <strong>Delft</strong> University of technology, The Netherlands<br />

Abstract<br />

Eco-design education for Industrial Design <strong>Engineering</strong> students plays an important role to provide future<br />

engineers with sufficient background and capabilities to apply Eco-design in their daily work. Since 10 years<br />

the Design for Sustainability (DfS) program at <strong>Delft</strong> University for Technology (DUT) provides to all the<br />

Industrial Design <strong>Engineering</strong> students the course “Introduction to Eco-design”.<br />

The goal of the course is to create awareness on the environmental impact of a product’s lifecycle,<br />

understanding of Eco-design concepts & tools and above all to apply this knowledge in real practice to<br />

develop Eco-design competences. The assignment is presented as a problem of a professional practice in a<br />

“real life” situation. Cooperatively work the teams on the Internet on a redesign of a consumer product (for<br />

example a refrigerator, washing machine or vacuum cleaner) for a virtual company.<br />

Because of a growing interest and demand for sustainability related courses by the students, four new<br />

elective Design for Sustainability courses for Industrial Design <strong>Engineering</strong> students have been introduced in<br />

2001:<br />

• Sustainable Product & System Design<br />

• Eco-design in Business Practice<br />

• Technical Environmental Analyses<br />

• Industrial Design and International Cooperation<br />

Parallel to this development the courses have been under transition towards Internet Based Education. Up to<br />

now, the Internet Based Eco-design courses have been evaluated positively by the students and staff<br />

because of its flexibility, problem based learning approach, easy access to relevant information on the<br />

Internet and timesaving. Besides the Internet creates the opportunity to share the developed Eco-design<br />

course materials with other universities worldwide.<br />

Introduction<br />

Industrial Design <strong>Engineering</strong> students are the future designers of new products and services. To enable<br />

them to integrate sustainable aspects into their coming work, it is important to provide them with sufficient<br />

awareness, knowledge and skills in Eco-design during their education. The Design for Sustainability (DfS)<br />

program at <strong>Delft</strong> University of Technology (DUT) provides since its foundation in 1992 Eco-design courses for<br />

amongst others the Industrial Design <strong>Engineering</strong> (IDE) program at DUT. “Introduction to Eco-design” was<br />

the first course to be introduced within the IDE curriculum and is currently being attended by 250 students a<br />

year. Recently four new Design for Sustainability courses have been introduced to fulfil the need of the<br />

students to develop themselves more into this direction (see table 1).<br />

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Design for Sustainability courses Study hours Students a year<br />

Introduction to Eco-design, Compulsory second year 80 250<br />

Environmental Product Innovation, Compulsory third year 120 250<br />

Sustainable Product & System Design, Elective fourth year 80 25<br />

Technical Environmental Analyses, Elective fourth year 80 50<br />

Eco-design in Business Practice, Elective fourth year 80 25<br />

IDE and International Cooperation, Elective fourth year 80 25<br />

Course “Introduction to Eco-design”<br />

table 1: DfS courses within the IDE curriculum<br />

figure 1: Internet Based Eco-design Education<br />

Introduction to Eco-design is a second year course (within the current 5 year MSc. Program) and provides all<br />

Industrial Design <strong>Engineering</strong> students at DUT with an introduction into the environmental aspects in relation<br />

to products and product development. The goal of the 80 hours course is to create awareness on the<br />

environmental impact of a product’s lifecycle, understanding of Eco-design concepts & tools and above all to<br />

apply this knowledge in real practice to develop Eco-design competences.<br />

Educational approach<br />

Nowadays the expanding knowledge base of most professions means that it is impossible to include all the<br />

knowledge that is required for the beginning practitioner in the pre-service curriculum. It is more important for<br />

students to be able to learn quickly, effectively and independently when they need it, than it is for them have<br />

assimilated (at graduation) all the information that their teachers believe is desirable. It is has become more<br />

important for students to learn how they can acquire in efficient way relevant information to solve problems<br />

and how to transfer this information into competences (professional skills).<br />

Originally the course Introduction to Eco-design was based upon explicit (codified) knowledge. Nowadays the<br />

course is focused on the development of implicit knowledge (experiences, competences and attitudes). The<br />

explicit knowledge acquired during lectures or from information resources like Internet is converted into<br />

implicit knowledge by practical Eco-design projects. As a basis for development of a more implicit knowledge<br />

oriented Eco-design course, the tuition form of Problem Based Learning (PBL) was chosen. PBL is a way of<br />

constructing and teaching courses using (professional) problems as stimulus and focus for student activity.<br />

Problem-based courses start with problems rather than with exposition of disciplinary knowledge. They move<br />

students towards the acquisition of knowledge and skills through a staged sequence of problems presented<br />

in context, together with associated learning materials and support from teachers. It is becoming increasingly<br />

apparent that learning takes place most effectively when students are actively involved and learn in the<br />

context in which knowledge is to be used.<br />

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Conference <strong>Engineering</strong> Education in Sustainable Development <strong>Delft</strong>, 24-25 October, 2002<br />

Framework of the course introduction to eco-design<br />

Within the course the students are exposed to Eco-design by means of lectures (both theoretical as wells as<br />

examples from the practice), reading materials and exercises via the Internet. The latter part, the exercises,<br />

is the main component to create the transfer from implicit knowledge from the lectures into explicit knowledge<br />

(competences) in Eco-design concepts & tools. The assignment is presented as a problem of a professional<br />

practice in a “real life” situation. Cooperatively work the teams on the Internet on a redesign of a consumer<br />

product (for example a refrigerator, washing machine or vacuum cleaner) for a virtual company. For carrying<br />

out the exercises there is not a strict format, however the students are suggested to take the following steps<br />

to come to improvements of the product and to create business opportunities for the company:<br />

• problem definition<br />

• definition of functional and user (scenario) of the product<br />

• qualitative environmental assessment by applying MET-Matrix<br />

• quantitative environmental assessment by using Eco-scan software and the Eco-Indicator 99<br />

• comparing result of both environmental assessments<br />

• prioritising of the Eco-design improvement strategies resulting from the environmental assessments<br />

• assessment of the external Eco-design motivators<br />

• prioritising of the Eco-design improvement strategies resulting from the external motivators assessment<br />

• create improvement options by applying the Eco-design Strategy Wheel, IDEMAT software and Internet<br />

search<br />

• selection of the most feasible improvement options<br />

• evaluation in quantitative and qualitative ways of the environmental, user and economical benefits<br />

• conclusion<br />

To fulfil the assignment, the students are provided with a virtual toolkit with Eco-design tools. To solve the<br />

problems of the assignment the teams are encouraged to apply different tools at the same time to find and<br />

evaluate the differences in application and results of the tools. For example:<br />

• differences in outcome between the results of the quantitative and the qualitative environmental<br />

assessments<br />

• different priorities for Eco-design improvements between the results of the environmental assessments<br />

and the assessment of the external motivators<br />

• different kind of improvement options generated by using IDEMAT (Eco Indicator 99) or the Eco-design<br />

Strategy Wheel<br />

This will enable the students in the future to decide what kind of Eco-design tool is appropriate for a certain<br />

kind of circumstance during their professional career.<br />

Environmental assessments<br />

To experience the differences between qualitative environmental assessments methods (like the MET–<br />

matrix) and quantitative environmental assessments methods (like LCA) the students are recommended to<br />

apply both. The MET-matrix (see figure 2) is being filled in after discussion within the team and with others<br />

and the use of their common sense on the environmental aspects (Materials, Energy & Toxic emissions) of<br />

the lifecycle of the product. The results are subjective and reflect the personal opinion of the team on the<br />

environmental profile of the product’s lifecycle.<br />

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Conference <strong>Engineering</strong> Education in Sustainable Development <strong>Delft</strong>, 24-25 October, 2002<br />

figure 2: Results of the MET-Matrix<br />

figure 3: Results of Eco-scan 3.0<br />

Subsequently the team will use the LCA software tool “Eco-scan 3.0” to calculate the environmental impact<br />

on a quantitative basis with the use of the Eco Indicator 99 assessment method. Earlier it was decided to use<br />

simplified LCA software tools like Eco-scan instead of the more comprehensive LCA software tools like<br />

Simapro. Within the timeframe of the course Eco-scan seemed to be more appropriate because of its<br />

convenience of use.<br />

The results of the Eco-scan assessment are indicated in a quantitative way (Eco Indicator 99 mPt). The<br />

outcomes of both environmental assessments differ often because of their different characters (qualitative<br />

versus quantitative). The team has to evaluate the outcomes of both assessments and to prioritise the main<br />

environmental impacts of the product life cycle. Subsequently they are translated into one or more design<br />

strategies of the Eco-design Strategy Wheel (see figure 4) to give directions for improvements.<br />

External eco-design motivators<br />

In addition to the environmental assessment another assessment is being done on the so-called external<br />

Eco-design motivators. The teams explore on the Internet business Eco-design motives like environmental<br />

legislation, competitors green activities, opinions of environmental NGO’s and Eco-labels that are of<br />

relevance for the company and its products from a business point of view. These external Eco-design<br />

motivators are also translated in design strategies of the Eco-design Strategy Wheel for the desired Ecodesign<br />

profile of the product.<br />

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Conference <strong>Engineering</strong> Education in Sustainable Development <strong>Delft</strong>, 24-25 October, 2002<br />

Eco-design Strategy Wheel (ESW)<br />

The team can use the ESW amongst others as a tool to visualize a product’s current profile and the desired<br />

environmental profile according to the environmental and external assessments. The size of the area<br />

covered by the lines drawn in the wheel indicates the importance of Eco-design strategies according to the<br />

team. Often this figure will show a conflict or opposite in improvement directions of both assessments. For<br />

example in the case of the End-of-Life system, the results of the external motivators assessment (for<br />

example take back legislation) might stress much more on this design strategy than the results of the<br />

environmental assessments. In figure 4 the directions for improvements based upon the results of the<br />

environmental and external assessments of a team are indicated in the Eco-design Strategy Wheel.<br />

Improvements options<br />

end-of-life system<br />

initial lifetime<br />

impact during use<br />

new concept<br />

development<br />

distribution system<br />

External Environmental Current<br />

low-impact materials<br />

material use<br />

production<br />

techniques<br />

figure 4: The Ecodesign Strategy Wheel (ESW)<br />

figure 5: IDEMAT Material Database<br />

After deliberation the teams decide which ESW design-strategies are the spearheads for improvement. To<br />

come to improvements options they can use qualitative tools like the IDEMAT material database in which<br />

they can search for materials with a lower environmental indicator but with the same critical material<br />

characteristics.<br />

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Conference <strong>Engineering</strong> Education in Sustainable Development <strong>Delft</strong>, 24-25 October, 2002<br />

Furthermore they can also apply qualitative improvement tools like the Eco-design Strategy Wheel by looking<br />

for improvement options based upon its 33 Eco-design principles (clustered in 8 Eco-design strategies).<br />

Finally the improvement options are evaluated with the help a feasibility matrix with ecological, economical<br />

and technical criteria.<br />

Problems encountered<br />

During the last 10 years several consumer and professional products have been applied as the topic for the<br />

assignment varying from vacuum cleaners to personal cars. More complex products like a car have seemed<br />

to be to complicate to be analysed and improved within the 80 hours available for the course. For the coming<br />

years we will try to find more products that are not to complex but that still have enough challenges for<br />

analyses and improvements. During the environmental assessments the students encounter often problems<br />

with the definition of the functional units, system boundaries and making assumption if needed in case of a<br />

lack of data or information.<br />

Internet Based Eco-design Education<br />

To make the study program for the students as well as the staff of our department more flexible and efficient<br />

we have decided in 1997 to explore the possibilities of using the Internet to facilitate our courses at the<br />

University. Initially we created our own educational web sites by programming the course in “HTML codes”. In<br />

1998 “WebCT”, a web based course management system was introduced at the Faculty of Industrial Design<br />

<strong>Engineering</strong>, followed by the course management system “Blackboard” in 1999 as a university broad Internet<br />

course platform. Blackboard has become a standard at <strong>Delft</strong> University of Technology for all the<br />

departments.<br />

As a first step in 1997 and 1998 we have used the Internet to replace our traditional classes for the practical<br />

experiences of our course Introduction to Eco-design. In the first year half of the students (125) participated<br />

in the exercises on-line.<br />

After a positive evaluation by as well the students as the lecturers it was decided to quit with the traditional<br />

classes for practical experiments for this course and to continue on-line. Step-by-step each year parts of the<br />

course have been transformed into an Internet Based Education course.<br />

Experiences with Internet Based Education<br />

The students and staff have evaluated the use of Internet Based Education positively because of several<br />

reasons:<br />

• innovative way of providing education, which makes it more efficient for students and staff<br />

• flexible hours for working on the course (from the computer statistics we could see that the students<br />

prefer to work more in the end of the afternoon and evening compared to the earlier parts of the day)<br />

• flexible workspace, students could either work on the university computer centre or at their own PC at<br />

home that could save them travelling time and to the choice to work in the most convenient working<br />

environment<br />

• a fast feedback on their question and in-between results (of course this depends largely on the reaction<br />

time by the supervisors!)<br />

• more discussion with the supervisors and the other students<br />

• getting more insight in the work for the course by other students (for example, for some the courses the<br />

final reports are published on the Internet)<br />

• the web-site could provide them with all the necessary information at on place on the internet and is<br />

always available (unlike universities that close in the weekend and have decentralized information<br />

resources)<br />

• the direct link with other digital information resources like the University library and other resources on the<br />

Internet<br />

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Conference <strong>Engineering</strong> Education in Sustainable Development <strong>Delft</strong>, 24-25 October, 2002<br />

figure 6: Reading material in Blackboard<br />

figure 7: Discussion on thesis topic in Blackboard<br />

Because of this positive evaluation the new Design for Sustainability courses are being developed from the<br />

beginning on in an Internet Based Environment. The next step is to adapt the Internet Based Eco-design<br />

courses for use for international students and professionals.<br />

New Sustainability courses<br />

Because of a growing interest and demand for sustainability related courses by the students, four new<br />

elective Design for Sustainability courses for Industrial Design <strong>Engineering</strong> students have been introduced in<br />

2001.<br />

Course Sustainable Product & System Design<br />

In contrary to the second year course “Introduction to Eco-design” that focuses on the Eco-Redesign of<br />

products, this course focuses on more radical changes towards function and system innovations. Sustainable<br />

Development will be interpreted as “triple dividend”, economical development, together with social equity and<br />

environmental care. Examples and practices in business, but also new academic concepts such as have<br />

been developed in the Sustainable Technological Development program and the SusHouse project are being<br />

explored in order to develop sustainable services and sustainable system innovations.<br />

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Conference <strong>Engineering</strong> Education in Sustainable Development <strong>Delft</strong>, 24-25 October, 2002<br />

Eco-design in Business Practice<br />

In order to implement Environmental Design in practice both through skills in the technicalities as well as<br />

insight in environmental and business value chains are needed; such insights include: Green business<br />

strategies, green purchasing, green marketing and sale and environmental & business validation. This course<br />

has a strong focus on Eco-design in the business context of electronic companies.<br />

Technical Environmental Analyses<br />

This more comprehensive LCA course has been set-up for students that are interested in more in-depth<br />

information and skills in LCA. The aim of this course to realize that the student is able to organize, conduct<br />

and assess a Life-Cycle Analysis for the improvement of the sustainability of products. The emphasis is on<br />

the application of the method and the principal components of it.<br />

Industrial Design and International Cooperation<br />

To prepare students for internships and future professional careers in Developing countries the students are<br />

being exposed to the different aspects of Industrial Design <strong>Engineering</strong> in an international co-operation<br />

context like cultural differences, knowledge transfer, fair-trade and appropriate Technology.<br />

Conclusion<br />

There is a big challenge to provide all Industrial Design Engineers with Eco-design knowledge and skills.<br />

Higher Educational institutions can play an important in this task by offering appropriate courses. Problem<br />

Based Learning as a tuition form for Eco-design has shown to be a suitable way to build up implicit Ecodesign<br />

knowledge for future product designers.<br />

Internet Based Education can facilitate this knowledge transfer in a more efficiently way by creating an<br />

educational environment that is more flexible, problem based, easy to access worldwide and challenges to<br />

have exchange of experiences and information between the students mutually and with the staff.<br />

Finally, there is a big need for Eco-design education worldwide and Internet Based Education can offer<br />

possibilities to share educational materials with other universities in an efficient way. We are looking forward<br />

to start up these kinds of collaborative initiatives in collaboration other Educational institutions!<br />

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Conference <strong>Engineering</strong> Education in Sustainable Development <strong>Delft</strong>, 24-25 October, 2002<br />

References<br />

Brezet, J.C. and C.G. van Hemel, Ecodesign: A promising approach to sustainable production and<br />

consumption, UNEP, Paris, 1997.<br />

Eneroth, C., E-learning for Environment, IIIEE, Lund University, Sweden, 2000.<br />

Remmerswaal, H., Milieugerichte Product- ontwikkeling, Academic Service, 2000, The Netherlands.<br />

