Bioethanol for sustainable transportation - Nemo - VTT

nemo.vtt.fi

Bioethanol for sustainable transportation - Nemo - VTT

Bioethanol for sustainable

transportation

Prof. Merja Penttilä

VTT Technical Research Centre of Finland


European Commission funded project

The NEMO project:

Novel high performance enzymes

and micro-organisms for

conversion of lignocellulosic biomass to bioethanol

Large-scale integrating Collaborative KBBE Project

Duration 4 years

Budget: EC contribution 5 898 000 €, total budget 8 343 189 €

Other EC funded projects in the topic include:

Biocore, Biosynergy, Disco, Energypoplar, Hype, Sunbiopath, Sweetfuel, Time etc


The Coordinator

VTT Technical Research Centre of Finland

The biggest multi technological research

institute in Northern Europe

~ 3 000 employees

~ 300 work in biorefining:

gasification, chemistry, biotechnology

Silicon

Valley,

USA

Tampere

Turku

Finland

Oulu

Raahe

Kajaani

Kuopio

Jyväskylä

Lappeenranta

Rajamäki

Espoo

Brussels,

Belgium

VTT participated in 220 EU projects in 2009

VTT on the map

Saint

Petersburg,

Russia

Seoul,

South Korea

Shanghai,

China

Tokyo,

Japan

7 Knowledge Clusters

� Digital Information Systems

� Telecommunications

� Microtechnologies and Sensors

� Materials and Building

� Industrial Systems

� Biotechnology

� Energy and Pulp & Paper


1 VTT

2 ULUND

3 UH

4 UU

5 VIB

6 CTH

7 GUF

8 EPFL

9 UNIVMED

10 UNIMIB

11 KNAW

12 UL

13 CTXI

14 DNL

15 GS

16 SE-T

18 ROAL

The Universite de la Mediterranee Prof. Pedro Coutinho, Prof. Bernard Henrissat

University of Milano-Bicocca Prof. Danilo Porro

Koninklijke Nederlandse Akademie van Wetenschappen Dr. Teun Boekhout

University of Ljubljana Prof. Ana Plemenitas, Prof. Nina Gunde-Cimerman

Chemtex Italia srl (M&G) Dr. Alessandra Frattini

Dyadic Nederland BV Dr. Jan Wery

Green Sugar GmbH Dipl-ing. Frank Kose

SEKAB E-Technology Dir.Dr. Sune Wännström

Roal Oy Dr. Jari Vehmaanperä

NEMO Partners

Valtion teknillinen tutkimuskeskus Prof. Merja Penttilä

Lunds universitet Ass.Prof. M.-F. Gorwa-Grauslund, Prof. Gunnar Lidén

University of Helsinki Prof. Liisa Viikari, Prof. Annele Hatakka

Universiteit Utrecht Dr. Ronald de Vries

Flanders Institute of Biotechnology Prof. Johan Thevelein

Chalmers University of Technology Prof. Lisbeth Olsson

Johann Wolfgang Goethe-Universität Frankfurt am Main Prof. Eckhard Boles

Ecole Polytechnique Federale de Lausanne Prof. Vassily Hatzimanikatis

9 EU countries

Finland

Sweden

Finland

The Netherlands

Belgium

Sweden

Germany

Switzerland

France

Italy

The Netherlands

Slovenia

Italy

The Netherlands

Germany

Sweden

Finland


Why biofuels ?

In EU transport generates 21% of green house gas (GHG) emissions

EU Energy Policy Targets: By 2020 we need to:

- Reduce GHG emissions by at least 20%

- Improve energy efficiency by 20%

- Raise the share of renewable energy to 20%

- Increase biofuels in transportation fuels to 10% oe (5.75% in 2010)

- biodiesel, bioethanol

- 2nd generation biofuels are counted double to the national targets

- GHG emission savings should be 60% in new installations (2018)

Bioethanol

- Ethanol can replace gasoline in transportation fuel

(E5/E10 normal motors, E22/E85 FFV; EU max 10%)

- Can be provided in the existing delivery systems

- Non-toxic, clean


WORLD ETHANOL PRODUCTION


Technology evolution in bioethanol production

1st generation

– Traditional ethanol process based on grain/corn starch or sugar cane

– Technology ready

– C6 (glucose, sucrose) fermenting yeast

– Grain/corn ethanol not very energy efficient, high CO 2 emissions

2nd generation

Agricultural

residues

– Lignocellulosic raw materials & waste

– Technologies under vigorous development worldwide

– C6 and C5 (pentoses xylose & arabinose) fermentation

– Sustainable

Underutilized and short

rotation hardwoods

Sorted municipal

solid waste

Herbaceous

energy crops

Ref. Wyman, 1994


Composition of lignocelluloses

Lignin: 15-25%

Complex aromatic structure

Very high energy content

Resists biochemical conversion

Hemicellulose: 23-32%

Polymer of 5- and 6-carbon sugars

Xylose is the 2 nd most

abundant sugar in biosphere

Cellulose: 38-50%

Most abundant form

of carbon in biosphere

Polymer of glucose,

good biochemical feedstock


Bioethanol from lignocellulosic raw materials

provides significant reductions in CO 2 gas emissions and energy input

Net GHG (gCO2e/MJ-ethanol)

