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D. AC IVITYA

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2.e ita eCIexOsti g ED:Y MISOantAD a OFIC pIate

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HEV ATIOAS C do * a p ed

hG 'e C e foe y fe r g ~ e aJF s o v r g 2 0

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Was o uce b.a3 pers o sul -an team b e-sRf iis o S Zo all

o "'0 s, to t_~c u n ar t oTa* at ns ~ e - m ea no: eig 1 consig nees)

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PAGE 2


A.I.D. EVALUATION SUMMARY PART II

J. SUMMARY OF EVALUATION FINDINGS, CONCLUSIONS AND RECOMMENDATIONS (Crynot to exoed the 3 papes provloed)

Adress the followinp hems:

* Purpose of activity(ies) evaluated * Principal recommendations

* Purpose of evaluation and Methodology used " Lessons leamed

Findings and conclusions (relate to questions)

Mission or Office: USAID/India Dale this summary prepared: March 15, 1988

Title and Date of Full Evaluation Report: Evaluation of CRS Food for Work Program in India

PAGE 3

1. Purpose of the activity (i) the generation of employment opportunity July 1.5, 1987

especially for the poorest; (ii) the enhancement of their income through

agricultural/economic and community development activities; (iii) Improvement

in their quality of life.

2. Evaluation purpose and methodology

The goals of the evaluation were (i) to assess the management aspect of the

FFW Program (ii) to evaluate the 3 year FFW Planning, Monitoring and

Evaluation (PH&E) grant.

The methodology used consisted of field visits to all the CRS zones (except

Cochin which does not have FFW Program), observations on a number of FFW

Projects, and interviews and discussions with relevant CRS staff and a sampled

CRS counterpart agencies' personnel viz. 17 consignees & 26 project holders

who were selected based or. criteria such as geographical coverage, type & size

of projects, type of consignees & project holders. Survey form to collect

descriptive data at the zonal level, and interview schedules for various

categories of interviewees were prepared. The sources of data consisted of

recoras at the CRS H.Q./Zonal Offices, and consignee offices, group

discussions with the zonal personnel, and private interviews with CRS staff

(specially with the zonal airectors, and field reviewers & evaluators) &

interviews with the 17 consignees ano 26 project holders.

3. Findings and Conclusions

- The CRS FFW Program is a very functional program: CRS zonal offices are

striving for greater development impact; in the last 2 years, the emphasis

has been on long-term planning with an integratea community development

approach; there has been increased dialogue between CRS and its counterparts

regarding the development objectives of the program; and the Planning,

Monitoring and Evaluation (P,&E) Grant has contributed positively to all of

the above.

- The major program weakness is at the consionee and project holder levels.

They lack adequate technical, management ana aevelcpment skills; and they also

lack sufficient complementary inputs, such as training, materials and cash.

- The FFW Program is lore effective where: the project holder is a private

voluntary organization (PVo), and/or wnere the project holaer is a Priest or

Nun with strong interest in FFW, ano understanding of community development.


- The roles and responsibilities of CRS field reviewers are unrealistic due to

the large geographical program coverage and the wide, variety of functions.

- The recent aecision of two zonal offices to concentrate their staff and

other resources on a limitea number of consignees who have demonstrated good

management performance was a good one.

- The PMI&[ Grant was a weak response to a very

high

ambitious

expectations.

set of objectives

Although the

and

grant contributed

re-orientation positively

of the

to

FFW

the

Program towaras integrated

development,

long-tern community

it has not succeeded in implementing

system

the

is

PM&E

implementable.

System. This

However, not enough training

BIIA arid

has

AEA

been

instruments

provided;

are

the

not usable in their present

aq

form;

yet,

and

no

there

linkage

is,

between evaluation results and planning.

- The CRS policy shift away from supporting "individual" projects and towards

supporting projects which are intended to create "community" assets is

resulting in the application of stronger, more community-based criteria for

beneficiary arid recipient selection.

- The CRS System of project categories inhibits innovation. In the few income

generating projects which are being implementea, little thought is given to

the actual potential for market tie-up. Skill aevelopment for the landless,

i.e. vocational ana on-site training, is not given enough attention.

- There is evidence of collaboration at the field-level between

consignees/project holders ana local government officials. However this

collaboration is not systemic.

- There is ambiguity within the CRS organization

decentralization. on the scooe

This

of

lack of clarity impinges

policy

upon

formulation

management

which

functions

should

and

be based on

retrieval.

systematic

The

information

CRS FFW Program

storage

in

and

India is achieving

results,

positive

but

development

there is potential for much greater impact.

4. RE CONE NDAT IONS

* A CRS/USAIU workshop to review the outcomes of this evaluation, and

fotriulate

to

next steps. This workshop shoula occur as soon as the new CRS/India

Director is in position.

- CiRS should liaise and establish closer links with Government at the

national, state ano local (block) levels to ensure integration of Program

planning and implementation. It is recommendea that local Government

technical officers be incluaoea as resource people in training seminars.

PAGE 4


* CRS should take more initiative with USAID and other donors to ensure

greater resource mobilization for the FFW Program. Consignees should take

more initiative with Government and other PVOs to do the same.

* The PN&E System as developed by Community Systems Foundation should be

revitalized.

The remaining PM&E Grant funds should be reallocated to cover costs

of CRS Field Reviewers to prepare additional case studies on-site;

and to fund a seminar in each zone designed to use the case studies

as an educational tool. The Grant should be extended to September

1988.

The BIIA and AEA formats should be reviewed and revised. Procedures

shoula be developea within CRS to consolidate and analyze evaluation

results, and draw conclusions and learnings as inputs for future

planning; and expected users of the BIIA and AEA instruments should

receive further training. Outside assistance will likely be required

to carry out these recommendations.

A neeos-basea training approach is strongly recommended to improve

job performance of CRS staff and key consignees and project holders

in planning, project design, management and evaluation. To develop

this needs baseo approach, a training needs assessment is strongly

advised within the next six months. Outside assistance will be

required for this needs assessment.

An annual seminar to review the implementation of the PM&E System

should occur at the national level to discuss evaluation findings and

fonulate new planning directions. It is recommended that such a

seminar occur within the next six months to review the findings ano

recommendations outlined in this evaluation report in the light of

CRS's past approach to the PM&E System.

Each zonal office should organize on an annual basis a 3-day strategy

oevelopment/planning retreat to aooress issues affecting program

implementation, and to aevelop action plans for the coming year.

* Concentrate resources on consignees who have demonstrated good past

performance. Strengthen their capabilities to support good development

projects with the aadition of staff with technical and development

skills, and experience in rural aevelopment, to carry out project

promotion functions. Provide complementary inputs (training an TA

support, material and cash resources) to their projects.

* Project design assistance should be provided to CRS to develop FFW

project moaels for income-generation, as well as for skill oevelopment.

arket tie-up potentials must be considered.

PAGE f,


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,:O _;,,


EVALUATION

OF

CR3-I

OOD FOR WORK PPOfGRAM

IN

L\JDIA

Steven Joyce, Team Leader

Averthanus D'Souza

P. Subranariyam

USAID/India

July 15. 1987


EVALUATION

OF

CATHOLIC RELIEF SERVICES'

FOOD FOR WORK PROGRAM

IN INDIA

Steven Joyce, Team Leader

Averthanus D'Souza

P. Subramaniyam

USAID/New Delhi

July 15, 1987


ACKNOWLEDGEMENTS

The Evaluation Mission team received very friendly support in

the course of its work. We would like to acknowledge this support and

to express our deep appreciation.

The participative and collaborative approach to evaluation is

still unfamiliar to and not understood by many. We would like to

thank Dr. Peter Amato, Deputy Chief, PRJ/PD/E for his understanding

and support of our evaluation process, specially the one-day seminar

with the representatives of the four CRS zones. This support was

crucial for the successful outcome of this Mission.

The encouragement, specially at the briefing and debriefing

sessions with officials of USAID/India helped to focus the attention

of the Mission and resulted in a more thorough assessmenL of the FFW

Program. We gratefully extend our thanks to Dr. Richard Blue, Deputy

Director; Mr. Christopher Crowley. Office Director, DPP; Mr. Douglas

Broome, Deputy Chief, DPP.

During the field visits, the members of the team were received

with deep courtesy and hospitality by CRS zonal staff, consignees and

project holders. CRS zonal staff accompanied team members in their

travels and facilitated their visits. We would be failing in our duty

if we did not acknowledge these kindnesses. We would like specially

to thank the zonal Directors for making available to the team the

members of their staff.

In the process of reviewing and analyzing data collected from

the field, the team had the benefit of the services of Mr. S.

Chandrasekhar, Mr. Kotwancy and Mr. Y. Chhabra. Ms. Hema Ramaswamy

and Ms. Rita Soni were unstinting in their support. They not only

smoothed out logistical difficulties but facilitated administrative

passage of team requirements.

A specia] mention needs to be made of the assistance which the

team received from Mr. N. Krishnamurchy. His long experience with

Title II Frogran in; India provided the team with valuable insights.

Moreover, the team was greatly impressed with the dedication of Mr.

Krishnamurthy to the cause of ensuring that food resources be used in

the best possible way to promote development.


This team is particularly grateful to Ms. Neera Gulati who

undertook the final production of the Report. She not only showed

exceptional skill in organizing the material, but also diiplayed an

unusual sense of responsibility in having the Report completed against

a very difficult deadline. She worked overtime late in the night and

on weekends to accommodate the many drafting changes made by the

team. Under such difficult circumstances, Neera not only maintained

her cheerfulness but infected her colleagues Dolly and Savita Arora

with her enthusiasm.

Without the willing cooperation of Neera and her team, the

completion of this Report would have been in doubt.

The assistance of Ms. Sarah Harbison and of Joseph Perianayagam,

whose helpful suggestions and compilation of charts and tables is

gratefully acknowledged. Their contribution enhanced the quality of

this Report.


Purpose and Method

- : I : -

EXECUTIVE SUMIARY

The purpose of this evaluation is threefold:

to assess the ability of CRS and its counterpart agencies

to manage the Food for Work Program in India;

to assess the development thrust of the program,

particularly in project selection, beneficiary selection

and recipient selection; and

* to evaluate the 3-year F W Planning, Monitoring and

Evaluation (PM&E) Grant, which ends on September 30, 1987.

The team's overall approach to this evaluation was a collaborative

approach. The intention was to ensure thot CRS and its counterparts

felt a sense of participation in and ownership of the evaluation

recommendations.

A major aspect of this approach was the briefing of CRS zonal

office staff and consignees at the rtart of each visit, and a

debriefing at the conclusion of each visit. Following the team's

field investigation, a 1-day seminar was held for 12 representatives

of CRS headquarters and zonal offices, the purpose of which was to

arrive at a common understanding of FFW program issues, and at

appropriate measures to address them.

Food for Work Program in India

The 1987 FFW program budget is $7.3 million, representing 33% of

the CRS Title 11 assistance budget.

A total of 2189 projects were implemented in 1986 with the

assistance of CRS FFW commodities. The majority of these projects

were low-cost houses, wells and land clearing and leveling.

F ind inr s

The CRS FFW Program in India is a very functional program.

Over the last 2 years in particular, CRS has been striving fur

greater development impact in the program; it has been emphasizing

integrated community development; and there has been much more

dialogue between CRS and counterparts regarding development

objectives. This CRS policy shift away from supporting "individual"

projects and towards supporting projects which are intended to create

.community" assets is resulting in the application of stronger, more

community- based criteria for the selection of FFW beneficiaries and

recipients.


- :2: -

The PM&E Grant contributed positively to this re-orientation of

the FFW Program. Nevertheless, the Grant was a weak response to a

very ambitious set of objectives and high expectations.

In the management structure of the CRS FFW Program, there are

two weak links: the consignee link to the project holder; and the

project holder link to the community and the project site. The

primary weakness is the lack of personnel with technical and

development skills, as well as the lack of other complementary

material and cash resources. The program is more effective where

the project holder is a PVO; or where the project holder is a priest

or nun with strong interest in FFW, and understanding of community

development.

Consignees and project holders are able to receive little

program support from CRS Field Reviewers - not only because of the

geographical coverage which is expected of Field Reviewers, but also

because their scope of work is unrealistic given the ratio of Field

Reviewers to consignees and project holders. As it is, they only

have time to "audit" consignee and project holder records, and they

rarely have time to visit project sites.

Recommendations

The CRS FFW Program in India is achieving positive development

results, but there is potential for much greater impact. To this

end, the following recommendations are put forth.

1. A CRS/USAID workshop to review the outcomes of this

evaluation, and to formulate next steps. This workshop

should occur as soon as the new CRS/India Director is in

position.

2. CRS should establish closer links uith Government at the

national, state and local levels to ensure integration

of program planning and implementation. It is

recommended that CRS liaise with GOI at national and

state levels; that local Government technical officers

be included is resource people in training seminars; and

that pssibi]ities be ex:plored for integrating, the

planning and Imp leient atIon of FFW-assisted projects

with local Block l)evelopnent liars.

3. CRS should take more initiative with USAID and other

donors to ensure grea ter resource mobilization for the

FFW Program. Consignees should take more initiative with

Government and other PVOs to do the same.

4. The PM&E System as developed by Community Systems

Foundation should be revitalized.


- :3: ­

4.1 The remaining PM&E Grant funds should be reallocated to

cover costs of CRS Field Reviewers to prepare additional

case studies on-site; and to fund a seminar in each zone

designed to use the case studies as an educational tool.

The Grant should be extended to September 1988.

4.2 The BIIA and AEA formats shouid be reviewed and revised;

procedures should be developed within CRS to consolidate

ond analyze evaluation results, and draw conclusions and

learnings as inputs for future planning; and expected

users of the BIIA and AEA instruments should receive

further training. Outside assistance will likely be

required to carry out these recommendations.

4.3 A needs-based training approach is strongly recommended to

improve job periormance of CRS staff ahd key consignees

and project holders in planning, project design,

management and evaluation. To develop this needs based

approach, a training needs assessment is strongly advised

within the next six months. Outside assistance will be

required for this needs assessment.

4.4 An annual seminar to review the implementation of the PM&E

System should occur at the national level to discuss

evaluation findings, and formulate new planning

directions. It is recommended that the first such seminar

occur within the next six months to review the findings

and recommendations outlined in this evaluation report in

the light of CRS's past approach to the PM&E System.

4.5 Each zonal office should organize on an annual basis a

3-day strategy development/planning retreat to address

issues affecting program implementation, and to develop

action plans for the coming year.

5. Concentrate resources on consignees who have demonstrated

good past performance. Strengthen their capabilities to

support good development projects with the addition 3f

staff with technical and development skills and experience

in rural development, to carry out project promotion

functions. Provide complementary inputs (training and TA

support, material and cash resources) to their projects.

6. Project design assistance should be provided to CRS to

develop FFW project models for income-generation, as well

as for skill development, Market tie-up potentials must

be considered.


- :4: -

TABLE OF CONTENTS

ACKNOWLEDGEMENTS i

EXECUTIVE SUMMARY .

GLOSSARY

I. INTRODUCTION ............................................ 6

1.1 The Purpose and Major Objectives of this Evaluation.. 6

1.2 The Approach of the Team to this Evaluation ........ 7

1.3 The Team's Itinerary. .................................. 8

2. PROGRESS REVIEW O THE CRS FFW PROGRAM ..................... 9

2.1 Historical Background of the FFW Program ........... 9

2.2 The Program's Current Status.......................... 10

2.3 The FFW Program: A very Functional Program ......... 14

2.4 The FFW Management Structure: Two Weak Links ....... 15

2.5 Zonal Personnel Issues: Unrealistic Roles and

Responsibilities of Field Reviewers ................ 2-1

2.6 Decentralization of CRS/India ..... 25

2.7 The Potential for Creater Program Impact ........... 28

3. PLANNINC, MONITORING AND EVALUATION (PM&E) GRANT ........ 28

3.1 Overview of Grant Objectives.......................... 29

3.2 Summary of the Grant's Current Status .............. 31

3.3 Team Conclusions and Recommendations ............... 34

4. SELECTION CRITERIA......................................... 38

4.1 CRS/Consignee Agreement on Objectives ..... 38

4.2 Selection of Typcs of Projects ....................... 39

4.3 Different Zonal Strategies ........................... 39

4.4 Planning - A New Process Within CRS .................. 41

4.5 Beneficiar, . l2ection................................. 41

4.6 Beneficiaries Belong to the Poorest

Sections of Society......................... 42

4.7 No Religious Bias................................. 43

4.8 The Selection Process................................. 44

4.9 Recipient S ction................................. 45

4.10 Stre-ngths and WcakNvsses ............................... 45

5. DEPENDENCY RELATIONSHIP....................................

5.1 FFW Prevents Migration and Promotes Family Stability

5.2 CRS Long-Term Planning Will Reduce Dependency ......

5.3 FFW as an Investment ...................................

5.4 Creation of Community Assets Distributes Benefits,

50

50

50

51

5.5

and Minimizes Dependency. ..............................

Skill development and Income Generation Projects

51

for the Landless.......................................

52


- :5: ­

6. RESOURCE INTEGRATION ....................................

52

6.1 Government .........................................

6.2 Catalyst for Release

52

of Government Funds ........... 53

6.3 Other Donors .......................................

6.4 Private

54

Voluntary Organizations ....................

6.5 What CRS

55

would like from USAID/India ............... 55

7. CONCLUSIONS ............................................. 56

8. RECOMMENDATIONS .........................................

BIBLIOGRAPHY

MAP

APPENDIX A: FFW Evaluation Scope of Work

APPENDIX B: Interview Instruments

APPENDIX C: CRS Seminar

APPENDIX D: List of Interviewees

APPENDIX E: CRS FFW Zonal Profile of Project Types

APPENDIX F: Communication to Consignees on CRS's Community

Development Approach

APPENDIX G: CRS Viewpoint - The Characteristics of an Effective

FFW Program & Inherent Program Constraints

APPENDIX H: BIIA & AEA Forms

APPENDIX I: Indore Diocesan Five Year Plan

59


AEA

AER

Beneficiaries

BIIA

Bund

CARITAS

CEBEMO

CRS

FFW

F'

GOI

HYV

IRDP

MCH

MISEREOR

Nullah

Panchayat

PM&E

PVO

Recipients

SOW

TA

USAID

USG

- :6: -

GLOSSARY

Asset Effectiveness Analysis

Annual Estimate of Requirements

Those who receive assets created under a FFW

project.

Beneficiary Income Improvement Analysis

Mud Embanment

Official Agency of the Catholic Bishops of

India

Dutch Donor Agency

Catholic Relief Services

Food for Work

Fiscal Year (1 Oct to 30 Sept.)

Government of India

High Yielding Varities

Integrated Rural Development Programme

Maternal and Child Health

Official Agency of German Catholic Bishops

Stream/canal for drainage/irrigation

Elected local body of village

Planning, Monitoring and Evaluation

Private Voluntary Organization

Those who receive food under a FFW project

Scope of Work

Technical Assistance

United States Agency for International

Development

United States Government


1. INTRODUCTION

- :7: ­

This first section of the Food For Work (FFW) evaluation report

is intended to provide a summary of the following:

* the overall purpose and major objectives of the FFW

Evaluation;

* the approach of the evaluation team to this evaluation; and

* the evaluation itinerary and major events.

1.1 The Purpose and Major Objectives of this Evaluation

As stated in the Food For Work Evaluation Scope of Work (See

Appendix A), the overall purpose of the FFW evaluation was to "assess

the management tasks involved in the implementation of the CRS Food

For Work (FFW) Program by quantitative and qualitative review at the

Field, CRS zonal and headquarter levels". USAID/India emphasized at

the outset of this evaluation mission that the team should not attempt

to quantify the volume and bize of the FFW Program, nor should it

attempt to measure program impact; but rather, it should assess the

ability of CRS and its counterpart agencies to manage the program. As

noted in the SOW, this evaluation - with its focus on program

management - was expected to complement the 1979 eval-iation, and the

FFW program impact studies which followed that evaluation.

An additional objective of this evaluation mission was to

evaluate the 3-year FFW Planning, Monitoring and Evaluation (PM&E)

Grant ($79,200), which was given to CRS in 1984, and which ends on

September 30, 1987.

Given this Scope of Work, the FFW evaluation team identified the

following key issues to address in its information gathering:

Effectiveness of the management and implementation of

the CRS FFW Program.

Status of the Planning, Monitoring, and Evaluation

(PM&E) System.

* Selection criteria for FFW projects, project

beneficiaries, and FFW recipients.

Resource integration at the project level - Government,

PVO and other donors.

Relationship of community to project holder. (Is there

a dependency relationship?).


- :8: -

These key issues were presented to senior USAID and CRS officials

and agreed upon in separate meetings on June 8, 1987 just prior to the

team's field investigation.

In discussions with USAID/India regarding its expectatiou of

this evaluation mission, the team was asked to make recommendations

which would "help USAID be helpful to CRS".

1.2 The Approach of the Team to this Evaluation

The team's approach to this evaluation ,was a collaborative

approach from the beginning.

During its 4-day Team Planning (June 4 - 8, 1987), the team

provided two briefings to CRS and to USAID, on June 5th and June 8th,

for the purpose of soliciting CRS and USAID expectations of the

evaluation, as well as their reactions on input regarding the team's

evaluation approach and interview instruments (see Appendix B).

As a standard procedure in its field visits to the CRS zonal

offices, and to consignees and project holders, the team members

provided a briefing at the start of each visit, and a debriefing at

the conclusion of each visit. The intention of this approach was to

ensure that information gathered through interviews at each level of

program operations - project site, project holder, consignee, CRS

zonal office - was shared laterally. Sharing team observations and

information as such not only enabled team members to check their

findings for accuracy, but also enabled CRS and its counterparts to be

active partizipants in the "learning process" of the evaluation.

At the conclusion of the team's field investigation, a 1-day

seminar was held on July 1, 1987, for 12 representatives of the four

CRS zonal offices and the New Delhi central office. The purpose of

this seminar was to enable the CRS organization to arrive at a common

understanding of FFW program issues and at appropriate measures to

address them. The outcomes of this seminar are an integral part of

this evaluation report, and its recommendations for program

improvement. (See Appendix C.)

In sun, the intention of the FFW evaluation team and its

collaborative approach to this mission was to ensure that CRS and its

counterparts felt a sense of participation in and ownership of the

evaluation recommendations. The hoped for outcome of this approach is

a "successful" evaluation - one in which the recommendations are

valued and implemented.


1.3 The Team's Itinerary

- :9: ­

The team's itinerary for this evaluation was as follows:

June 4-8 Team Planning

June 9-27 Field visits to Madras, Calcutta and

Bombay zones

June 28-30 Debriefings in New Delhi

July 1 CRS Seminar (New Delhi)

July 2-15 Data Analysis, Debriefing and Report

Writing

It should be noted that USAID selected the random sample of

consignee visits, and developed the field visit schedule.

In all, team members interviewed 17 consignees and 26 project

holders. A complete list of individuals interviewed can be found in

Appendix D.

2. PROGRESS REVIEW OF THE CRS FFW PROGRAM

This section of the report describes the background of the CRS

FFW Program in India, its current status (size and structure) and our

observations as to its effectiveness in providing a development

resource to the poorer segments of India's society.

2.1 Historical Background of the FFW Program

CRS entered the Indian scene in 1951 with its Family Feeding

Program, criaracterized by "free food distribution". In 1966, this

Family Feeding Programme was phased out, giving room for the advent of

FFI,' and MCI Programs; PL 480 Title II, Section 204, provided for

complementary resource support. Section 204, however, was terminated

in 1971/72

In 1979, an Interim Evaluation of Title II Programs (including

CRS FFW) was carried out by Community Systems Foundation (CSF) of Ann

Arbor, Michigan. This evaluation led to recommendations calling for

impact studies of the CRS FFW Program. Eleven studies - asset impact

and recipient profi K studies - of FF,: were conducted during 1981-83.

In 1983-84, following the il impact studies, the Planning,

Monitoring and Ev,wuation (PM&E) System was developed for the FFW

Program by CSF in collaboration with ACORD, a New Delhi based

organization. To implement the PM&E System, USAID provided CRS with a

grant of $79,200 in 1984. Thus far (7/87), approximately $52,000 of

the grant has been spent.


