Moderne tider - Oplysningscenter om den 3. verden

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Moderne tider - Oplysningscenter om den 3. verden

Moderne tider

Emnekuffert

Lærervejledning, bilag og genstandsliste


Støttet af Danidas Oplysningsbevilling.

Emnekufferten – Moderne tider.

Tilrettelagt af Sonja Salminen, Laila Storm,

Oplysningscenter om den 3.verden. Fotos: Sonja Salminen,

Laila Storm, Jakob Lock Søgaard m.fl. Genstande

indsamlet i Indien 2006 af Sonja Salminen, Jakob Lock

Søgaard og Søren Salminen – samt af Anand Samuel.

Distribution:

Oplysningscenter om den 3.verden

Klosterport 4C, 4

8000 Århus C

www.o3v.dk

Støttet af Danidas Oplysningsbevilling.


Indledning ................................................................................................................................................................ 4

Pædagogiske mål .............................................................................................................................................. 4

Temaerne ............................................................................................................................................................. 5

1. Fælles introduktion ............................................................................................................................................. 6

2. Litteratur .............................................................................................................................................................. 8

3. Indiske medier ................................................................................................................................................. 11

De trykte medier ........................................................................................................................................ 11

Telefoni ......................................................................................................................................................... 12

TV og radio ................................................................................................................................................. 13

Internet ......................................................................................................................................................... 13

4. Bollywood ........................................................................................................................................................ 15

5. Oplevelseslæsning .......................................................................................................................................... 17

Bilag ....................................................................................................................................................................... 18

Fakta om Indien ............................................................................................................................................... 18

Bilag til fælles introduktion ........................................................................................................................... 19

Indiske forfattere ............................................................................................................................................ 20

Kopiark til oplevelseslæsning 1 ................................................................................................................... 29

Kopiark til oplevelseslæsning 2 ................................................................................................................... 31

Kopiark til oplevelseslæsning 3 ................................................................................................................... 34

Kopiark til oplevelseslæsning 4 ................................................................................................................... 36

Kopiark til oplevelseslæsning 5 ................................................................................................................... 38

Kopiark til oplevelseslæsning 6 ................................................................................................................... 41

Kopiark til oplevelseslæsning 7 ................................................................................................................... 43

Kopiark til oplevelseslæsning 8 ................................................................................................................... 45

Kopiark til oplevelseslæsning 9 ................................................................................................................... 47

Kopiark til oplevelseslæsning 10 ................................................................................................................. 49

Kopiark til oplevelseslæsning 11 ................................................................................................................. 51

Kopiark til oplevelseslæsning 12 ................................................................................................................. 53

Kopiark til litteratur 1 .................................................................................................................................... 56

Kopiark til litteratur 2 .................................................................................................................................... 58

Kopiark til litteratur 3 .................................................................................................................................... 64

Kopiark til litteratur 4 .................................................................................................................................... 66

Kopiark til litteratur 5 .................................................................................................................................... 70

Referencer ............................................................................................................................................................ 74

Tematiske kort ...................................................................................................................................................... 75

Politisk kort over Indien .................................................................................................................................. 75

Kort over stater i Indien ................................................................................................................................. 76

Konturkort over Indien .................................................................................................................................... 77

Kort over sprog i Indien ................................................................................................................................. 78

Kort over religioner i Indien .......................................................................................................................... 79

Kort over klimazoner i Indien ........................................................................................................................ 80

Kort over årlig temperatur i Indien ............................................................................................................. 81

Liste over genstande i kufferten ....................................................................................................................... 82


Indledning

Indien er så meget mere end overbefolkning, fattigdom og Gandhi. I de seneste 15 år har den

indiske økonomi foretaget et tigerspring opad. Denne udvikling blev især sat i gang da den indiske

stat ændrede planlægning fra den sovjetinspirerede planøkonomi til en mere markedsorienteret

økonomi.

Den indiske middelklasse på omkring 450 millioner mennesker har en livsstil som de fleste danskere,

og de forbruger mobiltelefoner, biler, computere og andre moderne produkter i stor stil. Det er flere

mennesker end der bor i USA og lidt færre end i EU.

Det moderne Indien har efterhånden mange vestlige træk; men bag denne overflade gemmer sig en

stædig fastholden af gamle traditioner. Disse traditioner handler for eksempel om en strengt social

rangorden (kastesystemet), der deler folk op i grupper. Det handler også om at kombinere

højteknologisk hverdag med en stærk religiøs praksis. Religion og spiritualitet er overalt. Det er i høj

grad med til at definere inderes identitet.

Genstandene er især blevet indsamlet på en rejse til New Delhi, Jaipur og Lucknow i november og

december 2006. Kufferten er blevet suppleret med andre genstande, bøger og materialer fra

andre rejser til Indien. Desuden har Anand Samuel været så venlig at bringe ekstra genstande med

til Danmark i 2009.

Pædagogiske mål

Målgruppe

Målgruppen er elever fra udskolingen i folkeskolen (8.- 10.klasse).

Mål

Eleverne

∼ Får en viden om et fremmedartet land med en anden kultur

∼ Lærer at sammenligne med egne forhold

∼ Lærer at vurdere og forstå forskelle og ligheder

∼ Forstår nogle af de værdier, som befolkningen i Indien har

∼ Kan justere deres opfattelse af og forudfattede meninger om andres livsværdier

∼ Opnår større tolerance for andres menneskers vilkår

∼ Kan optræde som formidlere af deres nye viden og forståelse

Pædagogiske principper

Eleverne skal:

∼ Konfronteres med oplevelser, der kan skabe undren

∼ Have pirret deres nysgerrighed

∼ Bruge alle sanser og flere intelligensformer

∼ Arbejde selvstændigt

∼ Arbejde sammen med andre

∼ Opleve at de kan gøre en forskel

Side 4 af 101


Eleverne kan arbejde via forskellige medier og ved brug af varierede arbejdsformer (film, læsning,

opgaver, billeder) bliver de præsenteret for et udsnit af livet i Indien. Eksemplet i denne kuffert er

det moderne liv, som det generelt leves i Indien.

Læreren kan med fordel organisere arbejdet som en slags tagselvbord, hvor eleverne individuelt,

parvist eller i grupper vælger en tekst, en film eller et foto og arbejder videre med det.

Læreren kan også vælge, at bruge noget af materialet til klasseundervisning og supplere med

individuelle opgaver.

Arbejdet med emnekufferten lægger op til tværfagligt samarbejde mellem flere fag. For eksempel

dansk, engelsk, historie, samfundsfag, geografi og medier.

Temaerne

1. Fælles introduktion – kort, kopiark, temakort

2. Litteratur

3. Indiske medier

4. Bollywood

5. Oplevelseslæsning

Side 5 af 101


1. Fælles introduktion

Start med at spørge eleverne om, hvad de ved om Indien. Skriv op på tavlen – eller tegn –

efterhånden, som der kommer flere svar (se fakta om Indien i bilag).

Mindmap: skriv Indien i en cirkel midt på tavlen. Sæt streger og skriv elevernes associationer ned

efterhånden som de kommer frem. Skriv også videre ud fra de første associationer. Spor eleverne

ind på det moderne ved at tale om computerindustrien i Sydindien, filmindustrien i Mumbai,

rumforskningen og den galopperende økonomi. Fotos fra kufferten kan eventuelt inspirere til

diskussionen og spørgsmål.

Se eventuelt en film. Det kan være en historisk film så som Jodhaa Akbar – eller en mere moderne

film eller Dasvidania (alle film er i kufferten).

Gå på opdagelse i kufferten sammen med eleverne. De kan for eksempel tage en genstand på skift

ud af kufferten. Klassen kan se på genstanden sammen, og alle eleverne kan give et bud på, hvad

det er, og hvad det bruges til. Underviseren kan dernæst supplere eller korrigere ud fra

genstandslisten. Giv tid til undren og til spørgsmål.

Udstil genstandene i klasseværelset, mens I har emne om det moderne Indien.

Forslag til undervisningen:

1. Indled med fælles brainstorm med mindmap på tavlen.

2. Se en film.

3. Gå på opdagelse i kufferten.

4. Lad hver elev eller gruppe af elever lave en fremstilling af ”mit Indien” gerne ud fra temaer:

ungdom, familie, økonomi, teknologi eller andet. Fremstillingen kan være en tegning, et

skriftligt arbejde, en video, en planche eller en power point præsentation.

Brug nogle af de temakort, som er vedlagt (som print og som pdf). Her finder du følgende kort:

1. Et geografisk kort med stater, byer, veje, grænser, floder og

placering i Sydasien.

2. Stater i Indien.

3. De store byer.

4. Et konturkort.

5. Religioner i Indien.

6. Sprog i Indien.

7. Kønsraten (forskelle mellem antal kvinder og mænd).

Giv et konturkort til hver elev og alt efter hvilket niveau de er på, kan de anvende det til at:

• Dekorere et kort med symboler og billeder fra Indien sådan som de forestiller sig det

er.

• Indsætte byer og andre lande i nærheden.

• Finde de største floder og tegne dem ind.

Side 6 af 101


• Tegne bjerge og ørkener ind.

• Tegne klimazoner ind.

Husk at eleverne også kan anvende det gratis program Google Earth (download findes på:

http://earth.google.com/). Google Earth giver dig mulighed for at ”flyve” til et hvilket sted på

jorden og se satellitbilleder, kort, terræn og 3D-bygninger. Det er en enestående måde, at skabe

interesse for verden og globale forhold på hos eleverne.

Forslag til undervisningen:

1. Lad eleverne fremstille et kort over Indien. Afhængigt af niveau kan de så indsætte byer,

floder, bjerge, ørkener, klimazoner eller tegne bygningsværker ind.

2. Pak genstandene fra kufferten ud. Undersøg dem og gæt på deres anvendelse.

3. Brug Google Earth til at finde geografiske og geologiske informationer om Indien. I kan også

finde seværdigheder og turistture på Google Earth.

4. Undersøg hvilke religioner der er i Indien og find for hver religion: antal følgere i procent,

særlige kendetegn ved religionen, vigtige historiske begivenheder, specielle symboler,

ritualer og højtider. Lav et produkt (tegning, skriftlig fremstilling, power point, foredrag) og

fremstil for resten af klassen.

5. Undersøg befolkningen i Indien. Hvilke sprog er der, og hvor tales de? Hvor bor der flest

mennesker – og hvor bor der færrest? Hvor mange stater, og hvor er de?

6. Undersøg kønsraten. Hvad er en kønsrate, og hvad er det særlige med Indien (foretrækker

drenge, scanning og abort, kvinders vilkår)? Lad eleverne fremstille en tegning, som angiver

vigtige årsager til skæv kønsrate.

Side 7 af 101


2. Litteratur

Det ældste indiske litteratur var på vers og blev viderebragt mundtligt. Teksten blev således

nedskrevet flere århundreder efter den blev komponeret. Værkerne blev skrevet ned på tørrede

palmeblade og bundet sammen i store bundter. Temaerne i de

tidligste tekster var centreret omkring det religiøse og ofte

gendigtning af historierne fra de hellige tekster: vedaerne. Rig

Veda er en samling af hellige hymner fra 1500-1200 f.kr. De

episke værker Ramayana og Mahabharat fremkom omkring

starten af vores tidsregning. Disse tidlige værker var skrevet på

sanskrit – et sprog som er 3000 år gammelt. Sanskrit anvendes

stadig i hinduistiske ceremonier og i litterære sammenhænge; men

der bliver ikke mere skrevet store værker på dette sprog.

I den middelalderlige litteratur handlede mange af teksterne

om at viderebringe eller lovprise forskellige religiøse ideer.

Dette var tilfældet i de tantriske vers Caryapadas skrevet på

bengali i det 12.århundrede og i Lilacaritra fra 1280 (skrevet

på marathi). Et af de første originale værker var Jain eventyr

om hellige mænd. I det 12.århundrede blev der også skrevet

bardeviser om riddere og heltemodig modstand mod de

muslimske invasioner, som f.eks. Prithiraja-raso af Chand Bardai

i Lahore. Den vigtigste del af litteraturen var dog de første spor af de nordindiske Radha- og

Krishna-kulter. Jaydev skrev Gitagovinda – kohyrdens sang i 1200-tallet, og Vidyapati skrev

religiøse kærlighedsdigte på Maithili (en slags hindi).

Radha-Krishnakulten indebar bhakti (personlig hengivelse til en gud), og dette begreb inspirerede

filosoffer og intellektuelle fra slutningen af det 15.århundrede. Begrebet bhakti inspirerede tillige

Tulsi Das til blandt andet at skrive Ramcharitmanas (Søen af Rams handlinger) i 1574-77. De første

skrevne dokumenter på sproget panjabi blev forfattet af Guru Nanak og Guru Arjun. Deres bhaktihymner

udgør dele af Adhi Granth (Den første bog), som er sikhernes hellige bog – dateret til 1604.

Traditionel indisk litteratur har sine temaer og sin form både fra sanskrit

litteraturen og fra buddhist- og jaintekster skrevet på pali og prakrit

(oldtidens indo-ariske sprog). Den dravidiske litteratur fra Sydindien og

litteratur på indo-iranske sprog i Nordindien var også stærke

inspirationskilder. De persiske og tyrkiske invasioner bragte muslimsk

inspirerede strømninger ind i litteraturen på urdu, bengali, gujarati og

kashmiri. De urdusprogede digtere skrev næsten altid på persisk vis, hvor

ghazals blev brugt til kærlighedspoesi. Urdu blev anvendt litterære sprog

i Delhi og Lucknow.

Kontakten med vestlig tankegang og uddannelse, samt indførslen af

bogtryk skabte en litterær revolution i de indiske sprog. I de store

havnebyer Mumbai, Calcutta og Chennai (Madras) opstod en prosaform,

der omfattede både romaner, noveller, essay og drama, og denne nye

Side 8 af 101


form opslugte i stor stil de traditionelle indiske genrer på vers. I de sidste 150 år har mange

forfattere bidraget til udviklingen af moderne indisk litteratur, idet de skriver på et af de 18

hovedsprog – og på engelsk. Det bengalske sprog: bengali har været førende i denne udvikling og

har i dag en af de største litteraturskatte i Indien. Rabindranath Tagore er en af disse forfattere,

som endda vandt hele verdens Nobelpris i litteratur i 1913. To andre stærke lederskikkelser fra det

20.århundrede var den muslimske filosof Muhammed Iqbal og Mohandas K. Gandhi. Deres værker

regnes for klassikere.

Andre skribenter er velkendte i vesten. Jawaharlal Nehru

(1889-1964) skrev Glimpses of World History, Discovery of

India and An Autobiography (1936); Mulk Raj Anand skrev

romaner om sociale protester bl.a.: Untouchable (1935) og

Coolie (1936); R. K. Narayan skrev romaner og fortællinger

fra livet i landsbyen i Sydindien. Den første af hans mange

bøger Swami and Friends blev udgivet i 1935. Flere af hans

værker er udgivet på dansk. Blandt de yngre forfattere, som

skriver om det moderne Indien med en vemodig tanke til

fortidens storhed er Anita Desai: Clear Light of Day (1980).

Ved Mehta, som har boet i USA i mange år, erindrer sine

indiske rødder i en serie af erindringer om sin familie og

uddannelse på blindeskoler i Indien og USA: Vedi (1982) og Sound Shadows of the New World

(1986).

Andre forfattere er Dom Moraes (A Beginning), Nlissim E. Zekiel (The Unfurnished Man), P. Lal, A.K.

Ramanujan (som oversætter tamilske klassikere), Kamala Das, Arun Kolatkar og R. Parthasarathy;

Toru Dutt; Sarojini Naidu; Aurobindo; Raja Rao, G.V. Desani, M. Ananthanarayanan, Bhadani

Bhattacharya, Monohar Malgonkar, Arun Joshi, Kamala Markandaya, Khushwant Singh, Nayantara

Sahgal, O.V. Vijayan; Salman Rushdie; K.R. Sreenivasa Iyengar, C.D. Narasimhaiah and M.K. Naik.

I 1800-tallet skrev de fleste indiske forfattere på deres eget sprog; men langsomt op gennem det

20. århundrede skriver flere og flere på engelsk. Ofte er det sådan, at lyrik skrives på et af de

mange lokale indiske sprog – mens romaner skrives på engelsk. Således er engelsk et meget vigtigt

litterært sprog i Indien.

Blandt de yngste forfattere er Vikram Seth (A Suitable Boy), Allan Sealy

(The Trotter-Nama), Sashi Tharoor (Show Business, The Great Indian

Novel), Amitav Ghosh (Circle of Reason, Shadow Lines), Upamanyu

Chatterjee (English August) and Vikram Chandra (Red Earth and Pouring

Rain).