Weggeman, M., Kennismanagement in praktijk, Scriptum, Schiedam, 2000.<br />

IDEMAT, Ecodesign material database developed by DfS, DUT. For more information:<br />

http://www.io.tudelft.nl/research/dfs/idemat/index.htm<br />

Ecoscan 3.0 software, TNO Industry, The Netherlands. For more information:<br />

http://www.ecoscan.nl<br />

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Conference <strong>Engineering</strong> Education in Sustainable Development <strong>Delft</strong>, 24-25 October, 2002<br />

025 An evaluation of the sustainability impact of 10 years of design for<br />

sustainability MSc projects. Prof. Han Brezet PhD, M.Sc., Sacha Silvester PhD, M.Sc,<br />

Jan Carel Diehl M.Sc, <strong>Delft</strong> University of Technology, The Netherlands<br />

Abstract<br />

Since 1992, the start of Design for Sustainability (DfS) program, more than 150 Industrial Design <strong>Engineering</strong><br />

(IDE) students graduated on Ecodesign related projects. The topic of their final research differed from<br />

Eco(re)design of consumer products towards sustainable system innovation of transport systems or<br />

households. Some of the projects have been executed inside big international companies (like SHELL,<br />

Philips, Motorola and DAF trucks) others at design offices, SME’s or research institutes. The goal of the<br />

graduation projects is to increase the awareness and the innovation space of all involved stakeholders (the<br />

students, the university and the client) toward sustainable development. Within this paper, the authors<br />

evaluate the “Sustainability impact” of the projects for the stakeholders.<br />

• University: did the projects add substantial knowledge to the University research work and did it create a<br />

sustainable linkage with Industry and other Research institutes.<br />

• Clients: Did they implement the outcome of the student projects and did they lead towards sustainable<br />

innovations within the company.<br />

• Student: Was the “sustainability factor” a benefit for the student’s future career and did he or she continue<br />

to work in the field of sustainability.<br />

Based upon this evaluation the authors will conclude if these kinds of Design for Sustainability graduation<br />

projects have a benefit for all stakeholders.<br />

Industrial Design <strong>Engineering</strong> at <strong>Delft</strong> university of Technology<br />

The Faculty of Industrial Design <strong>Engineering</strong>'s concern is to study, innovate and improve (the development<br />

of) products, based on the integrated interests of users, industry, society and environment. Industrial Design<br />

<strong>Engineering</strong> is multidisciplinary in origin. It integrates advanced (manufacturing) techniques with disciplines<br />

such as aesthetics, ergonomics, innovation management and since 1992 Sustainable Product Development<br />

(also known as Ecodesign or Design for the Environment).<br />

The current Industrial Design <strong>Engineering</strong> Master programme at <strong>Delft</strong> University of Technology takes five<br />

years, during which the practical design education has a central position. Knowledge and skills from other<br />

disciplines are applied and integrated in the seven design projects. The complexity of these projects, and the<br />

time spent on them increases over the 5 years. The students finish their Master Degree with a “graduation”<br />

project in practice in Industry or as a researcher at the university.<br />

Graduation projects<br />

Through the graduation project the student will have to show that he deserves the title of engineer (M.Sc.)<br />

and that he can meet the final terms of the education programme. This means that the student will have to<br />

show his skills in working as an engineer on an 'individual' basis while working on a complex graduation<br />

project. The graduation project is the masterpiece but also a learning process. As such, it is not only a test of<br />

his capabilities but also a test of his development of knowledge, understanding and skills. The project is also<br />

a bridge between study and professional practice and as such, a high level of independence is required.<br />

Before the start of the project, the student will approach one of the departments of Industrial Design<br />

<strong>Engineering</strong> according his specialisation and personal interest. In collaboration with the academic staff of the<br />

departments, he or she will define the project and try to find an appropriate partner or host in industry or<br />

research institutes to execute the research or product development trajectory.<br />

Students Industrial Design <strong>Engineering</strong> can specialise in two fields: Product Design (PD) or Innovation<br />

Management (IM). Both are divided in a programme for professional practice or for research. Individual<br />

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Conference <strong>Engineering</strong> Education in Sustainable Development <strong>Delft</strong>, 24-25 October, 2002<br />

differences can be achieved through optional courses, the traineeship, and the especially during the<br />

graduation project.<br />

• Product Design (professional practice) concentrates on the ability to successfully integrate elements of<br />

aesthetics, product and systems ergonomics, engineering and marketing into a 3D product.<br />

• Product Design (research) provides knowledge of theory and methods concerning aesthetics, product<br />

and systems ergonomics, engineering and marketing of 3D products, with an emphasis on research and<br />

the ability to generate new knowledge in the field of product development.<br />

• Innovation Management (professional practice) concentrates on the ability to successfully integrate<br />

product innovation, product development and design conceptualisation within the company's policy and to<br />

co-ordinate this with other parts of the company and its markets.<br />

• Innovation Management (research) provides knowledge of theories and methods on integrating product<br />

innovation, product development and design conceptualisation within the company's policy, and to coordinate<br />

this with other parts of the company an its markets. It emphasises research and the ability to<br />

generate new knowledge in the field of innovation management techniques and structures for<br />

organisations involved.<br />

The students spend on the average 8 months full-time on the graduation project. During these 8 months, the<br />

student is being supervised by a team existing of a responsible (associate) professor, two university experts<br />

in relevant disciplines for subject of the project and a company representative. This team meets every 5<br />

weeks in order to discuss the progress of the project and to guide student both in theoretical and practical<br />

aspects.<br />

The Design for Sustainability (DfS) program<br />

The mission of the Design for Sustainability (DfS) within the faculty of Industrial Design <strong>Engineering</strong> is to<br />

generate scientific knowledge to support the development, engineering and social acceptance of sustainable,<br />

eco-efficient concepts (products, services and product-systems) that are produced for mass consumption or<br />

use in a professional context.<br />

Integration of theories and models from product design and innovation methodology, technology assessment,<br />

design engineering and environmental sciences creates the basis for the program's approach. An<br />

interdisciplinary, product life cycle orientation is followed, since sustainability demands an insight integrated<br />

into the environmental consequences during all phases of the product life cycle and involves many<br />

disciplines. Special focus is on emerging strategies and technologies that can help to reduce the<br />

environmental impact of products by dematerialization. Due to the relative newness of sustainability for<br />

industrial design engineers, the development of practical tools and the testing and experimentation in a<br />

business context are considered important elements in the program, to be balanced with more fundamental<br />

research into and explanation of sustainability as a theoretical concept. Although the main focus of the<br />

program is on optimisation of the environmental aspects of products and the technologies involved in their life<br />

cycle, other aspects of the "sustainability concept", such as economics, social acceptance and cultural<br />

implications are also taken into account.<br />

The DfS research program (IDE 2001) comprise three closely inter-linked research themes:<br />

(1) Eco-efficiency of End-of-Life systems (Eco(re-)Design)<br />

(2) EcoDesign Methodology & Implementation of EcoDesign in Business<br />

(3) Eco-efficient services and System Design<br />

An evaluation of 150 DfS graduation projects<br />

A team of academic staff member of the DfS program (the authors of this paper) recently have made an<br />

overview of about 150 DfS graduation projects in order to evaluate them on the benefits for all the involved<br />

stakeholders within the graduation project (Student, Industry and University). The results of this explorative<br />

evaluation are being presented in this chapter based upon statistics of the database with data of the student<br />

graduation projects and the personal opinion and experiences of the authors.<br />

DfS graduation projects in relation to DfS research<br />

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In the beginning of the DfS program (1992-1997), most graduation projects were related to the first research<br />

theme (Eco-efficiency of End-of-Life systems (Eco(re-)Design). These graduation projects mostly were<br />

directly linked to the research of the PhD candidates of the department. After developing knowledge on how<br />

to (re-)design products in a more eco-efficient way more graduation projects were focussed on developing<br />

methodologies for EcoDesign in different industrial and cultural contexts. During the last five years, the<br />

amount of graduation projects that contribute to the Eco-efficient Services and System Design theme has<br />

increased seriously (See figure 1). The result of the growing insights that the improvement of the ecoefficiency<br />

is limited just focussing on the product-level alone. For real fundamental eco-efficient<br />

improvements the complete product-service systems should be taken into account. Both students and<br />

industrial clients are very interested by working together on these kinds of topics.<br />

Overall, an increase of research oriented graduation projects appeared. There might be several reasons to<br />

explain this increase. First, the Faculty of Industrial Design <strong>Engineering</strong> initiated a faculty broad research<br />

program in order to stimulate the research component of the faculty. Secondly, within the curriculum of the<br />

IDE program more attention started to be being paid to the research component. Students are since 1999<br />

confronted with several theoretical and practical research courses to develop their research skills more.<br />

Finally, the DfS program itself initiated in collaboration with TNO the Kathalys research institute<br />

(www.kathalys.com) that created the opportunity for applied research in collaboration with several<br />

stakeholders.<br />

number of projects<br />

15<br />

14<br />

13<br />

12<br />

11<br />

10<br />

9<br />

8<br />

7<br />

6<br />

5<br />

4<br />

3<br />

2<br />

1<br />

0<br />

1993 1994 1995 1996 1997 1998 1999 2000 2001 2002<br />

Eco(re-)design<br />

Methods<br />

Systems<br />

figure 1: The number of DfS graduation projects related to the three DfS themes.<br />

DfS graduation projects and the specialisation in Product Design and Innovation Management<br />

Analysing the educational specialisation of the MSc students involved in the DfS program, an increasing<br />

number is specialised into Innovative Management. This development is closely related to the shift within the<br />

research program of DfS towards the development of sustainable system innovations. It should also be<br />

stated that the contribution of students with a specialisation in Product Development is certainly not<br />

diminishing (see figure 2).<br />

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Conference <strong>Engineering</strong> Education in Sustainable Development <strong>Delft</strong>, 24-25 October, 2002<br />

Number of projects<br />

20<br />

10<br />

0<br />

1993<br />

1994<br />

1995<br />

1996<br />

1997<br />

1998<br />

1999<br />

year of graduation<br />

figure 2: The number of DfS graduation projects in Product Development and Innovation Management.<br />

DfS graduation projects and Eco Efficiency Services Development<br />

2000<br />

2001<br />

2002<br />

innovation<br />

management<br />

product development<br />

Amongst other, the increasing interest from product producing companies in (product) service development<br />

has lead to a shift towards more service development oriented projects. Secondly, the DfS program has been<br />

extended from the Eco(re)design of products towards sustainable systems innovation, which has led to an<br />

increase in research projects, focussed on product service combinations. In the initial phase, the introduction<br />

of more service oriented graduation project had to face serious resistance by the educational management<br />

board of the faculty. Nowadays the shift in society and in graduation projects towards more service oriented<br />

projects start to be more and more accepted (see figure 3).<br />

Nmber of projects<br />

20<br />

10<br />

0<br />

1993 1995 1997 1999 2001<br />

1994 1996 1998 2000 2002<br />

year of graduation<br />

service design<br />

product design<br />

figure 3: The number of DfS graduation projects Service and Product Design.<br />

DfS graduation projects in foreign countries<br />

From the beginning of the DfS program the interest of international companies and organisations abroad in<br />

hosting a DfS graduation project has been great. Internationally the student graduation projects are being<br />

appreciated because of the combination of theoretical input (design methodology, new knowledge etc) and<br />

the practical results (new designs, prototypes etc.). The projects took mainly place in Europe or in the<br />

EcoDesign 3 demonstration programs in developing countries. These projects offer the students to execute<br />

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Conference <strong>Engineering</strong> Education in Sustainable Development <strong>Delft</strong>, 24-25 October, 2002<br />

their graduation project and in the meantime to get working experiences in a different cultural context.<br />

Because of the different context, language differences and the travelling involved, these projects mostly<br />

required one or two more additional months. Recently students are being stressed to finish their study as<br />

soon as possible (or otherwise pay a high fee for the additional months). Because of this development the<br />

interest of students to finish their study abroad has been decreased dramatically (see figure 4). From a<br />

sustainable development point of view these graduation projects have been a very efficient way in<br />

disseminating of not only knowledge on sustainable solutions as suggested by the students but also of<br />

knowledge on sustainable product innovation methodology.<br />

Number of projects<br />

20<br />

10<br />

0<br />

1993<br />

1994<br />

year of graduation<br />

1995<br />

1996<br />

1997<br />

1998<br />

1999<br />

2000<br />

2001<br />

2002<br />

figure 3: The number of DfS graduation projects abroad.<br />

DfS Graduation projects and the student’s professional careers<br />

A majority of the DfS graduation students continued his or her professional career (in)directly in the field of<br />

sustainability related professions. Environmental departments of international operating electronics<br />

companies, government bodies supporting industry (for example Syntens) and several industrial design<br />

offices adopted the graduates. Other graduates continued their interest in DfS by joining a PhD program or by<br />

becoming a free-lance consultant focussing on Design for Sustainability.<br />

DfS graduation projects in industry and other hosting organisations<br />

The analyses of the company size of the participating companies show that the main interest is from the<br />

bigger companies. These are mostly product specifying and producing companies in the electronics-,<br />

transport-, home appliances-, furniture and food -sector (for example Philips, DAF, ATAG and Unilever). This<br />

interest for cooperation of these international operating companies with the DfS program on basis of the<br />

graduation projects was not foreseen. It was expected that these companies could easily do this kind of<br />

strategic design by their own, but the graduation projects are perceived as interesting ways of experimenting<br />

with new concepts and young well-educated potential new employees.<br />

Within the category of smaller companies, the consultancy and the design offices are the main providers of<br />

graduation projects. Besides the production companies and consultancies, recently also (local) government<br />

bodies offer project opportunities.<br />

abroad<br />

NL<br />

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Conference <strong>Engineering</strong> Education in Sustainable Development <strong>Delft</strong>, 24-25 October, 2002<br />

Conclusions<br />

Number of projects<br />

20<br />

10<br />

0<br />

1993<br />

1994<br />

1995<br />

1996<br />

year of graduation<br />

1997<br />

1998<br />

1999<br />

2000<br />

2001<br />

2002<br />

large (>150<br />

medium (30-150)<br />

small (


Conference <strong>Engineering</strong> Education in Sustainable Development <strong>Delft</strong>, 24-25 October, 2002<br />

References<br />

IDE (Industrial Design <strong>Engineering</strong>). Quality Assessment of education and research. Faculty of Design,<br />

<strong>Engineering</strong> and Production, School of Industrial Design <strong>Engineering</strong>. <strong>Delft</strong> University of Technology. <strong>Delft</strong>.<br />

2001.<br />

Hemmink, D. Milieugericht Productontwikkelen; leren door te doen? MSc-thesis University of Utrecht. Utrecht<br />

2000. (in Dutch)<br />

Schlotter, H.D. ECTS Guide 01-02 Industrial Design <strong>Engineering</strong>, <strong>Delft</strong> University of Technology,<br />

Web references<br />

Kathalys, www.kathalys.com, collaborative research institute of the DfS program and TNO.<br />

IDE courses overview at <strong>TU</strong> <strong>Delft</strong>, www.io.tudelft.nl/eductaion/ects/<br />

DfS research program, www.io.tudelft.nl/research/dfs/<br />

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Conference <strong>Engineering</strong> Education in Sustainable Development <strong>Delft</strong>, 24-25 October, 2002<br />

026 An international partnership to enhance sustainable development through<br />

environmental engineering education and research in the Philippines, Ma. Consuelo<br />

V. Flora, Bonifacio T. Doma Jr., and Edwin C. Obra, Mapúa Institute of Technology,<br />

Manila, Philippines, M. Hanif Chaudhry, Joseph R.V. Flora, Adrienne T. Cooper,<br />

University of South Carolina, South Carolina, USA<br />

Abstract<br />

The establishment of international cooperative partnerships among institutions will help ensure the<br />

preservation of the environment on a global scale. This paper describes the experiences of the University of<br />

South Carolina (USC) and its institutional partner, Mapúa Institute of Technology (Mapúa), in enhancing<br />

sustainable development in the Philippines through environmental education and research.<br />

The state of environmental engineering/science/management education and research in Mapúa was initially<br />

studied. An assessment of the needs of the academe, industry, government, and non-governmental<br />

organizations for environmental engineering education and research in connection with the promotion of<br />

sustainable development and pollution control were then conducted nationwide. The survey respondents<br />

finalized this assessment in a seminar-workshop held in Manila in May 2000. The result showed a big need<br />

for qualified teachers/trainers in environmental engineering, which will impart knowledge on environmental<br />

issues and concerns in the academe, and act as consultants or resource persons in industry on a continuing<br />

basis. Addressing this need is expected to promote sustainable development in the country. Consequently,<br />

the Mapúa researchers visited USC in July 2000 to study the state of environmental engineering education<br />

and research at USC. The institutional partners designed a curriculum to provide a state-of-the-art<br />

environmental engineering graduate program in Mapúa, a program that is unique and of global quality in<br />

comparison with the few existing graduate programs in environmental engineering in the Philippines. A<br />

Mapúa Office for Research Promotion and Coordination, which was patterned after the USC model, was set<br />

up later. In May 2001, the USC and Mapúa professors conducted a seminar-workshop in Manila on how to<br />

integrate the principles of sustainable development and pollution prevention in the Mapúa undergraduate<br />

engineering curricula. The Philippine Commission on Higher Education approved the M.S. Environmental<br />