-:10:­

.,;In l85 -Pri'ce: Waterhous was ont2rcted 2 000through-CRS"- T",,-,,'

for; management improvement in' the!-overall 'CRS5 'operationswhc

re sulte d ,7amo ng- ot her things in? the .rev ision of somz e FF, foms

2r Th roram s, Cur rent St atus

Th e'. 198 TFFW Program bud g ist 7.1 3-,mi1 io'n' repre sent ing" 33

prcen _of h-Ce' CRS Title I a'ss istance6 budget.

In'FY, 1986, a total of 2189 projects- were imlmne 1ih

h

assistance of CRS Food For.Work commodities., ,ost of ,these proj ectsb

were 'low-cost 'houses, wells (driiikingairrig hrand i

clearing 'and leyeling. gto),adln

USAID dollar ceilings for' the CRS~Title.IProgram 1984 88i

Afollows 00 'i

:7K$27338 t28,1'43~ $26,249 -t21,713- ' t'19,860

,1984 9>'1985 ' 1986, '' 1987, 1988

Gien te above ceiligs, CRS- all~ocations to its-FEFW Program from

1984-88 ar~e as follows:,

$10,676 t9W16&00 til0,400 t7,3002- '$6 342'

1984 ~ ~L985 ~ 1986 1 ~987 '1988 -

-As evident from, the above'figures,.'there has, been: a dowznward

trendF ini the FFW -Program since. 1986- a reflection of, he .downward

trend in the overall CRS Title II Program., This"ten e tlet he

USAID decision in'1984 to phase out the FFW,,program' b 99. t ug

USAI5/India is'int'erested in supporting coiV.-Linuation of, th, program

beyond 1990, CRS woulid -like, UAID' to n6ot only% reverse, the'decision,

but to also expand' the program

-Bu-gar repIa ed-wve a Ir 1'l9 86' as th primary pr omo

4~addiion to vegeta le oil1'

At'teproect level,'teF Program~ismanied b azale3

number of CRS .7consignees.,or ,c n orparts) rdpojc-ode

Consignees ar primar-ly Catholic pris wodirec d-iocesan-,,cai

se rvi ce organizat. on's Proect holders8arprimaril. - s' rea .

and nuns I-kou )a:,rowing numer ofprojet Jodr'ae, c

pr ve voluntarqorgai'za tions, ( CRS, Prograr n ad 'ddd

0.four "z'esooperation - fdr's.' 1 u~z ~

F11 ne'na Cchi one, TeG n;zocIEe not' i~e' F roram

XSee Map.) See.Tabil ofrua I ta e data on th-F k.. Os I

India for they r 19 't1986'


190 AEbRe

-- -- -- -- -- - -- -- - --- - - -

SIL IJU MARA LFMA"CLIACTA IOTA9

MARS BMA CALEU ID ITOT L DOD CU IS T MDFAS! KM SWA U

SI- ------ ---- ....­ ...-----.

FUt a s 1e 1 36 1 50 27 1 13 1 1 27 18 3 1 1I 298 110A

uera of c 1ler576' 1 246 1 51I? 1331 591 240 -261 1-3 22 221 375 123

usob-er.oaroajedcs 1 1207 1 731 623 1 2?051 1298 P4? 402- 25 ?,1022

kus e' Of Project sites J62 6Z I I~ )I- 5 1

Us~er - r0jI ye 1 1 16W1 16 1 ~ 1 15 1 16 1 18 1 1 1 6 19EIT

Nar ( iient s I4227166 ec 1 166032601130C 443 1II89558651 43W i4 153 39 1 0 1 -.

........... -- - --- - -

Thet ps fi projects which utilize FFW vary, wdely, althogh a

indicated abov ,jin,the past~most-of ~these proje~ 'sha'a e d be

Spojects, primari 1yo -cos oP se I

wiells and' land clearing/leveling, (Se~e Tabl1e~2). fora percentage

summary'kof pro~ject types for F~Y 1986, 'A3 year zonal' profile of, t ese!'

and other projects (19847"86) can be fo rdid iAppendix E --.ncludingeach

project type' s pece'ntage of tot al'pr kram manday s

Table ~2

PERCENTAGE SUMMARY' OF PROJ3XCT7 TYPES ~-FY 1986,4

S1. No.' Proct MDRAS~ BOMBAY CUTA'' :TT

Types ZNE ZONE 'ZONE IPROJECTSI

Low Cost Htousing' 341, 1352248

5 Rod 89 5~3 58 20 93 .-.

6 Vc. Tr, ~ 52 ~ 38 6 5

5 53

.8 Sdh oIC 1 743 .

22 9 3 5.


- 12 -

It' s important. -o note ,herei _given, hat 1987, -figres are no'e

aval l'ab t1',a BombDay, and, Madras zonal offices , stopped 1approving

"project" applications! for )'ow-cost., h'ou ses. Calcutta ozne continued';, to.

approve app1 c'at o-ns for houses this -yer because 1 87' i's t e6UN; Year

of She o the ..Homele ss;Alte z ~ ~ ~

c. - n- ee past .years to maoveiaaynsr wyfo n~~ project's

projec ts -. 6e'f iting on-- or a -smalJ numbe r, of' fami les~ -towa'scommuity

projects,, rojects benef itting- entire com ntes

Most FFW actiities~ are implemented b>etweeni January and June, t he

so called "lean season". when there i~s ltl Mef6~lyet:nwm

~ ood stocks are low.~ Although t leesittedfz mpm vauenf andag W

ration runs 2-'OX belwteuofca minimum wage in '6ost places'

Shi s lowerperc eived value did not poea problem during :the.-lean,

2 season~, according to mo~st people interviewed. It did become a problem~

inatatn routv okr with FFWP during ,other~ times of .the

~Qyear. See Table 3 below 'for~ dal rationf size and estimated market

Talje 3

DAILY RATION SIZE M~D IT YEAEUEV.AU FR'I4l A985A 8

--------- ~~~--- -------------------------- ------------------------.........

I RATIO" SIZE (KG,) IESTIMAJED I RATION SIZE KG. IESTIMAED I RATION SIZE'(G) 'SESTIAEDQ

----------------- 1VE\E ------- EI R E------ ~ ~ . ~ a

IVHEA/BULGAR OIL IVALUEMs.)I WHEAT/ 68IA OIL IVLEf. IWET/UL6RA I A (

3.DA 1 021S 10 1 00' e 1 4 1 0.10 8 1

IC80 BTA 1 3.0 0.0t 1 0.IK 1 7 1-0 00

2.3 The PFFW Program: A VerX Functiona Prga

ThCS 9FProgrami ndai a~ver fncion program~

Prora -i hvin apositive e g

Summar mpo ii184)

anu fCU~~I~Z. ~

:I Y18 heewrr8 pjct. blmentd,,iirmte,.

an,

and~~ di f0 h eav ov m o a . er y-r

ch


- 4

CRS In4Jd i aware that :th6efood resourc~e can4:have a greater­

impat trough'amr jdcous app icat oo ocm

proj ects',Which "are, iteded tocete lon1g- erm .assets

-nthla w-yas CRS "India _has' ade-'-

oef-i

o euppor 0on ly. cm u nity Y4' jc~

onIy a few families (Se 'Appe ndx F

nstea~ of pro'jec ee i

Atog heflimpact of this policy shif~t will be felt ,only...

afLer~ 1988, the evaluation~ team1 saw- strong 'evidence of- the 'appication

projects having long-term development objec.tive 1.

of FFW to commuinty

(SeeAppendix G, CRS Viewpoi'nt: The Charaeistics'of an Effective

FW'Program; and Inherent Program Constraints.)

2.4 TheFFW Management Striucture: Two Weak Links

In the management. strcture of~the' CRS FV Program th~ere are two

hler; and~ the~ project

weaklns the consigne lik to the, project

Wea LinkFood

F&~FW Program Managemenft Structure

CRS5oa fie

~ >~*,r'-~~ ~ FFW Coordinator

P;;oj ect Holder

Weak LinkComunity,

Management Staff

*The primary wakness at 1bot the conignee and projethlr

sklsa well~ as othe cmpeen pjta nus suc atrain$ing

Th traininge o nare rovided for iid e~r tihe P&ESr1tdi

attmpttostrngten the tehical'anddevelpmnt is of

0' tsr~ hi nk:ta his i ndivd ope nd

a'ufcin: ' jeom I-erw n1wthe

fie

-

,Y


- 14: -

It must be recognized that the FFW Program is only one of many

programs that the consignee manages. In addition to the CRS Maternal

and Child Health (MCH) Program, and CRS funded projects, most

consignees visited during the field investigation were implementing

projects funded by other donors. Moreover, in addition to these

external resources, the consignees were also managing Church resources.

The number of project holders per consignee and their

geographical distances from the consignee centers also restricts the

consignee's role as FFW Program monitor and development promoter. One

consignee noted during the field investigation that even for those

project holders located 20 kilometers away, he could only hope to

visit their project sites once a year. This particular consignee had

6 project holders. In some areas, particularly in the hill regions of

northeast India, projects may be 400 kilometers, and even farther

away, from consignees. The average number of project holders per

consignec- in the Bombay zone is 7; in the Calcutta zone, it is 13; and

in the Madras zone, it is 18.

At the project holder level, the "weak link" - seen during the

field investigation - resulted from one of two possibilities:

* the project holder was disengaged from the FFW activity

(usually a parish priest in these cases); or

the project holder, though interested in doing development

activities with FFW, lacked the skills, confidence and staff

to carry out effective community development projects

(usually a paris|; priest or Catholic nun in these cases).

Where the parish priest was disengaged from the FFW activity, the

evaluation team saw evidence of employment objectives overriding

development objectives, or the FFW resource not being applied in

adhruncc to CRS policies.

Ex amp1

At one completed project site, though the primary objective

stated on the project application was to provide drinking

water, tic water was vtsibly at the bottom of the well. The

project wa,, documented as "completed" by the project holder.

The evalu;iLion teair member was at the site because he wanted

to see a project application which was still in the planning

stage. I 1was only on reaching the site that the story

unfolded that the same well had been deepened - and

"completed" - six months earlier. The project was considered

completed because the allocated mandays were finished, not

because water was reached. Community members said that the

parish priest hadn't visited the site; the parish priest

wasn't available for comment.


- 15: -

It should be emphasized, however, that the evaluation team saw

these cases as exceptions. More common was the second possibility

cited above ­ that many project holders, though very interested in

doing FFW activities, lacked the skills, confidence and staff to carry

out effective community development activities.

Examples

At one community site, a Catholic nun was implementing

several FFW well deepening projects. When asked why she was

concentrating on well deepening projects, she said that well

deepening was the only project type she felt comfortable

doing. She was interested in doing other projects with FFW

particularly income-generating projects but she was afraid

that they might fail. When asked what outside assistance she

needed most, she replied: encouragement - if someone with

rural development skills could visit her every 2-3 months to

give her project ideas, and to let her know if she's

approaching the project appropriately, she would be able to

take mor. risks in initiating projects.

One project holder (a parish priest), when asked why he only

did well deepening projects, said that they were relatively

simple to manage and implement. He added that he would be

interested in doing other types of projects, but that he felt

he lacked the technical skills to do so.

* Another project holder, a nun, was carrying out a program of

teaching tailoring to poor women, but was concerned about the

fact that the skill did not necessarily give the

beneficiaries adequate incomes. When asked why she could not

explore the possibilities of giving them training in other

skills with better income earning potential, she replied that

she was not aware of such possibilities, and that she would

welco,::, any asii star-ct, in this regard.

* Another project holder, a nun with several years of

experience with FF, was carrying out six FFW assisted

projects simultaneously. Although she was viewed by the

cons,"nce and CRS as an effective FFW project holder, she

herself acknow] edged that she didn't have the tne to

adequately supervi se each i,'rk site. For this supervi sion,

sh said, she relied prim:jrily on local comnmunity

volunteers. When asLed what outside assistance she required

most, she stated that she needed training for her work site

supervisors and an assistant with good community development

ski ls.


- : 16 : -

The most effective FFW-assisted projects visited by the

evaluation team were primarily of two types:

* those in which the project holder was a private voluntary

organization (PVO); and

* those in which the project holder was a priest or nun

with maay years of experience with FFW, and good

technical and development skills.

The PVO managed FFW projects were particularly impressive. All

of these projects visited by team members not only had on-site

technical and management staff, but most also had staff specialized in

establishing village organizations and cooperatives. All of these

projects had very strong community involvement in project planning and

Implementation, and consequently, better maintenance of assets.

Moreover, the PVO FFW-assisted projects had much more in the way

of complementary inputs, such as tools, materials, and cash.

Examples

One project holder, a PVO founded in 1946 had 10 on-going FFW

activities as components in its Tribal Development Project.

The purpose of the project was to bring self-sufficiency to a

tribal area encompassing 33 villages.

The PVO staff assigned to the project area totalled 15

people, and included 2 agronomists, 2 water engineers, 1

community organization specialist, and a project director.

The FFW activities included construction of 6 check dams for

irrigation, land development of 40 acres for rice production,

I irrigation canal and 2 drinking water wells.

One of the 6 check dams nearing completion was 600 feet long,

and was expected to hold water covering 25 acres. It will

provide irrigation water to 150 acres belonging to farmers

from 6 villages. Given that these 150 acres - which up to

now have only provided I millet crop per year - will soon be

providing 2 rice crops each year, it is not difficult to

speculate on the significant impact that the FFW- constructed

check dam will have oI tle lncoines of the beneficiaries.

Three thousand ,nandays of FFW have been provided by CRS to

construct this check dam, which translates into 12,000 kg of

bular and 300 kg of soybean oil.

Another project holder, a PVO founded 25 years ago, has been

able to involve the community actively in project planning

and implementation with the result that it has been possible

for the PVO to utilize the FFW resource as a catalyst for


- : 17 ­

attracting resources from other donors and the State

Government; and has been able to integrate these resources

very well into a long-term plan of community development.

The project has self-employment schemes with assistance from

IRDP and has successfully completed a village wide sanitary

latrines programme with FFW produced bricks and labour, and

design assistance obtained from the Block Development

Office. The PVO has also constructed a Community Centre,

part of which has been let out on rental basis to a Bank, in

the process attracting institutional credit facilities to the

village. The PVO has also assumed responsibility for the

maintenance of assets created and actively liaises with

Government for implementation of environmental programs like

Social Forestry.

Clearly much more could be accomplished with the FFW resource if

all project holders had sufficient access to complementary inputs such

as technical input, support in site management and community

organizing, and material and cash resources.

2.5 Zonal Personnel Issues: Unrealistic Roles and Responsibilities of

Field Reviewers

The roles and responsibilities of CRS zonal field reviewers are

currently unrealistic, not only because of the geographical coverage

which is expected of them, but also because their scope of work is

much too demanding in that it expects them to provide program audit

functions, promotion functions, and linkage to project sites.

Table 4 indicates the magnitude of Field Reviewer's task in

maintaining linkages with consignees, project holders, distributors

and project sitzS.

Table 4

1986/87 COMPARISON OF FIELD REVIEWERS TO THEIR COUNTERFARIS

.---------------------

.-------------.---------------------­

-- - - - - - - - . -.. -. -. -. - . -- -.

-. .- . ... . - .. .- .- .- . . .. .. . .I ........ ... ... ... ..-I ... ... -.. ..

I I I Nusber of I

IZONES INumber of INuse' of INumber of FFW IDistributors INumber of

I (Field RewiewersICons~iqees (Project Holders (MCH!OCE/etc.) IFFW Projects-I

I-------- -- I--------------- ------------I------------- I------------I ----------- I

II I I I I I

I MADRAS 5 1 37 420 1 1874 1C25

II I I I I

I CALCUTTA 1 4 1 27 I 395 1 1295 1 499 1

BOMBAY 1 5 1 49 I 276 1 1021 665 I

I I I I I I I

COCHIN 1 2 1 25 1 0 1 1810 1 0 1

.. .. . .. .. . .. . . I . . . . !. . . . . . .. . . . . . . . . .. . . . I . . . . . . I

1I-------------I ------------ I----------I------------- I------------I------------I

I TOTALS 1 16 1 138 1 1041 1 6000 1 2189 I

--------------- I------------ ..------------ I ----------- I" ---------- I.------------I


The 'fieId.. reviewe rs in: !each' zone are. expected to vsit all,;1

Sconsig nee's at le'ast':once,,a,year; and '25 othprec hldsevry

year', Thyae roae to dferent- consges duigechfi9

visi~t to avoid: comp licity - pehap" eesr rcuin u

pt~ao ze-vert eless iwhich idoes 'not_ bui- d xeinc ien -,,

location to sufcient y "under'stn he spcal problem andisue

facd byapriua onsignee and his proj'ect holders, l in F'W progra

impl'ementation

An analysis of.Table 5 indicate's that on an averagefie,

reviewers barely contact 14% of project-holder's', as 'against' :their' ow~n

arge of25%a yar.Given the f igure's in.Table 5',-adteditne

obecovered, it is creditable that the field :revewr cane'ven,,,

reach 1 4 %. However, it wo~uld seem obvious that' they ,cannot offeri-he

program su~pport services expected of them.: Field,, e I w r from all

Athree zones Atold team- members that in most cases they only had time to

audit" co6nsignee and project holder records and they'rarely'had time

to vi sit project sites.Y

Table 5 ~ ~ -TOTAL FIELD YISITS BY ZONAL STAFF:

lp / lie ron

Iiie I 1year wise, Grand I

151,~IStI No ear Wise I MADAS I BOMBA

----------------------------------------------------------------------

ICALCUTA 1. otal

7----------------­

1 1 ----- 43 1 50 1 Is

U1 1585 1 23 1 44 1 1693

~ 1 ~ 19B~ -~[1-~ 12~ .1 498 1 .79

- - - -~u~- ~ ~2. ~i~roj-t Htolders ~'~-~ .

S 18 I 101 i 20 1 89 1- 3

1904 1 319 1 175

ZoalW seSand -TotalI - 4O

Atthe CRS semnaron~ July 1 1987 on of thesa1- rusws

asked t o adrs i 1cW gqeto

J, WhtI a re aI I st Ic and appra r st e role , , i f i Id

reviee vis-a-vis theFFW Program?,.

Tei r responses, recorded, on: flpchr we re a1 1 OWS

- Roleo re R- ee

dt ard Revo

-~h a c ~~rf .aand s"e - 1~llato


- :19: ­

- Project beneficiary selection, need, coverage: visit

project sites, physical accomplishment.

- Check infrastructure with project holders/consignees,

e.g. storage, staff and transportation.

* PromotioLn

- Assist consignees and project holders in selection of

project sites, beneficiaries, overall planning and

monitoring.

- Promote need-based planning in relation to integrating

FFW with funded projects and MCH.

* Evaluation

- Post evaluate certain number of completed projects, and

discuss the observations with project holders and

consignees.

When challenged as to how realistic this list of expectations

was, the small group acknowledged that it was not possible to carry

out all of these responsibilities well, given the geographical

coverage, and the fact that at best field reviewers can only visit 25%

of project holders. It was very strongly held, however, that all

those functional areas - audit and review, promotion, and evaluation ­

must be covered somehow.

The small group presented the following options for strengthening

the above functional areas:

* Additional Field reviewers at CRS zonal offices.

* Strengthen review staff at consignee level, and provide them

with training.

* Reduce the requirement of geographical coverage in a fixed

period of time.

* Concentrate a significant portion of field review functions

and time in selected geographical areas.

The evaluation team agrees that any of the above options, or

combination of options, would result in more effective field review

from the CRS zonal office - in the audit/review and evaluation

functional areas.

As for the promotion functions listed above, the team believes it

to be unrealistic and inappropriate to expect field reviewers to carry

out these functions effectively from their zonal offices. Promotion

functions, to be addressed appropriately, require frequent site visits

and thorough understanding of the issues and problems of a particular

area. Moreover, the team (and some CRS representatives) seriously


- :20: ­

question whether field reviewers can simultaneously wear the two hats

of "auditor" and "promoter". Can the same individual effectively

combine both roles?

Given the two "weak links" in the FFW management structure

discussed earlier, the team endorses the recent decision of two zonal

offices to concentrate its staff and other resources on a limited

number of consignees (5 in one zone, and o in another) who have

demonstrated good management performance. Furthermore, the team

believes that the FFW Program with these consignees would be

strengthened considerably if staff with technical and development

skills, and experience in rural development, were employed to carry

out the project promotion functions.

2.6 Decentralization of CRS/India

CRS/India decentralized in January 1986. The intention of this

move was to give the zonal offices the autonomy of separate country

programs.

At the July 1, 1987 CRS Seminar, one small group was asked to

address the question: How is decentralization being defined? Their

flipchart response was as follows:

* Transfer of control over program activities from Headquarters

to zonal offices.

The FFW Program, however, has traditionally

been controlled by zonal offices.

* Further decentralization - i.e., from zonal offices to

counterparts - is desirable.

This decentralization has already been

initiated with the planning process.

CRS/Madras has moved one step further, and

* Advantages of Decentralization:

decentralized the project approval process.

Greater incentive for development.

Those consignees having greater potential for

development can be identified and encouraged.

* Disadvantages of Decentralization:

Complete decentralization could lead to poor

management (improper selection of projects).

The evaluation team supports in principle the goal of greater

decentralization of the FFW Program to the consignee and project


- : 21 ­

holder level. Institution building, after all, should be a major goal

of development programs.

Although the team agrees with CRS representatives that further

decentralization to consignees and project holders is risky at

present, in view of the "weak links" discussed earlier, the addition

of staff with rural development skills, and further staff training,

would help build stronger local institutions, and make further

decentralization more manageable.

The issues concerning decentralization between the CRS/New Delhi

office and zonal levels were difficult to clarify by this evaluation

team primarily because the CRS'India Director's post has been vacant

since May 22, 1987. The new CRS Country Director is expected to

arrive in August 1987. The team has noticed a good deal of confusion

around decentralization on the part of zonal representatives, and ever.

a degree of inter-zonal rivalry; but this confusion and rivalry may

more likely be because there is no Country Director at this time,

rather than to issues of decentralization.

It does seem apparent, however, that decentralization does not

necessarily mean non-coordination of the FFW Program at national and

zonal levels. The zones do share information about the FFW Program on

a regular basis, a process which has been facilitated by the PM&E

grant.

One issue raised by CRS representatives at the July 1, 1987

seminar pertains to the relationship of the zonal office with USAID.

Zonal Directors see a need to interface directly with USAID/New

Delhi. This issue will need to be explored further when the new

CRS/India Director arrives in August 1987. Another issue that needs

to be addressed is: How can greater collaboration be achieved with the

Government of India if the zonal offices are operating as 3 autonomous

country programs within the same country?

2.7 The Potential for Greater Program Impact

The FFW Program in India is achieving positive development

results, Vet the potential is there for even greater impact.

In particular, much more attention paid to the following areas

would significantly incrteasu the Program's development impact:

* the encouragement of innovative project types, especially

income-generating projects;

* more community participation and attention to local

institution building (i.e. cooperatives and village

organizations);

* stronger linkages with Government support services and

programs;

* greater integration with other PVO programs; and

* the Institutionalization of program planning for long-term

integrated rural development.


- 22: -

Outside resource support to the CRS FFW Program - particularly in

the areas of training and staff strengthening - would help the program

move further in these directions.

3. PLANNING, MONITORING AND EVALUATION (PM&E) GRANT

This section of the report reviews the goals and achievements of

the Planning, Monitoring and Evaluation (PM&E) Grant, which USAID

provided to CRS in AugusL 1984. It presents:

* an overview of the Grant's objectives;

* a summary of the grant's current status;

* team conclusions; and

* team recommendations.

3.1 Overview of Grant Objectives

USAID provided the PM&E Grant to CRS to implement the PM&E

System, which was developed by Community Systems Foundation of Ann

Arbor, Michigan, during consultancies in 1983/84.*

The Grant amount totalled Rs.910,800 (equivalent of approximately

$79,200). The original period of the Grant was from August 1984 to

September 1986; although the expiration date has since been extended

to September 1987. [CRS's reason for the extension request was that

the training model for the PM&E seminars require "recasting" to

include a resource team selected from CRS, local counterparts and

regional professional institutions to conduct the seminars.]