Der findes særlige specifikke indiske temaer, som forfatterne blandt

andet skriver om. Det kan være: den store forskel på at bo på landet

og i byen (skisma mellem traditionelt og moderne liv); det arrangerede

ægteskab; udfordringen ved at leve i en udvidet familie (kvinden flytter

til sin mands familie); troen på Gud; det allestedsnærværende

kastesystem og den medfølgende vold og undertrykkelse – og

selvfølgelig fattigdom. Genfortællinger og problematisering af de

Side 9 af 101


gamle klassiske myter og historier med tydelige helte og skurke går heller aldrig af mode.

Litteratursiden (www.litteratursiden.dk) har behandlet indisk litteratur i november 2001. Du kan læse

mere om Indiens litteraturhistorie på litteratursiden (http://www.litteratursiden.dk/temaer/indisklitteraturhistorie).

Den engelske Wikipedia har en enkel oversigt over indisk litteratur

(http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Indian_literature).

Et udvalg af betydningsfulde indiske forfattere er beskrevet i bilagene (se: Indiske forfattere).

Forslag til undervisningen:

1. Lån et udvalg af indisk litteratur på biblioteket (O3V har et lille udvalg af indisk litteratur,

som kan lånes) og fordel dem på klassen – enten i grupper eller individuelt. Lad eleverne

læse enten udvalgte dele af bøgerne og derefter fremlægge det for klassen.

2. Undersøg Chandamama trykt på forskellige indiske sprog. Hvilke værdier er dette

børneblad udtryk for?

3. Læs et stykke fra Ramayana og lad det være udgangspunkt for en debat om berømte

elskende par fra litteraturen: Romeo og Julie, Scarlett O’Hara og Rhett Butler, Edward VIII

og Bessie Wallis Warfield, Caroline Mathilde og Johan Friedrich Struense.

4. Vælg et eller flere af kopiarkene med engelsksprogede uddrag af moderne indisk litteratur

og lad eleverne arbejde med dem to og to. Suppler med tekster fra kufferten.

5. Installer det medfølgende tastatur på en computer og forsøg at skrive forskellige indiske

sprog. Der er en vejledning og cd-rom med.

Side 10 af 101


3. Indiske medier

Indien er et af de lande i verden, som har det største medieforbrug.

Indien USA Danmark

Befolkning (2008) 1.125.368.288 303.824.646 5.484.723

Antal Tv-stationer 562 (1997)

(nr.8 i verden)

2.218 (2006) 172 (2008)

Antal

362,3 millioner i 255 millioner i 2007 6,2 millioner i 2007

mobiltelefonabonnementer 2009 (nr.3 i verden) (nr. 4 i verden) (nr.70 i verden)

Antal abonnenter på

bredbånd pr. 100 personer

(2006)

0,21 19 32

Antal internetbrugere pr.

100 personer (2006)

6,8 70 83

Antal internetbrugere 80 millioner (nr. 5 i 223 millioner (nr. 3 i 3,5 millioner (nr. 52 i

(2007)

verden)

verden)

verden)

Antal personlige

computere pr. 100

personer (2006)

2,8 80 73

Antal dagblade 1874 (2004) 833 (2007) 1 35 (2004)

De trykte medier

I kufferten findes et udvalg af blade, aviser og magasiner på forskellige indiske sprog. De fleste er

dog på engelsk.

1 Kilde: her: Wan, og ellers: gapminder.org, UNESCO og CIA World Fact Book.

2 Kilde: Audit Bureau of Circulations. Fundet på engelsk wikipedia.

2

Side 11 af 101


På verdensranglisten over de 100 største dagblade er de første 5 på listen japanske aviser.

Derefter følger en tysk og en kinesisk, og så kommer The Times of India.

Telefoni

Det første telefonselskab åbnede en telefonomstilling i Calcutta i 1882 med 93 abonnenter. I 1985

startede den første mobiltelefonservice i New Delhi. Den stærke statsstyring af kommunikation blev

ophævet i 2000. Derefter blev markedet så frit, at det blev muligt for almindelige

middelklassefamilier at få råd til at have en mobiltelefon.

Indiske call centre giver arbejde til højtuddannede unge mennesker, som er flydende på engelsk og

som har IT-kompetencer. Mange multinationale firmaer har med succes flyttet den telefoniske del af

deres virksomhed til byer i Indien så som Bangalore. Her trænes de unge til at besvare opkald fra

kunder overalt i verden.

Den indiske regering har skabt muligheder og gjort det let for udenlandske virksomheder ved at

sikre dem toldfrihed og skattefrihed i forhold til diverse informationstjenester. Telefoni i Indien er

over de sidste år blevet privatiseret, priserne for samtaler er dalet og alt i alt er kommunikation

blevet lettere og billigere. Dertil kommer betydeligt lavere lønninger for de højtuddannede bliver

Indien meget attraktivt for udenlandske firmaer, når de skal flytte dele af deres virksomhed. Både

General Electric, American Express, British Airways, Microsoft og SAS har outsourcet til Indien.

Indiske Bipasha bliver til Bridget i callcentret, og Vijay bliver til John. De som ikke kan slippe af med

den karakteristiske indiske accent, når de taler engelsk, ryger hurtigt ud.

3 independent International Federation of Audit Bureaux of Circulations. Engelsk Wikipedia.

3

Side 12 af 101


TV og radio

Indisk radio startede at sende i 1927 og i 1930 overgik det til staten. Den nationale radiokanal

hedder All India Radio eller Akashvani.

I 1959 begyndte nogle få Tv-programmer at sende. Den

nationale tv-kanal er kendt under navnet Doordarshan

(door=fjern, darshan=syn) [durdaarsjan].

Indtil 1991, da Indien åbnede sin økonomi, var der kun 2

statsejede tv-kanaler. Den ene sendte i halvdelen af

sendetiden regionale nyheder. Derefter begyndte satellit-TVkanaler

at sende i Indien. De indiske satellit-kanaler var Zee

TV og Sun TV. Mange udenlandske satellitkanaler så som Star TV, BBC, CNN, CNBC, PTV, MTV

startede også. I dag sender Tv-stationer på langt de fleste af de indiske sprog (bengali, oriya,

hindi, panjabi, marathi, kannada, telugu, malayalam, tamil, urdu etc.) og naturligvis på engelsk.

I 1992 blev kabel-tv indført i Indien. Dermed var der åbent for en lang række nye tv-kanaler. I dag

ser indiske tv-seere lige så gerne National Geographic Channel, Discovery Channel som Cartoon

Network og MTV.

MTV India startede i 1996 og er lige så populært blandt unge indere, som MTV er i Danmark.

Udover de internationale superhits har MTV India

musikvideoer med indisk hit-musik.

Nu har omtrent halvdelen af alle indiske hjem et TV. Dette

på trods af at tre fjerdedele af befolkningen lever for

under 5 kroner om dagen.

Internet

Kommunikation via internet er akkurat lige så udbredt i Indien, som alle andre steder. Siden 2006 er

antallet af bredbåndsforbindelse uafbrudt steget. Der er et kæmpemarked for Internetkommunikation,

ikke mindst når halvdelen af befolkningen er unge under 25. De anvender sociale tjenester

og oversvømmer spilleportalerne. Det ser ud som om Indien sagtens kunne blive en større faktor i

online-verdenen – og alligevel ikke. Kun hver 10.inder (omkring 100 millioner) bruger nettet

regelmæssigt. Dette tal kan f.eks. ses i sammenligning med mobiltelefoner, hvor 350 millioner

anvender mobil.

Et af problemerne i Indien er infrastrukturen. Kabler i byerne er ofte gamle og af dårlig kvalitet, og

i mange dele af landet er der simpelthen ingen netforbindelse overhovedet. Derfor er det unge fra

byerne, som anvender nettet. For hundreder af millioner indere kunne internettet lige så godt slet

ikke eksistere.

Side 13 af 101


Forslag til undervisningen:

1. Fortæl klassen at Indien er et af de lande i verden, som har det største medieforbrug

overhovedet.

2. Undersøg Disneyhæfterne og find reklamer. Hvilke produkter reklameres der for? Hvordan

reklameres der, og finder eleverne stor forskel på indiske og danske reklamer rettet mod

børn og unge?

3. Opdel eleverne i grupper og giv dem et tidsskrift, en avis eller et magasin hver. Bed dem

om at finde elementer (artikler, reklamer, annoncer, illustrationer etc.), som er specifikke for

den indiske kultur.

Side 14 af 101


4. Bollywood

Indien er verdens største filmproducent, dagligt ser 12 millioner mennesker film i landets biografer.

Mumbai er landets filmhovedstad, hvor filmstudierne sender cirka 1000 film på markedet om året.

Verdens trediestørste filmproducerende land Nigeria kalder sin filmindustri for Nollywood.

Bollywood er en sammentrækning af byens tidligere navn: Bombay og Hollywood = Indiens svar på

Hollywood. Samme ordleg findes i Kollywood, som betegner film på tamilsk produceret i Chennai i

området Kodambakkam. Disse film er meget lig Bollywood-film om end der generelt indeholder lidt

mere kampsportselementer. Ollywood er film på Oriya, det officielle sprog i delstaten Orissa, hvor

Tollywood er film på sproget telugu, som tales i delstaten Andhra Pradesh. Nogle gange bruges

betegnelsen også om film fra Kolkata i delstaten Bengalen. Disse film er på bengalsk og produceres

i Tollygunge.

Bollywood-genren sender film ud på hindi. De typiske karakteristika for Bollywood-film er:

• Det godes sejr over det onde.

• Melodrama og romance er faste ingredienser.

• Følelser og sentimentalitet udtrykkes kropsligt snarere end verbalt, gerne i dansescener med

musik, der allerede inden filmens premiere er blevet udsendt på cd.

• Bollywood-film ligner musicals.

• De kredser ofte om kærlighedstrekanter og umulige relationer, den hjemkomne søn, den

ventende kvinde.

• Fulde af kærlighedssymbolik som f.eks. brændende lys, der stadig brænder efter års

adskillelse mellem de elskende.

• Forførelse og fristelse, ofre, kidnappere og vrede forældre, insidere og outsidere, du og jeg,

os og dem, og det hele i en blanding af musical, actionfilm, romantisk drama og komedie.

Ofte er den mandlige helt, kurtisøren med det rene hjerte, i stand til at bekæmpe de onde

figurer ene mand. Bollywood-filmen går også under navnet "masala-film", opkaldt efter det

hindu-indiske ord for et stærkt blandingskrydderi.

Romantik spiller en stor rolle i de fleste Bollywood-film. På trods af det, er familien stadig den

overordnede dominerende moralske magt og alle forbudte forhold bliver afvist. Modsat vestlige

film, hvor kys er symbolet på kærlighed, så ses det sjældent i indiske film. Censurforbuddet

vedrørende kys på film blev hævet i 1980erne – men det er stadig sjældent at se et kys på

munden. Sanselighed og erotik vises i stedet i sang- og dansescenerne, som opstår i fantasiverdener,

hvor alt er muligt. På den måde tager man den erotiske kærlighed væk fra fortællingens moralske

verden.

Kvinder er blevet fremstillet som traditionelle eller moderne karakterer. Den traditionelle kvinde ville

være klædt i sari eller et landligt kostume. Den pligtopfyldende kone eller mor blev sammenlignet

med Sita eller Savitri fra den indiske mytologi. Indiske kvinders høje moralske standard blev holdt

op som rollemodel. I kontrast til det bliver kvinder klædt i vestligt tøj fremstillet som moderne med

alle de umoralske værdier, som bliver associeret med vestlig livsstil.

Side 15 af 101


Reklamer for film vil ofte vise temmelig sanselige og frodige kvindefigurer. Den type åbne

fremvisning bliver ofte legitimiseret ved at kæde det til indiske tradition. For eksempel plakaten for

Satyam Shivam Sundaram, hvor det afslørende landlige kostume skal forestille at være almindelig

brugt på landet.

Indenfor de sidste ti år er den filmiske fremstilling af kvinder blevet

ændret dramatisk. De nyeste film viser kvinder i sexet vestlig

designertøj. Nu indikerer den slags tøj ikke længere, at de har en lav

moral men i stedet, at de tilhører den nye middelklasse, som har en

overdådig livsstil. Den samme middelklasse, som i stor grad nu er

fokus for filmene.

I 1990erne gennemgik den indiske filmindustri store ændringer. Den

yngre generations filminstruktører og skuespillere begyndte at skabe

film med mere professionelle værdier. Denne udvikling var inspireret

af den nye globale kultur via MTV, Hollywood og internettet. Der var

nye temaer, som fremstilede den moderne rige forbrugerkultur blandt

den voksende middelklasse i Indien. På trods af disse ændringer

bevarede film den indiske identitet via brugen af musik og

fremstillingen af traditionelle kulturelle og familieorienterede temaer og værdier.

Helle Ryslinges dokumentarfilm Larger than life fra 2003 handler om indisk film og den sanselige

musikalitet og energi. Den er en rejse ind i den indiske filmkulturs sjæl. Produceret af Haslund Film.

Forslag til undervisningen:

1. Vælg en af filmene i kufferten og se den.

a. Diskuter hvilke karakteristika i filmen, der er inspireret af Bollywood-genren. Tal

både om form og indhold.

b. Diskuter hvilke andre genrer, der er på spil i filmen. Det kan f.eks. være gangsterfilm,

thriller, romantisk drama, komedie m.fl. Tal også om hvilke stilistiske træk, der

karakteriserer de forskellige genrer.

c. Eventuelt kan de enkelte roller i filmen fordeles i klassen, hvor man enkelt individuelt

eller i grupper arbejder med rollens personkarakteristik, historie, værdier, miljø og

perspektivering. Hver enkelt af rollerne kan endvidere holdes op imod filmens

hovedtemaer, hvordan de placerer sig i forhold til temaet, og om hvordan de

arbejder for eller imod filmens tema.

d. Klassen kan eventuelt arbejde med symbolik i filmsproget. Det kan være svært, når

det handler om en indisk kultur med den særlige hinduistiske mytologi. Ofte vil

symbolikken dog være fremstillet så tydeligt, med særlige filmiske virkemidler, at

meget af symbolikken kan forstås af et ikke-indisk publikum.

2. Vælg en af musik-cd’erne i kufferten og lyt til den.

Side 16 af 101


5. Oplevelseslæsning

Oplevelseslæsning består af 12 tekster, som hver for sig giver et indtryk af den moderne indiske

kultur.

1. Cop killed in anti-dowry violence er en lille notits om tumult i forbindelse med et bryllup.

Det er almindeligt, at spørgsmål vedrørende medgift giver anledning til konflikter. Det er

anslået, at nybagte brude mister livet i mindst 25.000 tilfælde om året i forbindelse med

medgiftskonflikter. I denne notits er det dog en politimand, som mister livet.

2. Teacher’s blows kill boy handler om en lærer, som kommer til at slå en elev så hårdt, at han

dør af det. Fysisk afstraffelse i grundskolen er slet ikke ualmindeligt. Der er dog i stigende

grad skoler, som forbyder det.

3. Vaseline intensive Care er en reklame for en hudlotion med hudblegende egenskaber.

Reklamen perspektiverer det faktum, at den lysere hudfarve anses for at være den mest

attråværdige.

4. Wired and WISE @ 13 handler om tweens og om den nye digitale revolution og dens

betydning for de yngste teenagere.

5. McDonald er en udskrift af Indiske McDonald’s menukort med priser. Teksten handler mest

om økonomi og kulturforskelle i globaliseringen.

6. Facebook twist to saas-bahu story er en tekst om arrangeret ægteskab, svigermoderens

betydning og hvordan Facebook kan spille ind.

7. We want to be the best in everything handler om en almindelig 13-årigs liv og tanker om

sin fremtid.

8. John, his boys and Bips er en avisartikel om en af Indiens moderne filmhelte. Et lille

celebrity-interview.

9. Mother of all rural marketing schemes er en artikel om en kvinde på landet, som har haft

stor succes som sælger af diverse sæbeprodukter.

10. Metro’s flip side handler om hvordan universitets metrostation er blevet et populært møde-

og hænge-ud sted for unge.

11. Measuring a monthly BASKET er en undersøgelse af hvad det koster at købe ind i

forskellige storbyer i Indien.

12. Ægteskabsannoncer. Et udsnit af helt almindelige annoncer, som de findes i alle indiske

aviser. NB. Svære!

Lad eleverne læse tekster på engelsk eller på dansk. Arbejdet kan foregå i grupper eller som

individuelt arbejde (se bilag).

En gruppe kan arbejde med ægteskabsannoncer (se også bryllupsinvitationen i kufferten). Hvordan

vil en tilsvarende annonce se ud i Danmark? Gruppen kan komme med forslag til

annonceudformninger og svar på annoncerne.

Derefter kan hver gruppe eller person enten genfortælle sin tekst for klassen, skrive en kronik med

et referat af teksten eller en power point præsentation inspireret af teksten.

Side 17 af 101


Bilag

Fakta om Indien

Indiens størrelse er 3.287.263 kvadratkilometer.

Landet er cirka 75 gange større end Danmark.

Der bor over 1 milliard mennesker i Indien.

I Danmark bor der kun 5,3 millioner.