<strong>Engineering</strong> program for formal opening in June 2001.<br />

The partnership is presently facing the challenge of tapping funding sources for sustainable research<br />

activities.<br />

Introduction<br />

A technological school located in Manila, Philippines, Mapúa Institute of Technology (Mapúa) offers:<br />

• eleven undergraduate engineering programs (civil, chemical, computer, electrical, electronics and<br />

communications, environmental and sanitary, industrial, mechanical, material science and engineering,<br />

metallurgical, mining)<br />

• two undergraduate science programs (chemistry, geology)<br />

• three undergraduate information technology (IT) programs (computer science, information management,<br />

and information technology)<br />

• a double-degree program in chemical engineering and chemistry<br />

• undergraduate programs in architecture and industrial design<br />

• a master of engineering program<br />

• a master of science programs in chemistry, architecture education, geo-technical engineering, geoinformatics,<br />

and environmental engineering<br />

The partnership between the University of South Carolina (USC) and Mapúa seeks to enhance the capability<br />

of Mapúa to provide environmental engineering education and to initiate research and collaboration between<br />

Mapúa, USC, industry, government, and/or non-government organizations (NGOs) focusing on sustainable<br />

development and pollution prevention. An official linkage between Mapúa and USC was established with a<br />

Memorandum of Agreement between the two institutions signed in October 1999.<br />

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Conference <strong>Engineering</strong> Education in Sustainable Development <strong>Delft</strong>, 24-25 October, 2002<br />

The initial activities were divided in four phases and should have been accomplished over a period of three<br />

years. A need assessment of the state of environmental education and research in Mapúa was performed in<br />

Phase 1. In this phase, a workshop was conducted to gather input from the industry, government, and NGOs<br />

on the local needs for environmental engineering education and research, particularly on sustainable<br />

development and pollution prevention. Based on the Philippine survey and workshop in Phase 1, and the<br />

result of the workshop at USC, an education and research action plan was formulated in Phase 2. The plan<br />

of action was implemented during Phase 3. Dissemination of experiences to other Philippine institutions<br />

through conferences will occur in Phase 4 and should have been done last May 2002. Hindered by the<br />

problem on tapping funding sources and making the research program self-sustainable, the group requested<br />

for an extension of one year. The extension was approved only recently by the United States Agency for<br />

International Development (USAID) – Association Liaison Office for University Cooperation in Development<br />

(ALO).<br />

Baseline Study<br />

An initial study was made on the status of environmental engineering offerings in the undergraduate courses<br />

in Mapúa. Based on this study, all undergraduate engineering programs, with the exception of sanitary<br />

engineering program, offer only a three-unit introductory course in environmental engineering, management<br />

or science. A three-unit course is equivalent to three hours of lecture per week. On the cursory analysis of the<br />

content of these courses, the study revealed that the principle of sustainable development is not included.<br />

In the graduate level, the MS geo-technical engineering and master of engineering major in environmental<br />

engineering programs offer subjects related to environmental engineering, management or science. The MS<br />

geo-technical engineering program offers elective subjects in environmental geo-technics and applied and<br />

environmental geophysics. The Master of <strong>Engineering</strong>, major in Environmental <strong>Engineering</strong> program, on the<br />

other hand, offers nine units of discipline-related courses in environmental engineering. Unfortunately, none<br />

of these courses integrate the concepts of sustainable development in the discussion of different<br />

environmental engineering issues.<br />

Needs Assessment<br />

A survey form was designed to evaluate the status of environmental engineering education among memberschools<br />

of the Philippine Association for Technological Education, Inc. (PATE) throughout the Philippines and<br />

to assess the involvement of the industry sector, key government agencies, and NGOs, interested in<br />

environmental education and research activities in relation to the promotion of sustainable development and<br />

pollution prevention. Seventy-eight (78) responses were gathered (43 were from the academic institutions,<br />

28 from the industrial sector, 5 from government institutions, and 2 from NGOs). In assessing the needs of<br />

the industrial sector to set up or maintain an environmental program, the needs are classified in terms of<br />

facilities, human resources, programs, and other needs. The survey results were previously published in<br />

another paper (Flora et al., 2001).<br />

National Consultative Seminar Workshop in the Philippines<br />

The seminar workshop, which is the highlight of Phase 1 of the project, was held on May 23-24, 2000 at the<br />

Manila Diamond Hotel, Manila, Philippines. The seminar workshop included plenary sessions from key<br />

resource speakers, a workshop where the participants identified their sector’s environmental engineering<br />

education and research needs, reporting of workshop results by the different sectors and the survey results<br />

to the participants, and a round table discussion on environmental engineering education and research,<br />

participated in by selected key personnel from the academe, industry, government and non-government<br />

organizations. All sectors agreed that there is indeed a connection between the needs to establish<br />

sustainable development programs in both government and industry and the need for both undergraduate<br />

and graduate environmental engineering and science education. The primary needs identified were for the<br />

integration of environmental education and clean technology in the broader engineering curricula, and the<br />

establishment of research and development in these areas.<br />

July 2000 USC Visit<br />

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Conference <strong>Engineering</strong> Education in Sustainable Development <strong>Delft</strong>, 24-25 October, 2002<br />

The key elements to ensure the realization of the objectives of this project are a state-of-the-art MS<br />

Environmental <strong>Engineering</strong> program and a research centre in Mapúa. Thus, in July 2000, using the results of<br />

the seminar workshop, the Mapúa group went to USC to formulate, together with the USC partners, the<br />

details of the MS Environmental <strong>Engineering</strong> curriculum. To make sure that the curriculum is innovative and<br />

current, it was compared with the different MS Environmental <strong>Engineering</strong> programs of some well-known US<br />

universities (Stanford University, University of Cincinnati, University of Illinois, and University of South<br />

Carolina).<br />

The weeklong meeting also tackled ways to improve the contents of the undergraduate Environmental<br />

<strong>Engineering</strong>/Science/Management courses currently offered in Mapúa. A recommendation was to create or<br />

revise specific subjects in the undergraduate curriculum at Mapúa to include the principles of sustainable<br />

development and pollution prevention.<br />

During the visit, the Mapúa group also talked to the Vice President for Research and the Director of the Office<br />

of Sponsored Programs. This served as an approach to establish a research office at Mapúa that is<br />

patterned after the USC model.<br />

Upon the return of the Mapúa representatives to the Philippines, the action plans were implemented. On<br />

September 30, 2000, the proposed curriculum, together with the other required documents, was submitted to<br />

the Commission on Higher Education (CHED) for approval. The CHED approved the M.S. Environmental<br />

<strong>Engineering</strong> program and this was formally opened in June 2001.<br />

Office for Research Promotion and Coordination<br />

In November 2000, the Office of Research Promotion and Coordination (ORPC) was created to assist the<br />

Mapua community with externally funded research activities and other related initiatives, and to introduce the<br />

principles and methodology of research to the faculty and staff of Mapúa.<br />

Some of the research activities undertaken under the ORPC are: faculty/graduate and undergraduate<br />

research contests; seminar-workshop on writing research proposals; lecture on “Sustainable Development,<br />

Case Study: Projects in Africa”; forum on power industry restructuring and forum on renewable energy<br />

technologies.<br />

Two years after the office was created it has approved twelve (12) research projects supported by Mapúa.<br />

Five (5) of these projects were already completed. On top of these, different government and industrial<br />

organizations currently extramurally fund five (5) research projects.<br />

A Trainer’s Training<br />

A seminar-workshop was held for Mapúa faculty members on the integration of sustainable development and<br />

pollution control in undergraduate environmental engineering courses on May 30-31, 2001. Eighteen faculty<br />

members from the Schools of Civil and Sanitary <strong>Engineering</strong>, Chemical <strong>Engineering</strong>, and Earth and Material<br />

Science and <strong>Engineering</strong> participated in the training. Two professors from the University of South Carolina<br />

conducted the training. The training included lectures on the principles of sustainable development and<br />

methods to integrate sustainable development in the different topics covered in the undergraduate<br />

environmental engineering course. The different groups capped the training with case study presentations.<br />

MS Environmental <strong>Engineering</strong> Program<br />

With the existing resources, the establishment of the MS Environmental <strong>Engineering</strong> program was identified<br />

as a reasonable initial step towards addressing the needs of the various sectors. These graduate students<br />

will likely work with industry to complete their Masters thesis, developing both the desired programs for<br />

industry and the research base for Mapúa. Graduates of the program will have the experience to work with<br />

industry and/or become professors in other programs around the country with a knowledge of the needs of<br />

the industrial sector, educating undergraduates to be responsive to the environmental needs of industry.<br />

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Conference <strong>Engineering</strong> Education in Sustainable Development <strong>Delft</strong>, 24-25 October, 2002<br />

While the Master of Science curriculum appears traditional on its face, the design is based on current needs<br />

and available resources. Industry is currently operating with traditional technology that continues to need<br />

pollution control and remediation. The faculty must be refocused on the development of sustainable<br />

technologies, pollution prevention and waste utilization. This takes time and experience, such as that<br />

obtained in both guiding masters students and completion of research at the masterate level. It is expected<br />

that the curriculum, will evolve as the research areas expand to encompass the needs identified by all<br />

participating parties.<br />

One year after the program was initially offered, there are already19 students enrolled in the program. The<br />

students have undergraduate training in civil engineering or chemical engineering. One student has already<br />

successfully defended her thesis proposal. To provide the students with balanced and well-grounded<br />

education, experts from the industry and government organizations and professors from different<br />

departments were hired as faculty members. The University of South Carolina School of Civil and<br />

Environmental <strong>Engineering</strong> and the Mapúa Institute of Technology are currently discussing the possibilities of<br />

doing collaborative researches on environmental engineering.<br />

Future Direction<br />

Towards the end of the project, it is expected that funding for several collaborative sustainable research<br />

projects between Mapúa and various industries, government agencies, NGOs and/or USC would have been<br />

secured. Two conferences will be held (one for PATE members from Luzon and another for the members<br />

from Visayas and Mindanao) to disseminate information gathered during all the phases to other Philippine<br />

institutions. The difficulties encountered and the degree of success achieved will be shared with the<br />

participants.<br />

Acknowledgment<br />

This study was funded by the generous support of the USAID program for Institutional Partnerships in Higher<br />

Education and the Association Liaison Office for University Cooperation and Development (Grant Number<br />

HNE-A-00-97-00059-00). University of South Carolina, South Carolina, USA, and the Mapúa Institute of<br />

Technology, Philippines provided additional support.<br />

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Conference <strong>Engineering</strong> Education in Sustainable Development <strong>Delft</strong>, 24-25 October, 2002<br />

Reference<br />

Flora, C., Doma, B., Flora, J., Cooper, A., Chaudhry, H., and Obra, E., 2001, An International Partnership to<br />

Address Institutional Environmental Education Needs in the Philippines, Proceedings of the 2001 American<br />

Society for <strong>Engineering</strong> Education Annual Conference & Exposition.<br />

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Conference <strong>Engineering</strong> Education in Sustainable Development <strong>Delft</strong>, 24-25 October, 2002<br />

Biographical Information<br />

Dr. M.A. Consuela V. Flora has been with Mapúa Institute of Technology, Manila, Philippines for the last 38<br />

years as a teacher, administrator, and researcher. She is presently the Vice-President for Academic Affairs<br />

of the school. She is also a Professor at the School of Chemical <strong>Engineering</strong> and Chemistry and of the<br />

School of Graduate Studies. She is a member of the International Honor Society of Phi Kappa Phi<br />

(University of the Philippines Chapter), the American Society for <strong>Engineering</strong> Education (ASEE), and the<br />

Philippine Institute of Chemical Engineers (PIChE), and currently the President of the Philippine Association<br />

of Technological Educators (PATE). Her research interest lies on the improvement of the quality of<br />

engineering education in the Philippines. She is the institutional partner project director for this USAIDfunded<br />

research.<br />

Dr. M. Hanif Chaudry is Mr. & Mrs. Irwin B. Kahn Professor and Chairman of the Department of Civil and<br />

Environmental <strong>Engineering</strong> at the University of South Carolina-Columbia. He received a B. Sc. In Civil<br />

<strong>Engineering</strong> from the University of <strong>Engineering</strong> and Technology, Lahore, Pakistan, an M.A.Sc. and Ph.D. in<br />

Hydraulic <strong>Engineering</strong> from the University of British Columbia, Vancouver, Canada. He joined USC-<br />

Columbia in 1997. His research interests are the Mathematical modelling of open-channel and closedconduit<br />

flows, hydraulic transients<br />

Dr. Joseph R.V. Flora is an Associate Professor in the Department of Civil and Environmental <strong>Engineering</strong> at<br />

the University of South Carolina-Columbia. He received a B.S. in Civil <strong>Engineering</strong> from the University of the<br />

Philippines, a M.S. in Environmental <strong>Engineering</strong> from the University of Illinois at Urbana-Champaign, and a<br />

Ph.D. in Environmental <strong>Engineering</strong> from the University of Cincinnati. He joined USC-Columbia in 1993. His<br />

research interests are in the areas of environmental process modelling, electrochemically-mediated biological<br />

degradation, and water, wastewater, and hazardous waste treatment. He is a licensed professional engineer<br />

in the State of South Carolina.<br />

Dr. Adrienne T. Cooper is an Assistant Professor in the Department of Civil and Environmental <strong>Engineering</strong><br />

at the University of South Carolina-Columbia. She received a B.S. in Chemical <strong>Engineering</strong> from the<br />

University of Tennessee and her Ph.D. in Environmental <strong>Engineering</strong> from the University of Florida. She<br />

joined USC-Columbia in 1998. Her research interests are in the areas of sustainable development, solar<br />

photochemical processes and water and wastewater treatment.<br />

Dr. Bonifacio T. Doma jr. is the Dean of the Graduate Studies and Professor of Chemical <strong>Engineering</strong> and<br />

Chemistry at the Mapúa Institute of Technology. He got his B.S. in Chemical <strong>Engineering</strong> at the Mapúa<br />

Institute of Technology in Manila, Philippines. He received his M.S. and Ph.D. degrees in Chemical<br />

<strong>Engineering</strong> from the University of the Philippines-Diliman for his study on novel bioreactor design for<br />

xanthan gum fermentation. He is currently doing research on molecular modelling of proteins and bio<br />

informatics.<br />

Engr. Edwin C. Obra is the Director for Research Promotion and Coordination and Associate Professor of<br />

Chemical <strong>Engineering</strong> at the Mapúa Institute of Technology, and currently the Chair of the Research and<br />

Publications Committee of the Intramuros Consortium. He got his B.S. in Chemical <strong>Engineering</strong> at the<br />

Mapúa Institute of Technology. He received his M.S. in Chemical <strong>Engineering</strong> at the University of the<br />

Philippines-Diliman. He is currently a doctoral candidate in Chemical <strong>Engineering</strong> at the University of the<br />

Philippines-Diliman doing research work on environmental process modelling and molecular modelling.<br />

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Conference <strong>Engineering</strong> Education in Sustainable Development <strong>Delft</strong>, 24-25 October, 2002<br />

027 Success factors in education of life cycle assessment methodology, Dr. J.<br />

Remmerswaal, <strong>Delft</strong> University of Technology, The Netherlands<br />

Summary<br />

The study Industrial Design <strong>Engineering</strong> offers a series of related courses on Sustainable Development. The<br />

compulsory course Introduction to Ecodesign, provides an introduction into the environmental aspects in<br />

relation to products and product development. That course aims at awareness on the environmental impact<br />

of products, understanding Ecodesign methods and –tools from the designers’ perspective. After that<br />

students can deepen their knowledge in specific elective courses, e.g. Technical Life Cycle Assessment. The<br />

course consists of lectures on the methodology of LCA and an assignment where the theory must be applied.<br />

From the available 80 hours, 20 are used for lectures and 60 to perform a LCA. The assessment of the<br />

environmental aspects of products and services is performed according the methodology described in ISO<br />

14040. On annual base 25 students do the course. The exercise is performed in groups. An important issue<br />

was to develop a good program for the students exercise part. In particular the selection of a subject for the<br />

assignment is of vital importance. This paper addresses the criteria that determine the success of the<br />

exercise. In the presentation an overview is given of the assignments and the results are discussed.<br />

Introduction<br />

The MSc program Industrial Design <strong>Engineering</strong> of the <strong>Delft</strong> University of Technology educates students to<br />

professional product developers. It is a program with emphasis on the integrated approach of the problems to<br />

be tackled, e.g. in the design of concepts the aspects of marketing, ergonomics, construction and esthetics<br />

are considered. Since 1992 also sustainability is taken into consideration. The basics are educated in a<br />

second year course encompassing of what are environmental problems, how can we reduce them, what is<br />

the relationship with products and how to evaluate the environmental impacts. There is a follow-up in the<br />

fourth year with a couple of elective courses. One of them is the Technical Environmental Analyses, an 80<br />

hours course concentrating on how to perform Lifecycle Analysis. The course runs in 8 weeks. In which the<br />

80 hours are split into an 12 hours part for introducing the theory of LCA which is checked with a test, a 60<br />

hours part is spend on bringing it into practice and 8 hours is needed for reporting. We choose for the<br />

solution to use the ISO 14042 standard to introduce the nomenclature, procedure and related issues like how<br />

to report the results. The participants are grouped into groups of 2, 3 or 4 students, depending on how<br />

extended the assignment is and how attractive the subject is to the students. Each group present each week<br />

their progress, problems endured and the way they solved and at the end their final result.<br />

