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Mechanics and Mechanisms of Fracture: An Introduction

Mechanics and Mechanisms of Fracture: An Introduction

© 2005 ASM

© 2005 ASM International. All Rights Reserved. Mechanics and Mechanisms of Fracture: An Introduction (#06954G) Mechanics and Mechanisms of Fracture: An Introduction Alan F. Liu ASM International Materials Park, Ohio 44073-0002 www.asminternational.org www.asminternational.org

© 2005 ASM International. All Rights Reserved. Mechanics and Mechanisms of Fracture: An Introduction (#06954G) Copyright 2005 by ASM International All rights reserved No part of this book may be reproduced, stored in a retrieval system, or transmitted, in any form or by any means, electronic, mechanical, photocopying, recording, or otherwise, without the written permission of the copyright owner. First printing, August 2005 Great care is taken in the compilation and production of this Volume, but it should be made clear that NO WARRANTIES, EXPRESS OR IMPLIED, INCLUDING, WITHOUT LIMITATION, WARRANTIES OF MERCHANTABILITY OR FITNESS FOR A PARTICULAR PURPOSE, ARE GIVEN IN CONNECTION WITH THIS PUBLICATION. Although this information is believed to be accurate by ASM, ASM cannot guarantee that favorable results will be obtained from the use of this publication alone. This publication is intended for use by persons having technical skill, at their sole discretion and risk. Since the conditions of product or material use are outside of ASM’s control, ASM assumes no liability or obligation in connection with any use of this information. No claim of any kind, whether as to products or information in this publication, and whether or not based on negligence, shall be greater in amount than the purchase price of this product or publication in respect of which damages are claimed. THE REMEDY HEREBY PROVIDED SHALL BE THE EXCLUSIVE AND SOLE REMEDY OF BUYER, AND IN NO EVENT SHALL EITHER PARTY BE LIA- BLE FOR SPECIAL, INDIRECT OR CONSEQUENTIAL DAMAGES WHETHER OR NOT CAUSED BY OR RESULTING FROM THE NEGLIGENCE OF SUCH PARTY. As with any material, evaluation of the material under end-use conditions prior to specification is essential. Therefore, specific testing under actual conditions is recommended. Nothing contained in this book shall be construed as a grant of any right of manufacture, sale, use, or reproduction, in connection with any method, process, apparatus, product, composition, or system, whether or not covered by letters patent, copyright, or trademark, and nothing contained in this book shall be construed as a defense against any alleged infringement of letters patent, copyright, or trademark, or as a defense against liability for such infringement. Comments, criticisms, and suggestions are invited, and should be forwarded to ASM International. Prepared under the direction of the ASM International Technical Books Committee (2004–2005), Yip-Wah Chung, FASM, Chair. ASM International staff who worked on this project include Scott Henry, Senior Manager of Product and Service Development; Bonnie Sanders, Manager of Production; and Madrid Tramble, Senior Production Coordinator. Library of Congress Cataloging-in-Publication Data Liu, A.F. Mechanics and mechanisms of fracture: an introduction / A.F. Liu. p. cm. Includes bibliographical references and index. 1. Fracture mechanics. I. Title. TA409.L58 2005 620.1126—dc22 2005042107 ISBN: 0-87170-802-7 SAN: 204-7586 ASM International Materials Park, OH 44073-0002 www.asminternational.org Printed in the United States of America www.asminternational.org

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    Mechanics and Mechanisms of Fractur

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    Chapter 2: Deformation and Fracture

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    Chapter 2: Deformation and Fracture

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    Chapter 2: Deformation and Fracture

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    Chapter 2: Deformation and Fracture

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    Chapter 2: Deformation and Fracture

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    2.3 Fracture Criteria Chapter 2: De

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    Chapter 2: Deformation and Fracture

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    Chapter 2: Deformation and Fracture

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    Chapter 2: Deformation and Fracture

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    Chapter 2: Deformation and Fracture

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    Chapter 2: Deformation and Fracture

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    Chapter 2: Deformation and Fracture

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    Chapter 2: Deformation and Fracture

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    Chapter 2: Deformation and Fracture

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    Chapter 2: Deformation and Fracture

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    Chapter 2: Deformation and Fracture

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    Chapter 2: Deformation and Fracture

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    Chapter 2: Deformation and Fracture

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    Chapter 2: Deformation and Fracture

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    Chapter 2: Deformation and Fracture

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    Chapter 2: Deformation and Fracture

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    Chapter 2: Deformation and Fracture

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    Chapter 2: Deformation and Fracture

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    Chapter 2: Deformation and Fracture

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    Chapter 2: Deformation and Fracture

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    or Chapter 2: Deformation and Fract

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    Chapter 2: Deformation and Fracture

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    Chapter 2: Deformation and Fracture

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    Chapter 2: Deformation and Fracture