The objectives of the Grant were as follows:

* BIIA/AEA Forms: To help assure the annual completion of a

minimum of i2 and a maximum of 60 analyses of FFW project

beneficiary income improvement and asset effectiveness forms

(See Appendix H). To achieve these objectives, funds were

obligated in the Grant Agreement to provide travel and per

diem for the (CRS Headquarter) FFW Evaluation Coordinator to

make four trips to e-ach of four CRS zones over the duration

Of the Grant.

Case Studies: From the above analyses, the Grant proposed

tlhat case studies be prepared for review by zonal staff to

enabl- thcm "to advise consignees/project holders on the

types of FFol activities which will maximize benefits to the

participanits, and result in the creation of more durable

*The Implementation of a Planning, Monitoring and Evaluation System

for PL 480 Title II (June 1984) Fcod for Work Programs in India

(June-1984).


- : 23 ­

assets." Funds are obligated in the Grant for the printing

of these case studies. [The Grant does not stipulate how

many case studies should be completed; CRS has set the number

at 5 per year per zone.]

PM&E Seminars: To provide a series of consignee/project

holder-level workshops which would cover "improved techniques

in FFW project planning, design and management, and

appropriate technical skills required in each area" such as

"dry farming, road and bund construction techniques,

construction of post-harvest storage facilities, use of

improved seeds and agricultural inputs, lining of wells,

ground water location, social forestry, etc." Funding was

obligated for training of upto 250 consignees, project

holders and/or their staff in the form of eight 3-5 day

workshops.

According to the Grant Agreement, three major benefits were

expected from installation of the PM&E System:

zonal FFW coordinators and field evaluators will better

understand how to advise consignees/project holders on a

more discriminating selection of proposals, monitoring

project implementation, and assessing results;

* zonal staff, in analysing project impact on both

beneficiaries and creation of assets, will be better

able to advise CRS/India on allocation of commodities

and funds to FFW; and

consignees and project holders themselves will be better

able to maximize the benefits of FFW using their

knowledge on designing and construction of wells,

irrigation bunds, roads and storage facilities.

3.2 Summary of the Grant's Current Status

Even though the PM&E System is recognized by CRS zonal offices as

a thoughtful and very much needed approach to improving the

development impact of the FFW program, implementing the system has

been a struggle for tLhem.

Follow'ing the upcoming July 13-19, 1987 FFW seminar, remaining

grant funds will total approximately $27,000 (more than one third of

the total grant.) The Grant is due to expire in September, 1987.

The BIIA and AEA Evaluation Instruments

Since the beginning of the Grant in 1984, CRS zonal staff have

been reviewing, revising and field testing the two evaluation forms ­

the Beneficiary Income Improvement Analysis (BIIA) form, and the Asset


Effectiveness nalys s"AEA), form in", 'an'at temptfto,better"mth h

instruments to..the ftepol xetdt s hm h Jaa~lt

orgnlisrmn eindby Comm nt Syrstems' Foundation, re

seen'by' CRS -as; technica11 sou nh but- inappropriat e,'i en w th -the

-multiple ,r'evision the ha e.- since ten ,,through, the- forms "are ,st~i Li~::,l

_conside'red to 6o'."f.c~1rdna a h-a~

I.solicited "unre li able'

One t he Bao~ssp IA' form, accor ig.to ,zonal,,ield

reviewers, is the questio~n which is to 'be po'sed ,to--benef iciaries, to

dter-mine their income prior to the FF project. "How can you :expect

villagers to1 rememer their incomes 2' or: more yearsi prev osy, and,

Y;,can i inomtin" field, reviewers as(il

~reviewers in the Madras~ office have proposed that this '!baseline data"

h- establistedeaofthe time of's art-p]

' One~issue with the AEA 'form, according to fie ld revi~ewers- is-the

qestion estimating te expeced life ofani 'asset. In the evaluation

tem srviwofafew comple'ted AEA orsteestimated life o0a~

locsthuse anged from "5 y9ears" to "7~genera tionl and the life

ofa rwell ranged f rom "7 yers". to "15 years". Field reviewer si, asked

us: "'How do we make these deteriinations?"'

~In interviews ,ith field reviewers, most we re unable t o 'eJI I US.Lc I1

what the rationale was for doing the BII'i~and 1AEA eva luat ion's- "y

are you . doing the evaluations, and how m ight the' infomation,be useful

to'you?' Whe se wa was done with the -forms-, -he reply was:,

"We send them to Delhi."~ h e ~ofc as 'hf asked what;

with thw the-Whendo rc' Doelhi~

iLheydo i':: iththefors te~eply was,"They are, filed'.

tksplace,

No 'analysi

no consol'idation is done, and nofed~ s, povided t'o

the7 zonal offic'es.

.....................................

BTh~or dat'e5 BIIA form's and 100 AEA' f'orms have been completed

Bothform arestill 'considered to be, in. a field, testing stage.. See

* " .....

I YT* ..~ ..* ..* .. . .... ..... 4'R. .

IP10 A A

1A[ 1 I t 1 l

'ni ai I

EAst lti j


Cas'e Studies6

Fi ye case- studies hav e',been 'ri tte s'nce

Co'mpletied".

the Grant

case;

began

'stdies_:ar ett rzna fcso ei

They have otbe-n--i nI db*d 7in any. seminars -thus ,ar.7 ,n .mi'd-Uune

197R NwDelhi atarqet to ieac zonal offc ngth at 5

caesu e oe'be comple ted by July' 15 18' i order'to meet

Siing deadlines prior to the ,Grantf xprton I on Sp em 6r" 306

1987,. -Field'reviewer a writing these case, studi es n te i zona

offices. As one zonal Directo a&"e r .sh ing those case

~studies only to mree~t the Grant deadline. They are nap go ig to',b

high quaity, case studies."

~The PM&z Seminars

Ir1986, In PM& "'trainiingprograms"~ were conducted'4 nal 3 zones.

sesions. (wosessions were hel in; ech zone to ke'ep thie numbe of

participadts per sesion belwthrty.), (naddtonal. tra.ining,

proran s chduedfor -July 131,1987].

'The sesin hed Clut and Madra's zones 'accordi'ng to

fedack~ from participants and zonal staffwo at ended, .were

'>1ture-orienced, and morie the~oretical thn:ractic' -;'A Sone

consignee complained, "We didn'tt even~ get a ,chance.-to sa ar

Sinformation amnonst ourselves about our ow FFW rojec t6.

The sessions in Bombay zone, :on the 'atherhand were mor

nds-based 'and practical-, Zonal staf 'consignfees, and project'

vl 'holders describedthe~seminar as highly succe'ssful

It shouild be noted-owever, that:t e Calcutta "and Mad as

programs were more responsiv to the requirementB, 0f t 'P&E.Gran~t

than teBombay program. Give~ the very amiio agenda for the"

seminas& stpolted i h rn, n'gvn, ml bde.oliae

for them, a sees leturesrath onld lese'l dyo me b t

Grant requirements. a~h ypssbea~ome te

3. Team Conclusions' and eomendations

Te amoun of R,910,0 (79,200 wa wek. repns toth

Alhog theGan has hadapoit'ive~

inlece on e F~ Pram

~CRS has struagledt~try to.rn tte Grantimnt: i

..... Code a o. tG,n,.u e

ul - iie b wi t-itl v' ina d ' r n e a e ,

re Us-ItaBe-],-t

ls idircth

et-,m ematin Cmm-,,pra

a .1 tpe 4,


- 26 -

Specific eanhclusions a n recommendatIo'ns areo1 ned, below

T e~BEI an AEA Instrumentsi,

he BA-I'adAEA rfsat present do not have.,prov i io fr

collecting basi ne d ta from a 'sampl o enef icia'rie

,determined at the time 'of,proje t-start-up., -Without.thi

baseline itds very dff icu1 'to comparc'cer'i, in icators,

like inicomie levels before 'start ote pjec r~ -an, after

Sproject completion,

p * There areseveralcolumns in t liese formats which are

preived by the field staff as being unclear or redundant or~

ambiguous. -

S The effectiveness of the assets' created~is not clearly

measued in the instruiments.

IThe inistruments do'inot pinpoint weaknesses or failures inthie

imlmntto o h project.-~

Remedaions~ ei~I

I .Revew nd evie te. IIAand AEA formats an well, as thie

S jProject Appliation for-ms to reflect the',above conclusions.

~2. Develop rcdrswti R to consolidate and analyze BIIA

W--''- Lind AEA evaluationh resudlts, and daw conc1lisions aiid

~.earnings l as inputs for fture planning'

-~3. Traini users ofl te: H1IA and AEA istruments: what is their

pu~~& rpose; how sh)uld they be applied; how should the' re sul1ts-'

be anlye and~ inepee d and ~iow sh'ould. the conclusions

4.Otieassac wil likely beeqired to~ carry outhtese,

reomndtos gie htCS-a tuge f or:2 years-,to

mae heBIA and AEA intumenta ppropriate and.

meaingulThi asistncesholdbe, .provided 1by, people

wit frs-hndexperienceote issue relthed to'~a

-Tat thre havebeen only fiecopeted ca'so'studesis

caae, a~vlopmeft was inke:t completed, _ad

a

evlation


- :27: ­

- no funds were provided in the Grant to develop case studies

on-site; and

- there is not enough understanding as to the purpose and the

method for developing case studies, and how they can be used

as educational tools to assist in future planning.

Recommendations

1. The remaining PM&E Grant funds should be allocated for two

purposes:

- To cover costs of CRS Field Reviewers to prepare

additional case studies on-site (several days may be

required). These studies should focus on the process of

project implementation, especially in cases of

innovative uses of FFW.

- To fund a seminar In each zone designed to use the case

studies as an educational tool, e.g, to serve as a

discussion basis for developing innovative project

approaches.

2. Prior to preparing case studies on-site, a 3-day orientation

seminar should be conducted to acquaint field reviewers with

the purpose, objectives and methods of case study development.

To conduct this seminar outside assistance should be provided

by people familiar with problems -f rural development.

3. With a view to enabling the refocussing of the remaining

portion of the PM&E Grant as recommended above, the Grant

The PM&E Seminars

should be extended up-to Sepetember 1988.

Conclusions

The Grant requirements for the seminars were over ambitious:

the training objectives, though appropriate, could not

possibly be adequately addressed in a 3-5 day seminar. What

resulted were lecture-oriented seminars; and skill

developmint, the intenteion of the seminars, does not occur

through le:ctures.

The seminars did contribute positively to CRS staff and

consignees arriving at shared awareness of the need to

promote long-term community development.


Recommendatio'ns

- : 28 :

1.,CRS staf andkey.consignees:,and projec t hodesaretl

great-l~~in-need--of ski-1\i's- rela ing t lnig ngmn.

Project esgn and evaluation. A,needs-base'd7 trainig

approach :to improve, these ,ski~l AS'trongl

s recomme nded

2, To develop' this nee'ds-based apoc train tann

nedassessment isstrongly advised" toensur t~ha tran

modules devel~oped,, actually lead to .i'Mproved job;

p'~ e'rformance. ,This needs assessment, ought to be made 'by

people 'who are not 'only familiar 'with experiential'itraining

i tmethods, but who also have experience 'of grassroots

devel~opment problems and processes.

3.~ Anana em eia oreview the implementation of thePM&E ~

Sytmshould occur a't the national level to discu~ss,

­

evaluation finigadomlt newpang directions.

-~~This approach' was in, facts recomm'ended by Community_ Systems

~.Foundation iits guidelines for implementingtbe system.

4.Ec oa fic hudognz on, aniaiinual basis a 3-dayA

strategy deeomn pann retreat to bddress issues

Saffecting program implementationv and. to develop actionV plans .

for~ the coming year. '

4 SELECTION CRITERIAJ

In4the past, two years,~CRS India ,has made. a.very "definite pofidy

shift aw~ay from~ supporting' "individual" projects- to support'ing

projects 'which are intended~to create "commu nty," assets with'

long-terim-benefits f or, thli'ocal' vi llage commu~nities. 'This policy

~hift 'isresultingg.in the application of, 'stronger, more, community:based

criteria 'r~ beneficiary. and reci en s le tion.',

4' /Consi~gnee Agreement.on 0bjectives

A positiv a ysgiiataspect 'dv of this shift .in CRS

polic'y is the tact :that the rationale for 'the change was 'iscussed

with consignees an key project~ ho"1d.r s From t he s~ampling 0o

consineeand project 'oler visted 't was evident, that, -here was

undestadin of and~ agreemunt wih h need to ap ply f ood- resou rce s

in.mnner that wol crat'e 'long-term commun 't ase that foo

Commodites should be applied to iong term deve pme'nt objectives'

Ia$r than' bL, consumid An short-term. eedin - ogramis

'Gi v p thefc.tat- consignee's aie: autnom'b a and iidepaneit

by a OS"~ n rp a nd are. xi t extensione

of- the CRS organizatc s apioa'',,he''csf on: 0 FE P rogram

t o promote 1ong~tm deve opment-de p sd'a eat dean on CR~S and~r ;, .


- 29: ­

counterparts having agreement on the bes apliaionofod

commbdi'ties to aciv development ,objectives., 'Meetings bewnCR

zonal staff and consignees to 'arrive 'at a common understnding of the.

long, term develop nt objec t'ive s of the FFW Irogram are a ;recent and.

lo'e'-'phenomenon.

c he-PME Gran c ontr IIute7 tivel ii

process.

4.'2 Selection of~Type of Projects

~,Fromrn the smlso lcsvstd twseietta h

slcion of types~of projects~wr appopriate to th~e loa eds

Ini drouight prone an rdareas, the emnphasis, wa~s on. drinking

.>water wells, water storg reevisadcekdm~ o collect and

Astore rain water, peclto ak oehneground weater recharge',

reforestation projects to ~prevnt sil erosion.A 'In other places,. e.g.A

~in remote hillfres village roads to connect villages~to markets~and

tenable vehicles to ply prdmntd Poet nhilaesas

includeda.Tnd leveling and terracing to enable clivation.'

SInterviews and observations by team memer at proet sie

indicate that project types wrlargel deermned rs > te calte

,~jpopulation who communicated their needsto th rjc holder.' InTh

smany instances, the~ village leaders an acaa ebr niae

tihe type~s of p~rojec~t that >th'ey needed.~

4.3~ Different.,Zonal Strategies A

~Each of the three zonal offices 'of CRS has develo ped a "different

strategy~to ensure tht FFW~support goe&s only to promote, long-term.

dev~elopmentA4~

MADRAS: Consignees within the Madras zone are given Athe auhrt

tassess individual prjet ppictin and screen, out those which

do not conform to, the' norms agreed to between conignees and CRS.


BOMBAY: -'The' Bombay, CR ' zonal of ice has i'nsi's ted that 'alI

consignee s make, a; f ive- year. Developrnent Plan: and,"submi t' it toth

zonal: off ice See Appendi Fl. If any cjonsignee -faTl s.! to," subm it,

s a'an ah is- assumed(hth ~ o n rse nteF

P-gaand :he drpe rmte Is list of .consignees. ,-hei zonal;

office approves project,,applications only, if- the6y- were,_part -of,;the

6rigi al ,5-year plan stbmitted" by tec~cnsin and 'provided they

~conform t o the CRS policy of approving only integrated communty

projects.

2 The zonal office~ha 7stipulated deadlines for the, receipt of~the

_5yea lna el fr~thje submission of -annual,,project

P rpoal. Se Appedix IteChoi Diocese of Indore FiveYa

~Socio Economic~Planning Programme 1-~987 to lg9l.)

~4.4 Planiin8- A~New Process Within CRS

~~Althogh the CRS zonal offices have come toget'her inpast. years v

to detemine the'Annual Estimt of Rqiremnents, (AER), thi's has not~

~ been don on the basi s of~any real 'assessment of needs-a'sI deter-mined:

-at the grass-roots level. ,The AER was geared to the commodity­

-~allocationis as communicated t'o CRS by USAID. As such -it,has been ani

~ annual exercise in resource allocation, rather than a bottoms-up,

needs-based planining exercise., -t-

Planning for developmen~t started within CRS/India -only -two ,or,

three yearsago. Thje need~for planning, and' conseqjuently, the nee'd

for moioigadvlain has become crystalized only in,the-very ,

-recent past.

The PM&E Grant, was a~ positive intervention which came at.an

appropriatepint in time; to help CRS focus its:Program to achieve,

greater. development imipact.

As a consequence of the fundamental shif t i'nprogramiming

0bjecti~ves, the'introduction for thef~irst time of, plianning as an

integral part of the operati.ons of CRS, and the use of monitoring

'mechanisms~ and evaluation tools~wi1 need much expe r Ience and time, to

become instfiutinalzed.:

4.5- Benieficiary Selection -

The evlation ' team's observat on isthat~thesi t -i emphasis

i.n ORS in-favor o~f community projects, as~against indi'vidua I~ r at

ha resulted in a~shift, in,ephai in the, crtei for,the~eeti e.

of benef icbiaies as well. -

BY -their er au commuinity-projectsentofcan a

7

com ad'm rr maj afecting,pep. I htpo ,hr

a-patentconcern to addrsa ,he ;pro btms of the poo and: weaker

ro pher* re - as also. evierge& ,hel needfor, proper 'lann

n mn oringof,projects

g

a


- :31

-

n tepshetndency had been. ,targe t the bIenef its under.:

the FFW Program 6o individual s for the ,creatinof.-specifd c,! asse tsG,

.THi s-.was,' ap due o the" fact . that it was e'a s-y, to'.:ien fy

indivd\a1 rficYe s and .. t was ,'eaier to managesc rgas

Mror idvidual projects: involve less ef fort in pplann ng and

moitoringplrogram ipeena n

4. Beneficiaries:Belong to the Poores Scionso oit

SDuring ,the visits mnade by the, evaluation' team, to the sites. of- the

sample cosgie/rjc holders, it~was observed t hat, by and large,

~the benef4~ Icaidsc e~ e totepoet sections of, society.

SIn thecase of villages which had heterogeneous caste Systems,.

the benef iciaries~ were, Tby and large, found to belong toQ the weaker

(nd~the poorer) gouips.< )Inthe case of homogeneous lvillag'es, whichr

ffwere invariably found tbe tiba l, itwould seem that theweake and

porrscin fsceywr ~al1so ,reachied. In these cases, :again,

thboe Iaresfore argemajority -of those dliving in those

Sareas.

S The teamsa seeral projet ofconstruction of roads, wheire

enievlagso at of villag~es benefitted~. -Other example~s were:

construction of nullahs;. de'iltinig and bundiiig of' irrigation -tanks;,

const~ruction o~f check-dams, construction' of percolation ponds;

construction of~community,' centers;~ digging of ponds'L for.pisciculture/

salt production; and construction of "sanitation' facilitie's-. In al11

these cases, the benef iciaries formed~a large ajryofteppl

living in that area who derived benefits either ihn the fjorm of a

upblic co'nvenience or inxthe ,form of an upgrada't'o fpiaeast

whichs

whchthey heldo

d z i

ntefr

hefr of av~ilability of, emp'loyment, for the

lanles orlonger -periods, thrb introducing an element of

stabil~ity in th iv~es-'of these people, -,ho'otherwise .might havle',ad

&miiad sach an ofepoyment oppor un ities, Ih Marh19

Smay Report '(Johni Chudy~) sjippo r7ts thi s abse,'vation:.

x~ ~ -

~Recipien prpportyfidig cit show that the program is

'providing emp16yment~ npor ities to'the r' n dy of

rua Inia soit. rd dl, the studies sho'w t h'at, FW

isprviding about7 da cfemployment per, recipient per

yeaor: abou.t 21~ percent' of a household s'annual

employmenit' FN sas rviig a7 eretices

in ueholdl Income. Ne,'erthele'sa the averag .recipient

hoshl is.st-ill below~ the' offic 1 GOI poverty line of

Rs6pe r-capit pe r, on'thAn' ru ra areas wth the

average recipient household; per ,apt a'income bengabt

Rs 465 per mont'h. Most rec pientC'

_.adleas -ag~fitutur 4al: and non-ag

wee~ be

ciituralaors a out

(6 --pret -28 .pe tent iwer al aT nd margl nali farmers',

ad percent we amailJtirader nora rv ice rkers.. I

Stionit th, employm nt and' ncome- n icaors h'e

~A

3


-:32:

studies sothttevrwelming'-majority 'of recipie'nts

(aboute pecn eemmes: r8 of Scheduled 'Tri

bes,

Schedu6led, Castes an ter backward c assesal

referredtoofficiall _LbyteGIa the-ekrscins

ofIndian Soiety~:groups'-targetted by- 0 steneis

in te rms .of econiomic ad .social development assi's't'ance.

~4 7 No Reli ious Bias.

From 'the sample~ studied, there appeared to be nxo religious

bias in the selection o~f benef iciaries, -and recipients. PVO' and

pari sh, initiated community projects we re -secular in thi

S:approach an rcs fipeetn hi program,.

4.8 Th Seeto rcs

#Different processes'of- selection of beneficiaries were A

~observed by the teamn.-< ­ -

In tile case~of many individual projects, it~was observed 1

~that those who knewi that FFW was available approached the

~project~holder to get the benefit.Ui

Incsswer Vswr prjc hlders, selection

themibeescomposed ovilgran/r project' staff select

teonfcais Ths omite appeared, to accept the''

In two icases it was' noticed that the -local' Gove rn'me nt

of ficial1s took up7 the responsibility of selecting, the'

beneficiaries, ,following the Government- a norms',of-giving:'

preference to thie most disadvantaged targeted groups.

In certaini other cases, it was noted-that 'the: vi.llage

Pancliayats had been eit r~Usted with

selectr

'the.,' ni

-rspns p iPty cif

se1etng~the boeneficiaries., InilI cases 'where beneficiari'es

were sele~cted by a committee or 1lcl group, t'he selection was

done not byfaiindivu 'bu by an e'nt i're group.

Therewerealso instnces whre~ the groups seece ,a

n-op indiidua detohrreasons which weg'd Wt

tw.For exa'p e;{n tw~o cases the vilg comite ha -

selected awidowi as a benficiary fo l an~d clarn and'

lo-ost hose -because she had no one els to loo ,after

heri~ Thle entire group, in suc~h daes i n

9, Recipient Selecti on

-Itwa snot anoject e of iev-a-o so

ad ti~h sf,'i a on misioto doav

tn, pporunty to' di6 aer

-


- : 33: ­

levels, including some recipients themselves. From those

discussions, it appeared that recipients were:

- those who are known to the beneficiaries and

- those who want work (e.g. daily wage earners).

The exact number of recipients on a project is generaily

left to the discretion of either the individual beneficiary, or

the project organizer. For example, the project could employ

100 recipients for 6 weeks, or 50 recipients for 12 weeks.

It is an observation of the team that landless labourers

are common recipients in these programs. In many cases,

particularly in community projects, the beneficiaries

themselves were also found to be FFW recipients. In some

cases, parish priests as project holders have also set up

village committees which select recipients on the basis of

their being "the neediest".

Here again, from the sample studied by this team, there

did not appear to be any religious bias in the selection of the

recipients.

4.10 Strengths and Weaknesses

Based on the above sample study, the evaluation team has

been able to identify certain strengths and weaknesses of the

selection process, which are discussed below:

St rengtls

Consignee Control of Project Selection: Addressing

Community Needs. Given the fact that Consignees are able to

influence the selection of projects, there is more assurance

that comunity-based needs will be addressed. Where Consignees

have stipulated that only community projects will be approved,

they are in a position to reject projects which are not

,ommunity oriented. This process Is serving to communicate to

project holders that they should propuse only community

projects for considerition.

Against this backgrund, the PM&E Grant appeonrs to have

stimulated greatu-r dialogue between CRS and conslgnees/pjroject

holders witlh a view to exploring ways and means of designing

Community Projects.

Where the CRS zonal office (e.g., Bombay) has developed

policy guidelines advocating long-term planning for achieving

community-based targets, the consignees appear to have had no

difficulty in accepting this additional responsibility.


- :34: -

Consignee Control in Project Selection Results in Better

Resource Integration. The Consignee's ability to control the

selection process makes it possible to achieve a sizeable level

of integration of the FFW resource with other resources. Many

Consignees have In fact achieved such integration with cash

resources from CRS and other donors.

Weaknesses

The element of Consignee control over selection of

Projects is not without its weaknesses.

