Issue 1, 2005 - APS Member Groups - Australian Psychological ...

Issue 1, 2005 - APS Member Groups - Australian Psychological ...


The newsletter of the APS College of Sport Psyc hologists

Vol. 4 (2005), Issue 1 C o n t e n t s :

From the Editors– Lydia Ievleva & Eugene Aidman

Message From The Chair– Peter Terry

World Congress Update– Tony Morris

From little things, big things grow– Sandy Gordon

Specialist Training Programs in Australia: Is Sport Psychology the Tip of the Iceberg?– Peter Terry & Kerry Mummery

Professional Development Issues in Britain: Lessons from Australia and the USA– Ailsa G. Anderson & David Lavallee

Professional Development News: Visiting Scholar Scheme – Peter Terry & Andrea Furst

Student Corner– Michael Lloyd

Excerpts from SSPG July 2005 NEWSLETTER – SSPG

Updated CoSP Executive List–

From the Editors

Welcome to the first edition of The Sporting Mind for 2005. It highlights the

upcoming World Congress of Sport Psychology in Sydney – a great

achievement and opportunity for our profession in Australia. We look

forward with high anticipation to putting on a great show – featuring

extensive opportunities for exchange and collaboration with the many

international delegates soon to gather upon our shores.

In a sense, we can liken the forthcoming Congress to an “Olympics of Sport

Psychology” – not only for the chance to participate in such a top calibre

international forum, but also for the opportunity to showcase our talent to

the world, as well as share how we operate – and cooperate. Each item in

this edition reflects the above themes -- as you will see in Peter Terry’s

message, exhorting us all to join in this world class event; Tony Morris as

chair with his final update, to Sandy Gordon’s story on how it was launched;

and on to the interviews with Peter Terry about the trials and triumphs of

our profession in Australia.

Also included in this issue is news about events in New South Wales, and

Ken Ravizza’s return speaking tour, followed by the Student Corner by

Michael Lloyd posing an intriguing question about our roles on the sidelines

worth discussion.

Happy reading! And keep sending us your comments and feedback!

Lydia Ievleva & Eugene Aidman

The Editorial Team

Eugene Aidman

08 8259 6447

Lydia Ievleva

02 9719 8817

The Sporting Mind (2005) Volume 4, Issue 1


Fellow CoSP members,


Peter Terry

University of Southern Queensland

The ISSP 11th World Congress of Sport Psychology is almost upon us. From the 15th – 19th August,

more than 600 delegates from Australia and around the world will descend upon the Sydney

Convention centre in Darling Harbour for the largest and most prestigious sport psychology gathering

ever held on these shores. As a joint host of this quadrennial event, held for the first time in the

southern hemisphere, CoSP is very proud to have played a lead role in bidding for, planning and

organising the congress. It has taken many years of hard work on the part of an Organising

Committee that has volunteered huge amounts of time. So, take a bow Tony Morris (Chair), Lydia

Ievleva (Congress Director), Sandy Gordon, Stephanie Hanrahan, Mary Katsikitis, Greg Kolt and

Patsy Tremayne. They deserve your gratitude. [Editors’ Note: take a bow yourself Peter! Your

contributions to the committee in the lead-up to the congress have been most valuable.] Thanks also

to our friends at Tour Hosts, the professional conference organisers, without whose assistance in

underwriting the entire event and thereby guaranteeing its financial viability, the congress might not

have been possible.

I hope the vast majority of college members will take the opportunity to attend the congress and will

help in showing our overseas guests the very best of Aussie hospitality. A special award will be

presented during the opening ceremony to APS Fellow and former CoSP Chair, Jeffrey Bond. This

award recognises Jeff’s exceptional contributions to the sport psychology profession, during more

than 20 years as Head of Psychology at the AIS.

CoSP will be holding its annual face-to-face meeting of the National Executive during the congress

over lunch on Wednesday 17th August, which will be followed later in the day by the College AGM

from 18.00 – 19.30. Please make every effort to support the AGM, which will be followed by an

informal social event. I hope to see you there.

The Visiting Scholar Scheme has been resurrected this year to coincide with ISSP2005. Given the

success of Ken Ravizza’s previous tour of duty as a CoSP scholar and the fact that, as a congress

keynote speaker, he will be in Australia anyway, Ken was invited to fill the role again. Although he is

not able to complete a full national tour, Ken will be giving presentations in Sydney, Adelaide and

Melbourne during the period 4th – 10th August. See below for more details about Ken’s


The revised membership rules for APS Colleges have now been implemented. These rules will serve

to make full membership of CoSP more readily accessible, especially for graduates of APSaccredited

MPsych and DPsych programs. In a nutshell, DPsych graduates are now immediately

eligible for full college membership, while MPsych graduates are required to complete “80 hours of

college-related activities” rather than the two years of supervised experience previously required. The

specific requirement of the 80 hours is deliberately vague to avoid an overly prescriptive approach

and to allow each case to be judged on its individual merits. In general terms, this period of postmasters

professional development is intended to strengthen areas of perceived professional

The Sporting Mind (2005) Volume 4, Issue 1


limitation. Often this will be in the area of applied practitioner experience under supervision from a full

college member.

These new requirements for full college membership also apply to a healthy number of experienced

psychologists out there who for one reason or another did not complete post-masters or doctoral

supervision and hence have never qualified for full membership of CoSP. If you or a professional

colleague falls into this category, CoSP would be particularly keen to hear from you. Up to 40 of the

80 hours of college-related activity can be granted retrospectively so the requirements for full

membership may be acquired with little additional effort.

In these uncertain times for the future of sport psychology in Australia, it is important that relevant

stakeholders work closely to plan the way forward. With Michael Martin, the AIS Head of Performance

Psychology, working to bring synergy to the efforts of psychologists within the network of national and

state institutes/academies of sport, there is a need for close collaboration between his network and

the college. Therefore, I recently invited Michael to become a co-opted member of the CoSP National

Executive. I’m pleased to announce that Michael has accepted this invitation and, on behalf of the

Executive, we look forward to welcoming him to our future meetings.