Hovedstaden hedder New Delhi.

Her bor der officielt over 5,7 millioner mennesker og uofficelle tal peger på 11 millioner.

Det er mere, end der bor i Danmark.

Indien hedder Bharat på de fleste indiske sprog.

Der tales over 100 forskellige sprog i Indien.

25 % af befolkningen i Indien lever under fattigdomsgrænsen.

33 % har adgang til toiletter.

61 % kan læse og skrive.

65 % bor i landsbyer udenfor storbyerne.

200 millioner har en livsstil som i Europa med biler, tv, mobiltelefoner, forbrug (det moderne liv).

Møntenheden i Indien kaldes rupee.

For 1 dansk krone kan man få 9,60 rupees.

Det indiske flag har tre striber i farverne: safran, hvid og

grøn. Det blå hjul i midten af flaget kaldes Ashoks dharma

chakra (hjul). Det har 24 eger, som hver symboliserer en time

på dagen og retfærdighed alle 24 timer.

Side 18 af 101


Bilag til fælles introduktion

1. Undersøg økonomiske forhold for befolkningen. Brug www.udviklingstal.dk.

2. Undersøg hvilke grænsestridigheder, der er i Indien. Brug f.eks.

http://www.indiandefencereview.com/2008/10/indias-borders.html.

3. Hvor mange sprog er der i Indien, og hvilke sprogfamilier hører de til?

4. Hvor er der borgerkrigstilstande henne i Indien? Hvor er der modstand mod

centralstaten?

5. Hvilke religioner er de største i Indien, og hvordan er deres indbyrdes

forhold?

6. Hvilket klima er der i Indien? Og hvilke afgrøder er de vigtigste i Indien?

7. Hvad er de vigtigste eksportvarer?

8. Hvilken tidsregning anvender man i hinduismen? Kan du opstille en

hindukalender?

9. Hvilke berømte mennesker fra Indien kender du?

10. Hvilken styreform har man i Indien?

11. Hvilke større internationale organisationer er Indien med i?

Side 19 af 101


Indiske forfattere

Author The book Year About …

Rabindranath Tagore

(1861--1941)

Gitanjali

Værket rummer tanker og

forestillinger, der gennem årtusinder

har været det indiske folks ejendom,

men som ved hans berøring bliver

levendegjort og nærværende. Hvad

er hemmeligheden ved den indiske

storhed? Den er ikke dogme, ikke

bog men åbenbaringen af at al

sandhed og kundskab er absolut og

uendelig og venter - ikke på at blive

skabt men på at blive genfundet i

menneskets sjæl. Gitanjali er et langt

kærlighedsdigt til den Gud der er

menneskets inderste væsen.

1913 Tagore (also known as Gurudev), was a Bengali

poet, Brahmo Samaj philosopher, visual artist,

playwright, novelist, and composer whose works

reshaped Bengali literature and music in the late

19th and early 20th centuries. He became Asia's

first Nobel laureate when he won the 1913 Nobel

Prize in Literature.

A Pirali Bengali Brahmin from Calcutta, Tagore

first wrote poems at the age of eight. At the age of

sixteen, he published his first substantial poetry

under the pseudonym Bhanushingho ("Sun Lion")

and wrote his first short stories and dramas in

1877. His home schooling, life in Shilaidaha, and

travels made Tagore a nonconformist and

pragmatist. Tagore strongly protested against the

British Raj and gave his support to the Indian

Independence Movement and Mahatma Gandhi.

Tagore's life was tragic—he lost virtually his entire

family and was devastated to witness Bengal's

decline—but his life's work endured, in the form of

his poetry and the institution he founded, Visva-

Bharati University.

His verse, short stories, and novels, which often

exhibited rhythmic lyricism, colloquial language,

meditative naturalism, and philosophical

contemplation, received worldwide acclaim.

Tagore was also a cultural reformer and polymath

who modernized Bengali art by rejecting strictures

binding it to classical Indian forms.

Side 20 af 101


(Munshi) Premchand

(1880 - 1936)

R. K. Narayan

(1906 – 2001)

Godan

His novel "Godan" tells the story of a

poor man, bound by the society,

exploited by the privileged class and

his soul-destroying travails. His

protagonists are often exploited, but

never unjust themselves, and retain

their humanity.

Waiting for the Mahatma

Sriram is a high school graduate who

lives with his grandmother in Malgudi,

the fictional Southern Indian town in

which much of Narayan's fiction takes

place. Sriram is attracted to Bharati, a

girl his age who is active in Mahatma

Gandhi's Quit India movement, and

he becomes an activist himself. He

then gets involved with anti-British

extremists, causing much grief to his

grandmother. Sriram's underground

activity takes place in the

1936 Premchand’s last completed novel is considered

his best work. It is the most realistic interpretation

of Indian village society, the backbone of India. It

is a story of changing people, hungry and semistarved,

yet hopeful and optimistic, in the truest

spirit of the age it represents.

Premchand lived in an era of great social turmoil

for India. He saw traditional village independence

being destroyed by the colonisers. He saw how

the traditional system of the Indian Undivided

Family was falling apart with the pressures of

increased centralisation of jobs in urban centres.

He also noted the fallout of large-scale

urbanisation and the consequent materialistic and

acquisitional tendencies it triggered off. His stories

and novel faithfully record and analyse these

tendencies through the trials and tribulations of

his protagonists.

Premchand is considered the best Hindi fiction

writer ever.

1955 Rasipuram Krishnaswami Ayyar Narayanaswami

is among the best known and most widely read

Indian novelists writing in English.

Most of Narayan's work, starting with his first

novel Swami and Friends (1935), captures many

Indian traits while retaining a unique identity of its

own. He was sometimes compared to the

American writer William Faulkner, whose novels

were also grounded in a compassionate

humanism and celebrated the humour and energy

of ordinary life.

Narayan lived till age of ninety-four, writing for

more than fifty years, and publishing until he was

eighty seven. He wrote fourteen novels, five

Side 21 af 101


Khushwant Singh

(1915 - )

countryside, an area alien to him, and

the misunderstandings with the locals

provide the book's best comic

moments. After spending some time

in jail, Sriram is reunited with Bharati,

and the story ends with their

engagement amidst the tragedy of

India's partition in 1947.

Train to Pakistan

The story is about the feelings of the

people of a village "Mano Majra"

before and after the 1947 partition of

India and Pakistan. The agony and

the reality of the people of naked

volumes of short stories, a number of travelogues

and collections of non-fiction, condensed versions

of Indian epics in English, and the memoir My

Days.

Mr. Narayan won numerous awards and honours

for his works. He won the National Prize of the

Sahitya Academy, the Indian literary academy, for

The Guide in 1958. He was honoured with the

Padma Bhushan, a coveted Indian award, for

distinguished service to literature in 1964. In

1980, R. K. Narayan was awarded the AC Benson

Medal by the Royal Society of Literature. He was

an honorary member of the society. He was

elected an honorary member of the American

Academy and Institute of Arts and Letters in 1982

and nominated to the Rajya Sabha — the upper

house of the Parliament of India — in 1989. In

addition, the University of Mysore, Delhi

University and the University of Leeds conferred

honorary doctorates on him. He was awarded

Padma Vibhushan in 2000.

R.K. Narayan was short listed for the Nobel Prize

in Literature several times but never won. Literary

circles often joke that the Nobel Committee

ignored his works, mistaking them instead for selfhelp

books due to their curious titles (The English

Teacher, The Painter of Signs, etc.).

1956 Khushwant Singh, one of the best -known Indian

writers of all times, was born in 1915 in Hadali

(now in Pakistan). He began a distinguished

career as a journalist with the All India Radio in

1951. Khushwant Singh's name is bound to go

down in Indian literary history as one of the finest

historians and novelists, a forthright political

Side 22 af 101


Rohinton Mistry

(1952 - )

Indian history while the partition was

in process is elaborated with a painful

toil.

Instead of depicting the Partition in

terms of only the political events

surrounding it, Singh digs into a deep

local focus, providing a human

dimension which brings to the event a

sense of reality, horror, and

believability.

Such a long journey

In Such a long Journey Mistry deals

with the Parsi environment in India.

He explores the loss of innocence of

the protagonist, Gustad Noble, as he

attempts to define himself in relation

to his family and his country during

the chaotic times of 1971 India,

during which India and Pakistan went

to war over the liberation of East

Pakistan, or Bangladesh. The novel

gives extremely detailed description

of the lives of Gustad and his family

in their apartment in Bombay, which

serves as a contrast to outside world

which disrupts family order. Mistry

presents the outside world as a rotten

and corrupting force on even the

most decent members of the inner

sphere.

commentator, and an outstanding observer and

social critic.

Among the several works he published are a

classic two-volume history of the Sikhs, several

novels (the best known of which are Delhi, Train

to Pakistan, and The company of women), and a

number of translations and non-fiction books on

Delhi, nature and current affairs.

The Library of Congress has ninety-nine works on

and by Khushwant Singh.

Har lige udgivet bogen: Death at my Doorstep:

Obituaries.

1991 His first book, a collection of connected short

stories called Swimming Lessons and Other

Stories from the Firozsha Bag, was published in

1987. But it was his debut novel, 1991's Such a

Long Journey, that established Mistry as an

international literary force: that book won

Canada's Governor General's Award for fiction,

the Commonwealth Writer's Award for Best Book

of the Year, and the WH Smith Books in Canada

First Novel Award, and it was nominated for the

UK-based Booker Prize -- now known as the Man

Booker -- and the Trillium Award.

Side 23 af 101


Shashi Tharoor

(1956 -

Anita Desai

(1937 –

The Great Indian Novel

It is a fictional work that takes the

story of the Mahabharata, the epic of

Hindu mythology, and recasts and

resets it in the context of the Indian

Independence Movement. Figures

from Indian history are transformed

into characters from mythology, and

the mythical story of India is retold as

a history of Indian independence and

subsequent history, up through the

1980s.

Bye Bye Blackbird

The Book is winner of the Sahitya

Academy Award.

In Bye-Bye, Blackbird, her first

novelistic foray into a country beyond

India, Desai portrays the intense

xenophobia and prejudice that

manifested in England during the

influx of commonwealth immigration

in the 1950s and 1960s. The novel

opens with Dev, a young man from

Calcutta, arriving in England to attend

the London School of Economics. He

eventually moves in with two old

friends, Adit and Sarah, an Indian-

1989 Shashi Tharoor was the official candidate of India

for the succession to United Nations Secretary-

General Kofi Annan in 2006, and came second

out of seven official candidates in the race. He is

an author, journalist, and fellow of the USC

Center on Public Diplomacy. Tharoor is an Indian

national, from the state of Kerala. Tharoor has

written numerous books in English. Most of his

literary creations are centered around Indian

themes and they are markedly "Indo-nostalgic".

Perhaps his most famous work is The Great

Indian Novel, published in 1989, in which he uses

the narrative and theme of the famous Indian epic

Mahabharata to weave a satirical story of Indian

life in a non-linear mode with the characters

drawn from the Indian Independence Movement.

His novel Show Business (1992) was made into

the film Bollywood (1994).

1985 Anita Mazumdar Desai is an Indian novelist. She

has been short-listed for the Booker prize three

times. Her daughter, the author Kiran Desai, is the

winner of the 2006 Booker prize.

Born as Anita Mazumdar to a German mother,

Toni Nime, and a Bengali businessman, D.N.

Mazumdar in Mussoorie, India. She grew up

speaking German at home and Bengali, Urdu,

Hindi and English outside the house. She first

learned to read and write in English at school and

as a result it became her "literary language".

Despite German being her first language she did

not visit Germany until later in life as an adult.

She published her first novel in 1963, Cry The

Peacock. She considers Clear Light Of Day

(1980) her most autobiographical work as it is set

Side 24 af 101


Anita Desai

English interracial couple. As Dev

becomes enamoured with the English

way of life, Adit becomes more and

more nostalgic for his family's home

in India.

More than a novel, it is a

psychological study of the love-hate

relationship the immigrants have

towards their country of adoption.

The colored immigrants from India

and other countries - the blackbirds -

have a hard time in England. Many

are partly rejected, other totally. But

the flow continues

The Village by the Sea

Won the 1983 - Guardian Children's

Fiction Prize.

A novella for young people, The

Village by the Sea tells the story of a

family beset by misfortune in the

traditional fishing village of Thul, on

the west coast of India near Bombay.

With the mother ill and bedridden and

the father an unemployed, abusive

alcoholic, the brunt of the family

responsibilities devolve upon the

elder children, the adolescents Lila

and Hari, both of whom have stopped

attending school in order to fulfil

these duties and care for their two

younger siblings.

1982

during her coming of age and also in the same

neighborhood in which she grew up. In 1984 she

published In Custody -- about an Urdu poet in his

declining days - which was short listed for the

Booker Prize. In 1993 she became a creative

writing teacher at Massachusetts Institute of

Technology. Her latest novel published in 2004,

The Zig Zag Way is set in 20th century Mexico.

She is especially noted for her sensitive portrayal

of the inner life of her female characters. Several

of Desai's novels explore tensions between family

members and the alienation of middle-class

women. In her later novels Desai has dealt with

such themes as German anti-Semitism, the

demise of traditions, and Western stereotypical

views of India.

Side 25 af 101


Meera Syal

(1961 – )

Chitra Banjerjee Divakaruni

(1956 -

Anita and Me

Syal’s debut novel, and was first

published in 1996. It is a semiautobiographical

novel which has

won the Betty Trask Award.

The story revolves around Meena

(the "me" of the title), a young

Punjabi girl, and her relationship with

the white Anita as they grow up in the

fictional Midlands village of Tollington

in the 1970s.

It was a GCSE English literature set

text for the examination years 2004

and 2005.

The Mistress of spices

The delicious, mystical world of Tilo

and her magical Indian spice shop,

and, once there, gives us a very real,

bitter slice of modern-day Oakland.

Her lyrical, sensual prose manages

both to delight and horrify, and as we

explore the hidden corners of Tilo's

shop our senses are overwhelmed by

what we find there, desires and fears

nestled within the packages of

turmeric and ginger, and a culture as

old as lotus root trying to find its way

in a new world.

1996 Meera Syal is a British comedienne, writer,

playwright, singer, journalist and actress. Her

Punjabi-born parents came to England from New

Delhi, and she has risen to prominence as one of

the most UK's best-known Indian personalities.

She was awarded the MBE in the New Year's

Honours List of 1997.

In 2004 she took part in the BBC series Who Do

You Think You Are? Which looked into the family

histories of various well-known personalities? In

January 2005, Syal married her frequent

collaborator, Sanjeev Bhaskar, who plays her

grandson in The Kumars At No. 42.

1997 Chitra Banerjee Divakaruni, novelist, poet and

professor of creative writing at the University of

Houston. She was born in India and lived there

until 1976, at which point she left Calcutta and

came to the United States. She continued her

education in the field of English by receiving a

Master’s degree from Wright State University in

Dayton, Ohio, and a Ph.D. from the University of

California, Berkeley.

To earn money for her education, she held many

odd jobs, including babysitting, selling

merchandise in an Indian boutique, slicing bread

in a bakery, and washing instruments in a science

lab. At Berkeley, she lived in the International

House and worked in the dining hall. She briefly

lived in Illinois, Ohio and Texas, but has spent

most of her life in Northern California, which she

often writes about.

Side 26 af 101


Arundhati Roy

(1961 – )

Kiran Desai

(1971 - )

The God of all small things (De

små tings gud)

It is a politically charged novel. It is a

story about the childhood

experiences of a pair of fraternal

twins who become victims of

circumstance. The book is a

description of how the small things in

life build up, translate into people's

behavior and affect their lives. The

book is semi-autobiographical and a

major part captures her childhood

experiences in Ayemenem. The book

received the 1997 Man Booker Prize

for Fiction, was listed as one of the

New York Times Notable Books of

the Year for 1997.The book reached

fourth position in the New York Times

Bestsellers list for Independent

Fiction. She received half a million

pounds as an advance, and rights to

the book were sold in 21 countries.

The Inheritance of Loss

In a crumbling, isolated house at the

foot of Mount Kanchenjunga in the

Himalayas lives an embittered judge

who wants only to retire in peace,

when his orphaned granddaughter,

Sai, arrives on his doorstep. The

judge's cook watches over her

distractedly, for his thoughts are

claimed by his son, Biju, who is

1997 Suzanna Arundhati Roy is an Indian novelist,

writer and activist. She won the Booker Prize in

1997 for her first novel, The God of Small Things

and in 2002, the Lannan Cultural Freedom Prize.

Roy was born in Shillong, Meghalaya to a Keralite

Syrian Christian mother, the women's rights

activist Mary Roy, and a Bengali Hindu father, a

tea planter by profession. She spent her

childhood in Ayamenem in Kerala, and went to

school in Corpus Christi, Kottayam, followed by

The Lawrence School, Lovedale in the Nilgiris,

Tamil Nadu. She then studied architecture at the

School of Planning and Architecture, New Delhi,

where she met her first husband, architect Gerard

DaCunha.