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    Chapter 2: Deformation and Fracture

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    Chapter 2: Deformation and Fracture

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    Chapter 2: Deformation and Fracture

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    Mechanics and Mechanisms of Fractur

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    companied only by plastic strain lo

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    obtained by using Eq 1.77 with h 0

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    Fig. 4.6 Effect of strain-hardening

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    the plate normal to the crack front

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    ther increased until final fracture

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    Chapter 4: Static and Dynamic Fract

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    Chapter 4: Static and Dynamic Fract

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    granular or transgranular for a cer

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    way. A second look shows another tr

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    Chapter 4: Static and Dynamic Fract

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    V-notch at one end. The specimen is

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    els were made from the same materia

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    DWTT. Details about the DT test are

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    tangential lines: one drawn from th

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    lations were made only for limited

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    Chapter 4: Static and Dynamic Fract

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    According to Irwin (Ref 4.49), KIC

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    ometry, initial crack length, loadi

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    quent crack extension (i.e., beyond

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    Chapter 4: Static and Dynamic Fract

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    Fig. 4.58 Behavior of K1 and K2 int

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    4.33. W. Server and A.S. Telelman,

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    Mechanics and Mechanisms of Fractur

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    This proportional relation can be u

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    The Paris and Sih solutions along w

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    1/2 3/2 5/2 F( 1) 29.6 185.5 655

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    2c and a, respectively. The crack s

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    of the highest K value is at the ma

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    Fig. 5.19 Front-face geometric coef

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    However, so far, a good method of h

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    Comparison of Eq 5.30(b) with Eq 5.

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    The Williams, or Westergaad, stress

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    K values for a given panel would be

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    Fatigue crack propagation is a phen

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    sity at the crack tip (Ref 5.40, 5.

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    Chapter 5: Damage Tolerance of Meta

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    Fig. 5.42 Typical shape of a fatigu

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    a curve-fitting equation capable of

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    To demonstrate the usefulness of th

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    no point in reviewing or evaluating

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    KC 65.93 MPa m. Then select severa

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    scatter exists. Therefore, the fair

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    zone, approximately one-eighth to o

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    or spectrum loading, a crack-tip pl

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    epresentation of the material crack

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    imum load level set to zero). In a

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    embrittlement. Most engineering all

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    line through all the experimental d

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    alloys. This section briefly summar

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    tensity factor in one case is below

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    through-thickness crack. Thus, the

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    comparing the predictions with actu

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    0.01 Hz (i.e., tr 50 s), tH 50 s.

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    5.34. P. Tong, T.H.H. Pian, and S.

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    on Threshold and Growth Mechanisms,

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    Mechanics and Mechanisms of Fractur

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    Appendix 1: Lattice Structure and D

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    Appendix 1: Lattice Structure and D

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    Appendix 1: Lattice Structure and D

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    Appendix 1: Lattice Structure and D

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    Appendix 1: Lattice Structure and D

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    Appendix 1: Lattice Structure and D

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    Appendix 1: Lattice Structure and D

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    Mechanics and Mechanisms of Fractur

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    Appendix 2: Close-Form Representati

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    where K t Appendix 2: Close-Form Re

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    Mechanics and Mechanisms of Fractur

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    Appendix 3: Nonarbitrary Crack Size

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    384 / Mechanics and Mechanisms of F

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    388 / Mechanics and Mechanisms of F

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    Mechanics and Mechanisms of Fractur

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    divided by the average bearing stre

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    Mechanics and Mechanisms of Fractur

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    REFERENCES Appendix 7: Mechanical P

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    Appendix 7: Mechanical Properties D

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    Table A7.4 Tensile strength and pla

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    Appendix 7: Mechanical Properties D

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    Appendix 7: Mechanical Properties D

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    Fig. A7.16 Strain-life data for D35

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    412 / Mechanics and Mechanisms of F

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    Mechanics and Mechanisms of Fractur

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    Appendix 9: Mechanical Properties D

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    Appendix 9: Mechanical Properties D

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    Appendix 9: Mechanical Properties D

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    424 / Mechanics and Mechanisms of F

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    426 / Mechanics and Mechanisms of F

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    Mechanics and Mechanisms of Fractur

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    Mechanics and Mechanisms of Fractur

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    terial is subjected to a sustained

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    generally occurs at loads that, app

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    value is equivalent to fracture tou

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    structure or specimen that contains

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    tangent modulus. The slope of the s

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    Index A © 2005 ASM International.

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    © 2005 ASM International. All Righ

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    © 2005 ASM International. All Righ

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    © 2005 ASM International. All Righ

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    © 2005 ASM International. All Righ

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    © 2005 ASM International. All Righ

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    © 2005 ASM International. All Righ

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    © 2005 ASM International. All Righ

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    ASM International is the society fo

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