The APS has made a recent call for members input on the Governance review. This is your chance to

have a say on where the APS and where psychology will be heading in the next 10 years. So if you

don't like what's happening now, want the society to be more active in particular areas, or think the

society can do better - well the society wants to hear from you now!!

To be clear, the APS is seeking feedback from all its members on all issues of the Society's

governance as part of the Governance Review process. The deadline for response is 12 August

2005. You can view the guidelines and background information at:

(Based on a message from Dr. Andrea Lamont-Mills, Chairperson, APS Toowoomba).

The Sporting Mind (2005) Volume 4, Issue 1



Here We Go! Our World Congress Has Arrived!

Tony Morris

Chair, Organising Committee

It has been a long time coming. Finally, the ISSP XIth World Congress of Sport Psychology is upon

us! Now we are all making our last-minute preparations for the biggest sport psychology event ever

in Australia, by a long way. The Sydney Convention and Exhibition Centre from 15 th to 19 th August

will be the Mecca for world sport and exercise psychologists.

This World Congress boasts eight leading figures in the field, presenting keynote addresses, and

many other big names that adorn the books on our bookshelves and the papers in our journals.

There are up to 600 delegates attending and nearly as many presentations to be made. The

program is bursting with exciting symposia, workshops and free oral papers. There is the biggest

ever display of high quality sport and exercise psychology posters.

Very soon we will be welcoming our colleagues from all around the world. This will provide exciting

opportunities for us all to make new connections for our research and applied work, and new friends

with whom to share our interests and socialise. It is also a great occasion for us to show our

colleagues the warmest and most friendly Australian hospitality.

Please join us in Sydney to experience this great and historic occasion, and help us to make it a

most memorable World Congress. Your presence, your warmth and your enthusiasm will make the

event a success for Australia and for everyone. I look forward to seeing you all in Sydney very


It’s our World Congress. Lets enjoy it to the full.

The Sporting Mind (2005) Volume 4, Issue 1


From little things, big things grow*

Sandy Gordon

University of Western Australia

During a routine APS College of Sport Psychologists (CoSP) tele-conference in February 2000, CoSP

National Executive member and former National Chair Tony Morris (FAPS), sowed the seed of an

ambitious idea to host Australia's second ever world psychology event. Five years later, the

International Society of Sport Psychology (ISSP) 11th World Congress of Sport Psychology is to be

held in Sydney. The event, to be held 15-19 August this year at the Sydney Convention and

Exhibition Centre, will be the largest gathering of sport and exercise psychology researchers and

practitioners ever to congregate (held) in the southern hemisphere.

Following the initial meeting, a Bid Committee consisting of Tony, Lydia Ievleva (Chair), Patsy

Tremayne, and Sandy Gordon (FAPS) was convened, and it developed a bid document in

conjunction with the Sydney Convention and Visitors Bureau. A draft of this document was

subsequently presented at the 2000 APS Conference in Canberra at which a number of the ISSP

Managing Council (MC) members attended. The final bid document was submitted to the ISSP and

formally presented by Lydia at the MC meeting immediately preceding the 10th World Congress in

Skiathos, Greece, in May 2001. Despite eleventh hour efforts by other nations the Australian bid

prevailed by a sizeable majority of votes.

The Congress, co-hosted by the APS, CoSP and the ISSP, has the theme "Promoting Health &

Performance for Life". Keynote presentation topics range from motivation, psycho-physiology and

motor control, to promoting physical activity and performance enhancement. Speakers include: Carol

S Dweck, Stanford University, California, USA; Sandy Gordon, University of Western Australia; Brad

Hatfield, University of Maryland at College Park, USA; Dan Landers, Arizona State University, USA;

Franz Mechsner, University of Dortmund, Germany; Nanette Mutrie, Strathclyde University, Scotland;

Karl Newell, Penn State University, USA; and Ken Ravizza, California State University, USA.

Four world-class pre-Congress workshops will also run 14-15 August, conducted

by Dan Gould (Mental training: Moving from the ball field to the board room and back), Kerry

Mummery and Grant Schofield (Promoting physical activity at community level), Ken Ravizza, Istvan

Gorgenyi and Patsy Tremayne (Coaching the mental game), Tony Grant (Applied positive psychology

and executive coaching).

In addition to keynote presentations and workshops, the scientific program is full of carefully reviewed

symposia and both oral and poster presentations. Fore example, in the Motivation stream topics

include motivational climate and goal orientations. Perceptual and Motor Skills presentations include

video vs. field-based perceptual training, cognitive performance and realistic simulated environments.

Exercise Psychology highlights focus on relationships between exercise and addiction, depression

and home fitness motives. Professional Practice issues will address ethical training and ethical

practice including reference to caffeine and anabolic steroid use. Finally, separate streams on

Emotions and Injury will examine such issues as pre-competitive mood and mood correlates of

performance, and injury rehabilitation and falls prevention respectively.

The Sporting Mind (2005) Volume 4, Issue 1


The OC is confident that there will be topics of interest to all APS College and Interest Group

members. The Congress is Professional Development endorsed and will attract 42 Specialist points

for members of the APS College of Sport Psychologists. Members of other APS Colleges may claim

the equivalent generalist points.

*Item that appeared in the June 2005 InPsych magazine.

Congress UPDATE!

The International Society of Sport Psychology (ISSP) invites you to attend the…


ISSP 11 World Congress of Sport Psychology

Promoting Health and Performance for Life

15 – 19 August 2005

Sydney, Australia

CLICK HERE to register for the ISSP Congress 2005. Day registration also available.