The God of Small Things is the only novel written

by Roy. She has since devoted herself solely to

nonfiction and politics, publishing two more

collections of essays, as well as working for social

causes.

2006 Kiran Desai was born in India in 1971, and

educated in India, England and the United States.

She is the daughter of Anita Desai, and now

travels between the three countries, and says she

feels 'no alienation or dislocation'. She spent four

years writing her first novel, and says it is not at

all autobiographical.

She studied creative writing at Bennington

College, Hollins University and Columbia

University.

Her first novel, Hullabaloo in the Guava Orchard,

Side 27 af 101


hopscotching from one gritty New

York restaurant to another. When an

Indian-Nepali insurgency in the

mountains interrupts Sai's exploration

of the many incarnations and facets

of a romance with her Nepali tutor,

and causes their lives to descend into

chaos, they are forced to consider

their colliding interests.

In a generous vision, sometimes

funny, sometimes sad, Desai

presents the human quandaries

facing a panoply of characters. This

majestic novel of a busy, grasping

time -- every moment holding out the

possibility of hope or betrayal --

illuminates the consequences of

colonialism and global conflicts of

religion, race, and nationality.

was published in 1998 and received accolades

from such notable figures as Salman Rushdie. It

went on to win the Betty Trask Award, a prize

given by the Society of Authors for the best new

novels by citizens of the Commonwealth of

Nations under the age of 35.

Her second book, The Inheritance of Loss, (2006)

has been widely praised by critics throughout

Asia, Europe and the United States and won the

2006 Man Booker Prize as well as the 2006

National Book Critics Circle Fiction Award.

Side 28 af 101


Kopiark til oplevelseslæsning 1

_____________________________________

_____________________________________

Mob justice

Cop killed in anti-dowry

violence

S. Raju

Meerut, November 6 2007

A CONSTABLE was lynched and six other

policemen were injured while trying to rescue

a marriage party from a mob angry over

dowry demands, a top police officer said on

Tuesday.

The violence occurred on Monday night in

Sivalkhas village, 25 km from Meerut. A

villager received serious gunshot injuries on

his neck when the cops opened fire in

defence. “Constable Ompal was killed and six

others were admitted to hospital with serious

injuries,” said V.K. Gupta, IGP, Meerut zone.

Trouble started when Hazi Nazar

Mohammad and his two sons – who were to

marry the daughters of Mohd Asif –

demanded Rs 1 lakh dowry minutes before

the marriage. They also threatened to walk

away. The brides’ family became furious at

this and held seven people, including the two

bridegrooms, captive. They demanded Rs 5

lakh for their release. Violence followed the

arrival of the police. The hostages were

rescued on Tuesday.

srajumrt@gmail.com

Gloser:

Mob: sb pøbel; flok; bande; vb stimle

sammen; stimle sammen om, omringe;

overfalde i flok.

Dowry: sb medgift (det som brudens

familie skal betale til brudgommen eller

hans familie for giftermålet).

Medgift er i de sidste 40-50 år blevet til et

socialt problem, da det kan blive relateret

til afpresning og vold. Medgift er forbudt i

Indien men meget udbredt i alle religiøse

grupper.

Anti-dowry: egentlig: mod medgift;

termen bliver brugt meget bredt som al

slags modstand mod medgiftpraksis, også

den mere organiserede.

Inspectors General of Police (IGP):

Politidirektør. Hver delstat har en statslig

politistyrke, som styres af en DGP (Director

General of Police). Under DGP er der

forskellige højtstående politiofficerer

deriblandt en IGP.

Rs: forkortelse: Rupees. 100 rupees svarer

til 7 kroner.

Lakh: er en enhed i indisk

nummersystem. En lakh = 100.000 og 100

lakh er en crore som = 10.000.000. De 5

lakh rupees som kræves er altså 500.000

rupees (= d.kr. 65.000).

Note: Oprindeligt anvender muslimer i

Indien ikke medgift ved bryllupper; men

derimod ”mahr”, som er en brudepris.

Notitsen afspejler, at udviklingen går mod

medgift, som en vigtig del af ægteskaber.

Side 29 af 101


Dansk version af ”Mob Justice”

__________________________________________________________________________

__________________________________________________________________________

Flokretfærdighed

Strisser dræbt i anti-medgifts voldshandling

S. Raju

Meerut, 6.november 2007

En politibetjent blev lynchet og seks andre politimænd blev sårede, da de forsøgte at redde bryllupsgæster fra en flok mennesker, som

var vrede over medgiftskrav, sagde en højtstående politiofficer i tirsdags.

Voldshandlingen skete mandag nat i landsbyen Sivalkhas 25 km fra Meerut. En landsbyboer fik flere skudsår i halsen, da strisserne

forsvarede sig med skud. ”Politibetjent Ompal blev dræbt og seks andre blev indlagt på hospitalet med alvorlige skader”, sagde

politidirektør V.K. Gupta, Meerut politikreds.

Balladen startede da Hazi Nazar Mohammad og hans to sønner – som skulle giftes med Mohd Asifs døtre – krævede Rs. 100.000 i

medgift få minutter før brylluppet. De truede også med at gå. Brudens familie blev rasende over kravet og holdt syv personer inklusive

de to brudgomme til fange. De krævede Rs. 500.000 for at slippe dem løs. Voldshandlingerne opstod da politiet ankom. Gidslerne blev

reddet om tirsdagen.

srajumrt@gmail.com

Side 30 af 101


Kopiark til oplevelseslæsning 2

Abhishek Bhalla

New Delhi, November 6

A 14-YEAR-OLD boy battling for life for the past two

weeks after his teacher beat him in class died on Tuesday,

his family members said.

Ajay Kumar: a Class VIII student of the government-run

Sarvodaya Higher Secondary School in east Delhi’s East

Vinod Nagar; had been on ventilator support since

October 23 when he was allegedly beaten up.

“My son’s fault was that he was scribbling in his

notebook and overwriting his teacher’s signature,” said

the boy’s father Satya Prakash, a PWD employee. He

said after the teacher beat him, Ajay collapsed. “We were

called to the school … He had an injury on his neck and

had problem in breathing. He had been in the ICU since

then,” said Prakash. The boy died in north Delhi’s St

Stephen’s Hospital to

which he had been shifted from a nursing home.

The police said they were investigating the charges

against the teacher while the Delhi government said it

would order an inquiry.

The police registered a case under Section 304

(culpable homicide not amounting to murder) of the

IPC after the boy’s death. Earlier, it had registered a

case under Section 308 (attempt to culpable homicide

not amounting to murder).

No arrests have been made. “We are conducting an

investigation before making any arrests. We have sent

the body for post mortem and also looking into the

medical history of the boy,” said Ajay Chaudhary,

DCP, east district.

Education Minister Arvinder Singh said: “There is

no scope for corporal punishment in our schools. I

will order an inquiry and if the teacher is found guilty.

I will take strict action.”

Abhishek.bhalla@hindustantimes.com

Side 31 af 101


Gloser:

ICU: Intensive care unit; intensiv afdeling på et hospital.

government-run: offentlig (regeringsstyret)

Sarvodaya: (sanskrit) alles udvikling, løft til alle. Brugt første gang af M.K. Gandhi.

Higher Secondary School: svarer til gymnasiet i Danmark (11.-13.klasse). Se illustration:

ventilator support: respirator, teknologisk hjælp til at trække vejret

PWD: Public Works Department, teknisk afdeling i en kommune (her dog delstat), afdeling for teknik og anlæg.

IPC: Indian Penal Code, den indiske straffelov.

DCP: Deputy Commissioner of Police – svarer cirka til den danske vicepolitiinspektør.

Side 32 af 101


Dansk version af ”Teacher’s blows kill boy

Pryglet i skolen for at grifle i en notesbog

Lærers slag dræber dreng

14-årig tilbragte 2 uger på intensiv efter kollaps i klassen

Abhishek Bhalla

New Delhi, 6. November 2007

EN 14-ÅRIG dreng, som har kæmpet for sit liv i de sidste to

uger efter, at hans lærer slog ham i klassen, døde tirsdag, har

medlemmer af hans familie udtalt.

Ajay Kumar, elev i 8.klasse i den offentlige skole Sarvodaya

Higher Secondary i Vinod Nagar i Østdelhi; har været i

respirator siden den 23.oktober, da han angiveligt blev

gennempryglet.

“Min søns fejltagelse var, at han griflede i sin notesbog og

overskrev sin lærers underskrift”, sagde drengens far Satya

Prakash, en ansat i kommunens tekniske afdeling.

Han sagde, at Ajay kollapsede efter læreren slog ham. ”Vi blev

tilkaldt til skolen … Han var såret på halsen og havde

problemer med at trække vejret. Siden da har han været i

respirator,” sagde Prakash. Drengen døde i Norddelhis St.

Stephen’s Hospital, hvortil han var

blevet flyttet fra en privatklinik.

Politiet sagde, at de efterforskede anklagen mod

læreren selvom Delhis regering sagde, at den ville

beordre en undersøgelse.

Politiet har registreret en sag i forhold til

straffelovens paragraf 304 (manddrab) efter drengens

død. Tidligere havde politiet registreret en sag i

forhold til paragraf 308 (forsøg på manddrab).

Ingen er blevet arresteret. ”Vi udfører en

efterforskning før vi arresterer nogen. Vi har sendt

liget til obduktion, og vi ser også på drengens

medicinske historie,” sagde Ajay Chaudhary,

vicepolitiinspektør, østdistriktet.

Undervisningsminister Arvinder Singh sagde: “Der er

ikke plads til fysisk afstraffelse i vore skoler. Jeg vil

beordre en undersøgelse, og hvis læreren findes

skyldig, så skrider jeg til handling.”

Abhishek.bhalla@hindustantimes.com

Side 33 af 101


Kopiark til oplevelseslæsning 3

Side 34 af 101


Gloser til annoncen: Vaseline intensive Care

Healthy = Sund

Patented = patenteret

Fair = lys

Fairness = lyshed

Noticeably = mærkbar, bemærkelsesværdig, så det kan ses

Sunscreen = solfilter

UVA/UVB rays = uv-stråling, ultraviolet stråling

Visibly = synligt

Conducted = udført

Exposed = udsat, eksponeret

Untreated = ubehandlet

Visualisation = visualisering, synliggørelse

Independent = uafhængig

Spørgsmål til annoncen: Vaseline intensive Care

1. Hvad handler annoncen om?

2. Hvad fortæller annoncen om indiske kvinder? Direkte og indirekte?

3. Hvad er din holdning til annoncen?

Side 35 af 101


Kopiark til oplevelseslæsning 4

Side 36 af 101


Gloser til Wired and Wise @ 13

Wired: egtl. At have ledninger på – her: at være on-line

Mannerisms: manerer

Gizmos: alle mulige smarte teknologiske dimser

Geek: nørd

Grooming: egtl. Soignere, her: uddanne sig

Instances: eksempler

Average: gennemsnitlig

Urban: det der vedrører byer, dem der bor i (større) byer

Qualitative study: kvalitativt/undersøgende (hvorfor og hvordan) studie/forskning i modsætning til

kvantitativt studie (tal, data, test)

Unearthed: grave frem, bringe for dagen

Startling: overraskende

Vulnerable: sårbar

MD: dr. med, læg.

Research agency: forskningsinstitut

Insights: resultater

Gained: opnået

AVs: audio-visuel – noget med lyd og billede

Boundaries: afgrænsninger, grænser

Merged: smeltet sammen, føjet sammen

Mirror: reflekterer, afspejler

Adults: voksne

Student counsellor: vejleder, ungdomsvejleder

Upmarket: den dyre ende

Lavish: ødsel

Moderation: beherskelse

Homemaker: husmor

Class-conscious society: klassebevidst samfund

Brand conscious: mærkevarebevidst

Image-conscious: bevidst om sit eget udtryk

Pedicures: fodpleje

Check: krydset af ( )

Replacing: erstatter

Imparts leadership skills: indgiver lederkompetencer

Confident: selvsikre

Printout: print

Environment: omgivelser, miljø

Patience: tålmodighed

Resilience: livsmod, ukuelighed

Perceived: opfattet

Studious: flittige, omhyggelige

Side 37 af 101


Kopiark til oplevelseslæsning 5

Vegetarian Rupees

Happy Meal

McAloo Tikki 20.00

Crispy Chinese 35.00

McVeggie 39.50

Paneer Salsa Wrap 49.50

McCurryPan 49.50

Non Vegetarian

Happy Meal

Chicken McGrill 20.00

McChicken 52.00

Filet-O-Fish 53.00

Chicken Mexican Wrap 55.00

McCurryPan 62.00

Chicken Maharaja Mac 63.00

Starters

Veg Pizza McPuff 20.00

Potato Wedges 22.50

Small Fries 22.50

Medium Fries 29.50

Large Fries 38.50

Others

McShakes 28/39/50/50

Cheese 6.50

Condiment/Topping 5.50

Side 38 af 101


Side 39 af 101


Big Mac Index

Big Mac Indexet er baseret på en teori om lighed i købekraft – altså at en dollar skulle kunne købe det samme i alle

lande. I dette tilfælde er det en McDonald Big Mac burger, som bliver produceret og solgt i 120 lande.

I Indien har man ikke Big Mac – i stedet har man Maharaja Mac, som er lavet af fårekød. Derfor kan Indien ikke

direkte indgå i Big Mac Index, hvor man sammenligner købekraft overalt i verden. McDonald er blevet udfordret af

de indiske forbrugere. 40 % spiser ikke kød, og de der spiser kød vil som regel ikke have okse- eller svinekød. Indiske

forbrugere vil gerne have masser af krydderier i alting.

http://www.economist.com/markets/Bigmac/Index.cfm

Eksempel på løn

Lav dagløn 12 kr.

Lavere dagløn 8 kr.

Uddannet dagløn 350 kr.

Højt uddannet 650 kr.

1. Giv et eksempel på hvor mange dage en familie på 4 skal arbejde, hvis de skal bestille et ”Economy Treat for

4”, hvis de er enten lavtlønnede eller højt uddannede.

2. Giv eksempler på, hvad indisk McDonald’s mad består af.

Bonusinformation

• En arbejdsuge i Indien er på 6 dage á 8 timer = 48 timer.

• Aloo = kartoffel

• Pan = ost

• Salsa = krydret tomatblanding

• Kursen på 100 d.kr. = 927,64 rupees.

Side 40 af 101


Kopiark til oplevelseslæsning 6

Side 41 af 101


Gloser til Facebook twist to saas-bahu story

Revelations: afsløringer

Imperil: udsætte for fare

Arranged marriages: arrangerede ægteskaber

Twist: drejning

Saas-bahu: svigerfamilie-svigerdatter = ofte i opposition til hinanden, da svigerdatteren

flytter ind og bor i svigerfamilien.

Gossip: sladder

Sister-in-law: svigerinde

Villain: skurk

Saga: fortælling

Fiancé: forlovede

Call off: aflyser

Mother-in-law: svigermor

Engineer: ingeniør

Off-shouldered: (formodentlig) med bare skuldre

Avatar: skikkelse

Convinced: overbeviste

Social networking: det at bruge sociale tjenester på nettet

Reveal: afslører

Have led: har ført

Background check: baggrundsundersøgelse

Relatives: slægtninge

Prospective: kommende

Match: parti

Confirming: bekræfte

Marriage consultant: ægteskabsvejleder

Refuse: afvise

Occasional: lejlighedsvis

Mumbai-based: bor i Mumbai

Physiotherapist: fysioterapeut

Rescue: redning

Common friends: fælles venner

Social circle: omgangskreds

Event: begivenhed

Incriminating: belastende

Soft drink: sodavand (drik uden alkohol)

Side 42 af 101


Kopiark til oplevelseslæsning 7

Side 43 af 101


Gloser til ”We want to be the best in everything”

Career planning: karriereplanlægning

Attends: går til, overværer

Contemporary: samtidig, moderne

Sanskrit: et af verdens ældste sprog, har samme rolle i Indien som Latin i Europa.

Café Coffee Day: en smart cafékæde

Oversize: stor

Exhibits: udviser

Self-assuredness: selvsikkerhed

Toddlers: småbørn

Maths paper: matematikopgave

Consistently: hele tiden, stadig

Considering: i betragtning af

Mean the world: betyder alt

Cautiously: forsigtigt

Affected: berørt

Imran Khan: en berømt pakistansk cricketspiller, som er berømt både for velgørenhed

og for sine politiske standpunkter.

Side 44 af 101


Kopiark til oplevelseslæsning 8

Side 45 af 101


Gloser til ”John, his boys and Bips”

Bips: kælenavn for hans kæreste Biphasa (nu eks-kæreste).