LCA assisting software was available on the computers of the faculty. The students organized their own work<br />

for the LCA exercise over the week without limitations. Each week they had to report with a visual<br />

presentation their progress to the entire group.<br />

Experimental<br />

In the latter course a number of variables have been tested in order to find the requirements for a good<br />

program. These are: the number of students in a group, the subject type, availability of data, set of starting<br />

data, the total available time and the distribution of time over the period. In a series of experiments with<br />

students we varied the elements that where supposed to be important to obtain optimal study results. In<br />

Table 1 the experimental setup of the exercises is given.<br />

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Conference <strong>Engineering</strong> Education in Sustainable Development <strong>Delft</strong>, 24-25 October, 2002<br />

Subject of the assignment Question Supplied<br />

information<br />

1.1) Bicycle Lighting<br />

Environmental impact and improvement options A specific bicycle,<br />

1.2) -Frame<br />

Environmental impact and improvement options physically present<br />

1.3) -Tires<br />

Environmental impact and improvement options plus helpdesk at the<br />

1.4) -Wheels<br />

Environmental impact and improvement options company<br />

1.5) -Controls<br />

Environmental impact and improvement options<br />

1.6) -Propulsion<br />

Environmental impact and improvement options<br />

2.1) Automobile<br />

Environmental impact and improvement options LCA+Disposal<br />

2.2) White good disposal Benefit of the current disposal scenario<br />

scenario<br />

2.3) Lifecycle US car<br />

Environmental impact compared with Dutch cars Disposal scenario<br />

2.4) Beovision TV<br />

How to improve<br />

Published LCA<br />

2.5) LER2000 fridge<br />

How to improve<br />

Published LCA<br />

Published LCA<br />

3.1) Textile improvement Environmental impact<br />

No info<br />

3.2) Pigments<br />

Environmental impact<br />

No info<br />

3.3) Automobile disposal Benefit of current disposal scenario<br />

Disposal scenario<br />

3.4) Platinum production Environmental impact<br />

Published LCA<br />

3.5) Car catalysers<br />

Compare impact with and without use<br />

No info<br />

4.1) Functional unit Automobile Influence of different view points<br />

LCA<br />

4.2) Car catalyser<br />

Compare impact with and without<br />

Incomplete LCA<br />

4.3) Polymer car<br />

Difference with average car<br />

Average car LCA<br />

4.3) Copper in cars<br />

Impact when copper is replaced by aluminum Average car LCA<br />

4.4) Airbags<br />

Environmental impact<br />

Incomplete LCA<br />

4.5) Rearlights<br />

Impact of rearlights and improvement options No info<br />

4.6) Aluminum car<br />

Impact when steel is replaced by aluminum Average car LCA<br />

5.1) Public transport on Texel Compare current system with new plan<br />

Current system LCA<br />

5.2) Fireworks<br />

Environmental impact<br />

No info<br />

5.3) Wash-in services<br />

Compare current system with a new wash service Current system LCA<br />

5.4) Li-ion batteries<br />

Environmental impact<br />

Published LCA<br />

5.5) PV-cells<br />

Environmental impact<br />

Published LCA<br />

5.6) Fuelcell<br />

Environmental impact<br />

Published LCA<br />

6.1) Nuclear energy<br />

Compare with average electricity generation Published LCA<br />

6.2) Airbus midsection<br />

Compare aluminum and GLARE<br />

No info<br />

6.3) Gasturbine coating Compare coated with conventional<br />

No info<br />

6.4) Yeast production<br />

Compare alternative with conventional production No info<br />

6.5)Catamaran ferryboat Compare HSS with standard ferry<br />

No info<br />

table 1 Breakdown of the assignment subjects of the Environmental Analysis course<br />

The course runs once a year and has run five times in a fixed period of 8 weeks, indicated by 1 to 5 and<br />

group 6 did the course on individual base with less time constraints. The students of group 6 were not able to<br />

do the course in the programmed period and accepted to do more self study and less intensive coaching.<br />

The programs and the course material did not change over the editions.<br />

There was a number of assignments supplied and the participants had to chose the assignment of their<br />

preference. The default group size was two unless the task was estimated to be more substantial. In that<br />

case the group size was made bigger. In one case there was no workable duo possible and the student<br />

chose to do the job alone.<br />

First edition<br />

As subject of the first edition we chose a bicycle to be investigated. The bicycle was of Dutch make and<br />

specified by type, frame size and color. Furthermore the manufacturer agreed to have a person available to<br />

answer questions and give information. The components of this bicycle were clustered and distributed among<br />

the students for analysis. It was assumed that this was not a problematic assignment. This was clearly a<br />

mistake as we could conclude later. Mainly because the required information could not be obtained for two<br />

reasons:<br />

(1) The information was regarded confidential<br />

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Conference <strong>Engineering</strong> Education in Sustainable Development <strong>Delft</strong>, 24-25 October, 2002<br />

(2) The information had to come from suppliers all over the world and needed too much time to get timely.<br />

So the dependency on third parties was the main obstacle to realize the objectives timely.<br />

Second edition<br />

This time the subjects were typified as with well described material content and manufacturing with published<br />

environmental consequences. The only exception was the white good disposal subject. For this project only a<br />

report about the procedure and associated infrastructure was available. The overall results of this edition<br />

were not satisfactorily from students perspective because the task was observed as “artificial” because all<br />

information was supplied and no contact with manufacturers or own measurements were necessary.<br />

Third edition<br />

For the third edition we had a mix of the first and second edition subjects. But this time we tried to estimate<br />

the availability of the information and chose the subject’s only if the availability was reasonable. Important<br />

was the significance of the environmental problem that was addressed. In several cases we supplied a set of<br />

data (LCA) that could be used as starting set. Not complete but sufficient and demonstrative for the purpose.<br />

The appreciation for this edition was significantly better than the previous issues.<br />

Fourth edition<br />

This time we could make use of the results of a study to the environmental impact of an experimental small<br />

passenger car. The emphasis was put on options for alternatives for the construction of that car with an<br />

assessment of the sustainability of the option. Also this issue was highly appreciated mainly because the<br />

relevance was clear and there were no obstacles for data search.<br />

Fifth edition<br />

Encouraged by the fourth edition a mix of assignments were given, some with data about similar systems and<br />

also one without data. For the latter we trusted on the expectation to be able to measure the missing data<br />

ourselves. The others regarded an attempt to improve or modify the supplied data. The results were more<br />

than successful although subject indicated with 5.2 exceeded the available time. This happened due to the<br />

availability of analysis equipment. The dedication of the students to the subject did them complete it later.<br />

The success of this edition is mainly due to the realistic issues addressed and the fact that the student was<br />

not depended on third parties as in the case of Edition One.<br />

Sixth edition<br />

Student in this edition came from other faculties. Their time schedules did not fit properly with the main group.<br />

Usually they proposed subjects that related to their background study or graduation work. Important for this<br />

edition was that the students were not strictly confined to the period the course ran but continued after that in<br />

several cases. Usually they needed the results of the analyses for their graduation work.<br />

Results<br />

As indicated in the table 2, the appreciation for the exercises increased rapidly during the first four editions<br />

and remained constant after that. However, some fluctuations can be observed. E.g. the Li-Ion exercise was<br />

less valued by the staff that by the students because their progress compared to the given start information<br />

was rather low, but the students were enthusiast about this topic, which was seen as advanced technique.<br />

From the results it was concluded that the availability of information should be guaranteed either by<br />

publications, own analysis or by third parties. The latter has shown to be the weakest sources of information..<br />

Furthermore the attraction of the students to the subject is important. Motivation is a requirement, the more<br />

the better. Consequently the staff should let the students choose between several options or give room for<br />

adaptation or individual preferred subjects.<br />

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Conference <strong>Engineering</strong> Education in Sustainable Development <strong>Delft</strong>, 24-25 October, 2002<br />

Subject of the assignment System<br />

description<br />

1.1) Bicycle Lighting<br />

1.2) -Frame<br />

1.3) -Tires<br />

1.4) -Wheels<br />

1.5) -Controls<br />

1.6) -Propulsion<br />

2.1) Automobile<br />

2.2) White good disposal<br />

2.3) Lifecycle US car<br />

2.4) Beovision TV<br />

2.5) LER2000 fridge<br />

3.1) Textile Improvement<br />

3.2) Pigments<br />

3.3) Automobile disposal<br />

3.4) Platinum production<br />

3.5) Car catalysers<br />

4.1) Functional unit Automobile<br />

4.2) Car catalyser<br />

4.3 ) Polymer car<br />

4.3) Copper in cars<br />

4.4) Airbags<br />

4.5) Rearlights<br />

4.6) Aluminum car<br />

5.1) Public transport on Texel<br />

5.2) Fireworks<br />

5.3) Wash-in services<br />

5.4) Li-ion batteries<br />

5.5) PV-cells<br />

5.6) Fuelcell<br />

6.1) Nuclear energy<br />

6.2) Airbus midsection<br />

6.3) Gasturbine coating<br />

6.4) Yeast production<br />

6.5)Catamaran ferryboat<br />

++++++<br />

+++++<br />

++++++<br />

+++++<br />

+++++<br />

++++++<br />

++++++<br />

++++++<br />

+++++<br />

++++++<br />

++++++<br />

++++++<br />

++<br />

++++++<br />

+++<br />

++<br />

++++++<br />

+++<br />

+++++<br />

+++++<br />

+++<br />

+++<br />

+++++<br />

++++++<br />

++<br />

++++++<br />

++<br />

++++++<br />

++++++<br />

++++++<br />

++++++<br />

++++++<br />

++++++<br />

++++<br />

Amount<br />

starting<br />

data<br />

++++++<br />

+++++<br />

++++++<br />

++++++<br />

++++<br />

+++<br />

++++++<br />

++<br />

+++++<br />

+++++<br />

++<br />

+++<br />

+++++<br />

++++++<br />

+<br />

++++++<br />

+++<br />

++++++<br />

++++++<br />

++++++<br />

++++++<br />

+++<br />

++<br />

++++<br />

Number<br />

of<br />

students<br />

2<br />

2<br />

2<br />

2<br />

2<br />

2<br />

2<br />

2<br />

2<br />

2<br />

2<br />

1<br />

2<br />

4<br />

2<br />

2<br />

1<br />

2<br />

2<br />

2<br />

2<br />

2<br />

2<br />

2<br />

3<br />

5<br />

2<br />

2<br />

2<br />

2<br />

1<br />

1<br />

1<br />

2<br />

Appreciation<br />

by staff<br />

+<br />

+<br />

+<br />

+<br />

+<br />

+<br />

++<br />

++<br />

++<br />

++++<br />

++++<br />

+<br />

+<br />

++++++<br />

+++++<br />

+<br />

++++++<br />

++++<br />

++++++<br />

++++++<br />

+++++<br />

++++++<br />

++++++<br />

+++++++<br />

+++++++<br />

+++++++<br />

+++<br />

+++++<br />

++++++<br />

+++++<br />

+++<br />

+++++<br />

++++++<br />

++++++<br />

table 2 Appreciation of the students and staff for the exercise.<br />

Appreciation by<br />

students<br />

+<br />

++<br />

++<br />

+++<br />

++<br />

++<br />

+++<br />

++++<br />

+++<br />

++<br />

++<br />

++++<br />

++<br />

+++++<br />

+++++<br />

+++++<br />

+++++<br />

++++++<br />

++++<br />

+++++<br />

+++++<br />

++++++<br />

+++++<br />

+++++++<br />

+++++++<br />

+++++++<br />

+++++<br />

++++++<br />

+++++<br />

++++++<br />

++++++<br />

+++++++<br />

+++++++<br />

+++++<br />

This should not lead too much solitary working students. From our experience we learnt that single persons<br />

suffer from lack of input from other opinions. Discussion is easier when a group member is involved and<br />

near. When students work in groups this problem is less prominent.<br />

Another issue is the amount of information available at the start of the exercise. It was clear that when<br />

students can inspect the results from previous work about the subject, the learning curve was very steep.<br />

This offers the possibility, as we used several times, to continue a certain exercise in the next edition, when<br />

the exercise was not completed to the required level.<br />

Conclusions<br />

Crucial elements of the subject of the assignment and the organization of the exercise are:<br />

• The subject of study must be attractive and motivating<br />

• Availability of data must exceed a sufficient level,<br />

• The exercise should start from a non-zero level<br />

• Performing LCA exercises in several subsequent groups is possible<br />

• The best group size is 2 or 3<br />

• Flexible working hours is important in case of group work<br />

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Conference <strong>Engineering</strong> Education in Sustainable Development <strong>Delft</strong>, 24-25 October, 2002<br />

• Facilities for disassembling products and characterization of materials<br />

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Conference <strong>Engineering</strong> Education in Sustainable Development <strong>Delft</strong>, 24-25 October, 2002<br />

028 Implementing a program in sustainability for engineers at University of<br />

Technology, Sydney. A story of intersecting agendas, Paul Bryce, Stephen Johnston,<br />

Keiko Yasukawa, University of Technology Sydney, Australia<br />

Introduction<br />

Integrating sustainability into an undergraduate engineering program at the University of Technology, Sydney<br />

has been a challenging one. The authors of this paper have been participant observers of this process. In this<br />

paper, they have attempted to engage in an analysis of that process, focussing on the dynamics of the<br />

network of people and interests, which have shaped the process. Actor network theory was used to provide<br />

an analytical framework for the analysis. The interests and experiences of the authors in the process<br />

necessarily influence the analysis. All three authors have been active in positioning sustainability as a central<br />

theme for the critique and practice of engineering. Paul Bryce and Stephen Johnston have had long-standing<br />

involvement in technology transfer projects in development. Both have published on engineering as a social<br />

activity, critiquing undue emphasis in engineering education on engineering science, at the expense of<br />

attention to engineering practice. Their experiences and scholarship have given them credibility in the Faculty<br />

to advance debates on a new paradigm of engineering practice. Keiko Yasukawa is an educational developer<br />

in the faculty who has been working with staff and students to help them reflect their idea of what engineering<br />

is about in their teaching and learning. She has taken a leading role in shaping the new curricula.<br />

Background<br />

Around the world, engineering practice and engineering education are changing as social expectations and<br />

conditions for engineering practice change. Pressures towards internationalisation and globalisation are<br />

being reflected in new course accreditation criteria and new higher education structures. Over the next few<br />

years one expression of these pressures, the Bologna Agreement, will pose major challenges to the<br />

engineering and other faculties of European universities. How can scholars incorporate sustainability issues<br />

in their programs at the same time as dealing successfully with all these other pressures and maintaining<br />

professional standards? In this paper, we outline how staff at one Australian engineering faculty has been<br />

dealing with change. We believe that consideration of the insights and examples provided by our experience<br />

may help others around the world to be more in control of the change processes we all face.<br />

In 1996, the Faculty of <strong>Engineering</strong> at UTS was faced with major challenges in the provision of its<br />

undergraduate programs through its three Schools: Civil and Civil/Environmental <strong>Engineering</strong>; Mechanical<br />

and Manufacturing <strong>Engineering</strong>; and Computer Systems, Electrical and Telecommunications <strong>Engineering</strong>.<br />

This was a time of widespread change in Australian engineering employment. Large public service<br />

institutions, such as electrical utilities, were being corporatised. Engineers were increasingly moving from<br />

large public sector organisations to smaller private enterprises, where they were expected to demonstrate<br />

broader management, multidisciplinary and communication skills. Public sector economic restructuring had<br />

financial impacts that were felt more keenly by our faculty than most others in Australia, because UTS<br />

courses are based on a cooperative program of internships for students, a program that had been strongly<br />

supported by large public and private employers (Johnston et al, 2001).<br />

Employment restructuring may well have been adding weight to a growing public scepticism about the<br />

professionalism of engineers. Research in 1992 by the Institution of Engineers Australia (IEAust) found that<br />

those surveyed thought ‘professional engineer’ ranked below ‘engineer’ in public esteem, and both ranked<br />

below scientist. Beder (1998) focuses upon the split loyalties of the modern engineer, to their employer and<br />

their profession (and its ethical code) and offers credible evidence that the latter takes a distant second<br />

place. Although the IEAust responded at the time with a promotion campaign, it was acknowledged that the<br />

real answer to such an assessment must come from the institutions that initially shape the values and<br />

attitudes of future engineers.<br />

The second problem facing the Faculty was to respond to challenges posed by the National Review of<br />

<strong>Engineering</strong> Education (IEAust, 1996a). The Review Report explicitly recognized many of the evolving<br />

demands upon future engineers, including the ability to communicate more effectively, to function effectively<br />

in multi-disciplinary and multi-cultural environments, and to understand the "ethical, social, professional,<br />

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Conference <strong>Engineering</strong> Education in Sustainable Development <strong>Delft</strong>, 24-25 October, 2002<br />

business, economical, cultural, global and environmental responsibilities of the professional engineer". This<br />

Review followed similar studies in North America (ASEE,1994; Slemon,1993).<br />

There were internal challenges: the seven-yearly UTS Developmental Review of the Faculty reaffirmed<br />