Alternatively, if you would like a copy of the registration brochure, please contact the

Congress Managers at

Continuing Education Points

A total of 42 Specialist Professional Development Points (PD) may be obtained for

members of the APS College of Sport Psychologists. Please visit the Congress website for further information.

Program Update!

Please note that the final program is now on the Congress website.

Pre Congress Workshop

A number of pre congress workshops are being held in conjunction with the Congress

program. For further information, please visit the official Congress website. Please note

that additional fees apply for the workshop.

The Sporting Mind (2005) Volume 4, Issue 1


Specialist Training Programs in Australia:

Is Sport Psychology the Tip of the Iceberg?

Sport Health Interview with Peter Terry, COSP National Chair

The following is an interview conducted recently with Prof. Kerry Mummery, Editor of Sport Health,

about the status of sport psychology training in Australia (reproduced with permission from Sport


SH: Peter, recently the issue regarding the closure of some of the specialist masters programs in

sport psychology has been raised. To begin can you update our readers on the current standard and

status of sports psychology training in Australia?

PT: Australia is rightly regarded as setting the benchmark for sport psychology. Training programs in

this country are the most thorough and best in the world. Every sport psychologist in Australia is

trained as a psychologist first and then as a specialist in sport second. Typically, students coming into

the program would have completed undergraduate and honors degrees in psychology before

embarking on a two-year Masters program or three-year Doctoral program. During their training they

would take advanced courses in counselling and other psychological interventions, plus a range of

specialist sport and exercise psychology courses that would address relevant theoretical knowledge,

applied skills and professional practice issues, plus of course a compulsory research thesis. The

great thing is that on top of this they get to do 1000 hours for the Masters or 1500 hours for the

Doctorate of practicum experience under close supervision. Typically they would complete their first

practicum experience on campus at a psychology clinic or student services. For their second

practicum they would usually be working out in the community with a local sports club or at an

Institute of Sport. The third practicum may be something similar with another organization or for more

clinically-oriented training they may be placed in a hospital setting. Throughout their practicums, they

receive one hour of face-to-face supervision for every eight hours they are working. As a result of this

training you have people coming into the workforce who are very well prepared for the profession.

When I think back on my own training, I wish I had enjoyed the benefit of a similar program because it

is just such a great preparation. So when they graduate these young sport psychologists often get

recruited by a national or state institute of sport in Australia or sometimes overseas. Not only do they

have great career prospects but they have a real capacity to assist Australian sport.

SH: The closure of the programs domestically coincides with the attainment of an excellent reputation

world-wide in terms of specialist preparation, can you comment on that?

PT: The success of the Australian team at the Sydney and Athens Olympics cemented Australia’s

reputation as a place that makes the most of its sporting ability. We have small numbers and lots of

medals, so we must be doing something right. Sports science and sports medicine support are held

up as the gold standard around the world. Australia was awarded the World Congress of Sport

Psychology this year in Sydney by the International Society of Sport Psychology, a huge

acknowledgement of our standing on a world scale. The irony is that at the time when the reputation

of Australian sport psychology has never been higher, two of the four specialist programs are being

wound down, with at least one of the other two coming under threat. Historically, programs have been

offered at the University of Southern Queensland, the University of Queensland, the University of

Western Sydney and Victoria University. Two of those - USQ and UWS - have been discontinued and

The Sporting Mind (2005) Volume 4, Issue 1 7

the program at UQ is under close scrutiny. It is a tragedy that the reputation of excellence that has

been built up over many years is being cast aside for reasons that have nothing to do with the

interests of Australian sport nor with educational principles but are solely to do with financial


SH: By financial considerations you mean a movement towards economic rationalism in the tertiary

education sector?

PT: Exactly.

SH: How is this a threat?

PT: There is no doubt that there is a wave of economic rationalism sweeping through our universities.

In previous times the specialist masters programs would be effectively cross-subsidized from the

income of the undergraduate program. A large number of undergraduates and small number of postgraduates

is okay if we look at the overall financial picture. But now each program is being scrutinized

and costed completed independently so our Masters and Doctoral programs at USQ were costed

separately from our undergraduate program and also separately from one another. If you have a

program that takes in six students a year - and I’d like to point out that Australian universities have

been ethical and have not taken in large number of students if they do not feel there is a job market

out there for the graduates - when you cost it all individually and when you take into account the oneon-one

supervision that is required for the practicums and for research then the bottom line doesn’t

look too healthy. In fact, on paper, a program might appear to lose up to $10,000 a year, for each

student. There is no real economy of scale because the more students you take in, the more

supervision you need to provide and therefore the more money is lost. Universities start to question

the benefit of such programs and it is difficult to put a dollar figure on the enhanced reputation of the

department or the benefits to Australian sport of these types of specialist programs. It is almost

impossible to make an economic case for them unless you look at what the department is doing as a

whole which is what happened previously.

SH: There is a need to balance the losses in some areas with the relative gains in others

PT: That’s right. The undergraduate programs that are cash-rich should subsidize the specialist

training at a higher level. I don’t think there is anything wrong with that, but the argument is falling on

deaf ears in universities at the moment. Currently it is sport psychology that is feeling the pinch but it

could easily be any other sport and allied health profession.

SH: We have lost two of our four specialist programs and there is no guarantee that the other two will

be immune to this problem. So what if we do lose all the programs?

