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Net-Era-US-Telecom-Policy

Net-Era-US-Telecom-Policy

JONATHAN E. NUECHTERLEIN AND PHILIP J. WEISER DIGITAL CROSSROADS American Telecommunications Policy in the Internet Age

  • Page 2: Digital Crossroads TEAM LinG
  • Page 5 and 6: ©2005 Massachusetts Institute of T
  • Page 8 and 9: Contents Acknowledgements xiii Pref
  • Page 10 and 11: Contents ix II. The Internet’s Ph
  • Page 12 and 13: Contents xi D. The moderately regul
  • Page 14 and 15: Acknowledgements Many friends and c
  • Page 16 and 17: Preface This book is about the regu
  • Page 18: Preface xvii telecommunications com
  • Page 21 and 22: 2 Chapter 1 sprawling system of tow
  • Page 23 and 24: 4 Chapter 1 but that deregulating i
  • Page 25 and 26: 6 Chapter 1 ing any remaining AT&T
  • Page 27 and 28: 8 Chapter 1 Instant Messenger”—
  • Page 29 and 30: 10 Chapter 1 neurs to risk enormous
  • Page 31 and 32: 12 Chapter 1 complex could spread t
  • Page 33 and 34: 14 Chapter 1 monopolists. In part,
  • Page 35 and 36: 16 Chapter 1 mile—is a central fo
  • Page 37 and 38: 18 Chapter 1 in the copper market b
  • Page 39 and 40: 20 Chapter 1 During the same genera
  • Page 41 and 42: 22 Chapter 1 products), to Microsof
  • Page 43 and 44: 24 Chapter 1 regulation. After all,
  • Page 45 and 46: 26 Chapter 1 cations that ride on t
  • Page 47 and 48: 28 Chapter 1 sive hour-long fax tra
  • Page 49 and 50: 30 Chapter 1 in which neither the t
  • Page 51 and 52: 32 Chapter 2 issues raised by compe
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    34 Chapter 2 nection with the telep

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    36 Chapter 2 ity copy of the movie

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    38 Chapter 2 Regulatory distinction

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    40 Chapter 2 switch. The number of

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    42 Chapter 2 low end of the hierarc

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    44 Chapter 2 them to the head of th

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    46 Chapter 2 will enter the market

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    48 Chapter 2 newly created FCC plen

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    50 Chapter 2 belong to the local te

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    52 Chapter 2 the financial needs of

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    54 Chapter 2 the traditional local

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    56 Chapter 2 In chapter 1, we brief

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    58 Chapter 2 nize this fact, to ove

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    60 Chapter 2 B. Long distance compe

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    62 Chapter 2 facilities, its long d

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    64 Chapter 2 rates. If successful,

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    66 Chapter 2 In the years immediate

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    68 Chapter 2 entered into an agreem

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    70 Chapter 3 twentieth century: the

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    72 Chapter 3 capital expenditures t

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    74 Chapter 3 bents in the absence o

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    76 Chapter 3 A. A taxonomy of carri

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    78 Chapter 3 “CLECs” and “lon

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    80 Chapter 3 nection or access to a

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    82 Chapter 3 elements that a compet

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    84 Chapter 3 is much debate about w

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    86 Chapter 3 provisions. In October

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    88 Chapter 3 which requires a compe

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    90 Chapter 3 271 authorization on a

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    92 Chapter 3 A. Network element ent

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    94 Chapter 3 uinely available for t

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    96 Chapter 3 In contrast, when regu

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    98 Chapter 3 B. The rise and fall o

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    100 Chapter 3 dard for resale presc

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    102 Chapter 3 responded that “ave

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    104 Chapter 3 The court first held

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    106 Chapter 3 remain available as a

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    108 Chapter 3 Review Order was “a

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    110 Chapter 3 with business custome

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    112 Chapter 3 to higher “special

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    4 A Primer on Internet Technology T

  • Page 136 and 137:

    A Primer on Internet Technology 117

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    A Primer on Internet Technology 119

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    A Primer on Internet Technology 121

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    A Primer on Internet Technology 123

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    A Primer on Internet Technology 125

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    A Primer on Internet Technology 127

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    A. Beginnings A Primer on Internet

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    A Primer on Internet Technology 131

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    A Primer on Internet Technology 133

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    A Primer on Internet Technology 135

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    A Primer on Internet Technology 137

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    A Primer on Internet Technology 139

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    A Primer on Internet Technology 141

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    A Primer on Internet Technology 143

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    A Primer on Internet Technology 145

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    A Primer on Internet Technology 147

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    150 Chapter 5 ices from exploiting

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    152 Chapter 5 The “basic” vs.