“excellence in practice-based engineering education” as a central theme in the Faculty mission, and<br />

challenged us to develop initiatives which expressed this theme in more explicitly educational terms. Our<br />

university was developing strategic policy initiatives aimed at enhancing its relevance and marketability in a<br />

changing world of globalisation and social diversity. One outcome was that the University Council (UTS,1999)<br />

adopted a “sustainability policy”, stipulating that UTS curricula, teaching, research and consulting, community<br />

service and institutional practices must emphasise and promote the "…achievement of sustainable futures<br />

embracing ecological, economic and social aspects of human existence".<br />

The Faculty was also under increasingly severe financial pressures. A change from three separate,<br />

disciplinary-based "Schools", to a unified faculty structure was seen as promising major economies through<br />

improving staff management and flexibility, creating synergies and reducing duplication of administrative<br />

overheads in dealing with our 2,500 undergraduates. It was also hoped that a changed structure could<br />

simplify the introduction of new areas of engineering (such as mechatronics) and help in reducing the<br />

unacceptably high level of gender imbalance in our student body.<br />

A single undergraduate program taken by all prospective engineers was proposed in this context of a unified<br />

Faculty of <strong>Engineering</strong>. The new program was introduced for first year students in 1998 and adopted in 1999<br />

for the whole of the undergraduate program. Its effectiveness was reviewed at a 2-day Faculty seminar in late<br />

2001, by which time the strains of embedding the new paradigm were clearly evident (particularly on those<br />

academics who were leading the change). Nevertheless the program structure remained in place: its future,<br />

with evolutionary improvements, was implicitly accepted.<br />

A new Bachelor of <strong>Engineering</strong> and Diploma of <strong>Engineering</strong> Practice (BEDipEngPrac)<br />

The unified program included a strand of "Core" subjects running through the whole program, and aimed at<br />

developing the generic skills, attitudes and attributes of a professional engineer. There was also an<br />

"<strong>Engineering</strong> Practice" program, including two levels of internship and culminating in a portfolio of experience<br />

(Johnston et al, 2001). The unified program was radically different from former paradigms, in both content<br />

and teaching methodology, being underpinned by a focus on graduate attributes rather than content<br />

knowledge. Students according to their preferred technical speciality chose disciplinary strands, known as<br />

‘field-of-practice’ majors. These strands, providing additional depth in specific areas, were also intended to be<br />

attribute-driven, but in practice they continued to be largely driven by technical content (although they were<br />

now somewhat less overloaded). The theme of sustainability was to underpin all areas of the course, and<br />

was to be addressed theoretically through the "Core" subjects, and practically through the "<strong>Engineering</strong><br />

Practice" and "Fields of Practice" components.<br />

The new undergraduate course is described in more detail elsewhere (Parr et al, 1997). A five-year program<br />

of 8 academic semesters, plus two semesters of engineering internship, was designed to develop three sets<br />

of graduate attributes: professional formation; personal development; and academic development. Three<br />

guiding mechanisms informed the design:<br />

(1) a practice orientation, in line with the Faculty’s affirmed Mission, and following the historical cultural<br />

momentum within the Faculty, which had offered an exclusively cooperatively-based program since its<br />

creation in the early 1970’s;<br />

(2) a learner-centred curriculum and management format, in line with several emerging trends. Firstly,<br />

educational research studies increasingly demonstrated the need for student ‘ownership’ of their<br />

programs as a basis for deep learning. Secondly, the trend to less structured frameworks within the<br />

engineering workplace, and the explicit aim for professional formation within the design, suggested a<br />

course that better reflected professional practice. Thirdly, some Faculty members recognised that the<br />

wide cultural diversity of our students did not lend itself to a traditional and homogeneous delivery<br />

mechanism. Lastly, there was a strong educational and student-centred culture among an influential<br />

minority of staff, reinforced by insights from the recently-introduced UTS Graduate Certificate in Higher<br />

Education, which had been completed by an enthusiastic group of new academic staff;<br />

(3) the principles and practice of environmentally and socially sustainable engineering, in line with growing<br />

community expectations and the strengthening voice of civil society in engineering interventions. This<br />

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Conference <strong>Engineering</strong> Education in Sustainable Development <strong>Delft</strong>, 24-25 October, 2002<br />

guideline was also encouraged by a minority culture within the Faculty that drew on both teaching and<br />

professional experience in socio-cultural aspects of engineering.<br />

Some staff through a direct quotation justified the sustainability theme from working submissions to the1996<br />

IEAust Review (IEAust, 1996b):<br />

“The engineering profession, once able to be the initiators of engineering projects, able to transform real need<br />

into design and finally material form, increasingly awaits orders from above to produce not for need but for a<br />

consumer demand whipped up by advertising agencies and sustained by a society increasingly less able to<br />

perceive satisfaction lying beyond consumption. As Kenny has argued: ‘the full scope of the social<br />

responsibility of engineers has been seriously curtailed, and hence impaired, by the socially, intellectually and<br />

culturally subordinate role of engineers in modern society (1989, p.927). Engineers are now playing their part,<br />

albeit unwittingly, in perpetuating the consumption society and fostering materialism while forgoing their<br />

opportunity to play an active and consciously chosen role in influencing the directions in which society might<br />

move and the choices it is able to make. The narrowness of the world of the engineer is matched by the<br />

narrowness of real choices open to the individual in a society increasingly governed by materialism.”<br />

What does it take to implement a program in sustainability for engineers, under significant financial and<br />

staffing constraints, and in parallel with major change to the Faculty structure? What lessons can be learnt<br />

and what indicators are appropriate in evaluating such a project? A framework for considering these issues<br />

systematically is outlined below.<br />

Actor Network Theory (ANT)<br />

ANT recognises that ideas and technologies are socially embedded, and that modes of thought and action<br />

are established as 'mainstream' by interactions of human and non-human 'actors' that generate a momentum<br />

of decisions and processes. ANT provides an action-learning framework that has been usefully employed in<br />

analysing environmental policy developments (Selman et al, 1990) and in tertiary education management<br />

(Yasukawa et al, 2001).<br />

ANT pictures both human and non-human ‘actors’, interacting in a process in which a specific ‘solution’ can<br />

be accepted, to the point of being sustainable without further ‘nourishment’ or external direction. The process<br />

involves human actors becoming interested, and then enrolled in the network for change to that ‘solution’.<br />

Enrolment involves acceptance of the principal change actions (the obligatory passage point). Given<br />

sufficient enrolment, the network is mobilised in the sense that it can act collectively and cohesively.<br />

Sustainability of the change is achieved when others entering the stakeholder space are obliged to accept the<br />

dominant paradigm, or ‘solution’ to the previously perceived problem.<br />

Actors in this network are significant through the resources they bring to bear, whether they are technologies,<br />

information, artefacts or other actors with their own characteristic resources. Thus Callon (1991) pictures a<br />

developing network that contains actors, macro-actors (representing a collection of actors, or factional views),<br />

and intermediaries (providing facilitation, tools and resources), connected and stabilised by the existence of a<br />

growing set of stances, beliefs, assumptions or understood documents, that become non-negotiable<br />

‘accepted wisdom’. Strathern (1999) calls this a ‘squeezing of debate’ to reduce the centrifugal effects of<br />

each actor’s specific interests.<br />

Reflection on the actor network surrounding the UTS <strong>Engineering</strong> Faculty’s radically new undergraduate<br />

program can help us to trace the evolution of the program to a viable solution within the current tertiary<br />

environment, and to assess its chances for continuing acceptance and sustained validity.<br />

<strong>Engineering</strong> and sustainability at UTS - a case study of network mobilisation?<br />

The adoption of sustainability as a central theme in the Faculty's curriculum marked not just a change in<br />

course focus, but also a change in the work practices and culture of the Faculty. Actor network theory<br />

provides a way of showing how different actors aligned themselves in the evolution of this network to effect<br />

this change.<br />

In this change process, the human actors included the Faculty managers and other members of the<br />

University who had the official power to sanction the change, academics within the Faculty who had been<br />

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teaching and researching in areas sympathetic to this change, and external organisations such as the IEAust<br />

and the Australasian Association of <strong>Engineering</strong> Education, who saw the direction of the change in terms of a<br />

national agenda. There were also many academics within the faculty who were sceptical about and resistant<br />

to the change. Some students were sympathetic, and others were suspicious of the change. These various<br />

actors played different roles and were differently aligned in the change process, as described below.<br />

The network also included non-human actors. The report of the National Review of <strong>Engineering</strong> Education<br />

and the Faculty’s internal "Course Framework document" both became powerful artefacts used to mobilise<br />

the network. Different value systems, such as technical excellence and social justice, were also key actors,<br />

which, at some stages, tried to pull the network in opposing directions.<br />

Callon and Law’s (1982) formulation of actor network theory describes the development of the network as a<br />

process of “translation” of an idea into reality. Callon identifies four stages in the process - problematisation,<br />

when a problem is identified and explored by one or more people or groups; interresment, when a solution for<br />

the problem is put forward and the proponents start to persuade others and build alliances; enrolment, when<br />

actors are enrolled into the network and become part of developing the solution; and mobilisation, when the<br />

actor network has achieved a level of stability and the solution is “black boxed” in a way that makes it<br />

apparently irreversible.<br />

Problematisation<br />

During 1996 and 1997 a number of challenges (noted earlier) were emerging within and across the milieu in<br />

which the UTS Faculty of <strong>Engineering</strong> was located. There was a Faculty Dean who saw the structure of his<br />

Faculty as a problem, both financially and strategically. Australian employment restructuring affected the<br />

Dean and other actors indirectly, as market forces changed, since at least two disciplinary areas were quite<br />

uneconomic and the Faculty’s overall budget was seen as unsustainable. There was a group of academics in<br />

the Faculty who felt that the curriculum was too narrow and failed to promote appreciation of the wider social<br />

and environmental contexts of engineering practice. More broadly, the University recognised sustainability as<br />

a strategic area for action, with important corporate as well as academic opportunities, and UTS was in the<br />

process of establishing a new Institute for Sustainable Futures (Johnston, 1997). Industry groups, students,<br />

academic and broader community groups participating in the National Review of <strong>Engineering</strong> concluded that<br />

a cultural change was needed in Australian engineering education to embrace broad skills, knowledge and<br />

values, rather than the narrowly focussed technical excellence that had traditionally been accepted as<br />

defining a good engineering education.<br />

Although these problems could have been seen too disparate to be able to be addressed by a single<br />

response, one common imperative emerged for all these parties. This was their need to put an end to the<br />

notion that engineering as a profession or a field of study could be understood as a collection of mutually<br />

exclusive activities – civil engineering, electrical engineering, mechanical engineering, and so forth – which<br />

individually and collectively were disconnected from other professions and from the socio-cultural contexts in<br />

which their practices were located. A common agenda emerged, aimed at incorporating concerns relating to<br />

transdisciplinary practice, and to interfaces between society and technology, more explicitly into the practices<br />

of engineers. Nevertheless, different actors identified different “problems”, and there were many more<br />

factions than those noted above.<br />

Threats to a common agenda could have emerged on the basis of the traditional “technical” focus of many<br />

staff (and from a significant student cohort drawn to engineering by their [mistaken] perception of its lack of<br />

communication demands). The perceptions of these groups were framed around a focus on engineering<br />

science, and a concern that teaching resources devoted to generic professional and personal development<br />

attributes would inexorably and progressively dilute technical excellence. There was also a threat posed by<br />

the increasing emphasis in the University (and in turn the Faculty) on winning research funding. This<br />

emphasis manifested itself in the emergence of clusters of staff preoccupied with traditional forms of<br />

discipline-based research and consulting. Opportunities taken up for transdisciplinary and community-based<br />

research were exceptions7 to the rule of specialist focuses, which reinforced notions of enclaves of expertise.<br />

Other threats emerged with the developing Faculty-wide management structure that produced a ‘free floating’<br />

Executive, without the obvious and direct connection with staff that was inherent in smaller traditional<br />

structures.<br />

7 The work of the international development agency APACE (http://www.APACE.uts.edu.au) was one exception. Some staff and<br />

students teamed with South Pacific rural community leaders to develop a strong Australian presence in rural community development<br />

based on appropriate energy technology.<br />

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The agenda, to unify efforts through a concern to incorporate the essentially transdisciplinary nature of<br />

technological decision-making and sustainable engineering practice, was far from universally shared among<br />

the Faculty actors. Moreover, it would be naïve to suggest that it was a strong personal concern for many<br />

staff, and indeed it was beyond the ‘comfort zone’ of significant sections of the Faculty, as well as of many of<br />

the students who had entered the Faculty with strong mathematical credentials, weak language credentials<br />

and a narrow conception of engineering as simply ‘making things’. Efforts were required to reframe the<br />

“problem” to be more broadly “owned” and hence addressed.<br />

Interresment<br />

The Dean produced what came to be known as his “Red Book”, which mapped out a new Faculty structure.<br />

The document recognized disciplinary affiliations, but was intended to encourage more movement of staff<br />

across disciplines. It also foreshadowed a single engineering undergraduate program. An agenda was put in<br />

place that mobilized the following actors:<br />

• The Dean set up a Curriculum, Learning & Teaching working party to explore the new course - people<br />

from the different Schools started to talk more, and new alliances started to form.<br />

• A “Course Framework” document was drafted, emphasising Sustainability as a central engineering<br />

concern.<br />

• The IEAust National Review Report was published, strengthening the case for significant course change.<br />

• The IEAust formally recognized sustainability in its engineering Code of Ethics8.<br />

• Sustainability was seen as a useful theme in addressing the mandate for attention to inter- and transdisciplinarity,<br />

socio-technical interfaces and ethics, as a positive response to growing community<br />

concerns/distrust of engineering.<br />

• The idea of a Core set of subjects was proposed as part of the course design, and preliminary planning<br />

began on their objectives and their linkages with field-of-practice subjects.<br />

• An introductory subject ‘<strong>Engineering</strong> for Sustainability’ was perceived as a ‘flagship’ to orient incoming<br />

students to a new paradigm for the course and to define the Faculty's vision.<br />

• Momentum developed through an alliance of management and a critical mass of staff concerned with<br />

teaching relevance. Management was driven partly by financial concerns and the prospect of more<br />

flexible use of staff: quite different motivations to those of the academics who were enrolled early in the<br />

process. Nevertheless, the alliance was real and important. Subsequent personal interactions across<br />

previous disciplinary divides assisted in developing the trust and confidence that translated formal<br />

planning proposals into functioning realities.<br />

Enrolment<br />

This stage of the development of a stable new operational network involves enrolling new actors into the<br />

network on the basis of a formulated agenda and an acceptance of an ‘obligatory change point’. In our case,<br />

the process developed as follows:<br />

• The Course Framework document was formally adopted at Board and University level.<br />

• The Course accreditation process was initiated<br />

• “Planning Directors” were appointed in 1997 to develop course planning on the basis of a unifying Core<br />

strand and a ‘Sustainability’ theme. Regular meetings followed, with Directors facilitating the involvement<br />

of others who were interested.<br />

• '<strong>Engineering</strong> for Sustainability' was designed around a set of rotating modules involving technological<br />

issues that could enrol a variety of staff teams. The 'theme' of sustainability remained the vehicle within<br />

each module, which explored an issue that could enhance students' academic literacy, professional<br />

identity, research and communication skills. The relatively low level of technical content in this subject<br />

continues to be a matter for debate.<br />

• A group of subjects, ‘<strong>Engineering</strong> Communication’, ‘<strong>Engineering</strong> Economics and Finance’, ‘<strong>Engineering</strong><br />

Management’, ‘Uncertainties and Risks in <strong>Engineering</strong>’ and ‘Technology Assessment’ were designed to<br />

follow the theme throughout the student undergraduate experience. The engineering experience<br />

component of the program was also redesigned, to make it more effective in helping students to integrate<br />

academic material into professional settings.<br />

Mobilisation:<br />

In this stage, the network has hopefully gathered enough momentum, through accepted non-human actors<br />

(conceptions, documents, structures and agreed paths), for cohesive progress to be made along a path that<br />

8 See, for IEAust policies, http://www.iea.org.au<br />

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Conference <strong>Engineering</strong> Education in Sustainable Development <strong>Delft</strong>, 24-25 October, 2002<br />

is difficult to retrace. With many of the processes now opaque to newcomers, the 'solution' is said to be<br />

'black-boxed'. In this stage, we now have:<br />

• A Degree Course on track, known as the BEDipEngPrac, denoting a combined Bachelor’s Degree and<br />

Diploma in <strong>Engineering</strong> Practice.<br />

• A Core program that has been trailed and has developed some momentum through its modules of staff<br />

teams that add new members each Semester.<br />

• New tensions between core and field of practice.<br />

• New conceptualisation of the core, from “what all engineers know”, to recognition as a disciplinary area in<br />

its own right.<br />

• After vigorous debate, the Faculty’s two-day seminar/retreat in 2001 confirmed the importance of the<br />

core, although without fully cementing the envisaged linkages with Field-of-Practice disciplinary<br />

components. Measures were agreed for strengthening these linkages.<br />

The enrolment of human actors was sporadic and selective, and the mobilization phase has yet to be<br />

confidently sustained. Perhaps inevitably, a divide formed, although actors resistant to change could enlist<br />

few rational arguments or documentation within the mainstream debate. Management concern for financial<br />

sustainability has to some extent been addressed implicitly, as the student market has improved, perhaps for<br />

other reasons. While single discipline research efforts by staff in recent years have had some notable<br />

successes, they have not lead to financial spin-offs to the teaching efforts of the Faculty and cannot thus<br />

generate management support for a change in pedagogical policy. Moreover, multidisciplinary and<br />

transdisciplinary research and development9 in the Faculty have also demonstrated distinctive successes,<br />

and have been presented as a future growth path for staff interests that support and nurture the unified<br />

teaching components. The direct community relevance of these latter activities may not have provided any<br />

greater financial spin-offs, but did provide useful marketing benefits for management.<br />