125

100

75

50

25

-8

-6

Pimentel

Patzek

Gasoline

-4

-2

CO 2 Intensive

de Oliveira

0

2

Graboski

Ethanol Today

Wang

4

6

Shapouri

10

12

Net Energy (MJ/L) gain

Farrell et al. Science.2006. 311: 506-508

8

14

Lignocellulosic

16

18

20

22

24

Published values

Commensurate values

Gasoline

EBAMM cases


The NEMO project

aims at

significant contributions towards making the conversion of

lignocellulosic biomass to ethanol economically feasible

and increasing the sustainability of bioethanol production processes,

thereby contributing in reaching the EU Energy Policy targets


Process steps

Biomass

Straw

Energy crops

Wood

Lignin burnt to

provide energy

Pretreatment &

Hydrolysis

Acid/Alkaline

Steam explosion

Enzymes

* cellulases

* hemicellulases

Sugars

glucose

xylose

arabinose

SSF process

Products

Bioethanol

Other biofuels

Chemicals

Fermentation

yeast


Process steps

Biomass

Straw

Energy crops

Wood

KEY

DEVELOPMENT

TARGETS

Lignin burnt to

provide energy

Pretreatment &

Hydrolysis

Acid/Alkaline

Steam explosion

Enzymes

* cellulases

* hemicellulases

To convert economically

the biomass cellulose

and hemicellulose

to fermentable sugars

Sugars

glucose

xylose

arabinose

SSF process

Products

Bioethanol

Other biofuels

Chemicals

Fermentation

yeast

To ferment efficiently

all biomass sugars

to ethanol


Process steps

Biomass

Straw

Energy crops

Wood

Lignin burnt to

provide energy

Pretreatment &

Hydrolysis

Acid/Alkaline

Steam explosion

Enzymes

* cellulases

* hemicellulases

Sugars

glucose

xylose

arabinose

SSF process

Products

Bioethanol

Other biofuels

Chemicals

Fermentation

yeast

Novel enzymes Novel yeasts

Enzymatic hydrolysis

at high temperature

Fermentation of all sugars

derived from cellulose and

hemicellulose


Renewable raw materials of European interest

- Low price, availability, energy efficiency and

significant reduction in GHG emissions

- No competition for food use

The NEMO project focuses

on three abundant and relevant

European biomasses:

- wood (spruce)

- wheat straw

- energy crop giant cane

(Arundo donax)

Pretreatments:

- Steam explosion

- Acid pretreatment


Novel high performance enzymes

Thermophilic cellulases and hemicellulases that work at 60-70 C°

Novel mesophilic enzymes with high hydrolysis efficiency at 50-60 C°

Enzymes with reduced unspecific binding, e.g. to lignin

Optimised enzyme mixtures for hydrolysis of the chosen European raw materials

Technologies used:

Genome sequence mining

Screening of fungal species for enzyme activity

Metagenomic libraries

Protein engineering

Expression and enzyme purification


Novel robust yeast strains

The baker’s yeast Saccharomyces cerevisiae is used in production of

ethanol at large scale – preferred organism for industrial production

It ferments C6 sugars, cannot naturally utilise C5 sugars

NEMO project focuses on:

Metabolic engineering for

xylose and arabinose fermentation

Improvement of process robustness;

ethanol & hydrolysate tolerant strains

C6

glucose

fructose

ethanol

C5

xylose

arabinose


Economic and sustainable processes

Assessment of the novel enzymes and yeasts in various process conditions

SHF, SSF, high temperature enzymatic biomass liquefaction

Calculation of the economy and sustainability benefits of the novel enzymes

and yeasts developed

Identification of the most optimal combinations of the enzymes, yeast strains

and process conditions for 2nd generation bioethanol production

The novel NEMO enzymes and

yeast strains will be tested in pilot scale


Impact of NEMO

NEMO will provide:

High performance enzymes for hydrolysis of lignocellulose

raw materials of European interest

Robust and efficient yeasts that can co-ferment pentose (C5)

and hexose (C6) sugars

Ecoefficient and optimized 2nd generation processes

for bioethanol production


Thank you!

Contact the Coordinator:

Prof. Merja Penttilä

merja.penttila@vtt.fi

tel: + 358 40 7000163

htpp://nemo.vtt.fi

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