Consignees can Present Individual Projects to Appear as

Community Projects. For example, in certain housing projects

that the team saw, the consignees had presented them to CRS as

community projects, putting forth the logic that it was a

"community housing scheme". Similarly, there were cases of

"land-clearing" or even individual wells which were described

as "community land clearing" and "community irrigation wells."

Pressure from Peers. Since consignees and project holders

are often peers in the church, pressure is sometimes exerted by

peers for project approval. There are cases where consignees

also happen to be project holders, and thus are seen as "one

among equals" in project implementation.

CRS Policy Guidelines Circumvented. Where the consignees'

approach to the project selection is in conformity with CRS

selection policy, implementation of that policy is

accomplished; and where it is not, the policy is circumvented.

Given such a situation, the implementation of CRS policy

guidelines varies among consignees.

Consignee "Looking for Projects" for FFW. Some consignees

look for quick identification of projects to provide employment

to people during the lean season. In such cases, it is obvious

that proper planning is not done. This lack of planning

results in ad-hocism in project implementation. In other

words, resources that are available are not utilised optimally,

resulting in less than "the greatest number of the neediest

gettinc the largest amount. of benefit".

Non-Adherrnce to Time-Schedules Vitiates Project Implementation.

Whenl requests do not conform to CRS time schedules, commodities arrive

late (sometimes during the rainy season) creating storage problems,

and increasing the risk of spoilage. Moreover, when commodities

arrive late workers may not be available.

Pressure to Utilize Commodities Before End of Fiscal Year. FFW

mandays which are not utilized by September 30 are carried over to the

next fiscal year, and deducted from that year's request. This


- :35: -

stipulation builds up pressure on the entire system to utilize the

food commodities before 30th September. It is but natural that under

such pressure, the quality of projects is sacrificed with a view to

accommodate the quantum requirements. There have beer situations

where, because of this pressure, project holders have had to utilize

the food commodities in months close to September, even though these

are not the lean months - the most appropriate time to attract a

prod, ctive labor force. In one case where a consignee did not submit a

request for CRS commodities until February, only 500 mandays of the

80,000 mandays had been programmed at the time of the team member's

vist (mid-June). How can the remaining mandays be programmed

appropriately and utilized before September 30?

Categorization of Projects Inhibits Project Innovation. Over the

years CRS has developed certain categories for identifying project

types. Consignees and project holders have tended to identify FFW

projects falling only within those categories. In other words,

innovative proposals appear to have been discouraged by such

categorization. In fact, the project selection committee of one zone

did not accept projects which did not fall within these categories.

Predominance of "Easy-to-Manage" Projects. In the identification

of project types, the team noted that those types that were easiest to

manage, tended to predominate. For example, projects like individual

irrigation wells, which could be completed with available local

skills, which Involved very little supervision on the part of the

project holders, and which had a low risk element, tended to get

preference over other types of projects.

Social Objectives and Technical Criteria Not Operative in Site

Selection. The evaluation team noticed that individual projects, as a

rule, did not take into consideration ways of maximizing the number of

beneficiaries and recipients. Similarly, they did not, as a rule,

apply technical criteria to site selection. For example, the site

selected for a check dam could supply water for 3 acres, or for 25

acres. The site should be selected on the basis of technical site

conditions and potential impact, and not on one individual's desire

for a check dam and ability to pay food transport costs. In some

other cases, non-application of technical criteria led to the failure

of the projects (e.g. a well dug at an unsuitable site, failing to

strike water).

Recipients are often not Project Beneficiaries. As noted earlier

in this section, the purpose of this mission was not to study project

impact on recipients. However, certain observations have been made

based upon interviews with recipients during site visits. One

observation already made is that the recipient is often not the

project beneficiary. In the July 1, 1987 CRS Seminar, CRS

representatives did raise as an issue the need to look for ways to

address the poorest of the poor - the landless day laborer, for

example - in project identification.


- 36 -

Selection Criteria not always Targetted at Poorest of the Poor.

We have also noted earlier in this section that a recipient has

generally been "any individual who wants to work". Such being the

case, it has been the team's impression that there has been little

conscious attempt at maximizing the number of mandays available for

the poorest of the poor. It has tended more to be a question of

employing "known persons" for longer periods. These persons in most

cases are poor no doubt; but not necessarily the poorest of the poor.

5. DEPENDENCY RELATIONSHIP

One of the major concerns brought up several times during the

briefing sessions of the evaluation team was the dependency

relationship between the recipients/beneficiaries and the project

holders/consignees. The SOW mentioned that "in some cases, a

dependency relationship between the community and the project holder

was perpetuated". This question was examined in depth by the

evaluation team.

5.1 FFW Prevents Migration and Promotes Family Stability

Although this team did not attempt to determine if repeated

FFW experience contributed to reduced migration and improved family

stability, the team was repeatedly informed by recipients

and community leaders that there would have been migration during the

lean season had not FFW been available.

By providing timely employment, FFW Projects have not only

prevented migration and preserved family stability, but they have also

prevented exploitation of labor. As is amply docuwenLed by several

studies, the extent of exploitation to which migrant labor is

subjected is very high. Family stability in rural areas is a basic

factor for the creation of conditions conducive to economic

self-reliance.

5.2 Lonp-Term Planning Wil! Reduce Dependency

As noted earlier, there has been a shift in recent years in the

CRS policy towards FFW Program implementation in favor of multi-year

development planning (5-years) for integrated community development.

This 5-year planning approach draws a timeline on repeat FFW

expe riences.

When community development plans are carefully designed, and when

they effectively integrate esources and provide for skill

development, they do address the question of the community's

dependency on FFW, as well as their dependency on the project holder.

Repeat FFW experiences over a time perspective with well-set

goals to be achieved at the end of the period, is quite acceptable as

a perspective planning strategy, and in certain circumstances like

drought-induced unemployment, also becomes necessary to keep up the


- 37: ­

developmental momentum. While repeated food inputs may appear

inexpedient, the alternative of unemployment is unjust. Conditions of

unemployment neither satisfy the norms of planning for economic

development nor do they meet the ends of social justice.

5.3 FFW as an Investment

A view expressed by some consignees ind project holders is that

there is really no dependency relationship in FFW programs because it

is always "food for work" and not simply "feeding the poor". In the

case of beneficiaries, the assets that are created enhance their

creditworthiness making them eligible for further credit assistance

from banks and other lending institutions to improve their economic

status. 7n the case of works like land clearing, the quality of

assets held gets enhanced considerably leading to better returns from

suc. assecs.

5.4 Creation of Community Assets Distributes Benefits, and Minimizes

Dependency

ln the context of the 5 Year Plans with their objective of

creating community assets, there is more likelihood of minimization of

dependency, as community assets will distribute benefits more

equitably among all members of the community, enabling them to enhance

their incomes. For example, the construction of a percolation pond

will, by enhancing the availability of sub-soil water, re-charge

individual wells of the land-owners in the area. This will lead to

better yields, multiple crops and more employment.

5.5 Skill Development and Income Generation Projects for the Landless

There is a need, as noted previously, for refocussing some of

these plans on income generation projects which will benefit the

landless poor. While skill-development programs could be thought of

for both marginal farmers and the landless, the accent should be more

on the provision of income generation opportuni ties for the landless,

maki. ng them self-reliant and growth-oriented.

Through a proper system of multi-year planning, it should be

possible to bring about a balance in program implementation between

the creation of community assets and the provision of income

generation oppcrtuni ties and skill development for the landless poor.

This is an arewiwhere considerable technical assi stance (e.g. project

desigi.) is called for botlh at the CRS zonal level and at the consignee/

project holder level.

6. RESOURCE INTEGRATION

6.1 Government

From sample visits to selected consignees and project holders the

team found evidence of collaboration with Government departments.


- . -

Ths, collaborati on~seemsto:'vary,fro State to:,State ,as also from

Dist:rict to: D stric.t.j

Consignee and prject older claorato wth Gvrmn a

evident i n the matter. ofl obtai'ning,,pemsso forselectionII of ' projett

site s-and:for-det-erni ng' ty sOf :Pro3 wl'fih WI. I be m,156-ffost ,-,---7behef

iciai to t le' communt ies.

Moreover, consignees' and 'project,' holders', of ten -sought -a nd

obtained technical assistance f rom -the" 'extension servi'ces" o various:-,

SaeGovernment departments. For,example, in fosttoprjcs

preoetahodrsno oly got. advice on site selection and-methods, for'

refresatinbut they also got free seeds, 'seedlings- and :sapins

In rojctsinolvin the const'ruction of~ "chekdstocae-tr

reservoirs, the, local, Irrigation Engi neers, ofered-s thncrate watier

and ofte suervised the construction of the 'earth dams.

6. atalst~for Release of Governmenit Funds-'

There were examples ~where the availabiliity, of food for worki.,

served to make available government funds eg 4hsi poctfor

backwr lses lsesor and fo~r roads, and drinking water wells f r'wr tribals

living in remote hill areas. It must be notedth.intesisacs

the type o~f projects an~d the ben~eficiaries were selected by the local,

Govenmen ofiias

SSuch collaboration between consi'gnees and :projec~t holiders on the

one h~and, and loalGovernment officials onV the other' incrae h

possibilityof~ FFW asise prjcshaving 'agreater long erm

£developmna impact.

Thered is scope for inceasing such collaboration, and efforts

4 ndto be made to promote4 closer iton top wi.th Government programs,

It was hearten~ing to sll some proje'cts such as vi'liage roas swhiich had

been 'constructe~d' with FFW ,ow being maintained by the village.

Isoecases the road were streng~thened anid surfaced by the Public

Works Depari~ tmento, allow local~ bu services to operate to the

villages which were previouslyin'accessbe

6. Other~ Donors

Atsome consignee level there was* evidence that many

FFWasistd rojct were 'implemented with cash i.np obtaained 'from

other fundin sources suc as MISE~RW(Wst Gemn) CEEM

(Holan); RS/ew York CARITA INDIADa -t e Indo-German 'Social

Service S8ociety. In some cases, t~e: Doc ee aalso', cont'i bu t es.

-- , ,,

4

-


The' integrat Ion of re so rcs $sidnml yb te on e w 0

Vs also ' in most: cases ,the Di ector .of, t e6Diocesan SocialXServ ce-I-_

Society

co

Where

p e th

tr y rgoee osge p1as Lg ega after t e~ t r wfa poe n~ s -s

projects, Wheri he6 Cos ignee is not, acti ve nprsig%complementary-' ........

re sou rces the-impa'c of-FF2W-asiste pr o jec~ts i m ess beause

hey are traditional type's of projects w'ch !an ecomnpi ted,,ony..,with'FW.'

Thle key to mxmznthdeveopment Impact of FFW assisted

projet idh aon of time 'that~ the Consignee and/or,

Hlespenidsin

the ;Project:

planning the project

resources.

and leragn ecmleetr

oo~project plnignral tragcng thre complementary"

jresources.< i C ~pi om,'~~tat a bpeetr

Forucche ssfu co ple ion of a proj ec t, 'i is -necessary that

thaalabiliy of the fo resources adtecash resources shouild

synchronize.Tisi stl not'always the case.

64Private Voluntary 0Organi'zain

iesource

~projects were mlmntdete thiroug'h PVOs or with their7 R integraio as Moat in evidence when~ FFW assi sted

PVs regally betterable t ensu~re commuity,involvement. in

§rpoject~ selection an~d siting. They provideconuiyraiza ac

ldrship traiig,~ includitng buidlding of skils They have easier

acesto local government departments and officialsand facltt

lJinkages which enabl~e the FEW assisted projects, to avail of- technical

an financial resources avial wt o'vernment. t,

Since PV~ ar usually located intea,&te rvd h

necessary organiza~tionalJ Inrsrcue ohnl Wasse

projects.­

reomnain frpormiprovemn emege

More rsourc spot an more..ifood

Y. -* Op~ . a

Techical ancnutnysevcssciastiiga

prjc ein otaj~t'eauto6


S 40, t-

Staff at consignee levels with rural 'development/ projec't

promo tio-n, skII l

Program support and evalain shulbeonspcfc

* econ t o and n er t in ou d foc~~i inhrn

*Amore &dillaborative CRS/USAID partnership vi s-a-vis t he CRS

Food Program in India,

*~More support 1 from USAID to~what CRS perceives as' local

7. CONCLUSIONS. ~'~

Sr7.1 The CRS FFVVProgram is a 've ry functional program.

''"''l 7.. CRS zonal off ice's are~striving fo rgreater

7.1.21 In the last' 2 years, the emphasis has -been o~n

-long-term planning with an 'Anitegrated' couununity~.

development approach.

7..


- :41 ­

7.4.2 The scope of their work is too ambitious in trying

to cover audit and evaluation functions, project

promotion, and project site support.

7.5 The recent decision of two zonal offices to concentrate their

staff and other resources on a limited number of consignees

who have demonstrated good management performance was a good

one.

7.6 The PM&E Grant was a weak response to a very ambitious set of

objectives and high expectations. Although, the grant

contributed positively to the re-orientation of the FFW

Program towards integrated long-term community development,

it has not succeeded in implementing the PM&E System. This

system is implementable. However, not enough training has

been provided; the BIIA and AEA instruments are not usable in

their present form; and there is, as yet, no linkage between

evaluation results and planning.

7.7 The CRS policy shift away from supporting "individual"

projects and towards supporting projects which are intended

to create "community" assets is resulting in the application

of stronger, more community-based criteria for beneficiary

and recipient selection.

7.8 The CRS System of project categories inhibits innovation.

7.8.1 Very little promotion is given to FFW - assisted

income generating projects. In the few income

generating projects which are being implemented,

little thought is given to the actual potential for

market tie-up.

7.8.2 Skill development for the landless, i.e. vocational

and on-site training, is not given enough attention

in the design of FFW-assisted projects.

7.9 There is evidence of collaboration at the field-level between

consignees/project holders and local government officials.

However this collaboration is not systemic.

7.10 Tnere is antL-ipuitv wtLhi~i the CPS or-aiiztion on the

scope of decentralization. This lack of clarity

impinges upon management functions and pojicy

formulation which should be based on systematic

information storage and retrieval.

7.11 The CRS FFW Program in India is achieving positive

development results, but there is potential for much greater

impact.


8.RECOMMENDATIONS

- :42 ­

8.1 A CRS/USAID workshop to review the outcomes of this

evaluation, and to formulate next steps. This workshop

should occur as soon as the new CRS/India Director is in

position.

8.2 CRS should establish closer links with Government at the

national, state and local levels to ensure integration of

program planning and implementation. It is recommended that

CRS liaise with GOI at national and state levels; that local

Government technical officers be included as resource people

in training seminars; and that possibilities be explored for

integrating the planning and implementation of FFW-assisted

projects with local Block Development Plans.

8.3 CRS should take more initiative with USAID and other donors

to ensure greater resource mobilization for the FFW Program.

Consignees should take more initiative with Government and

other PVOs to do the same.

8.4 The PM&E System as developed by Community Systems Foundation

should be revitalized.

8.4.1 the remaining PM&E Grant funds should be reallocated

to cover costs of CRS Field Reviewers to prepare

additional case studies on-site; and to fund a

seminar in each zone designed to use the case

studies as an educational tool. The Grant should be

extended to September 1988.

8.4.2 The BIA and AEA formats should be reviewed and

revised. Plrocedure should be developed within CRS

to consolidate and analyze evaluation results, and

draw co1CJeIusi ons and learnings as inputs for future

planning; and expected users of thle BIIA and AEA

instruments should receive further training. Outside

assistancL will liklv tC required to carry out

these recommendations.

8.4.3 A nect,:s-La Sed tt,linini approach is strongly

rec 1mwTcnded t in;rov,: job pc rfornancu of CRS staff

and key consi guee's an] project holders in planning,

project desiign, management and evaluation. To

dLvelop this needs based approach, a training needs

assessment is strongly advised within the next six

months. Outside assistance will be required for

this needs assessment.

8.4.4 An annual seminar to review the implementation of

the PM&E System should occur at the national level


- :43: ­

to discuss evaluation findings and formulate new

planning directions. It is recommended that such a

seminar occur within the next six months to review

the findings and recommendations outlined in this

evaluation report in the light of CRS's past

approach to the PM&E System.

8.4.5 Each zonal office should organize on an annual basis

a 3-day strategy development/planning retreat to

address issues affecting program implementation, and

to develop action plans for the coming year.

8.5 Concentrate resources on consignees who have demonstrated

good past performance. Strengthen their capabilities to

support good development projects with the addition of staff

with technical and development skills, and experience in

rural development, to carry out project promotion

functions. Provide complementary Inputs (training and TA

support, material and cash resources) to their projects.

8.6 Projcct design assistance should be provided to CRS to

develop FFW project models for income-generation, as well as

for skill development. Market tie-up potentials must be

considered.


BIBLIOGRA-PHY

1.An Evaluation Report of the PL 480 Ttje: 'IiProg' ram i n I ndia".;

2. 'An Evaluation Plan for the PL 1480 ,'Title lII Food'-for Work Program

~in India. PracticalConc'epts "Incorporated. .December 1980.

3 PL 480 Title II Evaluation~of Foo'd forWrk (FFW)in India

Summary2 Report. John Pal huyMac 1984

4. n E erg ng onitorinband Evaluation System for PL 480, Title II.

Food for Work in India.* Community Systems'Foundaton. 'uut

~1983.- u~s

.5. TheJ Implementation of a Planning Monitori~ng and'Evaluat on System

fort PL 480 Title I'I Food for Work Programis in'India. Community,

Systems Foundation. June 1984. -

6.~ Pl~eiesoaIanning, Monitoring and EvaluainSytmfr

SFood for Work in India. Community Systems Foindat'ion. October,

7. Grant Agreemnent -for Imlpementation of ~a.Food for, Work Planing,

Monitoring and Evaluation System: No. 386-0249G!700-.4036-00 (As

* ~Amended) Between USAID and CRS effective September' 14, 1984

8.Foods for Work Manual: CRS/India (As revised aur 96

9. AID Handbook No.9 (As amended) PL 480 Title II (Relevan~t Sections

on Food for Work..­

110. USAID files containing -CRS and USAID correspondence aid,

Sdo.u-ntto related- to the PM&E Gr~ant Agreemet, 'and USAID,

11. Annuiali Summary of Activities, 1986. Cathlic Relief Services,

1i2. FiveYear-Plan documents, Government of India, -Plan nng

Copmt t ion.

123, Ree1vnt-VFiles of CRS Zonal offices

I14 -Relevant ~Fles&-of- sample- consi /~project! 11o'

daer s­


AFGiANISTAN

V.S.S.R.

0 00

J AMU A XASHI{

L.hort *I~HIMAC .L PRADESH

I.. , S

CHINA CRS INDIA PROGRAM

(MAP SHOWING CRS ZONAL AREAS)

""NJIZO

UTAR PRADS 11

0.kp, 10 01( SA

MA4, PRAMADRAS9

CAL CUTA\

M.

A.,'DIL, T,,D BOMBAY__

H .P


I. Evaluation Objective

Food For Work Evaluation

Scope o-f Work

Assess the management tasks involved and the implementation of the

CRS Food For Work (FFW) program by quantitative and qualitative

review at the field, CRS zonal and Headquarter levels.

II. 'ackqround

In FFW projects, Title II food is used in place of cash to pay

laborers for a variety of jobs performed. FFW was created to serve

several objectives; provide jobs for poor laborers, increase

agricultural production, improve the economic and standard of living

position of the poor and proirote community development.

The FFW program in India increased substantially during the famine

years of 1972-73. The major program objective at that time was to

provide a simple mechanism for supplying food to the needy pockets

of the population. India is now in a food surplus position

regarding food grains, so that the provision of food without regard

to target groups is unnecessary.

A 1979 Community Systems Foundation (CSF) evaluation found that

CRS/FFW projects varied widely in quality. The most predominant

program weakness was the selection of project beneficiaries, those

who receive the asset created under FFW. A more serious problem in

a number of programs was that no selection criteria were employed.

Many projects were approved on a first-come-first served basis. In

some cases, a dependency relationship between the community and the

project holder was perpetuated.

As a result of this evaluation, an enhancement of CRS/India's Food

For Work program has been in progress. Since 1979, USAID has

invested approximately $520,000 to upgrade the CRS FFW program to

make it more development impact oriented. Upgrade activities began

with c follow up evaluation designed to Quantify development impact

that flows from FFW's two streams of benefits, i.e. those that

accrue directly to workers/food recipients and those that accrue to

oenefic iary/users of completed assets. Results provioed the basis

for Lne developmeri' of toe Piaening, Monitoring an Evaluation

Svsten ( FMK ) aeve loped by Comrinunity Systems Foundalior.. Tie

princ ipal pjur;pose of toe PMi&E system is Le heIsCnscrees anc

Lrc ec' iclers i;,rove ti efectiveness i of trie ,r prcjects over

LIime. A secorcdry PM&E purpose is to provide an indication of

program operction to CkS/i.,Y arid USAID. In addition, PM&[ intends to

measure charnes that occur at the local level ana attemt to

attribute those changes to a cause, whether it be FFW or some

combination of other program elements. This second stage is now


-4­

h. Describe origin/amount of capital Inputs for selected

projects.

i. Describe/quantify commodity delivery experience vis a

vis consignee project implementation schedules in sample

consignees.

j. Describe/quantify ration composition if appropriate to

recipient/workers.

8. Develop an analysis plan for the above data which describes

how FFW is carried out in actual practice at all levels.

The plan should attempt to identify patterns that emerge

over three years at all levels, as well as capture the

magnitude of the monitoring responsibility that lies with

CRS field staff.

V. Statement of Work

A. Composition of Evaluation Team

An international contractor assisted by a two-person in-country team

will carry out the evaluation.

B. International Contractor's Scope of Work

The international contractor (one person) will be the team

leader and will be responsible for reviewing the CRS program

developments and reviewing the evolution of the PM&E, taking the

lead in designing the field evaluation protocol and instruments for

the management assessment of the FFW program, conducting the

analysis of all three portions of the evaluation, and writing the

final report. Specific tasks include:

1. Upon arrival in India, review and become familiar with

the following oocuments:

a. An Evaluation Report of the PL 480 Title 11 orooram

in India. Cownounity Systems Fournation. June 4,

19i79.

b. An Evalua-;on Plan for ihe PL 480 Title 1i Food For

Work Hruc-r in India. Practical Concepts

Incorporated. December 1980.

c. PL 480 Title 11 EvaluaLion of Foocn For Work (FFW) in

India: Sunrniary Report. John Paul Chucy. March 1984.

d. An Emeraino Monitorinu and Evaluation System for PL

Title 1i Fuoo For Work in India. Cormunity Systems

Foundation. August 1983.


IV. Indicators

-3-

1. Count the number of Consignees, Project Holders, Project

types and Project sites in each FFW zone.

2. Compare and contrast above figures for previous three years.

3. Determine cumulative project area in eacn zone, and

concentration/disbursement patterns of projects in each zone.

4. Determine nearest and farthest project sites from zonal

cffice arid sampled consignees in each zone.

5. Derive total distances between CRS zonal office and all

project sites in the zone during the current fiscal year.

6. Derive total visits made by CRS Field Reviewers to FFW

;onsignees, project holders, projects and project sites

during the past year; derive total number of mandays

involved in these visits; conduct task anlaysis.

7. Numerate FFW training workshops that have been held in the

last two years for and by Zonal Staff, Consignees and

Project Holders. Collect agenda or curricula used for each

and assess the adequacy of the CRS training plan for

achieving the FFW/PME objectives and effective program

implementation.

8. Develop criteria for selecting a sample of consignees,

project holders, asset beneficiaries, workers/food

recipients, and community representatives from whom the

following would be obtained:

a. A qualitative, detailed description of consignee

selection ( onal input as required).

b. A detailed description cf project holder selection.

c. A detailed description of project and project site

selection (often, a project will have mutipie individual

sites).

d. A detailed oescribLior, of asset beneficiary selection.

e. A detaiied description of worker/food recipient

selection, arid length of jFF experience.

f. A description of the role of the community in project

selection.

g. A description of community vs. privately owned asset.


