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Mechanics and Mechanisms of Fracture: An Introduction

Mechanics and Mechanisms of Fracture: An Introduction

© 2005 ASM

© 2005 ASM International. All Rights Reserved. Mechanics and Mechanisms of Fracture: An Introduction (#06954G) Contents Preface ........................................................................................................................v Chapter 1 Solid Mechanics of Homogeneous Materials ..................................................1 1.1 Key Types of Mechanical Behavior ......................................................................3 1.2 Stress and Strain ...............................................................................................7 1.3 Principal Stresses and Principal Strains ................................................................ 10 1.4 Equivalent Stress and Equivalent Strain ............................................................... 15 1.5 Stress Analysis of Monolithic Load-Carrying Members .......................................... 15 1.6 Stress Analysis Using Finite Element Methods ..................................................... 26 1.7 Local Stress Distribution at a Geometric Discontinuity ........................................... 33 1.8 Stress Analysis of Cracks .................................................................................. 39 Chapter 2 Deformation and Fracture Mechanisms and Static Strength of Metals ........... 47 2.1 Elastic and Plastic Behavior .............................................................................. 47 2.2 Yield Criteria .................................................................................................. 57 2.3 Fracture Criteria .............................................................................................. 59 2.4 Fracture Mechanisms and Appearances ............................................................... 62 2.5 Fracture Strengths ............................................................................................ 84 2.6 Residual Stresses ............................................................................................. 96 2.7 Material Toughness .........................................................................................100 2.8 Deformation and Fracture under Sustained Loads .................................................102 Chapter 3 Fatigue Strength of Metals ........................................................................121 3.1 Mechanical Behavior under Cyclic Loads ...........................................................121 3.2 Microscopic and Macroscopic Aspects of Fatigue and Crack Propagation .................127 3.3 Fatigue Life, Crack Initiation, Crack Growth, and Total Life ..................................136 3.4 Infinite-Life (Stress-Based) Fatigue Strength .......................................................138 3.5 Finite-Life (Strain-Based) Fatigue Strength .........................................................151 3.6 Some Practical Fatigue Design Considerations .....................................................158 Chapter 4 Static and Dynamic Fracture Toughness of Metals ......................................169 4.1 Linear Elastic Fracture Mechanics .....................................................................170 4.2 Plane-Strain Fracture Toughness: Static K IC .........................................................177 4.3 Dynamic K IC .................................................................................................187 4.4 Plane-Stress Fracture Toughness, K C ..................................................................200 4.5 Fracture under Mixed Modes 1 and 2 .................................................................208 Chapter 5 Damage Tolerance of Metals .....................................................................215 5.1 Stress-Intensity Factor and Damage Tolerance Analysis .........................................215 5.2 Determination of Stress-Intensity Factors for Nonstandard Configurations ................229 5.3 Fatigue Crack Growth in Room-Temperature Air .................................................236 iii www.asminternational.org

© 2005 ASM International. All Rights Reserved. Mechanics and Mechanisms of Fracture: An Introduction (#06954G) Chapter 6 Nonlinear Fracture Mechanics ..................................................................281 6.1 Elastic-Plastic Fracture Mechanics .....................................................................281 6.2 Time-Dependent Fracture Mechanics .................................................................286 Chapter 7 Mechanical Behavior of Nonmetallic Materials ...........................................297 7.1 Ceramics and Glasses ......................................................................................297 7.2 Polymers .......................................................................................................300 7.3 Fractography .................................................................................................315 Chapter 8 Mechanics of Fiber-Reinforced Composites ................................................319 8.1 Types of Composites .......................................................................................320 8.2 Coding System ...............................................................................................321 8.3 Stresses and Strains in Composite Laminates .......................................................323 8.4 Failure Mechanisms of Composites ....................................................................328 8.5 Fracture Mechanics for Fibrous Composites ........................................................336 8.6 Damage Tolerance of Composites ......................................................................340 8.7 Some Practical Issues ......................................................................................343 Appendix 1 Lattice Structure and Deformation Mechanisms in Metallic Single Crystals ......................................................................................357 A1.1 Crystal Lattice Structures .................................................................................357 A1.2 Lattice Response under Stress ...........................................................................362 A1.3 Mechanical Twinning ......................................................................................368 A1.4 Stacking Faults ..............................................................................................370 Appendix 2 Close-Form Representation of Tangential Stress Distribution at Circular and Elliptical Holes ...................................................................373 A2.1 Infinite Sheet .................................................................................................373 A2.2 Finite-Width Sheet ..........................................................................................374 A2.3 Saff’s Close-Form Equation .............................................................................374 A2.4 Comparison between Saff’s Close-Form Equation and the Analytical Solutions .........377 Appendix 3 Nonarbitrary Crack Size Concept for Fatigue Crack Initiation ..................379 Appendix 4 Fatigue Spectrum Editing .......................................................................383 A4.1 Spectrum Simplification: RACETRAK Method .......................................................384 A4.2 Cycle Counting: Range-Pair Method ..................................................................385 Appendix 5 Stress Severity Factor .............................................................................391 Appendix 6 Specimen Orientation and Fracture Plane Identification ............................395 Appendix 7 Mechanical Properties Data for Selected Aluminum Alloys ........................397 A7.1 Conventional and High-Strength Aluminum Alloys ..............................................397 A7.2 P/M Aluminum ..............................................................................................398 A7.3 Aluminum-Lithium Alloys ...............................................................................398 A7.4 Aluminum Casting Alloys ................................................................................398 Appendix 8 Mechanical Properties Data for Selected Titanium Alloys ..........................411 Appendix 9 Mechanical Properties Data for Selected Titanium Aluminides ...................415 Appendix 10 Mechanical Properties Data for Selected Steels ........................................423 Appendix 11 Conversion Table .................................................................................429 Appendix 12 Glossary of Terms, Symbols, and Abbreviations ......................................431 Index ........................................................................................................................443 iv www.asminternational.org