PT: In simple terms if we lose all the programs, there will be no specialist training for sport and

exercise psychologists in Australia in a university environment. The question then is what other

models might there be? Well, certainly there would be potential for training psychology honors

graduates in the Institutes of Sport for two years; the so-called ‘four-plus-two model’, which is an

acceptable route to membership of the APS and registration. The NSW Institute of Sport has dabbled

in that area, where interns paid many thousands of dollars to go and work for free at NSWIS and get

their supervision while doing it. There is an ethical question of whether that represents the

exploitation of aspirant sports psychologists who see the opportunity of going to a place like NSWIS

as an opportunity too good to miss and are prepared to pay whatever it takes to get in. There is also a

question of what impact such a system has on the core business of an institute. They may have built

up an education arm but this has the potential to detract from the specialists’ work to provide support

for athletes. A question worth asking is if there were no specialists then would Australian sport be the

The Sporting Mind (2005) Volume 4, Issue 1


loser? I think the AOC had 12 psychologists in Sydney and only four in Athens. Instead of

psychologists they appointed more Athlete Liaison Officers; people like John Eales and Laurie

Lawrence. They are heroes of Australian sport and they provide inspiration to many athletes but there

is a danger of them being put into situations outside their realm of expertise. In Athens, for example,

the women’s hockey team were demoralised after an early defeat and clearly needed some help.

John Eales did what he could and the players really appreciated it but, by his own admission, he felt

out of his depth. It was a job for a sport psychologist but the team didn’t have one. The point here is

that the AOC appears to have reached the conclusion that it is better to have people to jolly things

along rather than someone with clinically-based skills, which for the most part are not needed but

when they are required are essential. The value of specialist training should not be underestimated

and it’s going to disappear from Australia if we are not careful.

SH: One of the answers is for a more inclusive accounting for programs.

PT: Yes, another possible solution is that universities will just have to double or triple the fees that

they charge for specialist sport psychology training. That would act as a strong disincentive to enter

the profession because no one becomes a psychologist to make lots of money. The other possibility

is that the government will have to increase the level of financial support for these programs in the

same way it provides support for nursing and other supervision-intensive programs. But I’m not very

optimistic about the future. I can’t see a readily implemented short-term solution but I can see that if

things continue down this path the excellence of Australian sport will be threatened.

SH: As you said earlier, for our readers, this could be the tip of the iceberg in terms of threats to

professional and specialist training programs in other areas.

PT: Sports psychology is a small specialist profession; there are only about 100 members of the

College of Sport Psychologists but other, bigger professions may be facing the same dilemma in a

few years time because all specialist masters programs that deliver a quality product lose money if

you account for them independently.

The Sporting Mind (2005) Volume 4, Issue 1


Professional Development Issues in Britain:

Lessons from Australia and the USA*

By Ailsa G. Anderson & David Lavallee

The formation of the Division of Sport and Exercise Psychology within the British Psychological Society

represents a significant step forward for the professional status of sport and exercise psychology in Great

Britain. As our profession continues to evolve the Division is faced with a number of tasks and challenges.

However, these challenges are not unique to Britain. This article gives an insight into the procedures in

place in Australia and the USA for certifying and training sport and exercise psychologists, so that we can

learn lessons from these countries. The Australian Psychological Society (APS) has 13,000 members and

includes nine Colleges of speciality, including sport psychology. The American Psychological Association

(APA) has over 150,000 members and 53 Divisions. Professor Peter Terry (President of the APS College

of Sport Psychologists) and Professor Judy Van Raalte (President of the APA’s Division 47 Exercise

and Sport Psychology) kindly agreed to be ‘interviewed’ via e-mail on a number of issues that are

particularly pertinent to the future activities of the fledgling Division of Sport and Exercise.

Q 1. Does your organisation have procedures

in place for accrediting or certifying Sport

and Exercise Psychologists? If so, what are

the requirements to become an Accredited or

Certified Sport and Exercise psychologist?

JVR: The American Psychological Association

does not have procedures in place for accrediting or

certifying Exercise and Sport Psychologists. Exercise

and Sport Psychology has been identified by the APA

as a proficiency within the greater field of psychology

which is a first step toward accreditation/certification.

Recognition as a proficiency means that exercise and

sport psychology is now recognised as a particular

aspect of psychology practice. The recognition of this

designation does not, however, apply at the

individual level (APA Division 47, 2003).

PT: The term ‘psychologist’ is restricted by legislation

in Australia. Anyone wishing to advertise as a

psychologist or function in the capacity of a

psychologist in any field (including sport and/or

exercise) must meet strict requirements. First and

foremost, a psychologist must be registered in the

state or territory in which they work. Therefore,

sport psychologists are psychologists first and

specialists second. A sport psychologist must

be able to demonstrate a broad range of generic

competencies plus specialist competencies

associated with the sport and/or exercise domain.

The procedures may be broken down into two


I. An applicant must be eligible for full membership

of the APS (although not necessarily actually be a

member). The requirements for full membership of

the APS include four years of university training in

psychology (or equivalent) plus at least two years

of higher level training with supervision, often in a

specialist area such as sport and exercise

psychology. The generic competencies required

of an APS psychologist fall into eight areas

including knowledge, research, service

implementation (APS, 1996).

II. Becoming a full member of the APS does

not automatically qualify a psychologist to

become a member of the College of Sport

Psychologists (CoSP). Members of APS Colleges

are seen as specialists who have undergone

additional specialist training. The specific

competencies of CoSP fall into three areas

including Body of Knowledge, Skills in

Psychological Assessment and Interpretation,

and Application (Intervention Skills) (APS, 1997).

The preferred route to CoSP membership is to

have completed a four-year honours programme in

psychology followed by a two-year professional

masters or three year professional doctorate in

sport and exercise psychology.

Q2. Does your Division/College recognise

specific undergraduate or postgraduate

courses as providing a basis for Accreditation

or Certification? What are the requirements

of these courses?

PT: The APS accredits university programmes

at undergraduate and postgraduate level. All

accredited programmes are scrutinised in detail by

representatives of the APS for content, resourcing,

and standards of delivery. Specialist postgraduate

university programmes in sport and exercise

psychology are accredited by the APS. At present,

they are offered at the University of Queensland,

The Sporting Mind (2005) Volume 4, Issue 1


the University of Western Sydney, Victoria

University, and the University of Southern

Queensland (USQ). Typically, Master of

Psychology (MPsych) programmes include about

eight to ten taught courses, a research thesis, plus

1,000 hours of supervised psychology practicum.