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    154 Chapter 5 Computer II restricti

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    156 Chapter 5 vent monopoly leverag

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    158 Chapter 5 may charge their cust

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    160 Chapter 5 Internet access servi

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    162 Chapter 5 ISPs that have obtain

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    164 Chapter 5 and higher layers and

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    166 Chapter 5 inside every informat

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    168 Chapter 5 as the primary retail

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    170 Chapter 5 applications and cont

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    172 Chapter 5 There is no strong em

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    174 Chapter 5 tine retail price dis

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    176 Chapter 5 on the billions they

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    178 Chapter 5 Given the minimal evi

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    180 Chapter 5 ILECs and cable compa

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    182 Chapter 5 Line sharing As discu

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    184 Chapter 5 a similar vein, Alfre

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    186 Chapter 5 First, recall that ma

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    188 Chapter 5 competitor with a lea

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    190 Chapter 5 they view the broadba

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    192 Chapter 6 over the Internet sin

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    194 Chapter 6 tend to fail more oft

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    196 Chapter 6 discussed in the prev

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    198 Chapter 6 services that fall be

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    200 Chapter 6 B. PSTN-to-PSTN servi

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    202 Chapter 6 switched telephone co

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    204 Chapter 6 bers—say, by adding

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    206 Chapter 6 and competitive free

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    208 Chapter 6 finding that those pr

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    210 Chapter 6 terize” particular

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    212 Chapter 6 nents of the dream of

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    214 Chapter 6 ice” characterizati

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    216 Chapter 6 tion” questions by

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    218 Chapter 6 other things, “all

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    220 Chapter 6 dictions about which

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    222 Chapter 6 II world to a fully c

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    7 The Spectrum In addressing the ph

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    I. Revolution in the Air The Spectr

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    The Spectrum 229 exploit the divisi

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    The Spectrum 231 same frequency ran

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    A. Allocation The Spectrum 233 The

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    The Spectrum 235 al interference. T

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    The Spectrum 237 er, it became clea

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    The Spectrum 239 In auctions reserv

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    The Spectrum 241 The National Assoc

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    The Spectrum 243 erally allocate re

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    The Spectrum 245 the assignment of

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    The Spectrum 247 One example of the

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    The Spectrum 249 the FCC traditiona

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    The Spectrum 251 observed any incre

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    The Spectrum 253 are Wi-Fi devices,

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    The Spectrum 255 with existing devi

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    The Spectrum 257 ly absent in a “

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    The Spectrum 259 ensure, in some ca

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    8 Mobile Wireless Services Although

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    Mobile Wireless Services 263 preexi

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    Mobile Wireless Services 265 Even a

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    Mobile Wireless Services 267 discus

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    Mobile Wireless Services 269 ogy ev

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    Mobile Wireless Services 271 The fi

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    Mobile Wireless Services 273 Up to

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    Mobile Wireless Services 275 In the

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    Mobile Wireless Services 277 arrang

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    Mobile Wireless Services 279 relent

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    Mobile Wireless Services 281 Althou

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    Mobile Wireless Services 283 ment f

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    Mobile Wireless Services 285 contra

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    Mobile Wireless Services 287 the ex

  • Page 308:

    Mobile Wireless Services 289 * * *

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    292 Chapter 9 This example introduc

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    294 Chapter 9 turn would deliver th

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    296 Chapter 9 the same TELRIC cost

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    298 Chapter 9 local “business lin

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    300 Chapter 9 two reasons: first, t

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    302 Chapter 9 To this point, we hav

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    304 Chapter 9 long distance call, d

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    306 Chapter 9 found, VoIP will unde

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    308 Chapter 9 On the first issue, t

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    310 Chapter 9 no implicit subsidies

  • Page 331 and 332:

    312 Chapter 9 minating carriers in

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    314 Chapter 9 From a policy perspec

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    316 Chapter 9 access charges. Thus,