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    Mechanics and Mechanisms of Fractur

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    Chapter 2: Deformation and Fracture

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    Chapter 2: Deformation and Fracture

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    2.3 Fracture Criteria Chapter 2: De

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    or Chapter 2: Deformation and Fract

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    companied only by plastic strain lo

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    obtained by using Eq 1.77 with h 0

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    Fig. 4.6 Effect of strain-hardening

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    the plate normal to the crack front

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    ther increased until final fracture

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    Chapter 4: Static and Dynamic Fract

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    granular or transgranular for a cer

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    way. A second look shows another tr

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    Chapter 4: Static and Dynamic Fract

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    V-notch at one end. The specimen is

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    els were made from the same materia

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    DWTT. Details about the DT test are

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    tangential lines: one drawn from th

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    lations were made only for limited

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    Chapter 4: Static and Dynamic Fract

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    According to Irwin (Ref 4.49), KIC

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    ometry, initial crack length, loadi

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    quent crack extension (i.e., beyond

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    Chapter 4: Static and Dynamic Fract

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    Fig. 4.58 Behavior of K1 and K2 int

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    4.33. W. Server and A.S. Telelman,

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    Mechanics and Mechanisms of Fractur

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    This proportional relation can be u

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    The Paris and Sih solutions along w

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    1/2 3/2 5/2 F( 1) 29.6 185.5 655

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    2c and a, respectively. The crack s

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    of the highest K value is at the ma

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    Fig. 5.19 Front-face geometric coef

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    However, so far, a good method of h

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    Comparison of Eq 5.30(b) with Eq 5.

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    The Williams, or Westergaad, stress

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    K values for a given panel would be

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    Fatigue crack propagation is a phen

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    sity at the crack tip (Ref 5.40, 5.

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    Chapter 5: Damage Tolerance of Meta

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    Fig. 5.42 Typical shape of a fatigu

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    a curve-fitting equation capable of

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    To demonstrate the usefulness of th

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    no point in reviewing or evaluating

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    KC 65.93 MPa m. Then select severa

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    scatter exists. Therefore, the fair

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    zone, approximately one-eighth to o

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    or spectrum loading, a crack-tip pl

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    epresentation of the material crack

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    imum load level set to zero). In a

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    embrittlement. Most engineering all

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    line through all the experimental d

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    alloys. This section briefly summar

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    tensity factor in one case is below

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    through-thickness crack. Thus, the

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    comparing the predictions with actu

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    0.01 Hz (i.e., tr 50 s), tH 50 s.

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    5.34. P. Tong, T.H.H. Pian, and S.

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    on Threshold and Growth Mechanisms,

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    Mechanics and Mechanisms of Fractur

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    Appendix 1: Lattice Structure and D

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    Appendix 1: Lattice Structure and D

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    Appendix 1: Lattice Structure and D

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    Appendix 1: Lattice Structure and D

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    Appendix 1: Lattice Structure and D

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    Appendix 1: Lattice Structure and D

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    Appendix 1: Lattice Structure and D

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    Mechanics and Mechanisms of Fractur

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    Appendix 2: Close-Form Representati

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    where K t Appendix 2: Close-Form Re

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    Mechanics and Mechanisms of Fractur

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    Appendix 3: Nonarbitrary Crack Size

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    Mechanics and Mechanisms of Fractur

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    divided by the average bearing stre

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    Mechanics and Mechanisms of Fractur

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    REFERENCES Appendix 7: Mechanical P

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    Appendix 7: Mechanical Properties D

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    Table A7.4 Tensile strength and pla

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    Appendix 7: Mechanical Properties D

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    Appendix 7: Mechanical Properties D

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    Fig. A7.16 Strain-life data for D35

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    Mechanics and Mechanisms of Fractur

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    Appendix 9: Mechanical Properties D

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    Appendix 9: Mechanical Properties D

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    Appendix 9: Mechanical Properties D

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    Mechanics and Mechanisms of Fractur

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    Mechanics and Mechanisms of Fractur

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    terial is subjected to a sustained

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    generally occurs at loads that, app

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    value is equivalent to fracture tou

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    structure or specimen that contains

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    tangent modulus. The slope of the s

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    Index A © 2005 ASM International.

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    © 2005 ASM International. All Righ

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    © 2005 ASM International. All Righ

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    © 2005 ASM International. All Righ

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    © 2005 ASM International. All Righ

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    © 2005 ASM International. All Righ

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    © 2005 ASM International. All Righ

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    © 2005 ASM International. All Righ

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    ASM International is the society fo

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