Dost: (hindi) ven

Dostana: sangene fra filmen er i kufferten

Sequel: opfølger, fortsættelse

Abhishek: Abhishek Bacchan er en af Indiens megastjerner

Director: instruktør

Staid: adstadig, rolig

Destination: rejsemål

Male bonding: at skabe bånd mellem mænd

Prisoners: fanger

Even out: udglatter, udjævner

Keen: ivrig

Instrumental: medvirkende

Batsman: slåer (i cricket)

Chopping: egtl. hugge, her: slå til

Enthused: vise begejstring

Egged her on: tilskyndede hende til

Advisor: rådgiver

Speak my mind: siger min mening

Side 46 af 101


Kopiark til oplevelseslæsning 9

Side 47 af 101


Gloser til ”Mother of all rural marketing schemes”

Marketing schemes: marketingsplaner, salgsplaner

UP: Uttar Pradesh, den største delstat i Indien.

Rural: landlig, det der vedrører landlige områder

City Gold, Tata Tea, Brooke Bond: temærker

Village entrepreneurs:

Enrolled: tilmeldt, indrulleret

Marketing: salg

Behemoth: enormt store (fra hebræisk)

Plump: gå stærkt ind for

Consumer goods: forbrugsvarer

Bear out: bekræfte

Cultivate: dyrke

Vast: enorme

Tap: berøre

Launch: lancering

Customizing: skræddersy

NGOs: non-governmental organisations, ikke-statslige organisationer,

udviklingsorganisationer

Operational run: driftsperiode

Coincided: faldt sammen med

Purchasing power: købekraft

Yielding: give afkast, give udbytte

Rate of growth: vækstrate

Daubing: smøre

On average: gennemsnitligt

Records: registrerer

Rs.: rupee, indisk møntenhed, 1 rupiya er 100 paise. 100 kroner = 927,64 rupees.

Side 48 af 101


Kopiark til oplevelseslæsning 10

Side 49 af 101


Gloser til ”Metro’s flip side”

Flip side: den anden side.

Campus students: studerende fra universitetsområdet.

Hangout zone: opholdssted, hænge-ud-sted.

Gain: gevinst.

Vishwavidyalaya: (sanskrit/hindi) universitet

Frolic: spøgefuldheder.

Rekindle: få til at blusse op igen.

To the hilt: fuldstændigt.

Became operational: blev sat i drift.

Joint: bule, hus, sted.

Transpires: komme for dagen, sker.

Attend classes: møde op i klassen, være med

Make merry: lave sjov

Bunk classes: pjække.

Political Science: statskundskab

Contributed: bidraget

Lawns: græsplæner

Vendors: sælgere

Catering edibles: sørge for spiselige sager

Make up: erstatter

En route: undervejs

Loitering: driver omkring

Draw: tiltrækning

Tenner: tier

Indulge: tillade sig selv, forkæle sig selv

Literally: bogstavelig talt

Blackmailed: afpressede

Ghaziabad: en by 25 km fra New Delhi

Brisk: livlig

Side 50 af 101


Kopiark til oplevelseslæsning 11

Side 51 af 101


Gloser til ”Measuring a monthly BASKET”

Depending: afhængigt

Food habits: madvaner

Factured: faktureret, beregnet

Atta: (hindi) fuldkornshvedemel

Pulses: tørrede bælgfrugter (linser, bønner, kikærter osv.)

Brackets: parenteser

Purchases: indkøb

Maida: (hindi) hvedemel

Suji: semulje, gryn af hvede eller majs

Besan: kikærtemel, pulveriserede kikærter

Moong, Masoor, Tur, Rajma: forskellige typer tørrede bønner

Groundnut oil: jordnøddeolie

Mustard oil: sennepsolie

Vanaspati: palmeolie

Mutton: fårekød

Paneer: friskost

Side 52 af 101


Kopiark til oplevelseslæsning 12

Side 53 af 101


Punjabi = en som kommer fra Punjab

M.B.B.S. = Bachelor of Medicine and a Bachelor of Surgery

Kothi = bynavn

Caste no bar = kaste ingen hindring

delhiite = en som bor i Delhi

Teetotaller = afholdsmand

Liabilities = ulemper

LIG flat = Low Income Group

Pbi = Punjabi

Brahmin = Den højeste kaste

Pref. = Preferred

Govt. = Government

Empl. = Employed

I’less = issueless = barnløs

Retd. = Retired = pensioneret

Asso.Prof. = Associate Professor

Sis. = Sister

Asstt. Prof. = Assistent Professor =

decent = anstændige

Rajput = en kaste

Prof’ly qlfd. = Professionally qualified

Engr. = Engineer

Sikh = en som følger religionen sikhismen

MNC = multinational corporation

S. Delhi = South Delhi (det rigeste område i Delhi)

legally Div.= lovformeligt skilt

B. Tech. = Bachelor of Technology

Arora = en kaste, som er kendt for at være veluddannet

wkg = working

S/W= Software

Noida= New Okhla Industrial Development Area = Moderne industriområde tæt på Delhi

H’some=handsome

Ravidasia = medlem af en særlig sekt under sikhismen

M.D.= Doctor of medicine

U.K. = United Kingdom

Aggarwall = en kaste, som er kendt for at være handlende

Chartered Accountant = Revisor

Garg = efternavn, slægtsnavn, kaste

Sr.=Senior

Lpa=Lakh per annum=1 lakh = rs.100.000 (10,5 lpa = cirka 12 millioner d.kr.).

Em=e-mail

Simple marriage=bryllup uden store udgifter/stor medgift

Clean Shaven Sikh Khatri = barberet sikh = normalt klipper eller barberer sikher sig aldrig

Executive = udøvende, på ledelsesniveau, leder

Upadhyay = kaste

Side 54 af 101


OBC = other backward castes = andre tilbagestående kaster

Veg.=vegetarian

T.T. = teetotaler = afholdsmand

Khatri = en kaste, som er kendt for tilknytning til militær

Gztd.officer = gazetted officer = An officer in Indian government service whose signature is

required for attesting certificate copies & photograps of a person.

No bar=kaste, alder, uddannelse er ligegyldig

Side 55 af 101


Kopiark til litteratur 1

Rabindranath Tagore: Gitanjali

Tagore fik Nobelprisen i litteratur for sin digtsamling Gitanjali, som på bengalsk betyder ”det at ofre

en sang som bøn”. Digtene rummer traditionelle hinduistiske tanker og forestillinger, der gøres

levende ved at beskrive kærligheden og samhørigheden med guderne eller guden som om det var

kærlighed mellem to mennesker. Oprindeligt skrevet på bengali og udgivet på engelsk i 1913.

glad bird on its flight across the sea.

I

Thou hast made me endless, such is thy pleasure. This

frail vessel thou emptiest again and again, and fillest it

ever with fresh life.

This little flute of a reed 1

thou hast carried over hills and

dales and hast breathed through it melodies eternally

new.

At the immoral touch of thy hands my little heart loses its

limits in joy and gives birth to utterance ineffable 2

.

Thy infinite gifts come to me only on these very small

hands of mine. Ages pass, and still thou pourest, and still

there is room to fill.

II

When thou commandest me to sing it seems that my

heart would break with pride; and I look to thy face, and

tears come to my eyes.

All that is harsh and dissonant in my life melts into one

sweet harmony – and my adoration spreads wings like a

I know thou takest pleasure in my singing. I know that only as a singer I come before thy presence.

I touch by the edge of the far-spreading wing of my song thy feet 3

which I could never aspire to reach.

Drunk with the joy of singing I forget myself and call thee friend who art my lord.

1 Reed: bambus, rør.

2 Ineffable: ubeskrivelig.

3 Touch thy feet: at berøre en andens fødder er et almindeligt tegn på respekt i Indien.

Side 56 af 101


III

I know not how thou singest, my master!

I ever listen in silent amazement.

The light of thy music illumines the world. The life breath of thy music runs from sky to sky. The

holy stream of thy music breaks through all stony obstacles and rushes on.

My heart longs to join in thy song, but vainly struggles for a voice. I would speak, but speech breaks

not into song, and I cry out baffled 1

. Ah, thou hast made my heart captive in the endless meshes 2

of

thy music, my master!

1 Baffled: magtesløs, forbløffet.

2 Meshes: tråde i et net.

Side 57 af 101


Kopiark til litteratur 2

Godan af Premchand

Kapitel 24, Godan betyder ”en ko som gave”. Udgivet første gang i 1936

dishonest intentions. When the bailiff 7

murmur. What about my money?”

His entire crop gone in payment of the fine, Hori passed

one month on the meagre stocks 1 he had somehow

scraped together. But with the beginning of June the

situation became desperate; five mouths to feed and not a

crumb in the house. Already heavily in debt, another loan

was ruled out. Nor could he take up work as a hired hand:

his own cane 2 crop now under irrigation 3

claimed all his

time. The irony of it! Even to do his own work, his body

first needed food.

Dusk 4 . The baby wailed, but Jhunia’s breasts were dry

for lack of food. Rupa who, unlike Sona, was too young

to understand the gravity of the situation, fought off

hunger during the day by sucking raw mangoes. Now she

sat whimpering: her stomach cried for something more

substantial. Hori hurried to Dulari’s shop. She had closed

for the day. As a last resort he went to Mangru, the

money-lender. Mangru not only refused him point-blank

but also gave him a bit of his mind 5 . “Let me remind you

that you have not paid me a pice 6 in interest for the last

three years,” he said. “What audacity! Another loan!

Look at your plight: this is what happens to a man with

threatened for payment, you spilled out money without a

Hori came back, dejected. He was sitting at the door-step when Punia, his brother’s wife, came. She

8

noticed there was no light in the kitchen. “Bhabi , why haven’t you lighted the hearth?” she asked

Dhania. “It’s time you started cooking.”

“What am I to cook with?” Dhania said. “Metho gave everything away to pay the fine without

caring whether the children lived or died. Now the community won’t so much as look at us.”

1 Meagre stocks: magre beholdninger

2 Cane: sukkerrør.

3 Irrigation: kunstvanding.

4 Dusk: tusmørke.

5 Bit of his mind: sige hans mening; skælde ud.

6 Pice: pjece, et stykke. Paisa betyder både stykke og penge på hindi. 1 rupee er 100 paise.

7 Bailiff: foged, skattefoged.

8 Bhabi: svigerinde, brors kone. I Indien er det almindeligt at kalde hinanden ved slægtsnavne også når man ikke er i

familie med hinanden.

Side 58 af 101


This year Punia’s crop had been plentiful; she openly acknowledged it as the result of Hori’s

perseverance. 1

When Heera tilled the land, the yield had not been half as good.

“Why didn’t you send for some grain from my house?” she said. “What is mine is as much Mehto’s.

In bad times we must share our sorrows. I am not blind: I recognize the virtues of a man. Had

Metho not come to my rescue, where would have I been?”

She took Sona with her. They returned with two enormous baskets of barley. Before Dhania could

2

thank her, she had disappeared. This time she brought a basket of dal . “Let me do the fire,” she

said.

3

Dhania saw that the basket of barley also contained a few seers of ground wheat. Tears came to her

eyes. “It seems you have given us all that you had. Why did you not keep some for yourself?”

Jhunia’s child lay in the cot in the courtyard, still crying. Punia picked him up, and caressed him.

4

“Bhabi, with your blessings I have plenty in my house. This season I harvested fifteen maunds of

barley and ten maunds of wheat. And five maunds of peas. I won’t hide anything from you. It’s

sufficient for both the families till the maize crop is in. And after that we shall leave ourselves to

God’s care.”

5

Jhunia touched Punia’s feet . Sona lit the fire. Rupa ran to fetch water. The daily routine was

resumed. The house hummed. Life, like a river turbulent and noisy with impediments 6

, with their

removal, relapsed into a calm flow.

Punia said, “Was there any hurry for Mehto to pay the fine?”

“How else could he uphold his dignity?” Dhania said sarcastically.

“Bhabi, may I say something? You won’t mind?”

“Tell me. I won’t.”

“You shouldn’t have kept Jhunia in the house.”

“What else could I do? She would have drowned herself.”

“You could have sent her to stay with me. And saved yourself all this trouble.”

“This is what you think now. At that time you would have chased her away with a broom.”

“The fine you paid could have gone into a splendid marriage for Gobar.”

“No one quarrels with Fate. This is only the beginning. Bhola now insists on payment for his cow.

He says he is no longer interested in getting a bride for himself. His sons hound us. How can we

fight them single-handed? This wretched cow has undone us.”

Hori had been listening from the door step. When Punia left he came in and said, “Punia is not bad

at heart.”

“You said the same thing about Heera,” Dhania retorted.

7

Dhania had accepted the grain, but it rankled . The fickleness of time that had reduced her to such

humiliation.

“You are never grateful to any one,” Hori said. “That’s one bad thing about you.”

1 Perserverance: udholdenhed.

2 Dal: linser. Er en vigtig del af de daglige måltider overalt i Indien.

3 Seers: måleenhed, 1 seer = 0,93310 kg.

4 Maunds: måleenhed, 1 maund = 37,3242 kg. Men kan variere fra 10 til 40 kilogram.

5 Touched feet: det er et almindeligt tegn for respekt i Indien at røre en andens fødder. Her har Punia som storebrors

enke højere status end Jhunia, som er Punias brors svigerdatter.

6 Impediments: forhindringer.

7 Rankled: efterlod en brod.

Side 59 af 101


“Why should I be obliged to her?” she said. “Haven’t you sweated for her day and night? I haven’t

taken charity from her. I’ll pay back every jot of grain.

Punia knew her sister-in-law’s feelings too well. But she was grateful to Hori for what he had done

for her. As soon as their ration depleted, she would send some more.

But when the rainy season came and no rain fell, the situation became critical. A heat wave gripped

the countryside; hot puffs of wind grazed the fields, the wells dried up, the sugar crop withered.

Water from the river was rationed to the cultivators by turns 1 . The result – squabbles; till this source

of supply also stopped. Thefts and dacoities 2

swept the province; public indignation mounted.

Then the rains came. Flagging spirits revived. To the cultivators they were showers of gold. The

parched earth, it seemed, would never be saturated. Ploughs were brought out; children ran to

inspect the tanks. “They are half full!” They returned, shouting and clapping.

The drought had already done its worst. The cane crop failed. Of what use were stunted stalks no

more than a foot long? They depended mainly on sugar cane. You could hardly expect them to pay

3

land revenue out of the sale of maize and millets, much less pay back the moneylenders. They

consoled themselves with the hope that there would be at least green fodder for the cattle.

With January gone and still no payment, Bhola one day stormed Hori’s house. “So this is how you

keep your promise!” he fumed. “You gave me word you would pass me the money after the

4

crushing of sugar cane. The crushing is long over. Pay up.”

Hori pleaded for time. Bhola wouldn’t listen. “I tell you I have no money,” Hori said in

exasperation. “I can’t even raise a loan. What am I to do: I have to go without food. If you don’t

believe me, search my house. If you find anything there, go ahead and take it.”

“Why should I search your house?” Bhola snorted. “It’s not my concern whether you have the

money or not. I’m reminding you of your promise. The crushing is over. I want the money.”

“You tell me what to do.”

“What more is there for me to say?”

“I leave it to you.”

“Then I’ll take your bullocks.”

Hori looked at him in surprise. He could hardly believe his ears. As if stunned he lowered his head.

Was Bhola bent on making him a pauper? Taking away the bullocks amounted to cutting off his

hands.

5

“I’ll be ruined if the bullocks go,” he said. “But if your dharma says it’s fair, then take them.”

“I don’t care whether you are poor or rich. I want my money.”

“What if I tell everyone I’ve already paid it?”

Bhola was taken aback. It had never crossed his mind that Hori might cheat like this.

6

“It’s not true,” he said indignantly. “But if you swear by the holy water of the Ganga , there’s

nothing for me but to put up with my loss.”

“I would like to – very much. But I won’t.”

“You can’t.”

1 To the cultivators by turn: til dem der dyrkede jorden efter tur.

2 Dacoities: Dacoits er et almindeligt indisk begreb, som betyder landevejsrøvere.

3 Land revenue: jordskatter.

4 Crushing of sugar cane: sukkerrørene skal kvases for at få sukkersaften ud.

5 Dharma: hinduistisk religiøst begreb som betyder pligt.

6 Holy water of Ganga: helligt vand fra floden Ganges – har en stor religiøs betydning.

Side 60 af 101


“Yes, I can’t. I was just joking.”

For a moment he seemed lost in thought. Then: “Why do you nurse ill-will against me, Bhola

bhai 1

? So Jhunia did come to my house – what good has it done to me? I lost my son. I paid a fine

of two hundred rupees. I’m ruined. And now you want to dig up my very roots. Believe me, I knew

nothing about my son’s doings. I thought he went to join the music parties. I got to know the real

facts when Jhunia came to my house late that night. Tell me, if I had not given her shelter where

else could she go? Would anybody else have cared?”

Jhunia, standing by the door of the vestibule, overheard. She had now no respect for Bhola; he was

her enemy. Afraid lest he may prevail upon Hori to part with the bullocks she asked Rupa to call

back her mother from the fields, where she had gone to deposit the dung. “Tell her to hurry,” she

said. “It’s important.”