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    318 Chapter 9 er traffic to the fac

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    320 Chapter 9 Thus, whereas the cal

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    322 Chapter 9 the long term, howeve

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    324 Chapter 9 carriers can hand off

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    326 Chapter 9 The picture becomes m

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    328 Chapter 9 may find hardest to b

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    330 Chapter 9 increasing complexity

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    10 Universal Service in the Age of

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    Universal Service in the Age of Com

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    Universal Service in the Age of Com

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    Universal Service in the Age of Com

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    Universal Service in the Age of Com

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    Universal Service in the Age of Com

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    Universal Service in the Age of Com

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    Universal Service in the Age of Com

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    Universal Service in the Age of Com

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    Universal Service in the Age of Com

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    Universal Service in the Age of Com

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    Universal Service in the Age of Com

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    358 Chapter 11 This chapter discuss

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    360 Chapter 11 I. The Basics of Tel

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    362 Chapter 11 providers looked for

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    364 Chapter 11 The broadcasters vie

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    366 Chapter 11 operators would pref

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    368 Chapter 11 During this period,

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    370 Chapter 11 gram access rules ad

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    372 Chapter 11 on the insights of R

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    374 Chapter 11 In the past, the Sup

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    376 Chapter 11 would suffer no imme

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    378 Chapter 11 small, independent n

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    380 Chapter 11 sity, given the expl

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    382 Chapter 11 related content on t

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    384 Chapter 11 The Internet may als

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    386 Chapter 12 for video cassette r

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    388 Chapter 12 had strong incentive

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    390 Chapter 12 point-and-click grap

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    392 Chapter 12 ry involvement or, a

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    394 Chapter 12 to a single standard

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    396 Chapter 12 not its only use, is

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    398 Chapter 12 therefore, broadcast

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    400 Chapter 12 Ultimately, the only

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    402 Chapter 12 old for the return o

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    404 Chapter 12 not encrypt the prog

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    406 Chapter 12 standard for digital

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    408 Chapter 13 This regulatory expa

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    410 Chapter 13 The flip side of acc

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    412 Chapter 13 consistency with fou

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    414 Chapter 13 The Act’s origins

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    416 Chapter 13 courts over regulato

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    418 Chapter 13 protection of compet

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    420 Chapter 13 its of a petition se

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    422 Chapter 13 and its administrati

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    424 Chapter 13 er “unthinkable.

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    426 Chapter 13 cific concerns. Othe

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    428 Chapter 13 C. Humility The FCC

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    Appendix A The Pricing of Network E

  • Page 452 and 453:

    The Pricing of Network Elements 433

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    The Pricing of Network Elements 435

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    The Pricing of Network Elements 437

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    The Pricing of Network Elements 439

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    The Pricing of Network Elements 441

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    The Pricing of Network Elements 443

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    The Pricing of Network Elements 445

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    The Pricing of Network Elements 447

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    The Pricing of Network Elements 449

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    The Pricing of Network Elements 451

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    The Pricing of Network Elements 453

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    456 Appendix B deliver on its promi

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    458 Appendix B The FCC’s capaciti

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    Statutory Addendum Note to readers

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    Statutory Addendum 463 telecommunic

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    Statutory Addendum 465 (e) Provisio

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    Statutory Addendum 467 (D) on rates

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    Statutory Addendum 469 (2) Treatmen

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    Statutory Addendum 471 251 of this

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    Statutory Addendum 473 it is a part

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    Statutory Addendum 475 (4) Equitabl

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    Statutory Addendum 477 rural areas

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    Statutory Addendum 479 (iii) Nondis

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    Statutory Addendum 481 (B) Receipt

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    * * * (i) Random selection * * * (5

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    Statutory Addendum 485 (14) Auction

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    Statutory Addendum 487 ed as a prov

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    Statutory Addendum 489 (2) establis

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    Statutory Addendum 491 requirements

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    List of Notable Commentaries Abbate

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    List of Notable Commentaries 495 Be

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    List of Notable Commentaries 497 Cr

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    Administrative Law, 52 ADMIN. L.REV

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    List of Notable Commentaries 501 Re

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    List of Notable Commentaries 503 Kl

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    List of Notable Commentaries 505 Ma

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    List of Notable Commentaries 507 Po