The process has yet to ‘enrol’ the majority of staff in the notion that socio-technical issues, addressed<br />

principally in Core subjects, are valid professional engineering disciplines in their own right. Whereas<br />

teaching staff carefully self-select and assume ownership responsibilities for fields-of-practice components of<br />

the course, many remain unconvinced that the skills and knowledge required for sustaining a professional<br />

presentation of generic areas of professional practice, such as participatory policy and project design, or<br />

qualitative risk management, are essentially disciplines of equal rigour. A clear and hopeful sign in July 2002<br />

was the first new Faculty appointment of a specialist in the ‘non-specialist’ Core program area.<br />

<strong>Engineering</strong> and sustainability at UTS<br />

The prospects for engineering graduates in Australia have changed in line with economic and civil societal<br />

trends throughout the developed world, and perhaps even more through the country’s relative sensitivity to<br />

the forces of globalisation. The Australian population is particularly multicultural, with immigrants comprising<br />

24% of its citizens in 2000 (Australian Bureau of Statistics, 2002). Our economy is relatively open and tradeoriented.<br />

From a small base, over the 1990’s elaborately transformed manufacturing exports grew at an<br />

average rate of less than about 10% per annum, while imports of such manufactures grew rather more<br />

strongly. Australia’s manufacturing workforce has fallen steadily, in favour of its growing financial and<br />

services sector. Australians are enthusiastic users of new technology rather than particularly good marketers<br />

of new technological products. Following the Hilmer Report (Independent Committee of Enquiry, 1993),<br />

National and State Government instrumentalities in energy, transport, post and telecommunications have<br />

been corporatised or privatised and their monopolies weakened or destroyed through demergers and<br />

restructures. Import quota barriers have disappeared and tariffs generally reduced to a band of zero to 5%. In<br />

the past two decades, engineering employment has moved away from a situation where most positions were<br />

in the service- or technically-based structures of large organisations, commonly within the public sector. By<br />

1996, a member of the Institution of Engineers Australia was twice as likely to work in private industry as in<br />

government (IEAust, 1996c). Moreover, engineers’ tasks are increasingly people- rather than design-centred.<br />

Of IEAust members, 40% were employed in “management” in 1995 (Webster, 1996) and, like their American<br />

and British counterparts, tended to choose this non-technical path as a good career move and an advance in<br />

status. Most employers of engineering graduates now tend to cite communication skills as the top criterion for<br />

appointment, followed by other generic characteristics, rather than by a specific depth of technical skill<br />

(Spotlight, 2000).<br />

9 notably in Bioengineering for the disabled, and micro hydroelectric systems for developing communities.<br />

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Conference <strong>Engineering</strong> Education in Sustainable Development <strong>Delft</strong>, 24-25 October, 2002<br />

Conclusions<br />

Around the world, demands on the profession of engineering are changing, with increasing expectations that<br />

engineers will go beyond a narrow technical focus and take a positive role in working with their communities<br />

to formulate problems in ways that recognize broad concerns about social, economic and environmental<br />

sustainability. These changing expectations are starting to be reflected in changes in engineering education,<br />

changes that, as we have indicated in the paper, are commonly driven at least partly by forces external to the<br />

universities. A key force for change in Europe will be the Bologna Agreement, being implemented over the<br />

first decade of this new century.<br />

In this paper we have used actor network theory to tease out, in a semi-structured and systematic way, the<br />

change processes that have taken place in our own <strong>Engineering</strong> Faculty, a Faculty that is widely recognized<br />

as a leader in engineering education in Australia. The “actors” include both artefacts and individuals.<br />

Universities are conservative institutions, and engineering faculties are staffed by highly autonomous<br />

individuals who are often both narrowly focused and rightly proud of their specialist expertise. It is therefore<br />

no surprise that, as our experience confirms, changing the paradigm for engineering education in such a<br />

context is far from easy, but such changes can and must happen. Indeed, we see change in engineering<br />

education as not just inevitable, but indeed highly desirable. However, we see change as most likely to be<br />

successful, and to be achieved with the minimum of effort and of disruption and distress to staff and<br />

students, if those immediately affected can understand and take some degree of control of the process. Our<br />

hope is that others can benefit from the experience we have described here, using it to help them<br />

understand, facilitate and manage the processes of change in their own institutions.<br />

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References<br />

American Society for <strong>Engineering</strong> Education 1994, <strong>Engineering</strong> Education for a Changing World, ASEE,<br />

Washington DC:<br />

Australian Bureau of Statistics, 2002, Australian Social Trends 2001, http://www.abs.gov.au.<br />

Beder S. 1998, The New Engineer: Management and Professional Responsibility in a Changing World,<br />

Macmillan Education Australia, Sydney, Chapter 2.<br />

Callon M. and Law J., 1982, “On interests and their transformation: enrollment and counter-enrollment”,<br />

Social Studies of Science, Vol. 12, pp. 615-625. (for example)<br />

Callon M., 1991, ‘Techno-economic networks and irreversibility’ in J. Law (ed.), A Sociology of Monsters, pp.<br />

132-161, Routledge, London.<br />

Independent Committee of Enquiry, 1993, National Competition Policy, (F. Hilmer, chair), Australian<br />

Government Publishing Service, Canberra.<br />

IEAust 1996a, Changing the Culture: <strong>Engineering</strong> Education into the Future, Institution of Engineers<br />

Australia, Canberra.<br />

IEAust 1996b, op cit, working paper reports<br />

IEAust, 1996c, op cit, p 65<br />

Johnston S. 1997, “Sustainability, engineering and Australian academe”, Journal of the Society for<br />

Philosophy and Technology, at http://scholar.lib.vt.edu/ejournals/SPT/v2n3n4/pdf/johnston.pdf<br />

Johnston S., Taylor E. and Chappel A. 2001 “UTS <strong>Engineering</strong> Internships: A model for active learning”,<br />

International Conference on <strong>Engineering</strong> Education, 6-10 August, Oslo, Norway<br />

Parr P., Yates, K. and Taylor E. 1997, “The UTS response to the review of engineering education”, in TD<br />

Gourley and JI Stewart (eds) Proceedings of the 9 th Annual Convention and Conference of the Australasian<br />

Association of <strong>Engineering</strong> Education, 14-17 Dec., AAEE, University of Ballarat, Victoria.<br />

Selman P. and Wragg A., 1990, 'Local sustainability planning: from interest-driven networks to vision-driven<br />

super-networks', Planning Policy and Research, Vol 14, No. 3, pp. 329-340.<br />

Slemon G. 1993, <strong>Engineering</strong> Education in Canadian Universities, Canadian Academy of <strong>Engineering</strong>,<br />

Ottawa, Ontario.<br />

Spotlight, 2000, Vol. 23, No. 8, Nov. 15.<br />

Strathern M., 1999, ‘What is intellectual property after?’ in J. Law and J. Hassard (eds), Actor Network<br />

Theory and After, Blackwell, Oxford.<br />

UTS, 1999, Council resolutions, 17 th June<br />

Webster J., 1996, ‘<strong>Engineering</strong>: a people business’, IIR Conference, Sydney, cited by S. Beder, op cit, p.20.<br />

Yasukawa K. and Healy P., 2001, ‘Management by spreadsheets: mathematical models as a management<br />

technology’, presented at the Literacy and Numeracy Practices Research Meeting, Leeds University, UK,<br />

July.<br />

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Conference <strong>Engineering</strong> Education in Sustainable Development <strong>Delft</strong>, 24-25 October, 2002<br />

034 Sustainable technology. E&P steps up to the challenge, Yvon Quillien, Shell<br />

exploratrion & production<br />

Abstract<br />

Shell companies are committed by their business principles to contribute to sustainable development –<br />

integrating economic, social and environmental considerations, balancing short and long-term priorities. This<br />

means a fundamental balancing of our economic, environmental and social responsibility. The paper explores<br />

why this is important to Shell and how technologies in E&P demonstrate our commitment to contribute to<br />

sustainable development, particularly in their contribution to:<br />

• efficiency improvement<br />

• reduced footprint<br />

• emission reduction<br />

The paper addresses the fundamentals of technologies for the reduction of emissions and discharges, as<br />

well as those that improve reservoir recovery, improved economics, well performance and surface operations<br />

techniques and methodologies. These are illustrated by examples selected from around the world, both<br />

onshore and offshore.<br />

Contributing to Sustainable Development means a fundamental commitment by all staff and a significant<br />

change in the way professionals approach projects and new businesses, and this paper demonstrates how<br />

E&P technical professionals play a significant role in contributing to the sustainable future.<br />

Introduction<br />

To quote Phil Watts, Sustainable Development (SD) is the challenge for a world with an expanding<br />

population, huge aspirations and expectations of better lives, and an environment under increasing pressure.<br />

The Brundtland definition, "meeting the needs of the present without compromising the ability of future<br />

generations to meet their own needs", is the most widely accepted today. It serves as the starting point for<br />

the vast majority of sustainable development policy-making by governments, citizens' groups, industry and<br />

environmental organizations. Brundtland saw sustainable development as "a process of change in which the<br />

exploitation of resources, the direction of investment, the re-orientation of technology development, and<br />

institutional change are all in harmony and enhance both current and future potential to meet human needs<br />

and aspirations".<br />

Since Brundtland, more emphasis has been placed on "eco-efficiency", which weighs the economic and other<br />

benefits of a product or production process against its environmental (and sometimes social) impacts.<br />

Some of the key elements of the Shell Technology SD strategy “A Better Future for the world…” are to:<br />

• Ensure that our technologies and investments meet SD principles<br />

• Focus effective development and deployment of technology to meet stakeholder needs<br />

This paper addresses how our EP Technology is meeting some of these challenges through business<br />

developments and processes, with examples of Smart Wells, Expandable tubulars and twister. It also<br />

demonstrates how the job of our professionals is evolving to take SD deep into the day-to-day development<br />

and application of technologies.<br />

Societal Expectations and External Challenges<br />

SD integration in our business and technology can be reflected in the following three factors:<br />

(1) Expressing Core Values<br />

(2) Understanding Stakeholders and Society Expectations<br />

(3) Achieving Business Growth<br />

It is the practical expression of our core purpose to “Help people build a better world” and the business<br />

principles which underlie it. In order to anticipate the future societal expectations, our business principles<br />

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Conference <strong>Engineering</strong> Education in Sustainable Development <strong>Delft</strong>, 24-25 October, 2002<br />

were changed in 1997 to include: ‘to contribute to sustainable development’. These principles, which are<br />

available in over 50 languages, guide the behaviour of Shell people and the decisions of Shell companies all<br />

over the world.<br />

The industry is actively promoting core values through many community and social programmes that help<br />

people to build a sustainable future. Shell examples of this include those such as “Live Wire”, “Project Better<br />

World”, “The Sustainable Energy Programme” and Shell Oil’s minority programme. These supplement core<br />

implementation of business principles through working hours, wages, equal opportunities, diversity and the<br />

HSE Management Programmes.<br />

Continuing in business depends on meeting changing and increasingly demanding societal expectations.<br />

Demonstrations at the word Trade Organisation and Shell’s own experiences with Brent Spar and Nigeria,<br />

illustrate the way in which societies’ views of companies is changing. We live in a “show me” world where we<br />

are expected to be responsible across the economic, social and environmental dimensions of our business<br />

and to a wider group than just our shareholders: we have to learn to do business in a global goldfish bowl. By<br />

addressing the needs and concerns of all stakeholders we become a more trusted partner. In turn we can<br />

attract additional resources, in terms of investment and talented staff. Profitability is not enough.<br />

We are playing an active role in the public policy debate at national and international level, directly and<br />

through national industry bodies and international organizations, including NGOs.<br />

GHG emissions reduction<br />

Shell has committed that Greenhouse Gas (GHG) emissions will be reduced by increasing energy efficiency<br />

as well as eliminating continuous disposal of gas venting and flaring in our oil and gas production.<br />

Governments have a number of tools by which they can achieve the targets agreed in Kyoto, namely<br />

command-and-control regulation, voluntary/negotiated agreements, emission trading and carbon/energy<br />

taxes. Shell believes that emission trading will help reduce the cost of abatement and is committed to<br />

demonstrating that emission trading can work in practice and has therefore introduced a tradable emissions<br />

programme.<br />

GHG emissions in Shell have declined from an adjusted baseline of 114 million tonnes of CO2 equivalent<br />

(mtCO2e) in 1990 through to 99 mtCO2e in 1999. GHG emissions are projected to further decline such that<br />

we are likely to meet our target of a 10% reduction by 2002 (twice the Kyoto target, 5 years sooner). In E&P<br />

GWP shows a year on year decline and for 2000 was on target at 49 Mega tonnes CO2 equivalent (see figure<br />

1)<br />

Shell is committed to include climate change considerations in business decision-making. All major oil & gas<br />

projects have to be supported by explanations of their justification in sustainable development terms and<br />

inclusion of a carbon price penalty.<br />

Global Warming Potential<br />

(in CO 2 equivalent)<br />

CO 2 equivalent (Mega Tonnes)<br />

70<br />

60<br />

50<br />

40<br />

30<br />

20<br />

10<br />

0<br />

2001 2005<br />

1995 1996 1997 1998 1999 2000<br />

Target Forecast<br />

EP externally<br />

reported global<br />

warming potential<br />

figure 1: Global Warming Potential of Shell E&P Emissions 1995- 2000<br />

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Conference <strong>Engineering</strong> Education in Sustainable Development <strong>Delft</strong>, 24-25 October, 2002<br />

EP technology contribution to SD<br />

Shell’s commitment is firmly rooted in sound business practice through taking a more integrated approach to<br />

our activities, the so-called “Triple Bottom Line” considering People, Planet and Profit. Technology has a key<br />

role to play in this, as reflected in the development of cleaner, more efficient technologies and techniques to<br />

meet the SD challenges.<br />

There are three main areas of technology contribution to Sustainable Development of hydrocarbon reserves,<br />

which apply throughout the project phases of exploration, drilling, operation and abandonment. These are:<br />

(1) improved Efficiency<br />

(2) reduced footprint<br />

(3) emission reduction<br />

The efficiency of today’s oil and gas wells has on average doubled since 1985 through increased technology,<br />

according to the Department of Energy (DOE). This means that finding today’s reserves in the US has taken<br />

22,000 less wells than if technology had not progressed beyond 1985.<br />

Hence less energy is expended in achieving the same production results and requires smaller operational<br />

footprints.<br />

Exploration and subsurface techniques<br />

Exploration is not only the earliest of field activities in E&P Projects, but also one where understanding of<br />

reservoir properties is essential to the future efficient extraction of the hydrocarbons, hence maximising<br />

profitability and efficiency as well as providing data to minimise social or environmental impacts.<br />

To optimise drainage of huge carbonate reservoirs requires advanced techniques, including:<br />

• proprietary implementation of pre-stack depth migration<br />

• 4D (or time lapse) seismic to map water movement and manage effective drainage<br />

• 3D forward modelling and other techniques.<br />

In the UK Gannet field, the use of 4D techniques has produced more efficient draining and saved $25 million<br />

in drilling costs, hence fewer wells and a smaller footprint.<br />

Virtual Reality rooms, now being installed throughout main technology and production centres are proving<br />

their worth, by displaying the sea floor, salt masses, sedimentary layers and channels in detail. They allow<br />

better interpretation and decision making to be made faster and more accurately and can also help in<br />

understanding Deepwater hazards, to be able to avoid unstable or environmentally sensitive areas.<br />

A recent Virtual Reality activity in the North Sea allowed engineers to relocate 2 wells and identify a prospect<br />

within 3 days. The value of information generated was estimated to be $1.9 million.<br />

Social and environmental assessments (SIAs and EIAs) are a standard part of understanding the country and<br />

location in which exploration is to occur. An example is the Camisea project in which Shell Peru (SPDP)<br />

gained wide spread recognition for its commitment to undertake activities in line with sustainability objectives<br />

via a threefold plan of:<br />

(1) Consult widely and co-operate with local and foreign stakeholders<br />

(2) Minimise impact on health and social structures of local people and their environment<br />

(3) Work to increase the social capital<br />

SPDP committed to provide a ‘net benefit’ to the communities in the areas. To achieve this, they worked in<br />

partnerships with Non Governmental Organisations such as Pro Natura and local governmental agencies to<br />

develop health and social projects.<br />

Drilling and Wells<br />

The area of drilling and wells has seen rapid development and integration of technology for sound<br />

commercial reasons that are consistent with a sustainable approach and have particularly reduced impact on<br />

the environment. Technologies are advancing rapidly in the areas of multilateral ultra slim hole drilling,<br />

multilaterals, smart wells and expandable tubulars<br />

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Slimhole drilling<br />

Slimhole drilling decreases drilling waste volumes and requires smaller footprints. The DOE cites the<br />

example of a slimhole drilled to 14,760 ft, where the volume of cuttings produced is one third less than the<br />

standard well at the same depth. Since the equipment used for slimhole drilling can be smaller than<br />

conventional rigs, the area cleared for a location is reduced. Additionally by use of offshore techniques of<br />

clustered wellheads and helicoptering in the drilling equipment as Shell did in Camisea, Peru, the land take<br />

and disturbance is considerably reduced.<br />

Smart Wells<br />

These are all about maximising the value of our assets within the formations and the well. In 2001/2 a further<br />