“My father is here,” Jhunia said when she came.

“Yes. I saw that butcher sitting by the door. I didn’t care to speak to him.”

2

“He has asked dada for the bullocks.”

“Yes. He said if dada did not pay the money, he would take the bullocks.”

“And what did your dada say?”

“He left it to his sense of dharma.”

“Let him take the bullocks. One day he’ll come and beg at our door. Spit on my face if I tell a lie.”

She came out. “I hear Mehto wants our pair of bullocks,” she said enraged. “Why don’t you give

them to him? He wants only bullocks, not our hands. We can still work for others with our hands.

God willing, we’ll again own bullocks. And what’s so shameful in being labourers? We won’t have

to worry over the tricks of nature and the burden of paying rents. Had I known he was so vicious, I

would never have taken his cow. The day her shadow fell here, we’ve gone from bad to worse.”

Bhola had been waiting for just this chance. He had convinced himself that, bullocks excepting,

they had nothing to fall back on and that they would stop at nothing to prevent the bullocks from

falling into his hands.

A cunning marksman, he concentrated on their weakest spot. He said, “If you think I’ll let you sit

back in comfort after suffering all this humiliation, you are very much mistaken. You lament over

your two hundred rupees; but I have lost my prestige. You’ll do well to turn out Jhunia the same

way you brought her here. Turn her out and I’ll ask neither for your bullocks nor the price of my

cow. I can’t bear the idea of her sitting here like a princess while we grovel in shame. She is my

daughter; she has grown in my lap; be God my witness, I have loved her no less than my sons. But

today I want to drive her from one end of the country to the other, make her beg for alms, and potter

for food in rubbish heaps. I am her father. She has hurt me – her father! The shame this evil girl has

brought on my house will not be washed for seven generations. And you shamelessly keep her in

your house. What else is this but insult!”

“Look here, Mehto,” Dhania spoke as if she meant every word to register on Bhola’s heart. “I’m not

so soft. I’ll never do what you ask. We hold Jhunia dearer than our lives. If our bullocks can redeem

the honour of your ancestors and restore your lost prestige, take them. I do admit that Jhunia has

committed a mistake. When she came to our house, I wanted to drive her off. But she wept – I have

a heart – I gave her refuge. You, Mehto, you are an old man, yet you are not able to control your

passions for a woman. How dare you accuse this young girl?”

1 Bhai: bror (hindi).

2 Dada: Bedstefar el. ældre bror. Respektfuldt udtryk for en mand.

Side 61 af 101


“Did you hear her, Hori?” Bhola said with an aggrieved, mute appeal in his eyes. “Don’t blame me

now. Give me the bullocks.”

“Take them,” Hori said grimly.

“Think it over.”

“I have.”

As Bhola moved to untether the animals, Jhunia, in sequined sari 1 , the child in her lap, stepped in

front of him. “Kaka 2

, don’t take the bullocks.” Her voice shook. “I’ll go. I’ll beg. If I can’t live on

alms. I’ll drown myself.”

“Get out of my sight,” Bhola shouted. “May I never see your face again, you cursed woman!

Drowning’s too good for you.”

Jhunia did not look at him. She wanted to lose herself in the fire of her own wrath, a wrath which

3

was not an expression of violence but of self-abnegation . If the earth had yawned and devoured her

then, she would have thought herself lucky.

She had not gone two steps when Dhania caught hold of her. “Where are you going, daughter?” she

said. “This house is yours, as much now as after we die. Why should you drown yourself? Let a

father who hates his own children be drowned. You should be ashamed of yourself,” she said to

Bhola. “Take the bullocks and drink their blood.”

“If my own father curses me, it is not right that I live,” Jhunia sobbed. “Let me go and die. I have

caused you so much pain. But even my own mother would not have treated me as kindly as you

have done. I shall pray to God that if I am born again it may be as your daughter.”

Pulling Jhunia to her, Dhania said, “He’s not your father: he’s your enemy. Had your mother been

living she would not have let this happen to you. Let him marry again. You’ll see he’ll get what he

deserves!”

Jhunia followed her mother-in-law into the house and Bhola untied the bullocks from the peg and

proceeded home, panting, as if returning from a feast after receiving a beating instead of sweets.

Now let’s see Hori cultivate his hand and live in peace! These people, he knew, wanted to shame

him; for why should any decent man care to keep such a girl in his house? They had no sense of

4

shame. They could not find a decent girl for their son and fell for her. And the cheek of that slut?

She defied him! Any other girl in her place would not have shown him her face 5

. The fools! Did

they think that Jhunia was now theirs? A girl who did not stay in her father’s house would not stay

in another’s house for long either. How he would have liked to drag that witch Dhania by the hair in

front of the whole village. But tempers were touchy at present.

He looked at the bullocks. Sturdy creatures, an excellent pair. He could sell them any time for a

hundred. In any case, he had more than made good his eighty rupees.

Near the outskirts of the village he saw Datadin, Pateshwari, Shobha, and a few others hurrying

after him. He went cold with fear. He sensed trouble; would they beat him up and snatch away the

bullocks? He stopped. He would go down fighting.

“What’s all this, Bhola?” Datadin moved up close. “You untied his bullocks and he kept quiet. Is

that what made you so bold? We were busy with our work. If Hori had just thrown a hint, we’d

1 Sequined sari: sari er kvinders klædedragt, et langt stykke stof, som vindes omkring kroppen. Sequined betyder med

pailletter.

2 Kaka: fars ældre bror. Bhola er ikke Jhunias far; men vokset op i samme hus, hvor de to brødre boede sammen.

3 Self-abnegation: selvfornægtelse.

4 Cheek: egentlig kind, men her: uforskammethed.

5 Face: i landsbyer i Indien, er det almindeligt at voksne kvinder skjuler deres hår og ansigt for mænd.

Side 62 af 101


have plucked every hair from your body. If you don’t want trouble, give back the bullocks – now.

Have you not shame?”

“He’s taking advantage of Hori’s simplicity,” Pateshwari said.

“If he owes you money, go, file a suit and get a decree against him. What right have you to set

hands on the bullocks? Why, if he files a criminal suit against you, the police will teach you a

lesson.”

A little subdued, Bhola said, “Lala, I didn’t force him to give me the bullocks. He just wanted to

give them to me.”

“No peasants parts with his bullocks willingly,” Pateshwari retorted. “How will he manage without

them?” Will he yoke you to the plough? Shobha, take the bullocks from him.”

Shobha stepped forward. “Give me the halters. File a suit if you want your money. Or I’ll beat you

to death. Did you pay him in cash? You thrust an ill-omened 1

cow on him and now you want his

bullocks too.”

Bhola did not move. He stood in front of the bullocks silent but determined. It was no use arguing

with Pateshwari.

Datadin straightened his back. “What are you waiting for?” He jumped excitedly. “Beat him away.

How dare he take the bullocks from our village?”

Banshi, a powerful youth, violently elbowed Bhola to the ground. He rose; and got another blow.

They saw Hori running towards them. Bhola got up and scrambled towards Hori. “Hori, tell them

the truth. Did I take your bullocks by force?”

Datadin said, “He’s trying to fool us, Hori.”

Hori hesitated. “Well, the fact is,” he said tumblingly, “That he asked me to turn out Jhunia or give

him his money. If not, he’d take my bullocks. I told him I would neither turn out Jhunia nor had I

any money. But if his dharma said that it was fair to take away the bullocks, he could take them.”

“When you left the matter to his dharma the question of force doesn’t arise,” Pateshwari looked

crest-fallen. “His sense of dharma says he’s doing right. Bhai, the bullocks are yours. Go.”

They looked at Hori contemptuously. Bhola lifted his neck, proudly marching, the bullocks

following.

1 Ill-omened: omen er et tegn, og ill-omened er ildevarslende.

Side 63 af 101


Kopiark til litteratur 3

R.K. Narayan: Waiting for the Mahatma, 1955

It was April. The summer sun shone like a ruthless arc lamp

– and all the water in the well evaporated and the road-dust

became bleached and weightless and flew about like flour

spraying off the grinding wheels. Granny said as Sriram was

starting out for the evening, “Why don’t you fetch some good

jaggery 1

for tomorrow, and some jasmine 2

for the puja 3

?” He

had planned to go towards Lawley Extension today and not to

the market, and he felt reluctant to oblige her. But she was

insistent. She said,

“Tomorrow is New Year’s Day.”

“Already another New Year!” he cried. “It seems as though

we celebrated one yesterday.”

“Whether yesterday or the day before, it’s a New Year’s Day.

I want certain things for its celebration. If you are not going,

I’ll go myself. It’s not for me! It’s only to make some sweet

stuff for you.”

Grumbling a great deal, he got up, dressed himself, and

started out. When he arrived at the market he was pleased

that his granny had forced him to go there.

As he approached the Market Fountain a pretty girl came up

and stopped him.

“Your contribution?” she asked, shaking a sealed tin collecting box.

Sriram’s throat went dry and no sound came. He had never been spoken to by any girl before; she

was slender and young, with eyes that sparkled with happiness. He wanted to ask, “How old are you?

What caste 4

are you? Where is your horoscope 5

? Are you free to marry me?” She looked so different

from the beauty in Kanni’s shop; his critical faculties were at once alert, and he realized how shallow

was the other beauty, the European queen, and wondered that he had ever given her a thought. He

wouldn’t look at the picture again even if Kanni should give it to him free.

The girls rattled the money-box. The sound brought him back from his reverie, and he said, “Yes,

6

Yes”; he fumbled in his jibba side-pocket for loose change and brought out an eight-anna 7

silver coin

and dropped it into the slot. The girl smiled at him in return and went away, seeming to move with

the lightest of steps like a dancer. Sriram had a wild hope that she would let him touch her hand, but

she moved off and disappeared into the market crowd.

1 Jaggery: brunt sukker lavet af sukkerrør.

2 Jasmine: stærkt duftende jasminblomster sælges i små guirlander til brug for puja, til at hænge på gudestatuer.

3 Puja: bøn og/eller religiøs handling i hinduismen.

4 Caste: kaste, alle i Indien tilhører en kaste, en gruppe. Man gifter sig som hovedregel kun indenfor samme kaste.

5 Horoscope: horoskop, en oversigt over stjernehimmelen i en persons fødselsøjeblik. Anvendes til at sammenligne for at

se om to personer passer sammen – og også for at finde den rigtige dag at gifte sig på.

6 Jibba; en lang skjorte til mænd.

7 Eight-anna: en ottendedel af en anna, den gl. møntfod i Indien. En anna var 1/16 af en rupee. En anna var igen delt i

4 paise eller 12 pies – så der var 64 paise i en rupee og 192 pies).

Side 64 af 101


“What a dangerous thing for such a beauty to be about!” he thought. It was a busy hour with cycles,

horse carriages and motor-cars passing down the road, and a jostling crowd was moving in and out of

the arched gateway of the market. People were carrying vegetables, rolls of banana leaves and all kinds

of New Year purchases. Young urchins were hanging about with baskets on their heads soliciting,

“Cooly 1

, sir, cooly?” She had disappeared into the market like a bird gliding on wings. He felt that he

wanted to sing a song for her. But she was gone. He realized he hadn’t even asked what the

contribution was for. He wished he hadn’t given just a nickel but thrust a ten rupee note into her

collection box (he could afford it), and that would have given her a better impression of him, and

possible have made her stand and talk to him. He should have asked her where she lived. What a

fool not to have held her up. He ought to have emptied all his money into her money-box. She had

vanished through the market arch.

He vaguely followed this trail, hoping that he would be able to catch another glimpse of her. If ever he

saw her again he would take charge of the money-box and make the collection for her, whatever it

2

might be for. He looked over the crowd for a glimpse again of the white sari , over the shoulders of

the jostling crowd, around the vegetable stalls … But it was a hopeless quest, not a chance of seeing

her again. Who could she be and where did she come from? Could it be that she was the daughter of

a judge or might she be an other-worldly creature who had come suddenly to meet him and whom he

did not know how to treat? What a fool he was. He felt how sadly he lacked the necessary polish for

such encounters. That was why it was urged on him to go to a college and pass his B.A. Those who

went to colleges and passed their B.A. were certainly people who knew how to conduct themselves

before girls.

3

He passed into the market arch in the direction she took. At the fly-ridden jaggery-shop he said

tentatively: “A lot of people are about collection money for all sort of things.”

The jaggery merchant said sourly, “Who will not collect money if there are people to give?”

“I saw a girl jingling a money-box. Even girls have taken to it,” Sriram said, holding his breath, hoping

to hear something.

“Oh, that,” the other said, “I too had to give some cash. We have to. We can’t refuse.”

“Who is she?” Sriram asked, unable to carry on diplomatically any further.

The jaggery merchant threw a swift look at him which seemed slightly sneering, and said: “She has

4

something to do with Mahatma Gandhi and is collecting a fund. You know the Mahatma is coming.”

5

Sriram suddenly woke from an age-old somnolence to the fact that Malgudi was about to have the

honour of receiving Mahatma Gandhi.

Page 21-24.

1 Cooly: kuli, en der bærer varer for en anden mod penge.

2 Sari: en indisk kvindes klæde. Består af et langt stykke stof, som vikles rundt om kroppen.

3 Fly-ridden: fluebefængte.

4 Mahatma Gandhi: Maha=stor atma=ånd, et tilnavn som Gandhi fik. M. K. Gandhi var en verdensberømt forkæmper

for Indiens selvstændighed. Han er især kendt for sin ikke-voldelige kamp.

5 Malgudi: en by og et univers i Sydindien, som forfatteren R.K. Narayan opfandt. Her fandt alle hans bøger sted.

Side 65 af 101


Kopiark til litteratur 4

Khuswant Singh: Train to Pakistan,

Historisk roman udgivet i 1956. Den fortæller historien om delingen af Indien august 1947 med et lokalt

fokus, som giver en menneskelig dimension, der giver en virkelighedsnær, frygtelig troværdighed.

Hovedpersonen Hukum Chand er den regionale magistrat (en slags politimand). Det bliver åbenbart, at han

er en mand med moralske konflikter. Tilsyneladende er han korrumperet i sin magt igennem årene. Han

bliver beskrevet med et beskidt fysisk ydre, som om han er overvældet med urene handlinger og synd.

A roll of thunder woke Hukum Chand. He opened his

eyes. There was a gray light in the room. In the corner, a

weary yellow flame flickered through the soot of the lamp

chimney. There was a flash of lightning followed by

another peal of thunder. A gust of cool, damp breeze blew

across the room. The lamp fluttered and went out.

Raindrops began to fall in a gentle patter.

Rain! At long last the rain, thought the

magistrate. The monsoon had been a poor one. Clouds had

come, but they were high and fleecy and floated by,

leaving the land thirstier than before. September was very

late for the rain, but that only made it more welcome. It

smelled good, it sounded good, it looked good – and above

all, it did good. Ah, but did it? Hukum Chand felt feverish.

The corpses! A thousand charred 1 corpses sizzling and

smoking while the rain put out the fire. A hundred yards of

charred corpses! Beads 2

of sweat broke out on his temples.

He felt cold and frightened. He reached across the bed.

The girl had left. He was all alone in the bungalow. He got

his wrist watch from under the pillow and cupped his

hands round the dial. The glow-worm green of the radium

hands pointed to 6:30. He felt comforted. It was fairly late

in the morning. The sky must be heavily overcast. Then he

heard the sound of coughing on the verandah, and felt

reassured. He sat up with a jerk.

A dull pain rocked his forehead. He shut his

eyes and held his head between his hands. The throbbing ebbed away. He had drunk too much whisky and

had eaten nothing. After a few minutes, he opened his eyes, looked around the room – and saw the girl. She

3 4

had not left. She was asleep on the big cane armchair, wrapped in her black sequined sari. Hukum Chand

felt a little foolish. The girl had been there two nights, and there she was sleeping all by herself in a chair.

She was still, save for the gentle heaving of her bosom. He felt old and unclean. How could he have done

anything to this child? If his daughter had lived, she would have been about the same age. He felt a pang of

remorse 5

. He also knew that his remorse and good resolutions went with the hangover. They always did. He

would probably drink again and get the same girl over and sleep with her – and feel badly about it. That was

life, and it was depressing.

1 Charred: forkullede.

2 Beads: perler.

3 Cane: rør, bambus.

4 Sequined sari: pailletbesat sari. Sari er kvinders beklædning; et 5 meter langt stykke stof, som foldes omkring kroppen.

5 Remorse: fortrydelse.

Side 66 af 101


He got up slowly and opened the attaché case that lay on the table. He looked at himself in the

mirror on the inside of the lid. There was a yellow rheum 1 in the corners of his eyes. The roots of his hair

were showing white and purple. There were several folds of flesh under his unshaven jaw. He was old and

ugly. He stuck out his tongue. It was coated with a smooth pale yellow from the middle to the back. Dribble 2

ran down the tip onto the table. He could smell his own breath. It must have been nauseating 3 for the girl! No

wonder she spent the night in an uncomfortable chair. Hukum Chand took out a bottle of liver salts 4 and put

several large teaspoonfuls into a glass. He unscrewed the thermos flask and poured in the water. The

effervescence 5

bubbled over from all sides of the tumbler onto the table. He stirred the water till the fizz died

down, then drank it quickly. For some time he stood with his head bent and his hands resting on the table.