Doctor of Psychology (DPsych) programmes

include additional courses, an extended research

thesis and 1,500 practicum hours. Practicum hours

within a postgraduate programme are usually

completed in at least three different organisations.

For example, at USQ our MPsych or DPsych

students complete their first practicum under close

supervision from a senior psychologist, on campus

in either our psychology clinic or student services.

Typically, their second practicum would be in a

sport or exercise domain, with a local or state

organisation. This may also be the type of setting

for their third practicum or they may work in a more

clinically oriented setting, perhaps at a hospital.

Typically, an advanced (doctoral) practicum is

completed in a state or national institute of

sport, such as the Australian Institute of

Sport, or sometimes overseas. Having completed

an undergraduate psychology degree and an

MPsych over a minimum of six years’ full-time,

eligibility for full membership of the APS and full

registration as a psychologist is normally achieved.

At present, an additional two years of supervised

experience is required for full CoSP membership

although this requirement is under review, as is the

present list of competencies.

Q3. Do you have ‘grandparenting’ criteria to

accredit or certify experienced individuals who

have not followed the typical training route?

What are the procedures involved in this?

PT: Other routes to APS membership and full

registration are possible but applicants need to

demonstrate equivalence of training and include

considerable supervised experience. A PhD in

psychology would qualify someone for full

membership of the APS, but is not considered

sufficient for registration because it does not

include practicum hours, although many PhD

candidates complete the supervised experience

requirements simultaneously. The APS offers a

formal assessment of qualifications and once

eligibility for full membership of the APS is

established, registration boards will consider

applications on their individual merits.

Q4. Is supervision a requirement for gaining

Full Membership of APS and CoSP?What have

been the main challenges to implementing this?

PT: There are strict supervision requirements.

The APS requires supervisees to receive one hour

of supervision for every day of practicum.

Traditionally, this is one-on-one, face-to-face,

although the use of group supervision and other

methods of delivery are becoming more common.

Supervisees must document all supervision

sessions. For supervisees on a specialist masters

or doctoral programme, supervision is provided

either by a university supervisor, a community

supervisor from the practicum site, or usually by

both. It is normal for a supervisee to have

experience of several supervisors during the course

of their supervised experience. Given the relative

dearth of supervisors especially in rural and remote

areas of Australia, the APS is reviewing strategies

for facilitating the supervision requirements.

Registration boards require a minimum number of

supervision hours. This is about 160 hours in

Queensland, although thisfigure includes research


Q5. Are supervisors formally trained to

supervise? If so, what does this training


PT: The training of supervisors is a topical issue.

Currently in Queensland, supervisors must have

undertaken recognised training in supervision skills

within the last three years to be registered with the

State as a recognised supervisor.

Q6. How are applications for accreditation/

certification assessed (e.g. submission

of portfolio, interview, etc.)? Do you think

this procedure is satisfactory?

PT: The assessment process is a relatively simple

one. Anyone completing an APS approved

programme becomes eligible for APS membership.

All APS-accredited specialist MPsych or DPsych

programmes address the competencies necessary

for registration and therefore upon successful

completion graduates are eligible for registration.

Q7. What are the requirements for remaining

an Accredited or Certified Sport and Exercise

Psychologist? Is supervision a requirement?

PT: CoSP members are required to maintain

a log of Continuing Professional Development

(CPD) activities, which must be submitted at the

end of each CPD cycle (two-year period). A sample

(about 10 per cent) is selected for closer scrutiny.

College members are required to attain a

number of generic and specialist points for

various PD activities, the specifics of which

are currently under review. Supervision is

not a requirement for maintaining registration.

Q8. What type of CPD activities does APA/APS


JVR: APA offers continuing education

opportunities for all licensed psychologists,

including several CPD activities in sport and

exercise psychology. For example, there are

The Sporting Mind (2005) Volume 4, Issue 1 11

independent study programmes offered by

the APA (APA, 2004) and Virtual Brands

(Virtual Brands, 2004). People seem to enjoy

the home study book and video approach. I

know that a ‘sport psychology cruise’ that

included continuing education study while

on a cruise was also a hit. Shane Murphy was

one of the presenters for that venture.

PT: The APS promotes generic and specialist

CPD opportunities via conferences, workshops,

etc. CoSP has a PD representative on

its National Executive whose role is to help

promote PD activities at national and state

levels, often in conjunction with institutes of

sport. CPD activities are provided in many

forms, for example the APS holds an annual

conference, which includes an extensive

workshop programme. CoSP-endorsed CPD

activities are also included at the conferences of

the Australian Association of Exercise and Sports

Science (AAESS), and Sports Medicine Australia

(SMA). In addition, institutes of sport around the

country host CPD events. In the past year these

have addressed topics such as eating disorders,

old way/new way coaching, and working with client

groups such as athletes with disabilities,

professional teams, and Olympic athletes.

Q9. What criteria do you use to determine

the appropriateness of non-Association

CPD activities?

PT: Broadly speaking, 75 per cent of the content

of a PD activity must be psychological in nature and

50 per cent of the presenters must be


Q10. How many Accredited or Certified

Sport and Exercise Psychologists do you


PT: As of December 2003, there were 90 members

of CoSP, of which 53 were full members. However,

not all psychologists who work in the sport and/or

exercise domain are members of CoSP. Under the

APS Code of Ethics, however, psychologists are

required to work within their range of competence.

Q11. Does your country have statutory

registration for psychologists (i.e. only

individuals accredited or certified by the

Association can call themselves


PT: (see response to Q1).