65 such well applications will be implemented in Shell world wide, adding an estimated $200 million of value<br />

to the business. Using this technology worldwide will add some extra 70,000bbl/day to Shell’s equity<br />

production.<br />

They can include equipment to process fluids down hole, with gas and liquids being separated by devices<br />

such as hydro cyclones. The wells can be used to take gas production from one level and inject it into<br />

another level to increase production, without bringing the gas to surface.<br />

Using these techniques can significantly reduce the size of the production facilities and generate less waste<br />

or by-products.<br />

Further enablers are Sub Sea pumping and under balanced or at balance drilling where we can offset the<br />

effect of long mud columns in the riser whilst drilling in deep water. This will allow drilling more open hole<br />

prior to having to set casing thus eliminating some casing strings.<br />

Expandable tubulars<br />

This is a new, Shell developed, technology that has the potential to revolutionise the way that we drill and<br />

complete wells allowing us to maintain a small hole size and not compromise production from the well.<br />

Having set up a joint venture companies to apply this technology has made it available to the industry<br />

This worldwide activity has included a world record 4000ft expandable screen in the North Sea and the first<br />

ever application of solid tubes in deepwater. In our deepwater well in 7,800ft of water, the solid expandable<br />

tubular was the key enabler that made drilling the well possible.<br />

This technology contributes through reduced emissions and greater efficiency to reducing environmental<br />

impact.<br />

Zero based design<br />

In the design of production facilities there are a growing number of technologies that can be applied. Shell<br />

has documented these in a “Zero Impact Facilities’ database, to facilitate application. The concept of minimal<br />

facilities, increasing efficiency and reducing waste is common to the environmental aspects of the<br />

Sustainable Technology and this is seen in developments in the Gulf of Mexico. The SNEPCo (Shell Nigeria<br />

offshore) BONGA deepwater facility, due to be installed in 2002 in 3000 ft (1000m) offshore Nigeria is the first<br />

FPSO to be installed in Deepwater off Nigeria and the hull will be able to store up to 2 million bbls of oil. It will<br />

use the latest production technology for emissions minimisation and will utilise gas recovery and export to<br />

LNG facilities onshore.<br />

Twister<br />

The Twister supersonic separator is a revolutionary technology for extracting liquids from natural gas. It is<br />

considerably smaller than traditional treatment facilities and has no moving parts. It also uses no chemicals.<br />

The simplicity means that fewer resources are needed to build and operate Twister gas processing<br />

technology. It also means that smaller offshore platforms can be used, as there is less space needed for<br />

processing and accommodation. Feasibility studies are currently underway to determine if Twister could be<br />

used as an enabling technology for sub sea gas processing, thereby removing the need for any platform.<br />

Comparisons have shown total cost savings of up to 25% for a typical gas development<br />

Water management<br />

The volumes of water produced in the E&P Industry increase as greater water cuts occur and field decline in<br />

hydrocarbon production. This is costly, reduces efficiency and is a waste of water, which, even if of high<br />

salinity is in itself a precious resource. Emission reduction means to all media, including land, water and air,<br />

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as well as reducing the water production from wells. Water discharges today can be reduced using<br />

technologies that:<br />

• Minimize volumes of water produced<br />

• Return Water to a producing reservoir<br />

• Re-use Produced water at surface<br />

• Safeguard aquifers by disposing surplus waters to formations, which have high salinity (>35,000 mg/l).<br />

(See figure 2)<br />

Water Management Technology<br />

figure 2: Water Management Technology<br />

In Oman for example some 450,000 cu m of water are produced daily, from an oil production of 135,000<br />

cum. 40% is disposed of via Deep Water Disposal, or re-injection into the producing formation, but this can<br />

be expensive. Conversion of the water to a cleaner stream for better use is being worked on and indications<br />

are that reed bed technology can offer a viable alternative to either traditional or bio-treatments.<br />

Realising the limit<br />

All companies want to improve efficiency and the “Realise the Limit” initiatives have been working across a<br />

wide range of fronts of operations and engineering to reach the Ultimate Limit of added value. The way that<br />

this is done makes real difference.<br />

Drilling the limit for example has now been applied to 80% of Shell’s wells, enabling us to reduce well costs<br />

by an average of 25%. The producing the limit work has enabled an average increase of 10% production. In<br />

the Drilling the Limit work in 2000 it saved $400million and Volumes to values realised 750 million boe. As<br />

this is on a Shell operated basis, meaning that partners also benefited.<br />

In SD terms this means maximising efficiency or resource usage and maximising profitability.<br />

Fuel cells and the hydrogen economy<br />

Despite the fact that oil and gas will continue to be primary sources of energy throughout the 21 st century,<br />

renewable sources are starting to play a far more significant part in the world’s growing need for energy.<br />

One of the areas Shell is looking at in conjunction with Westinghouse is Solid Oxide Fuel Cells (SOFC), a<br />

technology which allows the generation of electricity from natural gas or other hydrogen rich fuels, without<br />

Carbon Dioxide emissions into the atmosphere.<br />

The technology produces high quality CO2 that can be injected into the subsurface for future use, or into<br />

reservoirs to facilitate enhanced recovery (figure 3).<br />

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Conference <strong>Engineering</strong> Education in Sustainable Development <strong>Delft</strong>, 24-25 October, 2002<br />

Fuel Cells and the Hydrogen Economy<br />

figure 3: Fuel cells and the hydrogen economy<br />

How does this technology contribute to sustainability? Why not just go straight for renewable sources? We<br />

believe that this technology facilitates transition from a hydrocarbon-powered world and can open the door to<br />

sustainable energy consumption from truly sustainable sources. We are already seeing fuel cell powered<br />

cars and whilst the technology may yet be immature, it can have a place alongside, wind, solar, hydroelectric,<br />

and geothermal and wave energies.<br />

Local site restoration and re-development<br />

Restoration can mean many things in the E&P industry. Offshore structures are now removed or toppled to<br />

form artificial reefs. Onshore sites are reclaimed and the areas used to grow crops or used for other<br />

developments.<br />

Recycling can include offshore facilities and one that you will no doubt have heard of, that has been recycled,<br />

is the Brent Spar, which now forms the substructure for a quayside.<br />

At Subic Bay in the Philippines there was a construction yard, used to build the concrete gravity structure,<br />

which supports the topsides for the Malampaya facilities. When Shell Philippines Exploration first came to the<br />

place three years ago, the community was poor; people were jobless and sick of malaria or dengue. There<br />

was only one small school that provided elementary education to their children.<br />

In 2001, an entirely different community exists. Today, population has doubled to 700, people are healthy and<br />

homes are now made of concrete and strong wood. The community now has a secondary school and the<br />

local authorities are providing the running of the school free.<br />

The project has replaced each tree removed during the project with 10 indigenous tree species. Reforesting<br />

120 hectares of denuded rain forests to support the giant Philippine fruit bats and giving local people the<br />

necessary skills, resources and support to maintain the plantations while earning a livelihood for them.<br />

Further a fish-farming project has been established in the two large ponds at the village to cultivate “Milk<br />

Fish” as a commercial crop. This has already resulted in the first harvest and covered the investment in only<br />

6 months.<br />

Sustainable Development Competency<br />

Sustainable development has been defined by Phill Watts as a journey of continuous learning, with a<br />

direction, but not a well-defined destination. The learning can be a corporate one, but this cannot be achieved<br />

without all staff rising up to the game.<br />

There is an obligation to carefully balance the three pilars (People, planet and Profit) in all technical or<br />

business decisions. Practically, no proposal is accepted if this balancing view is not demonstrated. This leads<br />

to an obligation for all staff to have a minimum awareness of all SD issues involved with proposals and, in<br />

many cases, it is a significant shift from pure technical and financial studies to including social and<br />

environment issues, even at the conceptual stage.<br />

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Attract and motivate talent<br />

Shell’s commitment to Sustainable Development is an important factor in attracting new staff. As societal<br />

values evolve, it is increasingly a factor in motivating all staff. The close alignment between personal values<br />

of staff and corporate values will be a powerful long-term motivator: Individual responsibility can thus promote<br />

collective corporate responsibility.<br />

Shell needs to act responsively by engaging with all stakeholders in an increasingly productive way, mirroring<br />

the evolution from a Trust-me-, through a Show-me- to an Involve -me-world. As a consequence business<br />

risk will be contained and potential challenges to our license-to-operate defused. For example, a key change<br />

in 1997 was for the top leadership of Shell to accept a duty to speak out for fundamental human rights:<br />

fulfilling corporate responsibilities, as corporate citizens must never mean trying to dictate Western cultural<br />

norms. Such changes are very close to the heart of all staff.<br />

SD as a competency<br />

Above the control mechanism put in place to ensure that all proposals take due care of SD principles, as<br />

demonstrated in the new technological advances above, there is a minimum level of staff awareness and<br />

competence to achieve in SD terms in order to make the SD journey happen.<br />

SD is to become a core competence, analogue to HSE: all engineers will be expected to improve their SD<br />

competency during their career, through training and direct work experience. Our first SD training module has<br />

recently been implemented and the position of SD manager is rapidly becoming a standard in our Operating<br />

Units, championing and also coaching others in the application of the principles.<br />

What does it mean practically<br />

There is a clear shift in the mind set expected from all staff: at all stages, the process is driven by<br />

engagement with the external world, listening to people’s concerns and aspirations, responding to them to<br />

achieve solutions, building trust. Such engagement is shown by recent publications: The Shell report is an<br />

honest and open overview of Shell performance, showing what is being done towards meeting commitments,<br />

with data verified independently.<br />

Openness, trust, engagement - externally as well as internally - innovation, creativity, open challenge, are key<br />

SD words which an engineer regularly encounters nowadays and which are being used to measure and<br />

reward performance in all our technical disciplines.<br />

Through this Shell has, in the words of Sir Mark Moody- Stuart “redefined our core purpose and adopted<br />

sustainable development as its practical expression. This means a fundamental commitment to balancing our<br />

economic, environmental and social responsibility”<br />

Acknowledgements<br />

The summaries of the technologies reported in this paper have been produced as part of the publications<br />

created by research and technical staff in Shell Technology E&P and are mostly available through the<br />

External Representation group in The Netherlands.<br />

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References<br />

The Royal Dutch/ Shell Group of Companies Sustainable Development Website at. http://www.shell.com<br />

Environmental Benefits of Advanced Oil & Gas Technology from United States Department of Energy<br />

Leaving Fewer Footprints, Shell International E&P 2001<br />

Pursuing sustainable development, a Shell journey, Phil Watts, Managing Director of the Royal Dutch/Shell<br />

Group<br />

Sustainable Technology (SPE) by Kevin Waterfall, HSE manager Shell International<br />

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035 Policy development for sustainability in higher education. results of AISHE<br />

audits, Niko Roorda, Rogier van Mansvelt, Dutch Committee for Sustainable Higher<br />

Education, The Netherlands<br />

Abstract<br />

A description is given of AISHE, a tool for auditing and policy development for sustainable development in<br />

universities. Some general conclusions will be shown of the audits that have been done so far.<br />

Two special cases will be discussed. The consequences of an audit in an Economics study programme are<br />

shown, as a characteristic example. And an audit in an Environmental study programme will be shown, to<br />

demonstrate the complicated relation between this study and sustainability, and the way in which AISHE can<br />

be of help there.<br />

AISHE: auditing tool for sustainable Higher Education<br />

In the Netherlands, the so-called “Commissie Duurzaam Hoger Onderwijs” (“Dutch Committee for<br />

Sustainable Higher Education”, CDHO for short) is very successful. A number of projects are going on,<br />

strengthening the role of sustainability in the Dutch universities. One of those projects, now completed, was<br />

the development of an instrument for the investigation of the situation within a university (-department), with<br />

respect to sustainable development. This instrument, called AISHE (short for: “Auditing Instrument for<br />

Sustainability in Higher Education”), is now used for sustainability audits in many universities.<br />

The instrument is built around a list of 20 criteria (see table 1).<br />

For each of these 20 criteria, a five-point ordinal scale is designed. The characteristics of these scales are<br />

shown in table 2. This is based on an earlier model for general quality management: the EFQM model (see:<br />

EFQM, 1991), adapted as the “Five Stages Model” by INK, a Dutch organisation for quality management<br />

(see: INK (2000) and HBO Expert Group (1999)). An example of such an ordinal scale is given in table 3,<br />

showing one of the criteria.<br />

AISHE was tested in 2001 in a series of universities in the Netherlands and in Sweden. At the end of that<br />

year, it was published (Roorda, 2001). Details about the development project of AISHE can be found Roorda<br />

(2000). A discussion about the fundamentals and the philosophy is given in Roorda (2002).<br />

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Consultancy and training<br />

Plan<br />

Do<br />

Check<br />

Criteria list<br />

1. Vision and policy<br />

1.1. Vision<br />

1.2. Policy<br />

1.3. Communication<br />

1.4. Internal environmental management<br />

2. Expertise<br />

2.1. Network<br />

2.2. Expert group<br />

2.3. Staff development plan<br />

2.4. Research and external services<br />

3. Educational goals and methodology<br />

3.1. Profile of the graduate<br />

3.2. Educational methodology<br />

3.3. Role of the teacher<br />

3.4. Student examination<br />

4. Education contents<br />

4.1. Curriculum<br />

4.2. Integrated Problem Handling<br />

4.3. Traineeships, graduation<br />

4.4. Speciality<br />

5. Result assessment<br />

5.1. Staff<br />

5.2. Students<br />

5.3. Professional field<br />

5.4. Society<br />

table 1<br />

In 2002, a follow-up project started. In this project, consultancy is offered to universities, in which AISHE is<br />

used as a tool for the development of a policy, for the integration of sustainability in the university. Also, a<br />

training programme is offered to (future) sustainability co-ordinators in universities, in order to enlarge the<br />

number of people able to perform AISHE audits. From 2003, it will be possible to offer this training outside<br />

the Netherlands as well.<br />

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Conference <strong>Engineering</strong> Education in Sustainable Development <strong>Delft</strong>, 24-25 October, 2002<br />

Stage 1:<br />

Activity oriented<br />

- Educational<br />

goals are subject<br />

oriented.<br />

- The processes<br />

are based on<br />

actions of<br />

individual<br />

members of the<br />

staff.<br />

Decisions are<br />

usually made ad<br />

hoc.<br />

Stage 1:<br />

Activity oriented<br />

- Staff<br />

development in<br />

sustainability<br />

depends on<br />

individual<br />

initiatives.<br />

Stage 2:<br />

Process oriented<br />

- Educational<br />

goals are related<br />

to the educational<br />

process as a<br />

whole.<br />

- Decisions are<br />

made by groups<br />

of professionals<br />

Stage 2:<br />

Process oriented<br />

- There is a staff<br />

development plan<br />

in sustainability.<br />

- This plan is<br />

mainly short-term<br />

related.<br />

- For the<br />

execution of the<br />

plan, facilities are<br />

made available by<br />

the management.<br />

The AISHE auditing procedure<br />

General description of the 5 stages<br />

Stage 3:<br />

System oriented<br />

- The goals are<br />

student oriented<br />

instead of teacher<br />

oriented.<br />

- There is an<br />

organisation<br />

policy related to<br />

(middle)long-term<br />

goals.<br />

- Goals are<br />

formulated<br />

explicitly, are<br />

measured and<br />

evaluated. There<br />

is feedback from<br />

the results.<br />

table 2<br />

General description of the 5 stages<br />

Stage 3:<br />

System oriented<br />

- The need of the<br />

organisation for<br />

expertise in<br />

sustainability is<br />

known.<br />

- The development<br />

plan is based on a<br />

match between this<br />

need and the<br />

individual wishes of<br />

the staff members<br />

for supplementary<br />

training and<br />

refresher courses.<br />

- The plan is mainly<br />

middle long-term<br />

related.<br />

table 3<br />

Stage 4:<br />

Chain oriented<br />

- The educational<br />

process is seen<br />

as part of a chain.<br />

- There is a<br />

network of<br />

contacts with<br />

secondary<br />

education and<br />

with the<br />

companies where<br />

the graduates find<br />

their jobs.<br />

- The curriculum<br />

is based on<br />

formulated<br />

qualifications of<br />

professionals.<br />

Stage 4:<br />

Chain oriented<br />

- The sustainable<br />

staff development<br />

plan is long-term<br />

related.<br />

- It includes a<br />

policy towards<br />

appointments and<br />

resignations,<br />

retraining,<br />

introduction of<br />

new staff<br />

members.<br />

In short, the procedure for an audit is as follows (if a minimum scenario is followed):<br />