The dose of salts gurgled down pleasantly. An airy fullness rose from the pit of his stomach

6

up to his throat and burped out in a long satisfying belch. The throbbing ebbed away and the ache receded

into the back of his head. A few cups of strong hot tea and he would be himself again. Hukum Chand went to

the bathroom. From the door opening out toward the servants’ quarters 7 he shouted for his bearer 8

.

“Bring shaving water and bring my tea. Bring it here. I will take it in myself.”

When the bearer came, Hukum Chand took the tea tray and the mug of hot shaving water into the bedroom

and put them on the table. He poured himself a cup of tea and laid out his shaving things. He lathered

chin and shaved and sipped his tea. The tinkle of the china and silver did not disturb the girl. She slept with

her mouth slightly open. She looked dead except for the periodic upward movement of her breasts vainly

trying to fill her bodice 10 . Her hair was scattered all over her face. A pink celluloid clip made in the shape of

a butterfly dangled by the leg of the chair. Her sari was crushed and creased, and bits of sequins 11

glistened

on the floor. Hukum Chand could not take his eyes off her while he sipped his tea and shaved. He could not

analyze his feelings except that he wanted to make up to her. If she wanted to be slept with, he would sleep

with her. The thought made him uneasy. He would have to drink hard to do that to her now.

The noise of shuffling feet and coughing on the verandah disturbed Hukum Chands’s

12

thoughts. It was a cough intended to draw attention. That meant the subinspector . Hukum Chand finished

his tea and took his clothes into the bathroom to change. Afterward, he went out of the door which opened

toward the quarters and stepped onto the verandah. The subinspector was reading a newspaper. He jumped

up from his chair and saluted.

“Has your honor been out walking in the rain?”

“No, no. I just went round the servants’ quarters. You are early. I hope all is well.”

“These days one should be grateful for being alive. There is no peace anywhere. One trouble

after another ...”

The magistrate suddenly thought of the corpses. “Did it rain in the night? How is it going near

the railway station?”

“I went by this morning when the rain had just started. There wasn’t very much left – just a

big heap of ashes and bones. There are many skulls lying about. I do not know what we can do about them. I

13

have sent word to the lambardar that no one is to be allowed near the bridge or the railway station.”

1 Rheum: væske fra øjet.

2 Dribble: savl.

3 Nauseating: kvalmende.

4 Liver salts: håndkøbsmedicin som bruges til forstoppelse og sure opstød. Giver en forfriskende smag i munden.

5 Effervescence: brusen.

6 Receded: trak sig tilbage.

7 Servants’ quarters: et eller flere små huse bag beboelsen, hvor tjenerne bor.

8 Bearer: personlig tjener.

9 Lathered: smurte sæbeskum.

10 Bodice: egtl. kjoleliv, her: stram bluse.

11 Sequins: pailletter.

12 Subinspector: en politimand. Det svarer nogenlunde til en dansk politimester, hvor Hukum Chand er politidirektør.

13 Lambardar: egtl. zamindar. Er en slags borgmester i distriktet. Chef for skatteforhold og andet.

9 his

Side 67 af 101


“How many were there? Did you count?”

“No, sir. The Sikh 1 officer said there were more than a thousand. I think he just calculated

how many people could get into a bogie 2

and multiplied it by the number of bogies. He said that another four

or five hundred must have been killed on the roofs, on footboards and between buffers. They must have

fallen off when they were attacked. The roof was certainly covered with dried-up blood.”

3 4

“Harey Ram , Harey Ram. Fifteen hundred innocent people! What else is Kalyug ? There is

darkness over the land. This is only one spot on the frontier 5

. I suppose similar things are happening at other

places. And now I believe our people are doing the same. What about the Muslims in these villages?”

“That is what I came to report, sir. Muslims of some villages have started leaving for the

6 7

refugee camp . Chundunugger has been partly evacuated. Pakistan army lorries with Baluchi and Pathan

soldiers have been picking them up whenever information has been brought. But the Mano Majra 8 Muslims

are still there and this morning the lambardar reported the arrival of forty of fifty Sikh refugees 9 who had

crossed the river by the ford 10

at dawn. They are putting up at the temple.”

“Why were they allowed to stop?” asked Hukum Chand sharply. “ You know very well the

orders are that all incoming refugees must proceed to the camp at Jullundur. This is serious. They may start

the killing in Mano Majra.”

“No, sir, the situation is well in hand up till now. These refugees have not lost much in

11

Pakistan and apparently no one molested them on the way. The Muslims of Mano Majra have been

bringing them food at the temple. If others turn up who have been through massacres and have lost relations,

then it will be a different matter. I had not thought of the river crossings. Usually, after the rains the river is a

mile in breadth and there are no fords till November or December. We have hardly had any rain this year.

There are several points where people can cross and I have not got enough policemen to patrol the riverside.”

12

Hukum Chand looked across the rest-house grounds. The rain was falling steadily. Little

pools had begun to form in the ditches. The sky was a flat stretch of slate 13

gray.

“Of course, if it keeps raining, the river will rise and there will not be many fords to cross.

One will be able to control refugee movements over the bridges.”

A crash of lightning and thunder emphasized the tempo of the rain. The wind blew a thin

spray onto the verandah.

“But we must get the Muslims out of this area whether they like it or not. The sooner the

better.”

There was a long pause in the conversation. Both men sat staring into the rain. Hukum Chand

began to speak again.

14

“One should bow before the storm till it passes. See the pampas grass ! Its leaves bend before

the breeze. The stem stands stiff in its plumed pride. When the storm comes it cracks and its white plume is

1 Sikh: en mand som følger sikhisme som sin religion.

2 Bogie: bogievogn.

3 Harey Ram: egtl. Hare Ram. Et almindeligt udbrud, som varer til ’Åh, Gud!’

4 Kaliyug: fordærvets tid, den mørke tid, hvor folk er så fjernt fra Gud som muligt.

5 Frontier: området nær ved grænsen.

6 Refugee camp: flygtningelejr.

7 Baluchi and Pathan: betegnelser for etniske befolkningsgrupper.

8 Mano Marja: navnet på den landsby, hvor historien foregår.

9 Refugees: flygtninge.

10 Ford: vadested.

11 Molested: forulempede.

12 Rest-house: et hus for rejsende, hvor der intet hotel er.

13 Slate: skifer.

14 Pampas grass: Cortaderia selloana. Pampasgræs.

Side 68 af 101


scattered by the winds like fluffs of thistledown 1 .” After a pause he added, “A wise man swims with the

current 2

and still gets across.”

3

The subinspector heard the platitudes with polite attention. He did not see their significance

to his immediate problem. Hukum Chand noticed the blank expression on the police officer’s face. He had to

make things more plain.

“What have you done about Ram Lal’s murder? Have you made any further arrests?”

4

“Yes, sir, Jugga budmash gave us the names yesterday. They are men who were at one time

in his own gang: Malli and four others from village Kapura two miles down the river. But Jugga was not

with them. I have sent some constables 5

to arrest them this morning.”

Hukum Chand did not seem to be interested. He had his eyes fixed somewhere far away.

“We were wrong about both Jugga and the other fellow.”

6

The subinspector went on: “I told you about Jugga’s liaison with a Muslim weaver’s girl. That kept him

busy most night. Malli threw bangles 7 into Jugga’s courtyard after the dacoity 8

.”

Hukum Chand still seemed far away.

“If your honor agrees, we might release Jugga and Iqbal after we have got Malli and his

companions.”

“Who are Malli and his companions, Sikh or Muslim?” asked Hukum Chand abruptly.

“All Sikhs.”

The magistrate relapsed into his thoughts once more. After some time he began to talk to

9

himself. “It would have been more convenient if they had been Mussulman . The knowledge of that and the

agitator fellow being a Leaguer 10

would have persuaded Mano Majra Sikhs to let their Muslims go.”

There was another long pause. The plan slowly pieced itself together in the subinspector’s

mind. He got up without making any comment. Hukum Chand did not want to take any chances.

11

“Listen,” he said. “Let Malli and his gang off without making any entry anywhere. But keep

an eye on their movements. We will arrest them when we want to ... And do not release the budmash or the

other chap yet. We may need them.”

The subinspector saluted.

“Wait. I haven’t finished.” Hukum Chand raised his hand. “After you have done the needful,

send word to the commander of the Muslim refugee camp asking for trucks to evacuate Mano Majra

Muslims.”

The subinspector saluted once more. He was conscious of the honor Hukum Chand had

conferred by trusting him with the execution of a delicate and complicated plan. He put on his raincoat.

“I should not let you go in this rain, but the matter is so vital that you should not lose any

time,” said Hukum Chand, still looking down at the ground.

“I know, sir.” The subinspector saluted again. “I shall take action at once.” He mounted his

bicycle and rode away from the rest house onto the muddy road.

1 Fluffs of thistledown: det bløde fluffede ovenpå en tidsels frugt.

2 Current: strøm.

3 Platitudes: banalitet.

4 Budmash: en skurk, en med slet karakter.

5 Constables: betjente.

6 Liaison: forbindelse.

7 Bangles: armbånd, ofte lavet af glas.

8 Dacoity: landevejsrøveri, røveri.

9 Mussulman: (hindi) muslimer.

10 Leaguer: forbundsmedlem.

11 Making entry: skrive det ind, skrive rapport.

fra kapitlet: Kalyug.

Side 69 af 101


Kopiark til litteratur 5

Such a long journey by Rohinton Mistry, 1991

One – i

The first light of morning barely illumined the sky as Gustad Noble

faced eastward to offer his orisons 1to Ahura Mazda. 2The hour

was approaching six, and up in the compound’s solitary tree the

sparrows began to call. Gustad listened to their chirping every

morning while reciting his kusti 3prayers.

There as something

reassuring about it. Always, the sparrows were first; the cawing of

crows came later.

From a few flats away, the metallic clatter of pots and pans began

nibbling at the edges of stillness. The bhaiya 4sat on his haunches

beside the tall aluminium can and dispensed milk into the vessels of

housewives. His little measure with its long, hooked handle dipped

into the container and emerged, dipped and emerged, rapidly,

with scarcely a drip. After each customer was served, he let the

dipper hang in the milk can, adjust his dhoti5, and rubbed his bare

knees while waiting to be paid. Flakes of dry dead skin fell from

his fingers. The women blenched with disgust, but the tranquil hour

and early light preserved the peace.

Gustad Noble eased his prayer cap slightly, away from the wide

forehead with its numerous lines, until it settled comfortably on his grey-white hair. The black velvet

of the cap contrasted starkly with his cinereous 6sideburns, but his thick, groomed moustache was just

as black and velvety. Tall and broad-shouldered, Gustad was the envy and admiration of friends

and relatives whenever health or sickness was being discussed. For a man swimming the tidewater of

his fifth decade of life, they said, he looked so solid. Especially for one who had suffered a serious

accident just a few years ago; and even that left him with nothing graver than a slight limp. His wife

hated this kind of talk. Touch wood, Dilnavaz would say to herself, and look around for a suitable

table or chair to make surreptitious7 contact with her fingers. But Gustad did not mind telling about

his accident, about the day he had risked his own life to save his eldest.

Over the busy clatter of the milk container, he heard a screech: ‘Muà8

thief! In the hands of the

police only we should put you! When they break your arms we will see how you add water!’ The

voice was Miss Kutpitia’s, and the peace of dawn reluctantly made way for a frenetic new day.

Miss Kutpitia’s threats lacked any real conviction. She never bought the bhaiya’s milk herself but

firmly believed that periodic berating kept him in line, and was in the interest of the others.

Somebody had to let these crooks know that there were no fools living here, in Khodadad Building.

1 Orisons: (gl.dags) bøn.

2 Ahura Mazda: skaberen el. guden i zoroastrisk tro

3 Kusti: et bælte som følgere af zoroastrisk tro bærer rundt om livet. Kustien er bundet tre gange rundt om taljen. Den er

bundet to gange med dobbeltknude foran og bagpå Ritualet med at binde og ombinde kustien udføres flere gange om

dagen. Personen skal blive stående på et sted og må ikke tale med nogen imens.

4 Bhaiya: (hindi) bror, brormand, et almindeligt kaldenavn. Her brugt om den mælkemand, som kommer hver morgen.

5 Dhoti: En klædedragt, som ligner bukser. Et rektangulært stykke stof uden søm, som bindes omkring livet og omkring

benene, og knyttes i taljen.

6 Cinereous: askegrå.

7 Surreptitious: hemmelig, stjålen.

8 Muá: (hindi) døgenigt, drog – almindeligt fornærmende udtryk.

Side 70 af 101


She was a wizened woman of seventy, and seldom went out these days, she said, since her bones

got stiffer day by day.

But there were not many in the building she could talk to about her bones, or anything else, for that

matter, because of the reputation she had acquired over the years, of being mean and cranky and

abusive. To children, Miss Kutpitia was the ubiquitous1 witch of their fairy stories come to life. They

would flee past her door, screaming, ‘Run from the daaken2 ! Run from the daaken!’ as much from fear

as to provoke her to mutter and curse, and shake her fist. Stiff bones or not, she could be seen

moving with astonishing alacrity3 when she wanted to, darting from window to balcony to stairs if

there were events taking place in the outside world that she wished to observe.

The bhaiya was accustomed to hearing that faceless voice. He mumbles for the benefit of his

customers: ‘As if I make the milk. Cow does that. The malik4

says go, sell the milk, and that is all I do.

What good comes from harassing a poor man like me?’

The women’s resigned and weary faces, in the undecided early light, were transformed fleetingly

into visages of gentle dignity. They were anxious to purchase the sickly, watered-down white fluid

and return to their chores. Dilnavaz also waited, aluminium pan in one hand and money in the other.

A slight woman, she had had her dark brown hair bobbed5

for their daughter Roshan’s first birthday

party, eight years ago, and still wore it that way. She was not sure if it suited her now, although

Gustad said it certainly did. She never could trust his taste. When mini-skirts came into fashion, just

for a joke she had hiked up her dress and sashayed6 across the room, making little Roshan burst into

laughter. But he thought she should seriously consider it – imagine, a woman of forty-four, miniskirted.

‘Fashions are for the young,’ she had said, a little flustered. Then be began singing that Nat

King Cole song, in his deep voice:

She loved it when Gustad changed the song’s words from ‘golden hair’, always breaking into a big

smile at the third line.

Traces of yesterday’s milk lingered in the pan she was holding. The last drops had just been used by

Gustad and herself in their tea, and she had not had time to wash it out. There would have been

time enough, she felt, if she hadn’t sat for so long, listening to Gustad read to her from the

newspaper. And before that, talking about their eldest, and how he would soon be studying at the

Indian Institute of Technology

You will never grow old,

While there’s love in your heart,

Time may silver your dark brown hair,

As you dream in an old rocking chair . . .

7

. ‘Sohrab will make a name for himself, you see if he doesn’t,’ Gustad

had said with a father’s just pride.. ‘At last our sacrifices will prove worthwhile.’ What had come

over her this morning, she could not say, sitting and chatting away, wasting time like that. But then, it

wasn’t every day such good news arrived for their son.

1 Ubiquitous: allestedsnærværende.

2 Daaken: (hindi) heks.

3 Alacrity: beredvillighed, raskhed.

4 Malik: (hindi) ejer, chef.

5 Bobbed: klippet kort.

6 Sashayed: Forfatteren mener formentligt, at hun har chasseret, en slags dansetrin.

7 Indian Institute of Technology: En højtrangerende uddannelsesinstitution som uddanner ingeniører bl.a.

Side 71 af 101


Dilnavaz edged forward as some women left, her turn was approaching. Like the others, the Nobles

were endlessly awaiting a milk ration card1 from the government office. In the meantime she had to

patronize the bhaiya, whose thin, short tail of hair growing from the centre of his otherwise perfectly

shaven head never ceased to amuse her. She knew it was a Hindu custom in some particular caste2, she was not exactly sure, but couldn’t help thinking that it resembled a grey rat’s tail. On mornings

when he oiled his scalp, the tail glistened.

She purchased his milk and remembered the days when ration cards were only for the poor of the

servants, the days when she and Gustad could afford to buy the fine creamy products of Parsi Dairy

Farm3

(for Miss Kutpitia it was still affordable), before the prices started to go up, up, up, and never

came down. She wished Miss Kutpitia would stop screaming at the bhaiya. It did no good, only made

him resent them more. God knows what he might do

to the milk – as it was, these poor people in slum

shacks and jhopadpattis4 in and around Bombay

looked at you sometimes as if they wanted to throw

you out of your home and move in with their own

families.