JVR : The only people who may use the term

‘psychology’ or any derivative thereof in their title in

applied practice settings are those individuals who

have gained credentials as psychologists. Use of

the term ‘psychology’ is regulated by individual

state boards. APA policy on the use of the title

‘psychologist’ is contained in the General

Guidelines for Providers of Psychological Services,

which define the term ‘Professional Psychologist’

as follows: ‘Psychologists have a doctoral degree in

psychology from an organised, sequential

programme in a regionally accredited university or

professional school’.

Q12. Do you think that the ethical guidelines

of the APA/APS are fully relevant for

sport and exercise psychologists? Has your

Division/ College identified additional ethical

issues specific to sport and exercise


JVR: Speaking for myself, I believe that there are a

number of ethical issues specific to sport and

exercise psychology. APA Division 47 has been

addressing some of these issues in a series of

brochures that are posted on the website. There is

one brochure titled How Can a Psychologist

Become a Sport Psychologist? We are working on

another brochure on supervision in exercise

and sport psychology.

PT: All psychologists in Australia are bound

by the ethical codes of their respective registration

boards and the APS. CoSP has not identified

additional ethical issues.

Q13. Has your Division/College faced any

credibility issues from other psychologists?

How have you sought to resolve these?

JVR: Credibility issues do not seem to have

been a problem.

PT: As a college of the APS, sport psychology

has equal standing with other psychology

specialisms. Having the same generic requirements

for membership of the APS and registration as a

psychologist plus specialist training provides

credibility for sport psychologists in the eyes of the

broader psychology profession.


The procedures and guidelines in the APA

and APS provide insight into some of the

issues and challenges that the newly-formed

Division will face in helping to establish a

credible profession of sport and exercise

psychology. The APS appear to be particularly

progressive and have in place a number of

guidelines that are also standard in the BPS

(e.g. accredited undergraduate degrees),

and some that are now becoming evident.

For example, the eight generic competencies

required of an APS psychologist have

similarities with the National Occupational

Standards for applied psychology currently

being developed in Britain (BPS, 2004a).

Additionally, the requirement for mandatory

The Sporting Mind (2005) Volume 4, Issue 1 12

CPD is also currently being replicated in the

BPS (BPS, 2004b). From these interviews it

may be suggested that three main priority

areas to target and issues to consider are as


1. Postgraduate training. The establishment

of APS accredited postgraduate programmes in

sport and exercise psychology serves as a

mechanism of quality assuring training routes.

Indeed, the APS system mirrors the training

procedures of the other Divisions in the BPS (e.g.

Clinical and Occupational). A challenge facing the

Division of Sport and Exercise Psychology will

include the development and accreditation of new

and/or current specialist Masters programmes. This

will involve establishing the curriculum content of a

specialist MSc in Sport and Exercise Psychology

and determining whether current MSc Sport and

Exercise Psychology programmes are appropriate.

2. Continuing Professional Development.

Another major challenge the new Division faces is

developing, maintaining and endorsing a

programme of appropriate CPD activities. As noted

above, evidence of CPD activities is now

mandatory for Chartered Psychologists

maintaining a Practising Certificate. Interesting

ideas from the APA and APS include distance

learning opportunities using multimedia,

collaborating with sister organisations (e.g. BASES,

BOA) and cruises!

3. Practical experience and supervision. As with

the APS and other BPS Divisions, supervised

practical experience will be a necessary component

of postgraduate training. However, we need to

ascertain the required number of hours of practice

and supervision. The BASES accreditation

process could offer a working model.

Additionally, the APS model provides

trainees with the opportunity of working

in areas outside sport, and we need to

consider whether this is appropriate and

worthwhile for Britain. Supervision in sport

psychology is a new area that has plenty of room

for development and improvement (Van Raalte &

Andersen, 2000), and both the APS and APA are

addressing this issue. Initial supervision of

trainees may come from academic staff on

one-year MSc programmes; however, continuing

supervision once the student has left

the institution could be problematic and

issues of payment will need to be addressed.

A further task facing us is identifying and

providing opportunities for training the

skills and competencies of supervisors. From

this, regulations on eligibility to supervise

trainee sport and exercise psychologists can

be developed. It is possible that in the early

stages of the profession there will be a limited

number of eligible supervisors, which

could be problematic.


The authors would like to thank Professors

Peter Terry and Judy Van Raalte for kindly

agreeing to be interviewed for this article.

The authors

Ailsa Anderson ( is a

Lecturer in Sport and Exercise Psychology at

Heriot Watt University and David Lavallee is

a Reader in Sport and Exercise Psychology at

Loughborough University.

APA (2004). Continuing education in psychology:

Independent study programs – Exploring Sport and

Exercise Psychology. Retrieved 29 July, 2004 from

APA Division 47 (2003). Division projects: A

proficiencyin sport psychology. Retrieved 29 July,

2004 from

APS (1996). Competencies of APS Psychologists.

Retrieved 29 July, 2004 from


APS (1997). APS College competencies:

Specifications of areas of specialist knowledge and

skills. Retrieved 29 July, 2004 from


BPS (2004a). Careers and development: National

Occupational Standards. Retrieved 29 July, 2004


BPS (2004b). Careers and development: About

continuing professional development. Retrieved 29

July, 2004 from

Van Raalte, J. L. & Andersen, M. B. (2000).

Supervision I: From models to doing. In M. B.

Andersen (Ed.). Doing sport psychology (pp.153-

166). Champaign, Il: Human Kinetics.

Virtual Brands (2004). Virtual Brands continuing

education.Retrieved 29 July, 2004 from

The Sporting Mind (2005) Volume 4, Issue 1



Visiting Scholar Scheme 2005: Prof Ken Ravizza

This year’s COSP Visiting Scholar is Prof. Ken Ravizza who is a professor in the Division of

Kinesiology and Health Science of California State University at Fullerton. He teaches courses in the

areas of sport philosophy, applied sport psychology, and stress management. He has been a sport

psychology consultant for the U.S. Olympic field hockey, water polo, and baseball teams along with

numerous individual Olympic athletes. He also worked with the USA softball team in preparation for

the 2000 Olympics.