Stage 5:<br />

Society oriented<br />

- There is a longterm<br />

strategy. The<br />

policy is aiming at<br />

constant<br />

improvement.<br />

- Contacts are<br />

maintained, not<br />

only with direct<br />

customers but also<br />

with other<br />

stakeholders.<br />

- The organisation<br />

fulfils a prominent<br />

role in society.<br />

Stage 5:<br />

Society oriented<br />

- The organisation<br />

policy on<br />

sustainability is<br />

based on societal<br />

and technological<br />

developments.<br />

There is a<br />

systematic<br />

feedback to<br />

society.<br />

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The steps of the AISHE assessment (minimum approach)<br />

Preparation with the internal assessment leader:<br />

Explanation of the method<br />

Discussion of the procedure<br />

Selection of criteria and appendices to be treated<br />

Composition of the group of participants<br />

Written information to the participants<br />

Introduction with the group of participants:<br />

Explanation of the AISHE method<br />

Discussion of the procedure<br />

Filling in the criteria list: by the participants individually<br />

Consensus meeting, participants + consultant<br />

Review with internal assessment leader<br />

table 4<br />

Some of these steps will be explained in some more detail.<br />

Group of participants<br />

In small organisations (up to about 15 staff members) each staff member can participate. In larger<br />

organisations a group of 10 to 15 participants is selected. The group has to be representative for the<br />

complete teams of the staff members and the students. So there have to be one or more managers, a<br />

number of teachers (professors, lecturers, etc.) coming from a wide variety of disciplines and curriculum<br />

parts, some students, and perhaps one or more members of the non-teaching staff.<br />

Filling in the criteria list (individually)<br />

After the model has been explained to all participants, they are asked to read the part of the AISHE book that<br />

contains the descriptions of the five stages for all criteria. While doing this, individually, they compare this to<br />

their own organisation (e.g. an education programme or a faculty of their university), and find the stage that<br />

resembles their own situation most. At the end, they write their conclusions down on a form and hand it to the<br />

assessment leader, who combines the conclusions of all on one composite form.<br />

Consensus meeting<br />

Next, a meeting takes place in which all of the participants are present. At the beginning (or earlier) the<br />

copied composite form is distributed. As before, every participant has the AISHE book, in which the own<br />

scores and annotations are written: these are essential for the meeting. All participants have an equal weight<br />

in the discussions, in the proceeding of the conversation and in the decision-making. Each (selected) criterion<br />

is discussed. On a basis of intrinsic reasoning, a common conclusion is looked for about the right score of<br />

the organisation. If possible, decisions are made based on consensus. If, however, for some criterion no<br />

consensus can be reached, the chair will conclude that, of all proposed scores, the lowest is the one that is<br />

decided upon: this is, because a (higher) score has only definitively been realised if all participants agree with<br />

it. In no case at all, voting makes decisions.<br />

Desired situation, priorities, policy<br />

During the discussion of the criteria, naturally a number of possible improvement points will rise. This will<br />

enable the group to formulate – for each criterion – a desired situation. This desired situation is defined, not<br />

only in the form of a stage to be reached, but also in the form of a series of concrete targets and associated<br />

activities that will lead to the desired stage.<br />

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Conference <strong>Engineering</strong> Education in Sustainable Development <strong>Delft</strong>, 24-25 October, 2002<br />

In order to guarantee that the necessary concreteness is really achieved, at the beginning of the consensus<br />

meeting a decision is made about the (future) policy period the desired situation is related to. This may for<br />

instance be a period of one year, starting at the moment of the assessment.<br />

When for all 20 criteria, or for a major part of them, policy intentions are defined in this way, a large list of<br />

goals and activities will be formed on which work can be done in the coming period. But then of course the<br />

danger is that if this list is rather huge, in reality probably many of them will not have much of a chance: it’s a<br />

well-known fact that a policy plan with more than 3 to 5 priorities usually has not much chance of success.<br />

This is why the meeting ends with the assignation of those elements in the list of policy ideas that the group<br />

judges are most important: those elements receive highest priority.<br />

The result<br />

The result is:<br />

• a report (see table 5, below) containing a description of the present situation, in the form of a number (the<br />

stage) for each criterion plus a description for each criterion in words<br />

• a ditto description of the desired situation<br />

• a date on which this desired situation has to be reached<br />

• a list of first priorities, that are considered to be crucial in order to be permitted to conclude that the policy<br />

will have been successful (see figure 3, next page)<br />

In the end, this package has the status of “recommendations to the management”.<br />

This set of recommendations has a good chance of being accepted by the management and to become a<br />

part of a concrete policy plan. This, because the management itself is represented in the group of participants<br />

(and that is exactly why that is so vital!) and the recommendations have – if all went well – been chosen in<br />

consensus by a representative group from the staff and the students. So it is likely that there is support for<br />

the conclusions.<br />

For an assessment in which all 20 criteria are investigated, the consensus meeting(s) will probably take 4 to 6<br />

hours.<br />

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Criterion 2.3 Staff development plan<br />

Present situation: Stage 1<br />

A small number of staff members have a fair or even a thorough knowledge on sustainable development.<br />

Most people don’t know this of each other.<br />

On the subject of chain management, last year a project has been done on the enlargement of the<br />

knowledge of the staff. This is a sort of policy, but up till now only incidentally.<br />

Desired situation: Stage 3 – High Priority<br />

A systematic approach will be developed on staff education with respect to sustainable development based<br />

on integral vision on sustainable development that will be developed (see 1.1).<br />

All staff members know quite exactly which knowledge is present with their colleagues. All have good<br />

knowledge and insight within their own field of work. This is true for all specialities.<br />

Criterion 3.1. Profile of the graduate<br />

Present situation: Stage 1<br />

The educational goals contain some environmental issues, like “Handle with care…”<br />

Desired situation: Stage 2<br />

The present educational goals will be investigated in correspondence with curriculum development, and<br />

improved wherever possible with respect to sustainable development.<br />

Criterion 3.2. Educational methodology<br />

Present situation: Stage 2<br />

The new curriculum has been designed in such a way that individual responsibility is trained (stage 3): e.g.<br />

propaedeutical projects. In practice this has not yet been realised in all parts. Students are members of the<br />

Education Committee.<br />

Desired situation: Stage 4 – High Priority<br />

The way in which the own choices and decisions of the students are related to the professional practices<br />

will be investigated. Differences in graduation profiles and in the starting profiles of individual students will<br />

be made clear. The way to do this: student portfolios, coaching of individual students. Plus: solve practical<br />

problems, e.g. timetables in relation with individual learning routes<br />

table 5<br />

The AISHE audit as a part of the Total Quality Management<br />

One of the results of an AISHE audit will be a list of improvement<br />

points, together defining a “desired situation”. This description is not<br />

yet a complete policy plan, and by far no activity plan on an<br />

operational level. But these can be made, using the AISHE report.<br />

In fact, as a part of the current consultancy project, assistance with<br />

this appears to be the main task of the AISHE consultants. A few<br />

interesting cases will be shown below.<br />

Probably, the policy plan will contain a deadline, on which the<br />

desired situation will have to be realised. On that date, AISHE can<br />

be used again, in order to evaluate the results of the activities that<br />

have taken place. In this way, a quality cycle (see figure 2) is<br />

completed. Next, the results of this second AISHE audit can be<br />

used as a starting for a new policy plan, etc.<br />

Plan<br />

This is exactly the way in which general quality management usually works. This is no coincidence: in the<br />

optimal situation, the sustainability policy is integrated in the total quality management. Or, to put it in a<br />

Do<br />

Check<br />

Act<br />

figure 1: A quality cycle ("Deming cycle")<br />

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Conference <strong>Engineering</strong> Education in Sustainable Development <strong>Delft</strong>, 24-25 October, 2002<br />

different way: the logical consequence of the implementation of a Total Quality Management System is the<br />

integration in it of sustainability: think of subjects like professional responsibility and long term planning.<br />

This is reflected in the way AISHE can be used in a system for<br />

quality management in Higher Education: think of self-evaluations,<br />

visitations and accreditation. On several occasions, AISHE has<br />

been used as a part of a self-evaluation process in preparation of<br />

an external visitation. In other cases, it was the inverse:<br />

complaints by an external visitation committee about a lack of<br />

sustainability in the curriculum gave rise to a request for an AISHE<br />

audit.<br />

At present, the AISHE auditing team has contacts with the<br />

designers of the Dutch academic accreditation system, in an<br />

attempt to give sustainable development a prominent position in<br />

the accreditation system.<br />

For Dutch universities for Professional Education (“hogescholen”), a “Charter for Sustainable Higher<br />

Education” has been developed. This Charter differs from the Charters of Copernicus, Talloires etc., because<br />

it demands from the signing universities a series of concrete activities and assessable results, as formulated<br />

in a Protocol which is renewed every two years (see figure 3): each new protocol puts stronger demands than<br />

the one before. The demands are formulated as criteria and stages of AISHE (see figures 3 and 4). More<br />

than 60% of the Dutch hogescholen have signed the Charter. Those who meet the demands are granted the<br />

Certificate for Sustainable Higher Education. About 10 hogescholen are in possession of this Certificate.<br />

2.4 3.1<br />

PLAN<br />

2.3<br />

5<br />

3.2<br />

DO<br />

2.2<br />

4<br />

3.3<br />

1.4<br />

1.3<br />

2.1<br />

1.2<br />

1.1<br />

5.4<br />

5.3<br />

3<br />

2<br />

1<br />

AISHE<br />

1<br />

2<br />

3<br />

4<br />

5<br />

CHECK<br />

figure 3: The demands of the Protocol 2004,<br />

belonging to the Dutch Charter for Sustainable<br />

Higher Professional Education<br />

5.2<br />

5.1<br />

4.4<br />

3.4<br />

4.3<br />

4.1<br />

4.2<br />

2.4 3.1<br />

PLAN<br />

2.3<br />

5<br />

3.2<br />

DO<br />

2.2<br />

4<br />

3.3<br />

1.4<br />

1.3<br />

2.1<br />

1.2<br />

1.1<br />

5.4<br />

5.3<br />

Plan<br />

3<br />

2<br />

1<br />

AISHE<br />

1<br />

2<br />

3<br />

4<br />

5<br />

CHECK<br />

figure 4: Results of an AISHE audit. The balls show the<br />

present situation; the arrows indicate the desired<br />

situation. The stars on the edge mark the first priorities.<br />

5.2<br />

Do<br />

Check<br />

5.1<br />

Act<br />

figure 1: A quality cycle ("Deming cycle")<br />

4.4<br />

3.4<br />

4.3<br />

4.1<br />

4.2<br />

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Conference <strong>Engineering</strong> Education in Sustainable Development <strong>Delft</strong>, 24-25 October, 2002<br />

A short overview of results<br />

A number of interesting conclusions can be drawn out of the audits that have been done so far.<br />

• Communication about sustainability (criterion 1.3) is, so far without any exception, always a main point for<br />

improvement. Usually, many things are less than optimal, because of a lack of effective communication<br />

between the management and the staff, among staff members themselves, with other people or parties<br />

involved (like the professional field) and especially, between the university and the students. In all<br />

investigated cases, in consensus it was decided that the improvement of the communication should be<br />

one of the first priorities. (Below, in sections 5 and 6, more details will be given.)<br />

• Also, in almost all audits, improvements in the vision and the policy about sustainability (criteria 1.1 and<br />

1.2) have a high priority. The vision and the policy often lack an explicit mentioning of sustainable<br />

development. In some cases, explicit reference is made to relevant aspects, like ethics, responsibility,<br />

societal role, etc.; in other cases, even those are not present. When sustainability is mentioned implicitly<br />

or explicitly, in most cases the audit group regards the texts as a dead letter. So, improvements that are<br />

regarded as vital are the explicit formulation of sustainability in the mission statement and in policy plans<br />

in such a way that there are real implications for the university activities and the education.<br />

ο<br />

ο<br />

ο<br />

ο<br />

ο<br />

ο<br />

ο<br />

ο<br />

ο<br />

ο<br />

ο<br />

ο<br />

λ = manager; ο = other staff member or student; ____ = final consensus<br />

Criterion ? or 0 1 2 3 4 5<br />

1.1 Vision ο λ ο ο<br />

1.2 Policy<br />

λ ο ο<br />

1.3 Communication<br />

λ ο ο<br />

1.4 Environmental management ο ο ο ο λ<br />

2.1 Network ο ο λ ο<br />

2.2 Expert group ο ο λ<br />

2.3 Staff development plan<br />

λ ο ο<br />

2.4 Research and external<br />

services<br />

λ ο ο<br />

3.1 Profile of the graduate ο ο λ ο ο<br />

3.2 Educational methodology ο ο ο λ ο<br />

3.3 Role of the Teacher<br />

λ ο ο<br />

3.4 Student Examination ο λ ο ο<br />

4.1 Curriculum ο ο λ ο ο ο<br />

4.2 Integrated problem handling ο ο ο ο ο ο λ<br />

4.3 Traineeships graduation ο λ ο ο<br />

4.4 Speciality ο λ ο ο<br />

6.1 Staff<br />

λ ο<br />

6.2 Students<br />

λ ο<br />

6.3 Professional field<br />

λ ο<br />

6.4 Society<br />

λ ο<br />

table 6<br />

• Table 6 shows the actual results of the individual scorings of a group of participants in an AISHE audit.<br />

Some interesting conclusions can be drawn, that are typical, i.e. that can be found in most of the audits.<br />

One of them is the wide variety in the individual opinions. E.g., the opinions about criterion 4.1. vary from<br />

stage 1 up to stage 4. It appears that there are two main causes for this. One cause is a lack of effective<br />

communication. The other cause usually is a difference of opinion about the concept of sustainability and<br />

the meaning of it in relation to the own education.<br />

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Conference <strong>Engineering</strong> Education in Sustainable Development <strong>Delft</strong>, 24-25 October, 2002<br />

• Also rather typical: In a number of criteria, the manager thinks more optimistic than the other participants<br />

do. In table 6, this is the case in 1.4, 2.2, 3.2 and more. This, too, is usually caused by a lack of<br />

communication: often, the manager knows much more about management processes that are going on.<br />

• Not in all cases, consensus is reached on a stage where originally the majority of participants thought it<br />

should be. Examples in table 6 are 1.2 and 3.1. In other audits, it even occurred that a stage was<br />

concluded that was lower than everyone expected. This was usually caused by a critical examination of<br />

the existing opinions by the AISHE consultant.<br />

Present situation Desired situation<br />

Median 1 2<br />

Plan Do balance +2 -0.5<br />

Policy ambition 18.5<br />

Distance to protocol 2002 6 0<br />

Distance to protocol 2004 15.5 1<br />

table 7: Global indicators resulting from an AISHE audit<br />

In the AISHE audit report, a small group of global indicators is calculated, as shown in table 7.<br />

• The median of the 20 scores is, in most audits, stage 1. In many of the audits, the participants define a<br />

desired situation with a median of 2. Usually, the desired situation has a date that is one year from the<br />

audit date; sometimes it is 1½ or 2 years.<br />

• In the example in figure 4, the “Plan Do balance” is not far from equilibrium. This indicator is simply the<br />

difference between the added scores of the “Do” part (criteria 1.1 till 2.4) and those of the “Plan” part<br />

(criteria 3.1 till 4.4). If this indicator is far below 0, this indicates that the university is making a lot of plans<br />

and visions, but not very successful in implementing this in the education. If, one the other hand, the<br />

indicator is very high above zero, much has been achieved with respect to the education, but there is not<br />

much support from the management, and so there is a risk that the achievements may vanish in the near<br />

future.<br />

• Adding all scores of the desired situation, and subtracting the sum of the scores of the present situation<br />

calculate the “Policy ambition”. Policy ambitions appear to vary between about 5 and about 20. An<br />

interesting phenomenon is that usually the ambition is higher when the present situation is higher: it<br />

seems that the forerunners tend to being wanted to preserve their front position.<br />

• The “Distance to Protocol” is related to the already mentioned Dutch Charter for Professional Higher<br />

Education. When this distance is zero, the audit indicates that it is likely that the Certificate will be<br />

granted.<br />

• Around this Certificate for Sustainable Higher Education, also some interesting conclusions can be<br />

drawn.<br />

• In some cases where the Certificate was granted to university departments, afterwards an AISHE audit<br />

pointed out that in the present situation the demands for the Certificate were definitely not met. The most<br />

likely cause is that the method that is used for the Certificate assessment, mainly based on filling in a<br />

series of questionnaires by the university staff themselves, has not a high validity, mainly because the<br />

staff is eager to obtain the Certificate. During the AISHE audit, although also being a self-evaluation, the<br />

critical role of the AISHE consultant is a guarantee that the test validity is higher.<br />

• Quite a lot of Dutch “hogescholen” show a real interest in being able to sign the Charter and obtain the<br />

Certificate. AISHE audits clearly show that there is a strong positive effect of the existence of the<br />

Certificate on the process of developing and implementing sustainability in the education and the<br />

university operations.<br />

The direct effects of AISHE audits in some investigated universities are shown in table 8.<br />

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Conference <strong>Engineering</strong> Education in Sustainable Development <strong>Delft</strong>, 24-25 October, 2002<br />

Overview of some results of AISHE audits<br />

• AISHE audits are done twice, both for the same study programme, in order to test the validity of the<br />

AISHE method. One group of partic