-2­

drawing to a close with the termination of the USAID grant for the

implementation of the PM&E. Upgrade activities have primarily

addressed development impact issues of asset creation. While it is

well known that the FFW program is diverse in project type and

geographical area, previous evaluations have made no attempt to

assess or analyze what this diversity means vis a vis the size and

skill level of CRS staff and for program enhancement efforts along

the lines suggested in the PM&E. It is now felt that an

understanding of the traditional FFW management apparatus in

quantitative terms, and qualitative terms may reveal ways to improve

the effectiveness of programming FFW . Therefore, the current

evaluation will examine the traditional FFW management apparatus,

collect and analyze appropriate qualitative information on FFW

selection criteria and supervision at all personnel and project

levels. It is expected that this information will complement the

data collected in 1979. On the basis of this analysis suggestions

for further program improvement will be made.

III. Issues

1. Given the experience of the past three years, has the PM&E

been implementabie, and if so, has it achieved its original

objectives.

2. Have the activities under the FFW program contributed to

long-term asset creation, asset sustainability, and

maintenance of the asset. Were the criteria for project

selection appropriate to encouraging sustainability and

maintenance of the asset for a period of time after

cessation of the project itself. In other words, was there

a long-term impact and what was it.

3. Has CRS developec a supervisory system at the field, zonal

and Headquarter level sufficient to effectively implement

the FFW program.

4. Is the geographical coveragE of the CRS program appropriate

to its goal ano rrnagemerit capacity.

5. To wriat extent are CRS project and beneficiary selection

criteria re leCLet in site s lecitior, beneficiaries* and

recipients- iT, , programs.

*Benieficiaries are those 'rio receive asset created under a FFW

project.

*Recipients are those w7o do the work and receive the food wage.


APPENDIX A

FFW Evaluation

Scope of Work


-S -

thsJauto.heeoe eouenai htfo

frtY oto v~a'o ilb 1ie

nt~~eract ~ WtFVa er oret

linpier taton

-rimnf thaHE

c

t

sOmgn a dofiod otest evaua t Ionprotoff da1 zd

t diith na FF1ys roraf gF and anagemetas

6 onc anIyj of dea~ (taeol wi bei ee b

foranaysRsN dgm

7.~fii reprt an

vaf

T~ ~ cositgo ~ eammn ~ ipconrptamo ~

~~ IV.,,~~ero~ Revewdoumntnlst

i Bl.abve

iffel tstng e teva t:I,'o potiocol a jata

colflection,-instrumns -- n.-,an~ Ie

if 3 Subse e pie ing 2 yoco abo eIraOet

an.nt to CR

ZoRS a d onc a c",Pog ecim ng m e e w ,- 1,

appyaratusf a"a c'le o e ac Vae ~ t

b UCt~ e r d e ?

d~is

a r,l 'o eto an L

eeerc~adOg ene to

aa '


*.Th I f1metatjor of a Planning Nniton 'ond

lul if stmw or4tWT ti eVI Fod~ ork

Proi ams,1 nMrid iai.TComr.f ty Systemsl Founrdation.0 "

JUn e 198C.X

Gu e1 nes- for&a- in'n in -ad~nlaonto Systems' F66ndatibn. 0Oct obe r 19 8

g. Grat'-Agreement- for mimttlnoaFoFr

Work" iMo o in , -'n :EaIu tio -,SY t ri.

'and CRS.e ec itve S ibe 9

hWFodFrWork' Manual: CRS/ India r ev'se

-January, 1986 ­

i.Al Handbook'o.9 (As' amended pL 480,lTil e~ VI

(Relevant. sections on-ood For-:Work)';.

UID, f Ies co'nti ni ng9S andSAID correspndence

and, documientat on et'd~to' te--& grant

~ agreemen ,n US iDel-d.inspection ,tours

2.~ Review t~ Iii &:Grant wit 'the p rpoe of: assessing thre

~fol I wing

a- Has th'e grnt act 4v t -achieved:-r o d6 CRS towa rd

achievng the,three' inajor-expect ed, enefjs rof:the

R PM&E through, het egap , i e. improving,te F

mianagement capabilitis of C" 1oa FFN cooyd nao

staf f &iherL CRS: zona'L sta ff ;co nsig ne'es and proje c t

_Lh tri e lemen\at ,I an f6rPM&E r nt,

asame rid ed 'WaS op fora'c niev ng te

obj ect i ve of f,' meen ii t16e PME

Rev the evo Iutlon' of ,the P~ M S L

j~~

,i

o re d- t~ i iere ag a WA

waI e,

Te Lo bJeCt

to

0

h otha'ttfi

Fa opa a a ncaea om at

aeL

-wid ' etoaar e

e' tf


VI iCoIsltion' of the Ttam

A.i n terna loaI Contract

Ms'be an.1 te na tlonal serv ce ,.r d et.l p eh , fproe s o af

'de' ece mnage veao ,dsk eva)u

des n1n gia nd con'd u'ctn.uanla a ad qu'81tv aato0nso

PL,401e I Food,. oi k program's ,or other f'-ood ~assistance"progrdflS

Proven'.analytical ski s,,are requ re . P br dl ect'

opal~l aenexper encewi a S.Ua VO, e' teras

dn employee or as5 a consu 1ta nt, s g s le ea

c~andidate may be _cons'idered f he sieha a v edge

p0o ork n the area. offood aSs s-tanc _ea,!:des pecJa od

Wrk, ajn possesrses t e required .a ag e nt exper ence and a record

of researcI and evaluation-thaV demo ~ a es a&genuie "inte est 1-n-"

tesubject of foo ,aid"and' its potenlal for,development c

Iii s esential that the team lea de rpos'sess t e r'e'qui ede aat

skills, and operationial maagement exeine d'oses'

awaenes ad snstVi ty.appropriate tounderstn ai4ng an wor~

withfin the PVO nm)lieu intr'na t 'n' ly He/she' must',be'_a va lab e t

min ini India for a.seve wee kperiod,. It ,s esim e te

evaluation would conuence on/ab6'ut. 3 e 8,l987. A fi nal' draftwould

be submittLedtoUSAID before Ju~ly 124 1981.

B. InCountry'ITeam

This team will consist of two persons. Each-1l have proven

evaluation experience and skills gaie 'okw w'ur

development projects. in India I bnt st hae ec

experience~ dkowledge of 7PV9 prograsinndaadse

exeineor-knwledge of food assistance prog ram's if pos le5

1mot~tcriterion for both teamimembers isa demons r'te

,V, professodl ,interest: in' the wok-o'POs1Jidaardgeninje

interest inmaking a cotrbu i to tat work, Proven

erieri asa team membero researh or ev ut or ~ 4

1 1hly desirable.l is~rcalta the 'tj ' e eb have,

ii.&~~1 fe ble personalities ati ebae o wo togethe. I

additio,teyshoul each po~ssssexper~ece or'w1.16g e s owra

w'I~ U la i~oal rrteateam leader and be able, afdw 111ig to, keb

te S of tile t0l eV - e a u t o

1110 drg h a aIc ll c i n p r 'd h n h 'Jn b"' 0

e ur ngoO ' ,tm


V1 . Re'PO'rtin ReQuiremientis

AFo'rmat ofteWrittneor

Tie, finaI :written repp.twl -conta the'-fol-lowinysecilons:.

1txvcuunr:

pages

o

.

oexceed

Th is section

th ee si

sta

nglIe

ds

spaced

donmt

l

and

r

s

temi

ir1es, in'a:

major

con

elements'6

ise -succ1ictway

the' report

te

(Eapls'owti

setonsuld -appearwil be 6 ~e dhg 'Ae

latio

nalI contra ctorsf rst vIsit

ws

2 Bdy of he R(?TOrt:

contet~inhhFFW

The. repo rt .wiIl

in,

escribe

Ind'a

th e

the specific

Is'ple e

environment

alngwi W1

three

and,detailssections

of

fo

the

each,-f.the

'eval

~provide uati

evidence,

on.': Th

and-

't~pW

~graphs.

analys

to

i's

support ici

conci

I irg,

s

tab

o s

1 ad

reatie to eac

dtln

part of-the

should

evaluatibno

not'exceed The.,eport

30 pae;.eeat

aecdotal inom i pats Reo e in dai ec

t~ o0l

of a conclusion, Sppr

or~recommendatlo

dppendices.

mybe a-d ded,-a'

~,. ~

_

Th Ttrepobrt should 'end with a ful

0aeeo

conclusions. ,Since 'mflyrmnagement

issues-are and,"serviceco

'wn to

del

bothFFW

ivery.

recomhlendation sectio wil be

a

dn

THnE

te j

the,

MICH

Iy

Jeam

wi

Leader.

tA'e

',The sectio w licopreTCE

specific

issues

recomhm1endation,,

that sas

crscut

asCSmana

botti

geme

be shortarid

programs.'

succinct.

ConIus

ion s houl

Apend icess hou it I ude theoIoi g

d.Te ealuatijonj scb e ofwr.

4b {e ind orKf tte ' purf,

vle

L

ofL

nrjdie5'

ou

nd le ~I

manaysof.ork

expeted0UtP

creaed typen

exprsee

Ya

n

1eof as

I J4

ee d t


- 9 ­

3. Submission of the Report: The final report will be

submitted and found accep~ablp by USAID prior to

completion of the international contractor's visit. The

report will be reviewed by USAID and CRS while in draft

form. A formal submission of a draft report will

bereplaced by interactive review of it by USAID and CRS

as it is being prepared for final submission.

4. Debriefing: Formal submission of the report will take

place at debriefing to be given by the team leader, and

his/her in-country team members for the benefit of USAID

and CRS executive-level staff officers. The debriefing

will be scheduled to take place two days prior to the

team teader's scheduled departure to allow time for any

follow-up/follow-on actions or clarifications prompted

by the debriefing that would require his/her presence.

5. A table will be developed by the Contractor specifying

major findings, conclusions and recommendations.

Priorities will be established for all recommendations

maue by the International Contractor.

6. The Contractor, working with the Project Officer and

counterpart staff, is responsible for preparing in draft

according to Bureau guidelines the AID Evaluation

Summary (ES), Part I ('Action Decisions' and 'Evaluation

Abstract'), and Part II ('Summary of EValuation

Findings, Conclusions and Recommendations'). A sample

outline of the above requirements is attached to this

Scope of Work. The Project Officer will not approve the

contraLtor's voucher until the required sections of the

ES are prepared in draft.

7. Relatioriships - The Contractor will be responsible for

drdft iru Ect i cit s of the pa pr drid rCP, I tirig d!SUC id eU

WiLt Ilic dLtiVijies outlined in Sect ior II and Section

IV dlov.. Ihe tedri, leader will be directly responsible

to the Foou For Peace Officer and

collaborate

will be expected

closely to

with the Evaluation

the Project

Officer

Couxiittee

and with

Members. A six-day work week will

be expected.


APPENDIX B

INTERVIEW INSTRUMENTS


isr'Wh., i. our, overlal ±pesi of':the effectiveness

of the F ~ rg pyur ~n

do-'dyou :feel ths W8 E~ es ,to.illustrate?).

1Iould'the programbe Strengted fr jTc ur,

point. of view7

~Wht keening this 'from 'haTD ei mg3

1.3'~ -In 'what ways -has th e PMi ':grant, helped, to strengthen,,.,

the program ?

In retrospect how~ minlijthe gr'ant h'ave 'been' r

foc ~used and a-TpIied

P1nning?

* ~ ~ - monitorinig-7

- -Evaluation?

2. PG IPE$.NAI'

2.I


:2

23 Wha t" pecifiJc a s sitance., do yu nive osine

vis.-a-v-is Proram implemen'tatio nJ

-Pannin - ssi ance?

11Monit-oring ofror ?

~ la1utd~6Prog ram .

-Training 7

-Commodity management ?

K~2.4 Hov t are Project 1olcersselected?

What is the selection criteria-?'

I,ho is consulted in rn h ig the,~ lcin

What arey our exT ectations, of Pro ect 'Holder's

o are these exrpectatioIns com -unic' e'' o

7Proect Holders ;

'i~What are Prjcodin_ ,osoes

ProJ~~ect~~'Ho16ers..exnectatios0Cnine~

OfCR Zon~al. oflice

~On the who are these exoect, io'ns b:eing met,?

1What is the turn rateec ofe Hodrs

(..~ow m~anyjnew project Yolcters dovyu add' each year?

11a 0& o vou do ifc voufre not satisfied with a

paricuarprojectlhol-er I

>.dPla e s.cri< th pro Qct 5eeop:)ent- proce.ss' %

"CL.crare~ pro'ects _i±ed N7

noaiproves ne%, prjet, =ndh i~ con EL

"hat crte&. ia a.s ~use6 .elC~.)Ctr

4~ a are~t U2b~~Jcs~aeen

h e cheacer c So -S ce-q_ poe

2r w r"Rr e' cipie rts eted,

F_ i e ± se'1c6


VVtt

Who i. c~1eins ~ .ee in

I-,,ha -percentarle of FT %worJkers ,ere "re eat'!

recap ie nt:s (Been e" I0 1oe d

revik o F.

1halti s CRS' sover Pn-,roah t 0 0vin -rec1pet

~ fuood- aid deendency 7,

What sp eci fic~ steps arc t~al en at, the prO'eCte 7e.

tm e 6 this harien7

thiproject le vel ? 1,Ih at'sp ec a.ic st ep s-a re b eino

~taIen tb promote~greater. skil'l d6evel'one t'

2.7H c, r Prject Beiefi~arie'. se'lected 7:

'4hat ;criteri issed i this selection -pTr ceSs ?~

Wh i onule ~i'aking

thes~e 'sel'ect~ions

VWhat percentage~of. b~neficieries, are ''epeat"

, benefaciaries ?

..'hat i the percentage of projects b'hat,TVFFIrecipient s, ,l

12renai of t e cases (xi wh ch recipien't A

ElrDrlmcar es are -he asets crea-zedI

mmuni rliva. -'on e d

Ub a isCRSs' oiic% !on pri-vate v t-esus comni

2. e7D ar~ -e t k n, to a sc cue-e a doen ecy

relalonhp. Latueen a- o _ve c~n

e 2Re -as ee

Q 0_ qe 0 o

7


Who', is on'uited in anr this deterrito

',k.Inw at wavsi doe. he CRO' zonal' office colaabor~ze

QQI

t ..J..-e.. ee~p~ -p anners "7

aI~i.w t av 5 d o consion ees ano, Prq ject Holders,,Z

~c ol lba te w it hBlocli< eo ntp~ies L.-i

th e FW prgrami and project e omn

S1n ,.h Et, ways are local.- over-nment se rice' extensL on:

~ personnels conisulted during project, identification,,

kdesiin and i plementati n

-~Design assistance ?

~ ~AAA~.* ~ eneiciar se

Bens6i lection7

NAL n, ICE P-7rSC)oItE ,/ESPOT I,IELITIES

3. Please describe~your zonaioffice staff an d

tzeir prma.jo esonsibiities,

Wha s-eif ic skiI-s are 1rec-,uire - to carrvy out

thei~rA lob resA-szlte A ieA-vs--- Su4

31 2 Wha- ct inoervce trinn App-'1i I5J e e, .

reieer ca''e ou{ in t" last vear ?

A' 2AIWhta have-o sevie ta~in 'oppothese e Iu tboeyS t

1 :~Ehe 1 PT,, 7,AA

A~~~~~~ " xviweskcrrJd

''' ~'A ~ A A I U iJ

-- -


4. Ce ",CDITY DITTT.ON

5

4.1 Are you satisfied thus far with the distribution

performence of In6ian Potash Ltd. ? I'hyA'hy not ?

-

Whtt hFF been the impect on the program in the

past w-ien food uommodity deliveries have been

delavec9 ?

5. Nei;- POLICIES

Have delevs occurred recently ?

- Port to consionees ?

- Consignees to Project Holders ?

- Project holders to project sites ? .

5.1 How familiar are you with the new 7-* guidelines on

monetization ? On multivear planning ?


Plaepoieeeae

data for thepro 18-6

1. Nume

inthe

2. N, per

3. i' beri

4.


in' thi

r

HE

1984

ofCnsigneeS

Zone:

of .roject

:of ;Pron

one

th erinZthe Zone

_e t s

umber o~f Proje

sites V, in the Zone.T

5. Nu,.mber of Pro j ec

tps in-. the Zone1

6. Nlur-nbetrof rec ipilents 2,

*~

Niuer:o

eneic

ocne ,3

nS,,TD

e ~~ tn0

ot

pira

ies inth e

FFW :P-neG

19865 198

teaai w ith the6, foi c ig)~tttv

P 0ojectype.

t

. IV-0

-. 1*"


Tota]2 Co oii

fo0r, e ac y'vea r

- eg.i)

y.er-)ge :.rupee 'a auc

ofra dal rton4

10. To' a) fiel vixs

by Zona staff,

-to Con sionees

-toTrj ect holes

-to pro~je ct sites

ii. umbr ,:of training

programs,:5

- for Cons ignees

-for- projec odes

f for zon2 r iel reyv w ers

1ube r olpor0jec,

e va. ua tions: 6

iea e'- . sepa."at

u -ale -,.ze

~.7Fe ~Ie

~e


: 3

13 Please provide a map showinn

your current and recently

completed FFV Projects.


FIELD REVIEWERS

in addition to appropriate questions from

questionare,

field reviewers.

the Zonal Director interviet

the following questions will also be posed to the the

1. PRIMARY JOB REPONSIBILITIES

1.1 Hay long have you been in your

1.2

current position t

Please describe your primary job reponsibilities 2

What percentage of time

the FFW Program)

Which do you

1.3 Please

respons ibilties ?- .......-- ­

do you spend on each 7 (including

consider to be your most important

describe your FFW Program planning, monitoring

and evaluation responsibilities.

When you make field visits, what specific tasks do

you carry out ?

How often do you make field visits ?

What is the average length of your field visits ?

1.4 How -many projects sites have you visited in the

last year?

Please describe your project monitoring responsibilities

Whzrr specific things (tasks)

a project site ?

do you do when you visit

What is your average length of stay at a project site ?

1.5 What percentage of questions frrom consignees, projec-t

holders and project site coordinators can you address

'on the spot" 2

2. CO1SIG..EES AjvD PROJCT C TTP S

2.1 How many consignees/project holders have been

dropped in the last year?

.lv


S 2 a

3* PRIMARY/SECONDARY BENEFITS TO FrW RECIPIENTS

3.1 How would you describe the range of benefits that

FFW recipients receive ?

3.2 In what ways is the MPW ration on appropriate ration 7

Does its appropriateness vary from project to project ?

(In what ways) In what ways is the FFW ration an in­

appropriate ration ? (What needs to happen to make

it more appropriate.)

4. TRAINING NEEDS ASSESSME"T

4.1 What are the primary skill requirements of consignees

to effectively carry out the FFW Program 7

Which skills in particular could be/ought to be

improved through training seminars ?

4.2 What are the primary skill requirements of project

holders to effectively carry out the FFW Program ?

Which skills in particulars could be improved/ought

to be improved through training seminars ?

4.3 What are your primary skill requirements to effectively

ca-ry out the FFW -Pg'-erm?

Which skills in particular woul3 you like to improve

to be more effective in your Job ?

What training programs/seminars have you .ettended

in the last 2 vears ? (Are you scheduled to att-end

any upcoming prograns ?) K i~4c

5. APPLICATION 0F 1 "ME FMr. RECOURCE

5.1 In your own opinion what are -the most important points

to vtress to consignees and project holders n how the

FFW resource should be appropriately applied 7


2.1 Wh~t are -our primarv res-onsibilities in the PF,,'

prornm

How often 6o you visit FP,-' project sites on field visits

2. FVW RLTION APPRPKI-TFR NSS

2.1 In what w;'x'v is the FEW ration an appropriate

ration ?

Does a-prc.-raitene- mo-f--thr rtion variy- from, project

to rroject ? (in whit v ?)

In what ways is the FF.: r,tion an inappropriete ration ?

Whet needs to happen to make it more appropriate ?


CONSI EE

T efoloqn cu~ o f f e oa ie or ues tonar w 1.1

"be pse6 t3o 'he, con,si onees :

1 .2

2.3K7

2.1

2.6

4. I4~

in addition to the above cues-lions tLne fo IIowing questionsS' l

also be oosed to consiaces

2.7F4ppIRN PISaS?.ILLITIES

21 rowlong hF17 -%ou been a consignee.

.;2 Z) 7t#70yU, see as,, 17 - p r i na r e s o s i±t e

v1he pecnai of vo -i o o s pen alon each~

Aths 0-5 -;: es-nosib*ifities *hich)on e do ou, cofisidei7

2. RES CURCIE~ TG

2. ~n o. 0m 'r~~ Ce

esoces do.you ageP

re s o~ ce'e1 a e

F74, p o.~et


'2:

2.2 Ae o ab'le- o 1 eve r e ., a oi1ion -direso

C s

from ot Pr aTn. 'norgs n a neceS in

sur ort -0 "projec s,,

&Whcbad-i -ona~ re..o rces-are yq U-- 0 :;succ

at.lever ging

3. &N"O-~Z~TIC~DIS- EM1AlIO 16' IN CC-T

~'3.1 H-Jow often ar e o 0 a Ie to' vit, roject holders an pr0e

sites to Monitor progranh/.oj ect prgess?

Whatar th-mos t: ccmon,'.,ceczt onss su~s hpoe


- Planninv Assi-ctance

- Monitorinc Assistance

- Evaluation Assistance

- Commodity Manacement Assistance

Have the field reviewers and other CRS Zonal personnel

been able to answer most of your questions "on the spot"

regarding your FFW program ? (What -, have been

adequate r _sponses 7)

How often are you able to meet with other

consignees to discuss FF,-' program issues ?

4. PRI!M-.Y/S CC!DG.' 'BENEFITSFFv T-- RECI TIE,]TS

4.1 How would you describe the range of benefits.that

FFW recipients receive ? (skill Development 7)

4.2 In what ways is the FF4 ration an appropriate ration ?

Does its appropriateness vary from project to project ?

(In what ways ?)

In wh-t ways is the FFY; ration an inappropriate ration ?

(Whet needs to happen to make it more appropriate 7)

5.2 That special problems h-ive occurred vis-a-vis FF'

commoditv storane handling, transport, distribution ?

5.2 Who pays trarnspert, costs of commodities to project

sites ?

If implementors must pay (or beneficiaries) does this

make iz less, aztractive to more distant or poorer

co.nunities ?


: 4 :

6. PROJECT MkIN'"EN,- NCE/SUSP.- INA _ILITY

6.1 whet consideretions are given to plan for maintenance

and continued effectiveness after project completion ?

7. APFLIC12TIO!N OP THE FPW RESOURCE

7.1 In your own opinion, what are the most important

points to stress to project holders on how the

FFW; resource should be appropriately applied 7


PR OJEC HOLDER

.'The fq1oloing -que- Ions. from the ZN'AL;,DIRECTOR UESTIOPB'11

be posed t o th e pDIroject hoTer

2e.

2.2

2.1111

~ Please describe the, e-ent our o experienc~

p ' Ou see 1 a Ez o~r prim ary respoisbili ies,

Srvis-e -vis the F'F' -ropram

.- 4

W~Ahat'-Percentage o fyour tieisspent on each ?

~hese,. t which responsibily -do -you-consde

to be yuour cms4 V rortant one- 7 Thyr Q

2.1',-f ed.'to'toh.- rsot~ce .V

resouxces ',0.o ME= ~e

E!


: 2'

"hicof t ~ e resource~~e qe loa

WFprojects" ?

2.2 I-, Et ad d iton resources" are yo0 blie-to', e

fron ,h e o gj nizations_. anc,,QG en0' sulobo

FI 'projects

- Forproject desg

-For

project implementetion

,VJay proj ects/pro ject sites tre you, responsible,

f orr

Hmchtie a are vyou able to spend att e n'I rR qi e

ThosmPeriss Fn.. wors whe yu'w o h

What, do you se as your primary skill requirements

tc'9eo ffectivey. carry out the~FFrv7 program,?

:,9~~jiWhich skills in perticulh -oul1d yvot 1 i e' to

~,


NaeCfSField Reviewers. . cons icjne'es. been" gerall

abetoanswe r- yclur- q ti1on s "'on e 7.9 pot!,,, r egardIng

~your FFW pr oc rJ eehe r.,e benaeqa

Hwoften doCPS Field Peviewers': and cons~ignees Nvisit"

ho)Ur W (ow. often woula6 you ietosee, them visi t 7)

Ijiof-Len ow are yvi abl e .to-meet with. other co's ignees t

F p±rogramissu s-7

-.1 4ow, H do~Project Coorcdinators ge't -rewarded ?