Ken has been a sport psychology consultant for the Anaheim Angels, the University of Nebraska and

Arizona State football teams, Cal State Fullerton baseball, gymnastics, and softball teams, and the

Long Beach State baseball team. He has conducted over 100 sport psychology workshops nationally

and internationally. His research includes examining the nature of peak performance in human

movement activities, and he is co-author of the book Heads–Up Baseball. He also sits on the editorial

boards of the journals The Sport Psychologist and Quest. He is a Fellow of the Association for the

Advancement of Applied Sport Psychology.

Many thanks to Peter Terry and Andrea Furst for coordinating Ken’s visit this year. It’s a great

opportunity for all of us to have Ken around again. Below is the schedule of his presentations to

various CoSP groups. For those who have been fortunate enough to see Ken Ravizza present, all

agree that he is dynamic, motivating and brilliant! All COSP members are welcome to attend. We

urge you to make the most of this rare opportunity!

Ken Ravizza’s 2005 Australian Tour: Current Schedule

Coordinated by Peter Terry & Andrea Furst

August 3 Arrive Sydney. Hosted by Patsy Tremayne (tel: 02 9772 6568; mob: 0412

998358; email:

Presentation at UTS at 11.00. Contact Lydia Ievleva (tel: 02 9973 1058;

mob: 0402 012 813; email:

August 5 Presentation at SASI at 18.00. Local contact is Greg Diment (tel: 08 8416

6616; mob: 0421 571651; email:

August 6 Free day followed by informal dinner with Adelaide sport psychology


August 8 Presentation at Australian Catholic University. Local contacts are Tony

Morris and John Saunders (

August 9 Presentation at Victoria University. Local contact is Tony Morris (tel: 03 9919

5353; email:

August 10 Transfer to Sydney. Hosted by Patsy Tremayne.

Presentation at UWS at 16.00. Contact Patsy Tremayne as above.

August 11 Presentation to SSPG at NSWIS at 18.30. Contact Patsy Tremayne.

The Sporting Mind (2005) Volume 4, Issue 1



By Michael Lloyd

University of Southern Queensland

Hi everyone, while I was encouraging student members to submit something for the CoSP

Newsletter, I also thought that it wouldn’t hurt for me to set a bit of an example and submit something

myself. My inspiration came the other night while talking to a couple of my peers from USQ – I don’t

know about everyone else, but I think that one of the most valuable and enjoyable aspects of being a

student is the time spent talking with your colleagues about various theories and concepts, or most

importantly our personal experiences in our practicums. Being ever mindful of how busy students are

these days with their various academic, work, and personal commitments, and that we often don’t get

the opportunity to just catch-up and chat, I thought that “Students’ Corner” could serve as another

forum for students to discuss various issues and experiences.

I know that a hot topic at the moment is the issue of remuneration (or lack of) for services offered by

students while on placements. While I see this as a very important topic deserving of further debate, I

often worry that it overshadows issues surrounding the services themselves, and more importantly

our effectiveness in providing these services and learning from the experience. Our specific topic of

conversation the other evening was about our own personal awareness during our practicums and

our reactions to particular situations. We were discussing sporting placements, but obviously the

issue is pertinent for sporting or clinical placements (and everything in between).

One thing that we spoke about was how easy it is at a sporting event to become wrapped-up in the

‘competitive moment’. For example, in the lead-up to (or during) a competition, we often find

ourselves focusing on the athlete(s) and coach(es), and lose awareness of ourselves and the

reactions that we are having to the situation. Whether we are sitting on the edge of our seat, chewing

our nails, calling out, cheering, showing disappointment, or sitting motionless – it is interesting to

ponder how these reactions impact us personally, our performance, and how we (and possibly our

credibility) are perceived by the coaches and/or athletes that we are working with? I know that I have

ridden the roller-coaster at various competitions and performances, and I know that people have

perceived these reactions in different ways. Do these reactions and people’s perceptions of them

then impact people’s perceptions of me and in turn my ability to perform my role? I’m sure that it

does, both good and bad, and to varying degrees at any given moment. One thing that I’m also sure

of, is that it makes for interesting ‘food for thought’ and for an interesting topic of discussion with

peers and/or supervisors.

Anyway, I don’t want to ramble on too much I just wanted to share a chat/ topic that a few students

had been having, and to see if anyone had any comments on the topic (or any other topic for that

matter) or wanted to share an experience that they may have had. Finally, and still on the topic of

practicums, I thought that I would also mention an interesting article that I read the other day:

Brown, C. H., Gould, D., & Foster, S. (2005). A framework for developing contextual intelligence

(CI). The Sport Psychologist, 19, 51-62. The article looks at the emerging concept of Contextual

Intelligence (CI), its relevance to sport psychology, and the suggestion that CI is a key factor in

successful consultations. Perhaps someone out there may have a view on it that could be included in

the next newsletter, or perhaps any other articles that you may read in the meantime.

The Sporting Mind (2005) Volume 4, Issue 1


Sydney Sport Psychology Group (SSPG)

Under the Auspices of CoSP

SSPG is committed to the promotion and development of the Sport Psychology profession,

coupled with a strong focus on the processes for performance enhancement in general.

Below are excerpts from SSPG July 2005 NEWSLETTER – courtesy SSPG

Greetings SSPG members and friends! SSPG has already held 2 exciting workshops this year and is

preparing the 3 rd workshop, scheduled for August. Just in case you missed the action from the

beginning of the year, here is an update…

During our 1 st workshop for 2005, held on the 21 st of March, Jamie

Ryan, coach for Women’s NSW Waterpolo, and Assistant Coach in

Athens 2004, spoke about his coaching challenges, his Olympics

experience, and his use of SportsCode video analysis.