She knew Miss Kutpitia’s intentions were good,

despite the bizarre stories about the old woman that

had circulated for years in the building. Gustad

wanted to have as little as possible to do with Miss

Kutpitia. He said her crazy rubbish could make even

a sane brain somersault5

permanently. Dilnavaz was

perhaps the only friend Miss Kutpitia had. Her childhood training to show unconditional respect for

elders made it easy for her to accept Miss Kutpitia’s idiosyncrasies6 . She found nothing repugnant7 or irritating about them – sometimes amusing, sometimes tiresome, yes. But never offensive. After all,

for the most part Miss Kutpitia only wanted to offer help and advice on matters unexplainable by

the laws of nature. She claimed to know about curses and spells: both to cast and remove; about

magic: black and white; about omens and auguries8; about dreams and their interpretation. Most

important of all, according to Miss Kutpitia, was the ability to understand the hidden meaning of

mundane events and chance occurrences; and her fanciful, fantastical imagination could be

entertaining at times.

Dilnavaz made sure never to unduly encourage her. But she realized that at Miss Kutpitia’s age, a

patient ear was more important than anything else. Besides, was there a person anywhere who, at

one time or another, had not found it difficult to disbelieve completely in things supernatural?

The clatter and chatter around the milkman seemed remote to Gustad Noble while he softly

murmured his prayers under the neem9

tree, his handsome white-clad figure favoured by the

morning light. He recited the appropriate sections and unknotted the kusti from around his waist.

1 Milk ration card: rationering af bestemte fødevarer har været vigtigt i forskellige perioder af den indiske historie.

Varierer fra delstat til delstat.

2 Caste: kaste, lagdeling i Indien, hvor hver kaste har egne skikke og erhverv.

3 Parsi Dairy Farm: I Bombay regnes parsierne for at have de bedste mælkeprodukter. Parsierne er et andet ord for de

som følger den zoroastriske tro.

4 Jhopadpattis: (hindi) en samling af slumbebyggelse, ofte lavet af pap, plastic, brædder og alt forhåndenværende

materiale.

5 Somersault: Slå saltomortale.

6 Idiosyncrasies: excentrisk adfærd, særheder.

7 Repugnant: Frastødende.

8 Omens and auguries: varsler og tolkning.

9 Neem: (Azadirachta indica) et træ af mahogani-familien.

Side 72 af 101


When he had unwound all nine feet of its slim, sacred, hand-wowen length, he cracked it, whip-like:

once, twice, thrice. And thus was Ahriman1, the evil one, driven away – with that expert flip of the

wrist, possessed only by those who performed their kusti regularly.

This part of the prayers Gustad enjoyed most, even as a child, when he used to imagine himself a

mighty hunger plunging fearlessly into unexplored jungles, deep in uncharted2

lands, armed with

nothing except his powerfully holy kusti. Lashing that sacred cord through the air, he would slice off

the heads of behemoths3 , disembowel4 sabre-toothed tigers, lay waste to savage cannibal armies.

One day, while exploring the shelves in his father’s bookstore, he found the story of England’s

beloved dragon-slayer. From then on, whenever he said his prayers, Gustad was a Parsi Saint

George, cleaving dragons with his trusty kusti wherever he found them: under the dining-table, in the

cupboard, below his bed, even hiding behind the clothes-horse5 . From everywhere there tumbled the

gory, dissevered6 heads of fire-breathing monsters.

Doors opened and slammed shut, money jingled, a

voice called out with special instructions for the bhaiya’s

next delivery. Someone joked with the man: ‘Arré

7bhaiya,

why not sell the milk and water separately?

Better for the customer, easier for you also – no mixing

to do.’ This was followed by the bhaiya’s usual

impassioned denial.

The early morning news on government-controlled All-

India Radio emerged softly, cautiously, from an open

window. The clear mellifluence8

of its Hindi vocables

tested the morning air, and presently offered a

confident counterpoint to the BBC World Service that brashly cut in from another flat, bristling with

short-wave crackle and hiss.

Gustad’s prayers were not disturbed by the banter nor distracted by the radio. Today the news was

powerless to tempt him into irreverence, for he had already seen The Times of India9

. Unable to

sleep, he had risen earlier than usual. When he turned on the tap to gargle and brush his teeth, the

water burst through in a loud wet explosion. It caught him by surprise. He jumped back, snatching

away his hand. Air, he told himself, being discharged from the pipes empty since seven a.m.

yesterday, when the municipality10 had ended the daily water quota. He felt foolish. Scared by a

noisy tap. He turned off the water, then rotated the handle slowly, just a little. It continued to gurgle

threateningly.

For Dilnavaz, that familiar hissing, spitting, blustering was a summons to waken. She sensed the

empty bed beside her and smiled to herself, for she had expected Gustad to be up first today. She

stared sleepily at the clock till it yielded the time, then turned over on to her stomach and closed her

eyes.

1 Ahriman: den destruktive ånd i zoroastrisk tro.

2 Uncharted: ikke kortlagt.

3 Behemoths: (bibelsk) et meget stort dyr eller uhyre.

4 Disembowel: tage indvoldene ud af.

5 clothes-horse: et stativ til at hænge tøj op på.

6 Dissevered: adskilte.

7 Arré: Åh, oh et udtryk som bruges overfor dem som er yngre end en, eller som star under en i rang.

8 Mellifluence: honningsød, smeltende, blid.

9 The Times of India: et af de største dagblade på engelsk i Indien.

10 Municipality: bystyret, det der vedrører byens offentlige råd og institutioner.

Side 73 af 101


Referencer

Generelle links om Indien

http://www.altomasien.dk

http://emu.indiensportalen.dk

MTV India indeholder nyheder om film, musik, show, tv, konkurrencer og blogs m.m.

http://www.mtvindia.com/index.php

VH1India.com indeholder nyheder om tv-programmer, film, musik, shows og hot-liste.

http://www.vh1india.com/v2/

Doordarshan er websiden for Indiens nationale tv og radiokanal.

http://www.ddindia.gov.in/

Ungdomsmagasin med et oplag på 40.000, på websiden er der vittigheder, studier, musik, film,

mad, rock, konkurrencer – Mumbaibaseret. JAMMAG laver også events, skaber ungdoms ”indhold”

og designer websider.

www.jammag.com

Youth Curry – Insight on Indian Youth. En blog af Rashmi Bansal, som er redaktør på Jammag.

http://youthcurry.blogspot.com/

CLUB JAM

Social nettjeneste med forum, galleri, grupper, blogs og chat for unge. Kræver profil.

http://clubjam.jammag.com/

Rajiv Gandhi National Institute of Youth Development – Indian Youth Portal. Indeholder databaser,

statistic og links til andre ungdomsrelaterede websider fra regeringer og internationale institutioner.

http://www.youthportal.gov.in/

The ABC of Kalarippayattu – en orientalsk kampsport.

http://www.indiatraveltimes.com/kalarippayatu/

Bollywoodfilm

http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Bollywood

The Internet Movie Database guide to Hindi language movies.

http://www.imdb.com/Sections/Languages/Hindi/

Imagine Asia – British Film Institute presents a celebration of South Asian Film

http://www.vam.ac.uk/vastatic/microsites/1153_cinema_india/1153_intro.htm

Indiske film

http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Cinema_of_India

Undervisning/hinduisme på religion.dk

http://www.religion.dk/laeromhinduisme

Side 74 af 101


Tematiske kort

Politisk kort over Indien

Side 75 af 101


Kort over stater i Indien

Side 76 af 101


Konturkort over Indien

Side 77 af 101


Kort over sprog i Indien

Side 78 af 101


Kort over religioner i Indien

Side 79 af 101


Kort over klimazoner i Indien

Side 80 af 101


Kort over årlig temperatur i Indien

Side 81 af 101


Liste over genstande i kufferten

Genstande

Bindier.

Klistermærker til udsmykning af piger og kvinder:

bindier! På dansk er mærket i panden blevet kendt

som ”kastemærke” – men denne betegnelse er dog

meget unøjagtig, idet man ikke kan udlede noget

om kasten af mærket. Det er ren udsmykning, som

kvinderne vælger i forhold til sit tøj, makeup og det

øvrige udseende.

Rupee.

Mønter og pengesedler fra Indien. Rupiya betyder

egentlig sølvmønter. En rupiya er inddelt i 100

paise (1 paisa/pice).

Man har mønter på 5, 10, 20, 25 og 50 paise –

samt på 1, 2, 5 og 10 rupee. Derudover er der

sedler på 5, 10, 20, 50, 100, 500 og 1000 rupee.

100 d.kr. = 940, 24 INR.

Jhola.

Er en skuldertaske af stof. Tasken går aldrig af

mode. Den bruges meget af studerende og folk,

som gerne vil se belæste ud.

Side 82 af 101


Tastatur.

Tastatur med hinditegn. Indeholder også en cd-rom

med Indiens mange sprog til at installere på

computeren.

Røgelse.

Røgelse anvendes til at få kontakt til guderne. Giver

velduft.

Kurta/pajama

Kurta er en lang skjorte, som bruges i Indien. Det er

en løs skjorte, som ofte går til lige under knæet.

Både mænd og kvinder bruger den; men som regel

går kvinder i en, som er lidt kortere.

Pajama er de løse bukser, som hører med til

kurtaen.

Dette sæt tøj er ekstra flot dekoreret, så det kan

sagtens bruges af en brudgom.

Side 83 af 101


Salvar/kameez

Traditionelt tøj til kvinder. Bukserne (salvar) er

meget vide foroven og tætsiddende om anklerne.

Kameezen er en skjorte eller tunika. Som regel er

sidesømmene åbne (slids). Det giver mere

bevægelsesfrihed.

Thums up.

Denne coladrik er meget almindelig i Indien. Den

kom på markedet i 1977 lige før Coca Cola blev

introduceret i Indien. Senere er den blevet opkøbt

af Coca Cola.

En anden almindelig coladrik i Indien er Campa

Cola.

Bryllupsindbydelse.

Trykt bryllupsindbydelse.

Side 84 af 101


Kohl

Kohl eller kajal til at smøre på de inderste øjenlåg

med en fingerspids eller en tændstik.

Supari og chutki

Indeholder betelnød blandet med eller uden tobak

og andre smagsstoffer. Spises efter et måltid.

Sanf

Forsølvede fennikelfrø til at spise efter måltidet.

Side 85 af 101


Film

Dasvidaniya, november 2008. Amar Kaul er single

og bor med sin halvdøve mor. Hans fede chef

presser ham ofte til at overarbejde til helt latterligt

sent. Amar har dårlig mave, og måske er det

mavesår. Næh, det er faktisk kræft og han har kun

3 måneder tilbage af sit liv. Amar møder sin sjæl og

sammen med ham skriver han en liste over 10 ting,

som han skal nå at gøre inden han dør. Når han

det?

Jai Veeru, marts 2009. En 1980er Bollywood-film

med 6 sange, komedie, drama, action og

melodrama.

Side 86 af 101


Jodhaa Akbar, februar 2008. En historisk

kærlighedshistorie som foregår i det 16.århundrede

om en ægteskabsalliance mellem stormogulen

Akbar og rajputprinsessen Jodha. Historien om en

af Indiens helt store fyrster.

Jaane Tu... Ya Jaane Na, juli 2008. To bedste

venner er overbeviste om, at de ikke er forelskede i

hinanden.

Side 87 af 101


Kabhi Alvida Naa Kehna, august 2006.

Dev er fodboldspiller og bor i USA. Efter et uheld

bliver han handicappet og afhængig af sin kone

Riya. Hun er fotomodel.

Rock On!! 2008.

Grunge, teenageangst og rock. Historie om fire

unge venner, som skabte landets bedste band; men

som aldrig nåede toppen alligevel.

Raaz, 2002.

Et par flytter til Ooty for at redde deres skrantende

ægteskab. I deres nye hjem begynder et spøgelse

at forstyrre freden. Sanjana opdager, at hendes

mand er en del af spøgeriet.

Side 88 af 101


Singh is Kinng, 2008.

Filmen er løst baseret på Jackie Chans:

Miracles/Mr.Canton and Lady Rose fra 1989.

Filmen er en komedie om Happy Singh, en mand

fra landsbyen, som bliver konge af den australske

underverden. Dog først efter han har gået grueligt

meget igennem.

Det ekstra n i Kinng er tilføjet efter råd fra en

numerolog (almindelig praksis i Bollywood).

Yuvvraaj, 2008.

En millionærs tre sønner opdrages i tre forskellige

miljøer. Deven har brug for penge til at få sin

elskede. Gyanesh aner knapt hvad penge er, men

farer alligevel vild i pengeverdenen. Danny lever og

ånder for penge – det er den eneste magt han

anerkender.

Filmen handler om at sætte penge og livsstil over

venskab og relationer.

Side 89 af 101


Soundtrack fra film

Dhoom, 2005

En moderne actionfilm med flere af de mest

populære filmstjerner.

Dhoom er fyldt med action og sjov, som aldrig

stopper. En spændende historie om en ærlig

politimand og de røvere, som han sætter efter.

Billu Barber, 2009. Soundtrack only. Billu Barber

er en historie om en helt almindelig mand, som har

et ekstraordinært liv. Bilas Rao Pardesi boede i en

landsby med sin kone Bindiya og sine to børn. Livet

var bittersødt – måske mere bittert end sødt. En

dag kommer en superstar ind i deres liv, og alt

bliver forandret. Alt undtagen Billu Barber.

Aa Dekhen Zara, marts 2009. Ray er fotograf og

der sker intet i hans liv. Så arver han et kamera fra

sin bedstefar, og det ændrer hans liv på en måde,

som han aldrig i sine vildeste drømme kunne

forestille sig det.

Side 90 af 101


Aviser, tidsskrifter, magasiner

Dostana, november 2008. Soundtrack only.

Kunal og Sameer er to fyre, som lader som om de

er bøsser, så de kan få lejlighed i et smart

kompleks i Miami. Begge falder for deres smukke

bofælle Neha. Komedie om kærlighed.

Chandamama

Et populært månedligt børneblad med mange flotte

tegninger. Det indeholder både gamle historier om

Vikram-Vetal og mytologiske fortællinger. Der er

også moderne historier, eventyr, sport, teknologi og

nyheder. Chandamama udgives på 13 sprog.

Første blad blev udgivet i 1947.

Chandamama

Hindiudgaven.

Side 91 af 101


Chandamama

Udgaven på malayalam – det sprog, som man taler

i delstaten Kerala.

Rabindranath Tagore.

Tegneserie om Tagores liv og tanker. Tagore var

en indisk forfatter, komponist, filosof, maler og

musiker. I 1931 vandt han Nobelprisen i litteratur.

Tagore støttede kampen for selvstændighed. Han

har bl.a. skrevet den indiske nationalsang.

Side 92 af 101


Mickey Mouse.

Walt Disney blad på engelsk.

Mickey Mouse.

Walt Disneyblad.

Side 93 af 101


Donald Duck Adventures, 5

Donald Duck Adventures, 17

Hindustan Times, december 2006.

Side 94 af 101


The Hindu Magazine

Bangalore Times

Pakrika

Avis på hindi. Det største indiske sprog.

Avis på kannada.

Det sprog man taler i delstaten Karnataka.

Side 95 af 101


Avis på malyalam.

Det sprog man taler i delstaten Kerala.

Screen.

Filmavis.

Stardust.

Filmblad.

Side 96 af 101


India Today

Et af de mest betydningsfulde nyhedsmagasiner i Indien.

Udkommer en gang om ugen.

Frontline

Et andet meget populært tidsskrift om politik og andet

aktuelt. Udkommer hver anden uge.

India Today Woman.

Et moderne magasin for kvinder. Udkommer en

gang om måneden.

Side 97 af 101


Bøger

Child.

Et af de nyeste magasiner i Indien.

Fair nok nr. 2/2007.

Tema om Indien med blandt andet:

Hvad er en hellig ko?

Og i Indien …

Indiens krydderier

Indiens stemme (om Tagore)

Hvad laver du her? (10 indere i Danmark)

De urørlige (om dalitter)

Turen går til Indien.

Politikens rejsehåndbog.

Indisk kalejdoskop – Indien i dag.

Bog af Günther Adolphsen: Dansk journalist og

Side 98 af 101


Musik

forfatter som bor i New Delhi skriver om det

moderne Indien.

Ajnabee

Musikkassette med moderne popmusik. Den var på

toppen af hitlisterne i et års tid i 1990erne.

Side 99 af 101


Andet

Lata.

Magic Moments – musikkassette med klassisk

musik.

Let the music play 2

Dobbelt-cd-rom med de nyeste hits I 2006.

Imported

Cd-rom med panjabi, hiphop, underground musik.

Side 100 af 101


Et kort over Indien på engelsk.

Kort over Indien på hindi.

Endvidere: En mappe med eksempler på moderne

markedsføring i Indien.

En mappe med fotografier.

Et undervisningsmateriale om medier.

Lærervejledning med kopiark til eleverne.

Side 101 af 101

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