4' ~ 'R EOND R ENEFITS T FFW,,RECIP1ENTS

~> ~4.l~}jowwo~you

- .FF r4eciTpients

escxibehe

x'(i~e7skill

range of enefit

deveIopent7

.~jj42 Inwhat ways is the FW ration an apopr raio 7

Doe it aprpitns

('In what ways

varyr

from: proj ect 'to,project ,,.7,

iIn wha-t ways ,is 'the FFWr, ration an inappropriate -ra ion7

(l'ha needs to happen to make it mo~ propriate

5.1 -''hat s-.)cial T'prob-2em s hav e o-curredf vijS-8-7vi"

5. ' 4hopays tra~nsport cost's, 'o commcdities t-ko, Projec-J-,

~ ~~Sit&es7

':-f irpplementors miust pev (Or be eici'aries does' ..­ hi s

mak i- es t active tc more.: a s ant or ,poorr

cc {ties7

6.1 acons6erc- s ro e Tiv Co mln a, t e a

ancntiueefect veness; erpoe c e o


4

6.2 In what ways are projects planned to take advantage

of labor availpbility during off season periods ?

7. APPLIC:.TION OF THE FFW RESOUPCE

7.1 In your own opinion, what are the most important

points to keep in mind to appropriately applying

the FFW resource ?

7.2 Describe generally, and tothe extent possible the

program in terms of recipients, age, sex, socio­

economic status, regularity and total months of

program involvement.


APPENDIX C

CRS SEMINAR


TCE CRS SEMINAR

July 1, 1987


CRS SEMINAR - JULY 1987

A seminar with representatives from the four zonal offices of

CRS was held on July 1987. The seminar was designed and facilitated

by the Evaluation Team.

The purpose of the Seminar was to enable all the CRS zonal

organizations together to arrive at a common understanding of FFW

progrm issues and at appropriate measures to address them.

The AGENDA was:

1. Introduction

2. Presentation of the findings of the Evaluation Mission

3. Brainstorming to identify characteristics of effective and

not effective FFW projects.

4. Discussion in three sub-groups on issues surrounding

* CRS Personnel

* Decentralization

* PM&E System

5. Identify inherent constraints in the FF7 program.

6. Discussion in two sub groups on Issues concerning:

* Next steps

* Collaboration between CRS and USAID

7. Summarize the key outcomes of the day's discussions

8. Closure - How has the Seminar been helpful?

- How do you feel about the seminar?

After the Introduction and the presentation of the findings of

the FFW Evaluation Team, the group identified the characteristics of

effective and less effective FFW projects. Thereafter, the seminar

divided itself into three small groups. Each sub-group had a definite

task.

SubGroup I - Personnel Issues

What is a realistic and appropriate role for the field

reviewer vis-a-vis the FFW Program? Given this role, what

should be the major responsibilities of the field reviewers?

Is the position of the "FFW Evaluator: an essential

position? If so, what should the responsibilities of this

person be?"


Sub Group II - Decentralization

* How is "Decentralization" being defined?

* What aspects of operations are decentralized and which are

not?

- Administration

- Program Implementation

What are the advantages and disadvantages of

decentralization on the FFW program?

Sub Group II - PM & E System

* Based on the feed-back you have received on the PM&E

seminars, what sho'ul be the goals of

* What

future

should

seminars?

be the cbjectives in doing case studies on FFW

assisted projects?

* What information should the BIIA and AEA forms try to

capture and how should this information be used?

The full group then reassembled to discuss the findings of the

three sub-groups.

Thereafter, the seminar Identified the inherent constraints in

the FFW program.

The Seminar again divided itself into two small groups each with

a definite task:

Group I - Next Steps

* What steps should be taken to strengthen the FFW program

- at the zonal level

- at the national level

- at CRS/NY

- Other

Group II - Collaboration with USAID

* How do you perceive USAID's role vis-a-vis the CRS food

program?

* What changes in USAID's role would you suggest?

* What steps could be taken to enhance collaboration?

* What aspects of the FFW Program do you think need

additional USAID support?

On the re-convening of a larger group, the seminar discussed the

findings of the sub-groups.


The zonal representatives were very positive about the

usefulness of the seminar and expressed great satsifaction about its

outcome.

Present were:

From Madras Zone:

Mr. Michael "rank - Zonal Director

Ms. Usha - Nutritionist

From Cochin Zone:

Fr. Ken Vavrina - Zonal Director

Sr. Elsie - Program Reviewer

From Bombay Zone:

Mr. Michael McDonald - Zonal Director

Mr. T. G. Ekande - Fied Reviewer

Mr. Babu Mathew ­ - do -

From Calcutta Zone:

Ms. Vivian Marn - Zonal Director

Mr. Abraham Edassery - FFW Evaluator

Miss Nirmala Gupta - Senior Nutritionist

From New Delhi Office:

Mr. George Ruttickal

Mr. P. M. Jose


APPENDIX D

LIST OF INTERVIEWEES


CRS MADRAS ZONAL OFFICE

LIST OF PEOPLE INTERVIEWED

I. Mr. Michael Frank - Zonal Director

2. Mr. G.J.M. D'Silva - Administrator

3. Mr. L.P. D'Costa - Programme Reviewer

4. Mr. D. Theophilus - Field Officer

5. Mr. R. Vincent - Field Officer

6. Mr. J. Pozarlo - Project Officer

7. Mr. Aiman James - Field Officer

8. Ms. Usha - Nutritionist

9. Ms. Sujata Amarwadi - Nutritionist

CONSIGNEE - TINDIVANAY SOCIAL SERVICE SOCIETY

1. Mr. Don Bosco - Consignee

2. Mr. Thomas - Field Officer

- Nutritionist

PROJECT SITE - Serathanur (Irandhai Parish)

Mr. Anthony, D - Project Bolder

Seven members of the Village Community, including

the elcted leader

CONSIGNEE - SOCIAL SERVICE SOCIETY, NALGONDA

1. Mr. Julian - Director

2. Mr. Maria - Project Officer cum Coordinator

PROJECT HOLDER - Mr. Balashowry

PROJECT SITES - Nalgonda

Thelakantigudem (13 Kms from Nalgonda)

CONSIGNEE - VISAKH-APATNAY SOCIAL SERVICE SOCIE2Y

1. Mr. George Manianghatt - Consignee

2. Mr. ATithony Paravil - Project Holder

3. Mr. Terrence Joseph - FFV Officer-in-charge

4. Mr. G. George - Field Supervisor

PROJECT SITE - Mangalapala

Benefci aries

PK OJECT SITE - Narsipatnar

1. Mr. Jol Babu - Project Holder

2. Mr. Sambasiva Rao - Sub-District Collector

Peddalioddcpalli

Tribal Villagers


CONSIGNEE - TIRUCHIRAPALLI MULTIPURPOSE SOCIAL SERVICE SOCIETY

Rev. Fr. S. Kulandaisamy, Director

Mr. Joseph, FF Management

Mr. D. RaJendran, FFW Reviewer

Dr. Dorothy, Women Development Program

PROJECT HOLDER - Unavailable

PROJECT SITE - K. Udayapatti

Road Construction

INTERVIEWS - Mr. Muthu, FFW Worker

PROJECT HOLDER - Rev. Fr. Gnanpragasam

D. Udayapatti

PROJECT SITE - Chinnondipatti Road Construction

INTERVIEWS - Mr. Anthonysamy - Youth Club President

Mr. Felix - Youth Club Member

Mr. Arokiasamy - FFW Worker

Villagers (Both men and women) in Community Meeting

CONSIGNEE - MADITRAT MULTIPURPOSE SOCIAL SERVICE SOCIETY

Rev. Fr. Asirvatham - Acting Director

Mr. Sakthivel - FFW Personnel

Mr. Jovial - Coordinator, Development Program

Mr. Xavier - Coordinator

PROJECT HOLDER - Unavailable

PROJECT SITE - Silukkuvarpatti

Proposed Drinking Water Well

INTERVIEWS - Mr. Jesu - Village President

Community Members (25)

Mrs. Anbamma - Women's Club Treasurer

Mr. John Sundur

PROJECT SITE - Ammapatti

Proposed Drinking Water Well

INTERVIEWS - Youth Club President

President, Small Sawings

PROJECT FOLDER - Ir. Rajarethinam - President

Asseta Kariyapatti

PROJECT SITE - Puliampatti

Proposed tan], deepening

IlfTERVIEWS - Mr. Savarinathan - Community Organizer

Comunity members gathered

Y'r. Ramakrishnan

Mr. Ramasamv

'r. 1Yrishna Murthy of USAID and Mr. D. Th~ophilus of CPS

Zonal Office accompanied Steven Joyce

CONSIGNEE - CANARA OPGANIZATION FOR DEVELOPMEN,T AND PEACE (CODP),

MANGALORE

Fr. Arthur Pereira (Away)

Sr. Dulcius - MCH Coordinator


PROJECT HOLDER

Mr. Sylvester Moraes - Field Reviewer of Consignee's

Office

Ms. Ivy Larado - FFW Asst.

- DIRECTOR - CODP

Siddhakatte - Bantwal, T.K.

Fr. Peter Serrao - Director

Mr. Rozario D'Costa

Prof. Rodriguez

Casimier Rodriguez - Ben - Village Koita

PROJECT HOLDER - Capuchin Krishik Sewa Kendra

Daya]bagh, Ujire

Belthangady Taluk

Fr. J.Y.T. Pereira (Away)

Mr. William Samuel - Supervisor

Fr. Fabian

Mr. Sbeenappa Extension Worker

Mr. Birmana Madivla-Ben-Kalmanja Village

Mr. Umarabba Ben-Kalmania Village

Ex-Consignee

- Fr. Edwin Pinto, Umanjeri

PROJECT HOLDER - Fr. Mark Valder

St. Thomas Church

Ammemabal, Bantwal Taluk

SITE VISIT - Individual Wells

Beneficiary - Mr. Valerian D'Souza - Bollyar Village

PROJECT HOLDER - Fr. Lancy Mathias

St. Thomas Church

Nirkar, Vogga P.O.

Bantwal Taluk

SITE VISIT - Road Work

CONSIGNEE - Fr. Saler.a - Pirect 6 or of Social Work

Bishop's House, Bangalore

FLTCTIONAPIES - Mr. Leo Anthony

Mrs. Sheila Joseph

PROJFCT HOLDE? - Sr. Jude

p~OJ 'fPFEECTT - S7. Celestine - Pirector

Sunandha Prisinapurar KGF

SITE VISIT - Desilting and bundnp of irrigation tank

Beneficiary/Pecipent - r. Ramakrishna and others

Thookkal Villape

(Mr. Vincent from the Zonal Office

accompanied Mr. P.Subramanlyam)


CRS CALCUTTA ZONAL OFFICE

1. Ms. Vivian Matin - Zonal Director

2. Mr. Abraham Edassery - FFW Evaluator

3. Mr. Sushanto Biswas - Field Reviewer

4. Miss Nirmala Gupta - Senior Nutritionist

CONSIGNEE - TEZPLT SOCIAL SERVICE SOCIETY

1. Fr. Thomas Thottungal - Consignee

2. Sebastian Nellikunnel - Assistant

3. Joseph Kandulna - Assistant

PROJECT SITE -Dhekiajuli

1. Fr. Alphonse Kerketta - Project Holder

Member of the Village Committee

Menjenjuli

Seven members of the Village Committee including the village

leader.

Mazbatb

Fr. Augustine Panakatt Namkibelaguri Village

6 Beneficiaries

CONSIGNEE - TURA SOCIAL SERVICE SOCIETY

1. Fr. George Kondookkala - Consignee

2. Mr. Mathew - Assistant

PROJECT SITE - Mendal

1. Miss Myrtle Fernandes

2. Secretary of the Mahila Samiti

INTERVIEWS

CONSIGNEE - JAIMSKEDPUR CATHOLIC CHAPITIES

1. Fr. Joseph Kalathil - Director

2. Fr. Tory, Nelliekunnel - Assistant Director

3. Mr. Thisolone Kukeha - Officer Assistant

4. Mr. Robin F. Sorung - Field Supervisor

PROJECT HOL')ER - Unavailable

PROJECT SITE - Rengara

Check Dams (2)

anks (3)

Low Costs Houses (2)

INTERVIEW'S - Brother Andreas

Brother Suchil

Brother Joseph

Mr. Sonathun Himbsim - Tank Beneficiary

Mr. Momgal Singh - FFW Worker

Mr. Raghu Humbrom - Tank Beneficiary

Mr. Ramesh Humbrom - Rouse Beneficiary


PROJECT HOLDER - Sister Gracy

Jinpani

PROJECT HOLDER - Msgr. John Bodra

Chalbasa

PROJECT SITE - Community Center

Low-cost House

Land Leveling

INTERVIEWS - Mr. Martin - Project Supervisor

PROJECT SITE - Dhpbhar Village, 4 KM bund

IRTEPVIEWS - Mr. Bali Narayan - Thira, Site Manager

Fr. Thomas

PROJECT SITE - Purl

Women's Training Center

INTERVIEWS - Mr. S.K. Sen - Secretary, Mahila Kutir Silpa Kendra

Fr. Stanislaus

Mr. Rinus Sundi - FFW Worker

Mr. William Sundi - FFW Supervisor

Mr. Nistor Sundi - FFW Worker

CONSIGNEE - CATHOLIC CHAPITIES, KHURDA ROAD, CUTTACK

1. Fr. Augustine Karinkuttiyil - Director

PROJECT HOLDER - Mr. Harihar Ron

Nehru Sewa Sangh, Banpiri

INTERVIEWS - Ms. Sarojini Dass - Member, Nehru Sewa Sangh

Executive Committee

Water Engineer Tribal - Development Project

Water Engineer Tribal - Development Project

Agronomist - Tribal Development Project

Community Organizer - Tribal Development Project

Community Members

Mr. Mritunjo Dus - FFW Beneficiary

Land reclamation

PROJECT HOLDER - Unavailable

Puri

COINSIGNEE - Fr. K.J. Raphael

Krishnagar

West Bengal

Ex-Project Holder - Fr. Dino Colussi

Functionary - Mr. Decpak Yanda'

Secy., Directorate, Trishnagar

Site-Visit - 1) Pond Scheme 2) Poultry

3) Housing - Villages Badciangla & Others

PROJECT HOLDER - Fr. Sushil Hira

Cathedral Rectory

Krishnagar

(V


Beneficiary - Mr. Chainanalk, Jalalkali Village

Visit to Muktinagar Housing Scheme

EX-PROJECT HOLDER - Fr. George

Cathedral Rectory

Krishnagar

PROJECT-Holder - Fr. John Vaikath

Monlgram

Murshidabad District

Site-Visik - 1) Housing

2) Pond Construction

CONSIGNEE - Fr. J. Noronha

Vicar - General & Director

Seva Kendra, Calcutta

FUNCTIONARIES - Mr. Ajoy Gomez - Project Accounts Officer

Mr. Oliver Gomez - Coordinator of Programmes

Mr. Chandrasekhar Banerjee - Field Reviewers (FFW)

PROJECT HOLDER - Mr. Subimal Kumar Patra

Secretary

Sarat Smriti Sangha

Hatiberya Village

Other Members - Mr. Radhakrishna Gir

Mr. Harekrishna Ghorai

Site Visits - 1) Road construction

2) Community Centre

3) Sanitary Latrines

4) Social Forestry

5) Housing

BENEFICIARIES & RECIPIENTS - Mr. Gunadhar Thana

Mr. Swapan Patra (Recipient)

Mr. Vishnu Pada Nayal: (Recipient)

and others

PROJECT HOLDER - Basantia Sevak Sangha

Basantia Village

Mr. Madan Mohan Das - Secy & Porject Holder

FUNCTIONARY - Mr. Shakthi Ranjan Das - Asst. Secretary

SITE VISITS - Housing

BENEFICIARIES - Mr. Pradip Kumar Ola & others

PROJECT HOLDER - Ikshupatrika Social Welfare Organisation

Ikshupatrika Village

Mr. Narendra Nath Maridal - Secretary and

Project Polder

FUNCTIONAPY - Mr. Birendranath Jana - President

SITE-ISITS - ]) Fousing

2) Drainage Canal

BENEFICIARIES - Mr. Kali Pada Das

Mr. Radhakrishna Shree & Others


(Mr. Sushonto Blcwas from the CRS Zonal office accompanied Mr. P.

Subramaniyam)

CRS BOMBAY ZONAL OFFICE

1. Mr. Mike MacDonald - Zonal Director

2. Mr. Babu Mathew - Field Reviewer

3. Mr. I.J. Augustine - Field Reviewer

4. Mr. T.G. Ekante - Field Reviewer

5. Mr. Vincent - FFW Evaluator

CONSIGNEE - INDOTOF DIRCCSON SOCIAL SERVICE SOCIETY

2. Mr. Joseph Thavil - Consignee

Project Sites - Dathigaon

I. Fr. Peter Pul]iparambil

2. Fr. Mohan Berrys

Chhota Chosalva

Meghnagar Village

Mother Dongri

Pipl.kotha

Khatamoh & Titriya

Satsera & Bandisera

CONSIGNEE - ASHA NIKETAN SOCIAL WELFARE CENTRE, BHOPAL

1. Fr. Stanislaus Paul - Consignee

PROJECT SITE - Sehore

1. Fr. Paul Parecattil

PROJECT SITE - Ashta

1. Fr. Samuel Kavil

CONSIGNEE - FATTHEP GEORGE D'SOUZA RAIIATA

PROJECT HOLDER - Ashok Bedakar Tata Relief Trust

PROJECT SITES - Ralegaon Shindi - Irrigation Well

Dhoki Village - Irrigation Scheme

Parner - Check Dam

INTERVIEWS - AT Parner - FFW Workers

PROJECT HOLDER - Father George D'Souza

PROJECT ST- - Vaakli - Irrigation wells (2)

INTERVIEW:S - Sister Alphonza

?-'r. Buhanlal Muhamed Shaikh - Beneficiar

"r. Popet Mugal Yolgue - F17- Site Supervisor

Mr. Goresh Nath Vishum Shirole - Beneficiary


PROJECT SITE - Vase

Bhil Adivasi Sakakarl Cooperative

Lift Irrigation Scheme

PROJECT HOLDER - Father Baptist D'Souza Rahmi

PROJECT SITE - Kanger - Community Well

INTERVIEWS - Mr. Villas - Site Supervisor

Community Members

PROJECT SITE - Vadner

Community Well (2)

Individual Well

INTERVIEW - Babu Rno - Community Leader

ADMEDABAD

PROJECT HOLDER - Behavioral Science Center (BSC)

Mr. Rappai - Acting Secretary

INTERVIEWS - Fr. Franco

Dr. Vijaya Sherry Chand

Mr. Nattai

PROJECT SITE - Vadgram

Bhal Social Forestry Project

INTERVIEWS - Mafa Yhana Bhai - Cooperative President

Mafa Jetta Bhai - Site Supervisor

Laku Jeeva Bhai - Committee Member

Bhavan Narayan Bhai - Manager

A.R. Patel - Secretary

PROJECT SITE - RhonJ - Tree Nursery

INTERVIEWS - Kala Bhani Bala Bhai - President

Khoda Bhai Baga Bhal - Supervisor

Walgi Bhai Chagaon Bhai - Committe Member

Cyril Govind Bhai - Manager

CONSIGNEE & PROJECT HOLDER - Fr. TBOMAS ,MNAPALLI R.C. CHURCH

Kapustalni, Amaravati District

(Director, Social Welfare Center, R.C. Church,

Kapustalni)

SITE VISITS - 1) Housing

2) Land ClearinF

2) Individual Wells

L) Road Construction

BEN"EFICIARIES - Mr. Jingu Jingariya Dandekar

(also Secy of Regional Committee)

Melghat Area Chichati Village

Mr. Bansilal

and other beneficiaries as well asvillage communitv

(meeting)

rarcara- V\-a'

all beneficiaries and village community (meeting)

Badnapur Village

Mr. Chandru Babu Belsare

Mr. Lachman Puloo

Mr. Mahadev Sanoo

Mr. Ganesh Mannu Belkar

and other beneficiaries/ Village Community


K~hirpani Village

'BeneficiariesVillage Community meeting

Savarpani Village

Mr. Chichu Jogi Savalkar

Mr. Jayaram and other beneficiaries in a village

community meeting

Gadsimbha Village

Mr. Nanji Motia Khasdekar

and other beneficiaries and also village community

meeting -

Chandpur Village

Mr. Muna Zulu aoskar

and other beneficiaries and village community

Khongala Village

beneficiaries and village community meeting

Girkutti Village

several beneficiaries and village leaders

Jamli Village

Mr. Kalu Mungu Busum - Sarpanch and other

beneficiaries and village community

Kolungana Village

Mr. Michael Tirkey - Animator

PROJECT HOLDER - Fr. Joseph Puthankulam

Chikalada

SITE VISITS - 1) Road Construction

2) Land Cleaning

3) Individual Irrigation Wells

BENEFICIARIES & RFCIPIENTS AT - Kamapur Village

beneficiaries and recipients and village community

meeting

Amchery Village

Mr. Michoo Dadu Jambekar and other beneficiaries and

recipients in a village community meeting

(Mr. T.J. Augustine from Bombay Zonal office accompanied Mr.

P. Subramaniyam)


APPENDIX E

CRS FFW ZONAL PROFILE OF PROJECT TYPES


CRS FFW PROFILE FOR THE LAST 3 YEARS

------------------------------------------

--------------------------------

YEAR 19B4 YEAR 1985 Y ....

ACTIVITIESI... -ADR- ZONE I ---------------------

BOAY ZONE I ---------------------.

CALCUTTA ZONE I.............- MADRAS ZONE I BOMBAY ................................

lNo.ofl ACTIITIE I-------------i---------------------------------------------------------------------.------------------------------------------------

I............. ZONE

It

I

of ............. CAt.CUTTA ZONE I --------------------------------------------­

No.off I of

MADRAS

INOocol

ZONE I

17of

BOMBAY

INo.off ............

ZONE I

AY.............I

tLEUTTA

IPro -INo.of I T Al-New 1rrigaton Wells

A2-Irrigatia nWeels

Deepening/Cleaning

3

A -TankslDas/Reservoirs

A4-[rrigation Canals

Itof

otal

INo.o

iProj-INm .

Izof

of ITotal

INo.orr I of lNo.off

I... .

Iiof

...

Pro No. of ITotal IFroj-1No. of ITotal

INo.of

l- I... of Io of

lects lMan•ifc

PrO

Ia~daiects

-INo. of !Total

a

IProj-INo. of Total

IMandaysi

IPro

andayslec~s

-INo.of Iotal

Ilandayslandayslects

IProi-lN o lI

InandaysInandasiects

aotal IPro,-cto cf.i

IMandaysllandayilects

II

IndayslMandayecls I-andaylMandysects

I III

.landayi

I I IIII I I I I

I

102 152630 11.4

II

.93105202 1

IIII

12.2 1 40 1390543 1 9.6 1 85 1441557 I10.1

I

95 1700200

III

1 11.9 1

I

2 I

IIIII

18700 1 2.4 f

I

64 1260163 I 9.8 84 1671415 1 13,3I 5I 27297 1

1 112

I

426877 1 ?.2

I

56 1420674 1 6.4 1 1 i 2247

I

1 0.1 I 217 1673852 1 15.4 52 1450920 1 7.6 1 - I I

I -

I

I - 1 129 1422790

I

14.9 1 56 1600417

I

1 119 1 - I -

I II I I II

I

1 73 I 1 1242589 f 5.2 1 69 1296846 1 4.5 I119 1813732 I 19.9 1 96 1302429

1 1 6.9 1

I

64 1314398 1

I

5.3 1 21

I

1123052 1 16.0 I 122 1227574 1 8.0 1 61 1416862 1 8,3 1 82 1:37680 1

1 24 1 48910 I 1.1I 6 I 45144 1 0.7

.