Jamie spoke about the integral role Psychologists can play in liaising

with coaches and sporting institutes to help develop not only young

athletes but also new coaches. He suggested that Psychologists

should volunteer as a way of promoting and developing their skills

and experience.

Jamie spoke of the need to break down the barriers that prevent

athletes from accessing Psychologists; the primary one being

uncertainty about how a Psychologist can help. He suggested

speaking with coaches, parents, and the athletes themselves to demystify our service and provide


Jamie told us that the 3 weeks he spent in Athens was “the most challenging time of my athletic and

coaching life”. He said it was difficult not to get distracted by winning Olympians in the athlete village,

and he needed to utilise some arousal regulation techniques himself! He shared a video with us that

he created using SportsCode to help motivate his Waterpolo team prior to their 1 st Olympic game.

The video contained text captions, music, and moving highlights captured on video of the team’s

previous 4 years. He believes that this is a motivating way to help a group of people work on a

common goal.

Overall Jamie offered the group with some useful practical suggestions from a coach’s perspective on

how Psychologists can become involved with Sports and excel in their field.

The Sporting Mind (2005) Volume 4, Issue 1


Our 2 nd Speaker for the March Workshop was Richard

Bennett, NSWIS Sport Psychologist. He spoke about

creating a niche in Sport Psychology and his

experience of private practice.

Richard enlightened us with his experiences from a

community Psychiatric setting. He highlighted the

similarities between athletes and psychiatric patients –

“both are trying to perform the best they can with what

they’ve got”.

Richard Bennett, his book, & a SSPG Member

Richard spoke about his passion for surfing and how he

ended up becoming the Sport Psychologist on a world

surfing tour. Richard started out writing articles on sport

Psychology issues for surfing magazines. He had just obtained his Psychology registration and

already pro-surfers were responding to him in relation to his articles. He created a research project on

Peak Performance and flow in surfing and handed out summarised findings of his study at surfing

events. He was also doing some free work with surfers in his local area at this time until eventually he

worked on the world surfing tour as an autonomous entity, travelling the world and enjoying the

waves himself! After exhausting the surfing market Richard decided to write a book on “The Surfer’s

Mind” which is designed to help junior surfers to develop and prevent them from falling into the same

traps that the current surfers had fallen through. The main theme in the book is personal development

and self-actualisation.

Richard provided the group with lots of useful tips for starting out in private practice using the LOVE


Learn about clients, their needs, how to access them, what their obstacles are, observe coaching and

competitions. Learn about how to run a business, fee schedules, personal obstacles (e.g. idolising


Open: doing good deeds and being open with people will get you things in return.

Value: know your fee structure and value the services you can provide.

Enjoy yourself because if you are not having fun then you are not doing your best. This should be

used as a gauge for making decisions, knowing when to stay at a job etc.

Overall Richard provided us with a very inspirational talk about realising your personal and

professional dreams and setting out to achieve these.

The 2 nd SSPG workshop held on June 2 nd featured another 2 exciting speakers. Dr. Guy Curtis, a

Social Psychologist and Lecturer at UWS, shared his experience of Jiu Jitsu and the sport

Psychology links associated with his sport. He discussed the history of Jiu Jitsu, shared some gory

Ultimate Fighting Championship video clips with us, and then provided some demonstrations of his


Dr. Curtis spoke of ways to use social Psychology principles to outperform opponents in a sport like

Jiu Jitsu. He said that you can manipulate an opponent into moving to where you want them to be by

exploiting the notions of ‘mimicry’ (copying) and the ‘chameleon effect’ (unintentional mimicry).

The Sporting Mind (2005) Volume 4, Issue 1


Dr. Curtis then discussed some theories that explain ways of reducing aggression in opponents to

make fights easier to win. Some examples include modelling non-aggressive behaviour, and

remembering that aggression is physiologically similar to arousal so any arousal is likely to enhance


Dr. Curtis discussed how he uses angry thoughts and angry music to assist with his own instrumental

aggression in Jiu Jitsu whilst maintaining a calm exterior. This can be likened to arousal regulation

strategies or ’psyching up’ techniques that are often utilised in Sport Psychology.

Members of the audience were eager to know how Jiu Jitsu practitioners deal with the inevitable pain

associated with the full-contact sport. Dr. Curtis gladly shared his own strategies for increasing his

pain tolerance and pushing through the pain barrier including knowing that the pain in only temporary

and reminding himself of how much his pain threshhold had already increased since starting the


Our 2 nd Speaker was David Mutton who also lectures at UWS and runs a 16 week domestic violence

group for male perpetrators. He discussed the definitions of domestic abuse and domestic violence

and explained the cycle of violence observed in perpetrators of domestic violence. He also illustrated

the typical profile of a male abuser and the characteristics of a typical victim or survivor or abuse.

David then discussed the negative impacts on performance relating to athletes reflecting the profile of

the abuser or victim/survivor.

Abuser Characteristics Victim / Survivor Characteristics

‘Fragile narcissism’ – cannot handle failure or


May be reluctant to expose battered areas of


Feels entitled to succeed regardless of ability More comfortable with failure – create selffulfilling


Poor frustration tolerance – cannot sit with

negative emotions

Justified criticism may be felt as crushing

Poor stress management skills Fear of outshining partner

Bully others Poor self-esteem and under perform

Difficulty accepting responsibility in other Unexplained absences / sick days – appear

walks of life unreliable and ‘flaky’

The Sporting Mind (2005) Volume 4, Issue 1



Chair Peter Terry

Secretary Lydia Ievleva

Treasurer Stephanie Hanrahan

Prof. Development Patsy Tremayne

Course Approvals John Gross

Newsletter Eds Eugene Aidman

Lydia Ievleva

Student Rep Michael Lloyd

Co-Opted Tony Morris

Michael Martin

The Sporting Mind (2005) Volume 4, Issue 1


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