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    List of Notable Commentaries 509 Sc

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    List of Notable Commentaries 511 We

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    Table of Authorities Cases A&M Reco

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    Table of Authorities 515 City of Da

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    Table of Authorities 517 In re Monr

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    Table of Authorities 519 Tex. Offic

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    Table of Authorities 521 2000 Bienn

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    Table of Authorities 523 Applicatio

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    Table of Authorities 525 Expanded I

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    Table of Authorities 527 Implementa

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    Table of Authorities 529 NORLIGHT R

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    Table of Authorities 531 Review of

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    Notes Note to readers—The Web add

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    Chapter One Notes 535 must be incur

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    Chapter Two Notes 537 Shedding Ligh

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    Chapter Two Notes 539 34 Decision,

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    Chapter Three Notes 541 dominant ca

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    Chapter Three Notes 543 30 Raymond

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    Chapter Three Notes 545 48 The sepa

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    Chapter Three Notes 547 2000, No. 3

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    86 Id. at 566. 87 Id. at 569. 88 Id

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    Chapter Three Notes 551 105 See Sup

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    Content Layer (e.g., streaming vide

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    Chapter Four Notes 555 1635 and mai

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    38 Dreazen, supra (quoting Scott Cl

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    Chapter Five Notes 559 USA, Report

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    Chapter Five Notes 561 13 See, e.g.

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    29 47 U.S.C. §§ 153(43), (46). Ch

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    Chapter Five Notes 565 49 To date,

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    Chapter Five Notes 567 80 Alfred Ka

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    Chapter Six Notes 569 the-premises

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    Chapter Six Notes 571 11 George Man

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    Chapter Six Notes 573 5 (1998) (

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    Chapter Six Notes 575 COMPETITION I

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    Chapter Six Notes 577 Thomas G. Kra

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    Chapter Seven Notes 579 give equal

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    Chapter Seven Notes 581 ond auction

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    Chapter Seven Notes 583 49 In parti

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    Chapter Seven Notes 585 60 Id. (Sep

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    Chapter Seven Notes 587 75 First Re

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    Chapter Eight Notes 589 101 For a g

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    Chapter Eight Notes 591 22 See, e.g

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    Chapter Eight Notes 593 38 Report a

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    Chapter Eight Notes 595 56 For comp

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    Chapter Nine Notes 597 of the Telec

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    Chapter Nine Notes 599 27 Notice of

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    Chapter Nine Notes 601 44 See Texas

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    Chapter Ten Notes 603 ing support,

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    Chapter Ten Notes 605 22,120, 3 (1

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    Chapter Ten Notes 607 debates prior

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    Chapter Eleven Notes 609 See Charle

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    Chapter Eleven Notes 611 (1969). Th

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    Chapter Eleven Notes 613 24 47 U.S.

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    Chapter Eleven Notes 615 48 See, e.

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    Chapter Eleven Notes 617 Governing

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    Chapter Twelve Chapter Twelve Notes

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    Chapter Twelve Notes 621 16 See Jon

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    Chapter Twelve Notes 623 33 See, e.

  • Page 644 and 645:

    Chapter Twelve Notes 625 cally balk

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    Chapter Thirteen Notes 627 6 For an

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    Chapter Thirteen Notes 629 of the e

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    38 Trinko, 124 S. Ct. at 878. 39 Id

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    Chapter Thirteen Notes 633 56 Some

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    Chapter Thirteen Notes 635 77 See H

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    Appendix A Notes 637 71 ALFRED KAHN

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    Appendix B Notes 639 California Bro

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    Appendix B Notes 641 BellSouth Tele

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    644 Index Antitrust law, 6, 9, 10,

  • Page 665 and 666:

    646 Index access; Multiple ISP acce

  • Page 667 and 668:

    648 Index service (Portland case)

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    650 Index Distribution cables. See

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    652 Index Global Crossing, 36 Globa

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    654 Index 18, 20, chapter 5 peering

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    656 Index 293 Media Bureau, 31, 398

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    658 Index Linux, 22 Open video syst

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    660 Index 96-97, 99, 546 DSL servic

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    662 Index wireless operations, 269

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    664 Index 93, 94, 97, 106, 185-89,

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    Glossary of Acronyms 2G: second gen

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    IETF: Internet Engineering Task For

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