I

1 19

II

1 71587 1 1.7

I

I18 1 42491

I I

1 0.9

I

I 11 1 43960 1 0.7 1 1 2127 I 0.3 1 221

I I I I II III I AS-BUnd Construction/

Repairs

A6-Land Cleaning/Levelling

T rnahin 1 p

A7-Bench Terracing

Land

Slope

Reclamation

54335

I

13 1 4 1 11920 1 02

IJj

1 91 29622 I

1

I,

14I

1I

63350

1I2

I 1.41

,

65

I

1737037

92

1 11.2 1 31 1235125 1 5.7 1 6 I 12310 1 0.3 1 55 1609058 1[0.3 1 1 -

I I I I

1 5 1

I

4968 1

I

0.2

f

I 53 1470065

I I

1 9.3

I

1 13

I

1 57310

I

1

I I I I

I I

1 165 1643466 1 13.9 1[76113330891 20.2 1 122 1722007 1 17.7 1 132 1423509 1 9.7 I[6 I11341721 19.2 1 23 1101958 1

I7B2

13.3

4

1 125

0.

1391870

10

1

15

13.8 1

0.

124 110539291

12 6 I7 I

21.0

I

1 93 1.70575

2 40

1

0.2

1 8 1

II

32240 1 0.7

III

I I

1 10

I

1 41856

I

1

I

0.6 1 12

I

147562

I I I 1 1.1 I 1 2 1 7400

I

1 0.2 1 20 189280 1 1.51 1 1 3600 I

I I I I I I I 0. 15 I 1 - I AB-Reforestation

A?-Pasture and Forrage

-

I I - I J,

I

1 1800

I

1 1.0

I

1 12

I 3081

I

1

3 1[2360 1 0.2 1 8 1 69844 1 1.01 7 1 27476 1 0.7 1 14 1 87400 1 2.0 1 5 1 58060 1 1.0 I 1 1 8000 1 1.11 5 1 2780' 1 0.9 1 7 1

I

73620 1 1.5 1

I

4 1 20735 1

I

1

19584

1

1 0.3

1

1 5 1 13511 1 0.3 1

Development

1I 1

1

1 1 f

- I I

- I

I I II

- . - -

I -

-1 2 2I 1 ?150 1 1I

A10-Fisheries Development I - I - 1 1 3 1 9120 1 0.1 1 - I - I - I - I - I - 1 66 1 11690 1 0.2 1 - I N.A I - I 1 1 2500 1 0.1 1 1 1 11664 1 0.2 I 1 1 9843 1

i1-Road Construction Repair 1 147 1438046 1 9.5 1 90 1742010 1 11.2 1 75 1265359 1 6.5 1 144 1508260 1 11.7 1 81 154B125 1 9.3 1 16 1 49980 1 6.5 1 B9 1291359 1 10.2 1 53 1329414 1 6.5 1 58 1I2024 1

2-Bridge Construction 1 3 1 13084 1 0.3 1 - I - I - I 1 1 400 0.1 I 3 1 11350 1 0.3 1 - I - I - I - I N.A I - I 1 1 2000 1 0.1 1 1 1 4000 1 0.1I I I 246

B3-Drinking

I

Water Wells 1 17 1 16409 1 0.4 1

I I

28

II

174234

I

1 1.11

I 18 1 B80O0 2.2 1 58 I 56144 1 1.3 1 32 195810 1

-------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------

I I I I I I I I I 1.6 I I I1 I 1050 1 0.1 1 II57 1 56337 1 2.0 1 33 I 1125680 I 1 I 2.5 1 121

B4-School I 32263 1

Community Centre 1 46 1116959 I

1 2.5 1 28 1 97410 1 1.5 1 26 1 69915

Health

1

Centre

1.7

Bodown

1 36 1115220 1 2.6 1 27 1105930 1 1.8 1

I I

3

II

I 2200

I

1 0.3

I

1

I I I I

7 1[4035 1 0.5 1 19I 76035

I

1 1.51

III I

17 1 27648 1

III IIII I

I

6

5-Low Cost I

houses 1 432

I

18964391

II

40.2 1 195 117548631 26.6 1 95 1496501 1 12.2 1 423 115071631 34.6 1 178

I

116304751

1

27.6

1

1 42 1193871

1

1 25.2 1

I1

341

1

1952939

1

1 33.5

1

1 123 110660591 P1.1

C-Training

64

Ed.

13,3089&

Vocational 1 54 1134070 1 2.9 1 44 1150383 1 2.3 1 126 1817948 1 20.0 1 49 1134991 I1 1 1I I I

1

I I1

Adult Literacy

1 I

Classes 3.1 I

I

1 36

I

1111022 1

I

1.9 1 70 1255701 1 33.3 I

I

52 I 96588 1 3.4 1

I

381

I

77168

I

I

1

I

I I I f

I I I

1. 1

I

651 75042

I

1

II III I III I I I I III I I

0-Const. I I

of Drains/Ditcher I

1 9 I 18158

:1

1 0.4 1 1 1 7056 1 0.1 I 4 1 24038 1 0.5

Latrines

1 151

sewage

37660 1

disposal

0.9 I I1

I

300 1

I

0.1 1 3

I

1 7800 1

I

:hO1

I

5 I 19151

I

1 0.7 1 31 4799 1 0.1 1 6 I 12389 1

tanks I I I

I

I

I

I

I

I

I

I I

I

I

I

I I II

I I I I

I

I

I

I

I

TOTA I I

1120914

I

1-1

I

100------------------------------------

I I

-

TOTAL 11209 146291661 100 1 873 166033581 100 1706 ----------

140859611 100 11298 143617411 --------

100 1849

--------­

159034001 100 I 185 1768039 1 100 11025 128455091 100 1 665 150448471 10$1 444 11;335761

--------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------

4------------------

------


APPENDIX F

COMMUNICATION TO CONSIGNEES ON CRS COMMUNITY

DEVELOPMENT APPROACH


. . .. . . . . .S

S ~ S * S ~ * r . . * . * . .

Cahoic Rle

Tcv rone.

Ca bI

00039,g Congr61y

. * t * *

20 2 7SI4

CATII IW

Rl .La/8/294 2 October .23, 198

U24 1 FQ4 o W'r

t ~ ~ fia 41* end'Ahe~asin fte'TWmee Jns

.brieon do'W6 th 4

a ou of4h onr n o bst

benbifd ntemeting. ,by our staff and byFr. Franca, and

Mr.* Ga'gan Sethi in Ahzmdabad.

Thi 0 lotter isan attempt~to clarifyany mioundoratunfdiflC that

-remain about' our plans for rood for Work nd-t gve youa good

ido' of 'how and "vho v6 hopo' t'o rooeed with MN

cje

4.PLANN XG

r: ~Weo are vorL tseriousa bout planning

planni'ng

for

f(or~all

FV 'as woell'

de vol open~t

aBy temaltlo

prograins. We highl arcat0h.hr

work and seri1ous erffort that you have undortaken, 61 arepresently.

ud taking 'to develop 'your p I ans'. I .wish to- assure:,yo tho

office

t ,our

will 4mko u'13 o' o r plans and th nt' we sihi1~ t m:vo

3rusly,

ry

e are sura 'that 'o uvi1 1 fls ind hoD uso u

.444

Fr.i{de v6Io nezt c i t c iion f:or

uPon 1t Ou1re rcen'. 0tig

ood

e'seI

f o

er

W~o1 orkts 4

acreed

FPood 3rC o-r '-'-si SE- "SII-FXC~

C) ?'k'C r?' - M

~ 9 * .


RELIEF SERVICES. U.SCC,'!I CotnuanSheet"No­

-f sdfrVrk

*

:2

oui':~n'u.y* all NEAT IVE SCT,,h tt

i"i projeaa pN MUST: BE i:AVZDE D

WP Projoo6ts

kH COKMLUlIY; n

co00uld uzptosycep

Must NEIVER CREATE -DlVSIONS AN D 3,,eAl US Y,,

- 'd for -Work Projects Mdst_'NLVER',be' i ~mc~ntedWITHOU7,T he _f ull

I~PAT I C 1ON, of the. 'OKMtUITY'

j''.,~fr W rk Projocts muat' NEVE R be used to' ENRICHOL FEW ope

IF~ for Work proJocts msalysbceconomica~lly v iable and* techni'ca~l y

C.,blo.' Thcy. suhould alwaya have, linkages to~othorl gonl in your pluan

F xample,. consider an 'irription proje.ct iMplmontod .undo'r a F,~ ach o

LTho .projoct should 4.nclude~ an educational comnponent. The- proJect ,ben6,

f. iciri shouild also loarn about any other bank loan, or,, govcrnmont 1)p

portod programs avai lable to them which would - uhanoe, this-,pprticular

pr~joQ o an -project that thby may pla to ,undortko Th pl

shouild also be apprisdo any e-nvironmental. consideratons lagricul ura

it chni ques, etc that they neod to learn. They should .also "l-earn -exactly,

__ tare their rzights as ~~zn f&prtc~rcitizens tt n ofi

The name irrigation-rpoet6o also be used as an entry. point7 to

orgaizethe pie ople~ Can an~iiiig'ation cooporativo ;befo'e7Caa

savir. "-,choe :or ozdit =nion! bcostatbiia ,?, P1N 'vi V:-ihve.- , mah

£Z9ter.mac fV can-link "a'~~i r~Qet othe'r, I'o~pn

obiectiyoa IZvezy; &trongl enogj 70two~ you.xsa tin'1 ig

'that the be nfits v~grung from a P'7 ahe~ a reat m'nhAiA --44

a e serious &4out DJ&E LOPING eiitino c rie a nthrpo- P1Wte,

Lrof coverago will hxave ob loano. T1~o'ro vill boonong~tens

dALopmental benefi ts if we mcatterF projoc'ts throighout120 or 3

* 3P0.s. The area of coveorage will haveL tos bo lanedt ag~y

a 13nuber of Villages aot a ti1 ;tnyno imorQ.'than 2 b-,r.

t. it, ichallenge thct wo must meet. Zvon ifa, pr ~ olde'r.

r i 0to one6~~i ~or wo sa, pr:jco in, ci largo'. niurnor, of_'

I tUt3 uuol tili thu maximumnu jbor uf. '1iix dyo at hio' d'i 3PODal

I~ J)Qor two villnjti KALutu ddtnri:t'vtvi i 11! l ojUd 1 ovvri u r~,

rK en~ o ori h z~uU a ofi rcb11ictri.. Ion m.ty ai i nid A bu

tob~r ~ilio7 Food' f Work i. -t r, J~iui tha ean' b 0

'ciI~' L;T1 t hat c n'

by b~ilcrs year af ter yaar. Every pl:-.n i3ud'-ave ,, p''se out

* vi3.ago nhould bo aoi1d t r.~ouh7Ie fo as~c 0

rio1& ou bo t, r-_-1 4 Ir

tadbL eeed-. It v i

d64'in 0-bot f: ea~r r

hr ' p_-rticu r -v 1-,g '0a-a an em

- It -far- a al t fo 110P

erioOua W'J; b, 'r1

ir n c d~ cxrdoL


ThOUR~EF ERVICES .US CC C iuto he , -

3:

Whn.talking a bour.t, c o

upon~~ uoo~ oosrc

nnitieabeiefitinu fr

tc prpa anc'

it is 13Vicumb.

c

)bor;in, F ..pro jecta

u~w proj'. ec t Thens opp roor t mi1 n oi onl giethDr

mont~~ oe a, 1rio of1 s, e~ y. r , -u it ,3

a ~ thtto ~ a ~ eor~ ~ oprhspobywt ~ -

that, at, a air vs3 im'l bu-L oc

-ro'dehe wit an,

(I.to

ulrepo­

t~nbe to o sv

o~ h toebb sit

mt~ges

ppc~m oorut c b

c n _t'u~ t in Id o l'__ j_YA_t; i r' I~-­f t'o. Ut~r~k il olprk o n

FF,

ous

0C n

pl~ining~cu prbra~oovi th next, oiv onyrou focus is on dovolopm

ruiot .11 11ta hloi o -'orgnce iu yiinbnu to

Futur anulp

be vc lpe t or,;ienteda yr-riS~bU i n natr' disaster

3nzo s. that~i the mnda eole will'urc Li 3bl tpo cp bterv

o f,am to an in ceigyer

'hat -rd s in thev Mnt CR B omy wil r i uve eryj rosl for

pr~~curc~~ a~diie~ thesourc aneesy incp ihsro rbess

ts

cee

btt

i

ye

9 tinn suptmna

'r shallcVEr.,t

i nlyw ty. gr~d aloain

foovry orenydo ituaolvoo-n :

itr'ofrm o rocent

hop tohveikpae t;t~ Le yse

plahnin vcupr oa 1ov(. p he hiv t f~ rc r eve0 ry: ye0 rS BiS'. rojeC

muLt "'inotbalof ewrgits. For o-illr, ouf -ds o tFuldr ranua

ro~ppr~uct 2 ~iri~'atin or i~eig wol.9 ~w vil1 rquir tht

so' ~~~s a pr3Vt o1r ikd Di. rin itas

,psoc stoa a i co arsi ~o

o2ras ntep t:CSBm e 1f y:w11r '.

_PCUe diioa esu ws neesrt)coo

.

s

pp

v ryOe3 d orVpbi f

I -T

wt:ts _,,rbeaV3c "

p

h

Ahic


s44:

y ic sisto be usod Fo 1N:_ ,pro o 'c' d0sic'nod ''to inc rease, inc'r'Lc'_

'and the Ase fotveis nls3 d. hich. i s fto busod for

FWprooect s, de s1n ud, to. create- sts sueI h l

nkin

houses,

Uwater. we

comrun

II ,sch

Iy

oolb and C'o ritY c'trc aL c cLosd cods

Ua3 odu pIi c atc- tho s0-usti-on nair r o u re-UL Ie

As mentioned- arlier, we requ ire all' pro'je ct hold~ors

to evalua t610 of thirtota prjc uz I a 'or .t leastonprjt

concunt- tconOl project s"I7

duieF 1f985 for the, cozing )-ear's a ~1tions._ FY' 1 85, wI~ e ou

~base your bc~cauoeo

thw

suff icLn tio noLp

~~~~~~tm hasr

tha

pP,195poissed :to thb.nft

accrinefro th YY198 pocscti.R~ pla to conduct

uatx ons~

-your

bof

ovnl

ore Mrrch187 All o valution. s~ould ruc ti ofl±cu

baMrch 1, 1987.i

pcir year.~ I request ttovory om 1 iploe A)nt d

ouaePoabl aw are tha t CRS i. oin, -o'Th w it h the' Behavioural

~~Science Cotr i s'nao ondcavourinC to dovclop' oiLcwhat nore ophis­

.ticate4d cfalu:±tion and ,case satudy instruo~lnt dosignod 'to -supp obont your

ovaluaioma, Thos evaluations and czis&.studio~ it b udotknb

our own staff in consultation with -thc thoso cofls noeL- s and ,projoct,

holdors diroctly invco1vd. These 'studios-w 11. pI-'c :.a 'Igr ato r e ra phasia'

~on the socialt raiiifcatiois ofb Food for dorkc. 4 shall ko y n

forood as we continue developing~ the suppliinent~i val3uati on.

5. i.Y, 1987 -LNDAY kLOCh~T1ON$

~klcation of r.Andays f or FY w97~ill be ba ~d on the-,plans that yO1u

have developed or are, in tIhe pocess of dvL opirig. Tho PiV/2 1P6 r

(theforrer Form 1j1i) will be closely - crutinizd to, e na *r,t tyour,

suL;..ary. of~food for workc applicat*ions fa wtin thie' puriow- you

p an~ o t. We cannot coot al fyu"nod :

bort to nota uhof yornosa spossible have aak-dl_ pver

orowio suomt, thi plnngidrdotioto ;boforo Octobor 31 Tho.,~/

rM illnotbo onideed ithutthe 5 year p1.an. Weoxpcc

tounasb

all ao

you undeorstand

r~i-'ovouberW

.hatS the P'i rzotines

W cgot

and

tho

tho

dolay-

P nin

but

roo

-are 'sure

h~v

tht

be

6. -COMCUSTOS~~

-~thi.n? t,:-t uuJ rucrL Y' A 1jit nnd th ', r~ ril jo

onsign; and pojoc ho61~r hvev f~

1t1uecttne a lonE-terJi do Vlopj phn

Ir or'_ rr

a~~

i.'tdio has tv-u pic s : 'i'. ull oiour 1oo Oricout

.1 0 VC'

rt tCoj

1)0 I -1 ll~l CR~ hotto l, u d rst

, d4


MIOUC RELIEF SERVICES. U.S.C.C.

0 5:

Continuatbon Sheet No.--­

optiuisr. Ls I 'cntioned, much hard work

as

liL:

your

ahead

attitudt.s

of us.

have

Just

chaneud, I plede th Lt will also

tho

change.

attitude

te

of

at

CRS

CttS will do

and

ovarythint

support you

possible

in your

to

future

assist

F'd projacts

of your

:u~d

developnent

for that zattcr

proeracs.

in all

zonal

We at CRS

FF progran

are co::i

the

ted

Liost

to zaking

dovclopLtntil,

our

very best

the

FF

nost

program

effective

in tho

and

world.

the

I hope

CRS/Bonbay

that in

Food

future

for

years,

Work Progran

the

will

other

be

FFW

the

programs

bench-hark

are

against

masu:od.

which

within

These

our

objectives

reach and

are

I an

certainly

sure that,

as

together,

we r-dodicate we shall

our

attain

partnershiD them

to serve .. poor and disadvantaId .

With optimism for the future and thanks, I roeain,

Encl : BIIA

LEA

MMcD: rr

Sincerely,

HICHA"L S. McDOLLD

DIRECTCR-BOMBIY ZONd


,To:

1e.oCL/1 O/v86/D

,CATjHLIC; RLiZ SaVICEYTS.. t

P.920X:1650b-,BLIBA"oo"o

A1~1on~inees,

Fr(,: Director -BoibaY Zon60

Stubjc t FPort)oi~Pan~frDvlp-n

J~ay618

This has reference to. 0ux earlier, ocicu!

~Deceinber

oCL9'

24, 8/..

6985 ae

_s Ou alr ady kj y e b r f u r il

an.eb-ruary

e v a t

for'

~

the

y

purose

u i

o

a~

i1re

wr

ncllbtiveaLn-ing

would like

aIu

ors 2-fftCib ers t-o 'return --

to

,a'

you, with some bas

Bo'a

ln

from

d

their'

ta on 'your-areas, Weti ith

be Colle"ctedp W3ili1 reflect The'

the

base

pres

line

ent

datat t

distributors

l

and

situation project hlders

In-t ie area's

are 4,6'n~

whe-re your

assist us in p

Thisifrton

a n~ o it rn,3 a~ ri

U

vz uatirE

etl

, current;L n futur sno rais.

I:presunme ,that FOt 6f'yur

ors Vl*11

FE'

are

prj&hldr

i-ntereste .dnJn

i dvelop..eh or i

por6:

iu

for, -0UIinV_ necti6.' are

These

pann n

daTb. are th~e People

h

To end'ec~s~r nme from who'

ffni

e need

chi-hicLulx

to ole th

in l rw r a cpy

q Csk

to

hI&VI/er

each i

to

n±i

co-",lcte -rhoW;'i tie fIo-~

at end t e;m

t e.

e nan

.ieiS .I.e

htatot hodes/

C s noeI~b proj c s e a sh ul c p

-_T nly

o -ir

C ~~ tly ebtin

Met i crc

to.

s

co.-,;Y)pec

n m

th

cv

6a,Lfo

~

dn . o-

aj~

c

~

~ ,

d~.ess ~o

t ~

t. e

t

nee~ n b eiats 'o thdev l in ceflabc

e t

in our r ~ e~ c o l h

a tint

%..lnaaeE ehqi ins. ,,

2. Intn ­

~e~

5a 6 Lj,

CCQle'r

_

s


I, ook

c5-

41 Z0

4.' 4.

Pq4

-j-

U) t

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11

1C

CONT. LIfJ OF POOR FAMILIES :8:

Housing

Irrigation Facilities Does land require further dcvelopmont

conditions

I

(Specify)

Poor • Good Yes No Ifow

Cropping

Pat tern

17 13 14 15


tIJ

1 __1

Uj

14'4

17)

C9 C)

0 C 0


Cs~

'F 'F ' I-,

'F

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--- "'F -4~ 'F' 'F

'-4 ''-''4'" ~rF~.FFF'FFFF'F4F.'F~F'F'FF.. .~'FF'FFF..' 'F I

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'F'FFF'.F'FF'F'F'FFFFF.F'FFF'~

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F F.~~'F.'F'FF''"F f'~F''"'F~F~iFF

4 ~

-' F


* WORKSHOP NPWN

*A FRWE;VE YEARPE I O

NaEime, of' the Planner-~-rJ

Area o'f WOrk Mt, ~ V1 1 ~~Ts SeiyTlka

(3 District)

NZEDS/PROBLEMS 1,CAL -Rt SCURCES/Str era~ , .,",

_ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ __ __ _ __ _ __ _ __ __ _ _7__ _ _ _,_

~cO~O1.ic __ _ _ __ _ _ __ A.__ _ _ ____7___ ___

£ ~tn

~-4EDUCAT IOINAL ~c 4

K4,

__________

-L Cc Lo -

Iir

"j~~*''4-44* >~4-f~- ~ $- ­


HEALTH

EDUCATIONA

H

~

E____LTH___

LNG-;TERM GOALS

~C

SHORT TE IRM GOALS TARGETS

"Y, II

EDUCALON~t~ -

4 ~ ~

k C-

En

__ cT4____

~C-LO'I


AY

.it'

I.-I

!I z w'l 111

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--- *'~~r ~ 4 ' 7LV

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-- 2, 44 U) ­

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-~~~~~~~~~~

~------ -~S­

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-L~A4~iW-44~I -20

P

0-

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I

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- ~ -~-~~-&-

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-I I~

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g~~~ 4

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CATHOL LECi

BOvi, ZON I -__

"

To aosin lelaCn

U-1;C I .

C~r~c~ CT", JIXL" iI

y< a c.losirfl sufficient copiea of Review formats to enabl9 you to

conuctthereview -; program.s'of, alt~yourie 6wringuor YLz a4al

year Ai 957~ off ectve Ocober I ,98.* nut~eIg~h

mu

~of these reviews

~pra

sBo'that'a seiu di tin'odsweaa enb

~


. Ration rates are followed.

1 2s

c. Account ,-,r fands gonerated from CRS programs is maintained on

Form D-5.

d. Mandays and food consumption reported on FORK FFW/3 (Stock

Register) tallies with the quarterly progruss report.

e. Approval is obtained for excess mandays or when the approved

project is changed.

f. Unfit food is reported on Form FFW/7.

g. Daily attendance regsters are maintained projectwise with total

quantities of food issued.

Responsibility to follow up for remedial action will be yours. On

completion of the reviews the distributors and project holders should

therefore be requested to send their cozments/replies direct to you

and not to our zonal office.

viith best wishes.

McD :EJS: rm

KI CELEL L. McDONALD

LIRXCTOR-BOMBAY ZONL.


APPENDIX G

CRS VIEWPOINT - THE CHARACTERISTICS OF AN

EFFECTIVE FFW PROGRAM

&

INHERENT PROGRAM CONSTRAINTS


CRS Viewpoint: The Characteristics of an Effective FFW Program

In institutionalizing a more long-term planning process, CRS

expects to change the composition of its FFW Program from one which is

dominated by isolated "lean season" activities to a program made up

largely of longer term community development projects, in which FFW

activities address development needs in a particular community or area

in a more focussed and integrated manner.

During the July 1, 1987 seminar the CRS representatives identified

the following characteristics of FFW assisted projects as those

contributing to a more developmental and community-based FFW program:

* Community participation in

- project identification

- selection of beneficiaries

- selection of recipients

- project site selection

- project management

- operation expenses and maintenance

The linkage of FFW-assisted projects to an overall community

development plan (A Holistic Approach).

FFW-assisted activities are part of a continuing process of

multiyear development plan implementation, and not isolated events.

Collaboration and integration with Government and other

organizations.

- capital Investment

- technical guidance

- training of field personnel (project holders, site

supervisors, educational component for FEW recipients)

Adequate infrastructure to manage the project.

- sufficient personnel

- quality personnel (having technical and development

skills)

* Clear criteria for project selection.

* Project success defined by project impact the

on

poorest of the poor.


The following characteristics of an ineffective FFW-assisted

project were also identified:

Projects with lack of participation by the community,

which can lead to jealousy and division within the

community.

* Inadequate complementary non-food resources.

* When employment overrides development objectives, e.g.

projects which are not needs-based in terms of assets,

but based on availability of food.

* Poor project monitoring and evaluation.

Inherent Program Constraints

The CRS FFW Program does face several inherent constraints, which

future program support will need to take into consideration.

The following constraints were identified as inherent constraints

to the FFW Program by CRS representatives during the July 1, 1987

semina r:

Selection of Consignees: Each Bishop of a diocese within the

Catholic Church in India selects the CRS consignees. This

selection process is outside of CRS control. CRS zonal

offices, however, -an "deselect" consignees if their

management performance is poor, or if they fail to submit FFW

Development Plans.

Proect Folder Selection (and their staff): Consignees select

project holders - a process which is also outside CRS's

control. As with consignees, however., the zonal offices can

"deselect" project holders if their ,roiect performance is

poor. In some instances, CRS zonal offices have recommended

that project holders be Included In a particular consignee

area.

* Transfer of Consirnees and Project Polders: Because of the

turnover of individuals in consignee and project holder roles

- due to transfers within the Church organization - CRS finds

it difficult at times to maIntain program ouality and

continut'. CPS sees its relationships with the Bishops as

essential in assuring good replacements in consignee

pos2 tions.

* Th~ VountarvNature ,

of the Program: The FF ' Program is

dependent to a large degree on voluntary assistance - from

site supervision, to transport for CRS monitoring and review

staff. CRS expectations of the FF' Program are constrained

by this program reality.


The Food Resource Itself: Food is a difficult resource to

program because of the logistics of getting It to the project

sire, and effectively managing its dispersal. Moreover,

because the beneficiaries are required to pay the transport

costs from consignee warehouses, it is difficult to target

the resource to the poorest of the poor.

The Strict Audit Requirements: The management of the program

is overly focussed on the next USC audit, at the expense of

project innovation. Program implementors are afraid to take

risks on new project types, preferring to stay with the

"safe" standard project types, e.g. wells, tanks and roads.

Food Habits of the People: The bulgar provided by the FFW

Program in India is not totally acceptable to people in some

areas. This constraint affects the ability of projects to

attract sufficient and productive workers.

AID/Washington sets the Dollar Ceiling: CRS has seen its FFW

planning process restricted by the setting of annual dollar

ceilings by AID Washington. Long-term planning, they say,

requires long-term commitments. CRS expects multiyear

program approval to ease the impact of this constraint on the

FFW Program.


APPENDIX H

BIIA & AEA FORMS


E~~r~t ~­ 0o-

r,; C4 CA E-tol

N- -4

(.4 0 c

c 0 C, 41

c c c C) -1­

c:,- 0 ~ Z

-~ ~ P


-4777

Ct

!FSl

71


n4~ $4D

4(. 4'441 .4H.

i

.0(141

C~., -H

~~ j ~ H

~

C

~ ' 0

0-

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Si

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- rl ,

E-4 N--~V''4

-44

.(4

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4

1

NA~

-- -- ----


V' ,

A.OJECTMS 01'

j.o r~1~

T IrI(C

'i. To

:or fz~lr

o f fu t,*r n

FCOI1~

LVALUATC!

A1i~F1

nn~c~~~

Drj'cnt

C, I

pr,.$ ,cts. zro

~t1 ~~G

.? ~4, S

n

;R.PC3

MOW TORNG' !af1D

T

f, 'th ;cwoeta imapact of ood

tho~~s'iich. ,con%!bte

ectst o toapo

iii ~

z~~c,

~

of 7v%1 ~rr.

n.Io01Iur!~" a,2oii~ aOU, tho

onatf,! z lfrom theo oa'.

-Part's . an Tii ifcc n fc elnig

of futur~e~ ' -pol'i

CUIDELINES

n.BErrc1nv1~C~F lA.11'OVr AE14T1 AALYS!, a311A)~

- .docpflf5T)

IOR

rr

U

tW

the

ln

dev elomeftaI

success

a

asISt 5 ISI1 counter

and77Monitoring_.

arn eJ rri-,atic, t~zks, 6irlls, irrig?,tiof

1

,v

A Liijiiv'it efifL~~V

jC

be me.ie 'n cccFori.cA'trzns. ro

hosr.( i ' n : - cccczior.~ TCO'

/.e)a th~ objective is

c:A:o) d!tely2

roads, bridges,

c-r e,~ etc.,

;I ,Only' thr 'e t i ro-*Ed In' the PTD; T-23!C flItion repoarts

as c r.-ct&"J~l t,: J07 ut~. Therer sould

- 'beI a api of rZleast' one year bct e 'he &te o~f'evalution

an "d thT 6at - ,o:Ompielonof' P t'ojecL .'

:

ncThe cclc n .h, I - Int be incoroatec

iny 311A and tE! ~are4 inte7view/, obse.-aa Jfl end re~viewi of 'the

recorc :; relzt#r' to t1'c project.UT)rI p~ cztOf

-o 'form, together

~I'~r" ~r~,-'oresP, coTDolt~or.. rop.. L. *'mZ

'~C

-'.1

- 4'~- ~ith~

-involircmc.-t

~

'Li Seet

thec

I)-fi~.1? coeiz~ a f ,7Pnerve~ r th,

'of Ithc

umero ~-'hc numbere

'vj-liitV' ir, planiinr- znd Implemerition,

-vIr was is-isted~Ythb 7PP etc.

of

ft~ ci: ' to e valuatac': of

1*t.evaluated i-SS, P-1 cl~t tize 0--'he' ~ r

b ~ ~ ~ ~ v .'kJ-cho,e

\ TLJ~ he of

4

b,,, ~ -e ~ :..I~2 ~ ;~bi'n, 7 es sh't' ton

con,'- 07Z~e

at i th'- :c.-s,:., il*e.

A . 'the -!) 1-2c.. :1,

'- t:-~ 1) T. r 7?ndQ

v.1 0

isis.

1,o

- cc.~ Cr. _L:~k~

to bq :Irnc ,et hi z

'Identif.a*f~l n '

,: AI, '16'l

rA

~

fAv1

C

:

-CZ C, ni7.y1 j

6eI c t ,he type~

IV-alnc t on sil

-n

- -' - r ,

c

b-cl' t 7ti5: bte u,, o umvauae

aClr

all';

-

t

- *

_'

--,V­


-2­

for one unt specif ic deIstaIis a ny bo a oeId vl th

rnndom

more,,

soloction

looe

Is to be done,; ae-Ivt~a -larcer' nmbei th'an the

OCtUai: nuiber, required I t'~aOCc,,f any eventuallty

benclticla,

1ile

-being'

'the

not- avt ilablei,- 1'or rexaMPlO,: if the

,of evaluations

nwui ho

to be done In' throe, 'select sir, units on arandoma

basis,

I. Only minimum obtes, is ould~be taken down during the' Interview.

~The format~ ahould be'completed 'after t~e' Interview iz: over.'

~The responses ahou~) d be rcn:d. An' ths for:za inshr

sentoncos or phrases.

DIUA a AEA (,planation

Z on the questions)

Bakrun nomaIon

~to Vii Cel CoI1 Zfctory ~

(4* Plbcab.

In sonlto 1,/as o2f acrs~of. thils benefi'ciary vihere

:,ojc Cnst

CRS/BOIABAY 19528 3.013

P's~r 1 r'.

411 ndicto the cash equi,,iient of inll the Mptor1Ile and cash 1I piut~

m~dt by th c Zecnc fIcIarIas frc their El(10 tozicrds the asset,

cE_5.wood, stonns,K d min~straton/traznor cos'. paibyteanfci

1briclk cost of s)IIo lac-l ctbctebneii.y.~

Si. ind icate 'he cash input mcclc on the

V, p~roject fr *isourcessuch

asL banks, -rant iro-nG t ni~ vo-:te r~cnicl etc.

Ouirf'ut before and tfl,3r they 7rjJ -ct. In tha a,.- adicre luprovcmont

~4,~sn,'~~' r~p~C~ -- u'put in~' ' 1'ar';,t VaJU3, Tote:

Ixtt r- Ac jA

b4 I'' 3 tl

',!Ijf rknt' (Pt:r '4" >A-vc

kI M.elf~ o lnatoy1 44'44%',"4

iSonorr] I (1T- 4 boccnlotoc44aft--. tho. c a1 atf

I'/

n)

Unforsao '4 Qvtntrs if any 7,h IC.11 ffocto

s 0o t

thr

. frct:

I~~t~

rr

we~p100

!i Ic h ont.

d:-O~tz~

)uv @hd to a;i ecas s

tho Przj~ct.

ca.1

~4dO Y

"'4444

i


tIcall e ccolumn 1a to b~e used f or. e analysaIs, The subaquent.

I is coI umna 'will be for' subsoquent analyses'

Self *'exlanztory t er, New Irrigation, Wel Is

i'ndicate tihe numbor-of families directly' ben'ofittinuj from the 'primary

'urpose of' the asset., o3. ftor an IrriSatlin rmll Indicate, the' nuber

offamilies usinS the vwator for~Irri~atlon purpos5&, If tho abs&t

s;inct utilised as of the, date of viit, the rns-a wi 'I I be as 4.

ol~tr o .Tear prior.-t tha compl.ticn-of the-- project' -?6tall ':

!rrm Income + non-farm Incomeb. Fairm Income rotoas to-thf- total~ output

~'lefrom the total area cultiv'ated, 1nco~r,, f, - animals and birds

b3,the family. 11on-farnm income refers to Income from trades, wages'~

cnn~'by the, fanily m~embers through *io lhinr outside : he faily

ctc. In the case~ of , community projects. ~7, Is~used. ni~

th~e Income, of -th t?.~oscho2 d of ~th bn:fiary Itr'iewed. For

cotuiy"rJt1l~~s and corimunit~ centrcs, wvhiee AIEA Is

usd niaetei~rnmt avsr?,go Incc, i f &houiseold In' the

-bentficlary commrunityx~

Total 'of cash Input by_ bonefIciary &~n~d cpsri equivalont cf material

i-'ade available 'by beneficiary.~KIn case of :cmmunity projects, Indicate

Cash i~npu~t from~ bankcs, -ot agencies,~ voluntry 3 aptncl3s etc.

State the reason for sactinr, the boneficx.a.y for" this, project, 'eg,-

I), Commnunity, discussed and decided or tho ned 4

ii) ~ Tho beneficiary applied f or, this project-~'

II IThe cor~mittee' rocom~ie~dd the tbeitficlary

Iv Abll~t7 oMe' th 7Adminstration .:st of Rls. .....

InIz uicte wh md theisio o selection. 'Resnonsas 'ill be any

of the followin-t The commiity , thc' COomittoo. the beneficiary,

the. project-'holder, project holder's, rop.-asontzyo- It the Comm-naity

or, a' group in the community Is 'tha bihasficla.7 an: If the 'docision

ms ade by them, 'indicati the responsue as comuiy

InTd crt2 o Tias primrrily 3responsible for sunevic~nG thp Implementntion

of the projfrci Project 'holder,4iroet oldrs rprsttaivc,~

communIt !l'eadoT. benef iciar -y.

. ,ncicae :7arefrmt ul,/fro h lberf.clarT 4housolods, rXal Iy

fro outside bonoficlary households,~'lot7. -fror. b~nofe lr hcisenolds,

mostly -from oqtzldc ben- iiIarj1 oiisolds. 7

ittr se lcoiplet*', (pucca) orinopet

con4 lot." or Icmnoc

.tza :s),nef

r WI only one Iput tQY/*Tds ,ho:competo 3,Oanlasset In aet

Iytpos of poets, rr caWn creato ony it*-a asset~and In

Un thz I~asct# ot-her Inputs &x xarztarcd Tho fintovi

Is the beneficiary: doin ~periodic repair of the rsetIdcaea

poperl, do'ne. or',ot don proarly, o not doflI atal

so rfi use, o h asr or


ut lfood, or. 'Partly utlauod or not utils

victor' Lroi

I

e all Is tso for ratlnS

or

the

-whrothor

:nay 16utm possible

i he land

acreage,

lovolled is fully CUltIV1ated o0 ih ot

3o~cntutdi

her

occunisd.

the,

ror o;.a-plo, Lf iso t he date-'of

ovau~ton,~ji a~r fom o ou a uo~tutillsad:

at all

ifor

~Indicae

Gatision

as3' rio utl) food

15, Total choncod ou: aluot num'br of acres' Improved, p~a

16. Indic~tO the chan.,o affected~ on besfIc ary as, a rosuit -oftho 'ams

Lor c;:asmpln I) A~dditional crop taj~oin, Z) PLurchaso of )Umps~t.

3) Us1o of fcrtills:Ths larger savln-is. 5) purchase of addtlnal

?Issq o uch a:'

17, c~i1f~ oter horyma any 56 ~ftQo 0 a munity o

' the es ot?(0P~I~ '~ rz,-ardin thq1 distribution of the lco term,

Qocc ' 1 t' comminityQowns an~d uses' the nssat ~­

2) t ?09or Croup of. persn In hc=m it owsadue

thes~ srot~ty inPh o,

--~ 3) tmlIa n 3rou: f. r~ccplo, or th, enie'commt

k nltiatoL n3, com to

tforts, such, sc.-Crc~t,yso Otc.

9. No. -4of timos this bozficlor? ,azs assisted fcr vrroL-s activities

thr-wah 17Z?W a3'con tho dntt of Visit, 6ncludinC this 'nroject, ­

0,D:s the b~neticlary~ nlan to npproach thio p.-coct holder for furthcr

~~4I assistance or~has~ be done? Ifso,~for wvhet' acti viy? ­ -

11o 1O-2O0 can ba, raoripic by

rt~talin:d hy the ' projzct Iioldcr

thcjl, In

tho ;j~v procOcss­

-hoo bo

C.~ ~ -

rovfc,7tin-, tho list of

for

boinoUiaIoj

ytlons~h nojccts comploted, or

C35btho-concoio

0~ 1' b un er

7.At Cthe ts' cr of -hcjcjoa on thon~ oftou_ izl h

Is.;ccnrr )--I sulo isr cc


'Pach~round Iformaticn

*,~ Cunsigno Cora 110,~

1:~ Awl-_111-1_1_1__1ITIAj

DIH~'CIAfyIHI E 11,IPROV.if!:1- ANALYSIS,

* J'ii~Date Projoct bc.an~________ C(p~ 1 d___________

I1,amo of the lnfcay______________

~V.< Nnbcr of fa-ail~y riomt Irs

Vi. Proj-ct loce!rjn for this bDn4i cy _______

~~~ u o of mandu~y, ugd for this

*~~~u jjj fubor< of~acrc, im'rvo !~or~ h~bnfc~r

Cost~

*


Ai Aft ho rojocc'

ill. Chanced coutnut

~-.v.. Fctors~ cthor

Gonera) -

rVaa u~nt~ Vuo Total1 fla.i,

~in. Units imuflf

-

~~~~AL

valiv )n-Ota AC':t2t "t Iu: ~ a

R-. _________

u'u valuo

than 1T1~.7 ihich contribut'd~ '~o utP tq difiorcnco.

IUnique featurC. !lssons loOarntd froma this

j&3ofthe -crs-.ns lntcrvierd

C7 THC W';I!<

DAT AAA -7

41

1-Ojoct.A

< A

1l44.4~~ 1, y ST4~1


Dakrmu Ifrtion

±. d I nf t'ro r. ba \'1~

v

vi~~ ~r t of

V

;:IA I'l

~~ATUC~L!.

/T 77TIVlIZ$ ANJAW:

!-ej~. ,r


APPENDIX I

INDORE DIOCESAN FIVE YEAR PLAN


I i.t$jl 1 AWAI

CATIHOLIC DIOCESE OF. INDOI E

'owA .7 IIP;T1rr7r. NIA7 PI 12 CT. or. 7S,,,09, 11.411r. y rAA 6__0fcM Imic -ac P A-III.

AI.11UA , 7I1 I~r SMA0O77 1 03 '7illo.o. 7I7I"1 00 7 l..

ROC-RAMMf. I

77. ,321M.7., I, I" D1107AAU7i71 09 cl -tS7 .. 5

lt11.7M2 I 36 1lotalI . - 47.

Cc'ai :s~ (, :f F7',.-Jos F-p y Ov flY-i- t. Ca c b aC L C 19710,AtAJ O

() (2) (3) ()

(

,,, ) (e) __ 60,7:c "Mn7 T C1.7 t

COALS I LUKIO7176 Ofli.C71770 I SA0nT IE77U 7AnCryS ACTIVITY/ Ion1.AME ~ sari7,77.r nitu / CO MIA (7) CLE,7177. 7..7S0 (8) COS F0ilms (9) 771700 s OTHERS

(10

I C 0 II LI C

, .V I I . I I .­

1'od. ct1.71, thyougI

.7., Co..r..tlo.. 1500 cr.. P,'c.l7tlnn so,.-o* 6l...l 20 7.n.k 10.00,000 70,J00 b. 15,00,000/- h. 5,00.000/- Yr-,. Catholl

TIr7 hrr .. *.d r hTI. P od .. D I c of Irdor ..

77 7l,.; I IObl.

I .15.00,O00/- fro Beneficil

by ..y of land 91-'..

Irr. 11-. W-11.

--700 ino *nd -li St...in.

S Y..s y.,0

600 Vt..1. 4,12,000 45,000 Ib. ,0,00 --

o nlng 750 -..

/-

"'""'00.0 /-

I &RIT /

00.. CA

175ISMO for at...7nV 150 .

&.60,.0.000/. Tr- (o r. ,l

*fnd 8,okg for t.. n Ig 200

2700 c- Do-prnlog Old -. 9770 '7.17. 3,24,000 26,00M b. 6,75.O00/- .- b..5o.o0,of/- Fr. Govro..no

.77*, lll.LI.ng oI,* and

.177 1. 7. .77 or 70 .!c t drnil. r orI' I :! id% 7j ll0.7

bl

rofs.a

9 r t.. 9 000 -. 11.

"7.22t00O 0 /- for I.(15 0 1 ."q.'.e rI 7 b .nrll

o .. nlrg 250 -. 1 . e. they d... ,.d

Soil C.ons t7t.. 2000 -ooes L.nd L o Ill g. 5ye r . 50 k. . uodd 5,00,000 50,000 1 L . 2.00.000/- Fro a..rll.

0n.,o7hT.r,.relg,

0,uod EL~A ril.

by .. y of 0toolf . ld pl*.

Crorr llon of EcologIcal 200 -ores lintInq i,.. . 5 enrr . 477.777 Trr. 60,000 6,000 N I L la 40.000/. ' Yr. Chtr

IobIonoes Folder i-oIa..o.,l 20 oolol fo~ddr

oA-7ai1abIe foctume

O'qoI..lltl..

b.. 40.000/- T-r G..v-o..

(p-lol g t...)


GrJKN41C. SrL ttly'ttJf1

1*rlcI~~~ocy.1no,

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i'll.?.'

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12 Um .1U.tno-- is.

CS AMIAYS (7) DLWF WMLIAYS () o

--it5

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(7)II0L

b. 3.00,000/.

h- 6.0-.000/. G".o.n ! oal

10,000 N.1.

00AF..IIg IIog*

V00I 50000a~ .II

I00. 20,0-0

000 j II I L000

.. 3000NII 0000/..

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b.0- 0o/.

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t S.1,

50 ..1.

Ad I1l.... Inc- t -o 911.1 b. 0. o /. Fr..

T..IIId 0 0

*dn O 50 5.otii 00 bl-.gt-L66

.0000 20,0000/.. Lo~- .0

Lan

raloat

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8 20.000

g40 .no a .l.... ..

5 -. -. I . t b l t . 1 0

0..

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0.nlnq~~

a0o . ) I . I r

~ .

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7h..k

-

. .- ~ 0b . d

43 , 000

*0 1000 0 ,00050/

10.

*noot.

0 0

1ILa 0 L

X~ I L 00*

.. P. t'

15, ~ ~ .~ ~~n~~. .0

h. 5*

II 00L 60 3

yo00/

200 I.5.00,O0O/.

&'

C~oonI

5.00,000/-

.. notr.1

,01

0

n ~ ~C, ...

f a n l l t y 0non Cotbo1lo Olo...

':c; 100 .. 11.

1

2d,.

0 l b ,.. 4100 , 000 1.0 0 , 0 0 &.2 0 , 00 0O0/ _. T * r .. b -20 1 0 - 0 0/ -. ft t .rf . l. nd

F'r~~~~r-'t~h I 1ply n . 0-,00,000/. r~ 0

I Srono. t.C.If0 400, r.. 450 Fans 27,000 1 LL -12.W - F. -. _

- b. 6- 1,--d/.

t.

0 noo,..n

2. Cn~tranjn, .o *onl Ion I00 ',:dnd.n. 11 .nnbn m I qnortnt., .

*O

nl

Itdrr.,-t. I.., al.-35%, L.nd j1 2-21

0 1 0 odn 0 0...0

200 f.ll'g.. 0.11,.d9.

1

00 l .1..dl.. Ifd

30001,0

DeftAvailable Document

f-adt. I.


to) C) 1 4)

o r(6) 63 AJYS C) n 'MA IWI0I;) 1fi

OUOILn t LCOMITOII OIJrCTIln3 I SIK031?MhIN TANOFI ACTIlPIIl/ t( AO IIITOAILu O001.9 I00111OUCW / __1111E_____ I AJIDAYS(0) CRS FUN~S (Ept)f. F

Iwg~olAI. .- o,. of Itl lOOy. I1osiil F-o131til o oroi,,.i. , 5 r.... 100

l0.1ti- .BE 0./oo , - .42~o/. Prh~~ q.p.o

9o0 1- h. tol.. fro. Poloot. 00 *.

Itost 5:1So I 1. f.o~ot13 of 6.16,0,1 13 2500 1I.,t,o. ho.toloo. mth

11- 0l . - 5 .. 000.....'eOtO00-

200f.o L I2500/- - To p.,oo... .BOo0. r.*SPT o

1.5 1- .rr-l 1

rm1IS r

5-00o fr

30 .... dde d op-oo

N

ft.600.000/.. ForComo ct.,oI II. .00.000..D From1 th6.4..~ to *ooo

9.2t.~ zb... 2.0.0

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10.0 L.4.

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I L 6. 200.040.. of Fro. lodor6

Ct

0 DIoo..

Church 1.0d 1 4

ol .Iq

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0 '

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trIIc

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2.o000 ~ 00.' ,0tolno too I.'Ii?0.y. L.0 6.50, / .. For tOoot.Ig 11. 1,50,000.Fo or..6.4 n

07. C-oyno~.6Ioo..12.10.25

II~briy, . 30.000 sfo.ohr*OnI.

14-F-' 5Ioo 1351 t7olol00 7.100 dIoOd U.' 1.pl o. .ooo.. 2.00.000/. Tor P0.".06 for

L7 F.011, .01,0.

ordI C"I 116 O CoS, b .o"f9

1- 1. Vil.l~...i. Iroo.. Lif. .. portor ... y I009 Io t-.tio. 0- -in a rol W- -1 5 .... ~ 10.000 ,hild ItIL IL. 11 1L 6.5 000/- F,.gooool,

*4..too 54. Do.cn PrIl a aUt-.qot04

senittosn Loyronr

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oro L~ 20-.- /

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t.Iht. 2.1..o~ 1 100

CooI-60 fo. . .0ItoL ILa. .w,.o. 6." boldlg 1-0.oo... ...

-oot o I,,olt'o for 60.1I I'*111.00

Coof.... Il..Ith~l It"11 *o~I ho r,I 1 to0 2.10 6. . 6-.

T~A-ya-11ble Dcci rnen!

.h b-~20--0/- Lood pl1- by h

b


T.' ALL II 147 OIICJCA.' LIF. E ,pboncy

l n. tIItIon,

.o n n.llF r.h, ln o , 1. h6,DUh 0 01 7

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l 200 Y.I.lI

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6 lblil -dl,.il

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5 V*''s 6ontrbution.

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1*0 0000 o

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0 00/- 0 Far.Iar­

to ~

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(200-100.1'2.1) 521 lcel

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loci*iby l

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0 000/- I'

de. elnd

m,

by

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I(IOAL34.139,600 2.60,.200 s,1.62.05.000/_

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