E-P !


AMONG the dialogues of Plato, whose literary excellence might lead

to their selection for reading in college, the Symposium and Phaedrus

are hardly suitable for the classroom, the Gorgias and Republic are

too long, and the Phaedo too abstruse, while others lack the charm of

dramatic setting. The three dialogues, however, which are included

in the present edition, seem to be free from the disadvantages just

enumerated. The Charmides has been given the most extended treat

ment, with the hope that this dialogue may be made the center of

more thorough study, though the Laches may be put in its place.

The Lysis is intended for sight-reading, and is annotated accordingly.

If time is short, the more abstruse portions of the Charmides, such as

the treatment of the eVurr^/xT; cTrio-r^u?;?, may be omitted. The works

which have been used in the preparation of this edition are enumerated

in the Appendix. In treating the philosophic contents of the dialogues,

I have followed F. Horn s Platonstudien (Vienna, 1893) very closely,

and Cron s edition of the Laches has been freely utilized in the com

mentary to that dialogue. Professor Gildersleeve, moreover, has

kindly made very valuable suggestions while the book was in press,

and I must acknowledge my constant indebtedness to the inspiration

and illumination received from this eminent scholar, who has imparted

by means of the bitter root of Greek syntax a higher appreciation of

the sweet fruit of Greek literature.


GAMBIER, OHIO, December i, 1899.

References to page and line of this edition are

printed, e.g., 3.22.

Acknowledgment of more special indebtedness

to Professor Gildersleeve is indicated by the abbre

viation, Gild.




I. Life vii

II. Works vii

III. Style




Literary Form ........ xi

Characters ......... xiii

Philosophic Contents.

Charmides ......... xix







......... xxvii



I. Manuscripts and Editions . . . . . . .123

II. Notes on the Text 124






I. LIFE. 1

PLATO was born 427 B.C., and his disciples celebrated the yth of

Thargelion (May 27) as his natal day. 2

His father, Ariston, was

descended from Codrus, the mythic king of Athens, and from the

god Poseidon, while his mother, Perictione, 3 was in some way related

to Solon. After trying his hand at poetry, at the age of twenty he

devoted himself to philosophy, under the guidance of Socrates. Soon

after his master s death in 399 he began his travels, and visited Egypt,

Cyrene, Italy, and Sicily. Returning to Athens in 387, he bought a

house and garden near the precincts of the hero Academus, where he

taught for the remaining forty years of his life. He was never married,

and, what was unusual for an Athenian, took no part in public life.

He died in 347, and was buried near his home. Such are the bare

outlines of Plato s life, but they suffice to indicate his environment.

His aristocratic birth endowed him with fine sensibilities and generous

tastes, which were cultivated and perfected by a thorough education

in gymnastics and mathematics, in both of which he gained distinc

tion, in music, rhetoric, and philosophy. His extended travels broad

ened his vision and brought him into contact with the wisdom of other

lands, while his wealth and his freedom from the cares of family and

politics allowed him to devote his entire attention to literary pursuits.


In classical literature nothing but the Homeric question has caused

so much discussion among scholars as the genuineness and chrono-

1 The authority for Plato s life is Steinhart. v. App. I., C.

2 This day was probably chosen because it was the festival of Delian Apollo, to

whom later legends ascribed the parentage of the philosopher.

3 v. Note 3. 8.


logical order of the Platonic dialogues, and opinions are often widely

at variance. The arrangement of Christ, however, with which, in

the main, the following list agrees, represents

a conservative mean.

I. Socratic : (before 392) Lysis, Chartnides, Laches, Hippias Minor,

: Pro

Apology, Crito, Euthyphro, Ion. II. Transitional (392-380?)

tagoras, Gorgias, Meno, Euthydemus, Menexenus, Cratylus, Theaete-

tus, Phaedrus, Phaedo, Symposium. III. Constructive: Republic,

Parmenides, Sophistes, Politicus, Philebus, Timaeus, Critias, Laws.

The position of the dialogues in I. and III. is certain, but there is

much dispute about the order of those in II. (especially the Phaedo

and Phaedrus). Many scholars reject the Ion, Menexenus, and Par

menides. Besides the above list of 26 genuine dialogues, the manu

scripts contain 1 6, others, some of them probably written by contem

poraries of Plato, and also 13 letters, of which one or two are perhaps



It may safely be said that Plato is the greatest of Greek prose

writers; for, though Aristotle may have been a greater philosopher,

his extant works have no literary value, and though Demosthenes

rivals Plato in his diction, the subject-matter of his orations has lost

much of its interest to the modern world. Plato, however, excels both

in content and form, and to-day no Greek author is so widely studied

in all departments of learning. The philosopher, the literary critic,

the political economist, the philologist, the pedagogue, and the moral

ist, all find something of value in his pages.

The ancients, too, recognized his preeminence, and the great Roman

critic declared omnium quicumque scripserunt aut locuti sunt extitit

et suavitate et gravitate princeps Plato (Cic. Orat. 62, cf. Top. i. 24).

The sweetness which Cicero admired, the elegance and finish which

Aristotle noticed, the grace and simplicity of his style perhaps impress

the reader before anything else. It is this which leads Taine to a

comparison with Correggio, and which Dionysius praises

for its clearness

like the most transparent stream, its fragrance like a breeze from flow

ery meadows (ad Cn. Pomp. 2). Even the satiric Timon (Diog. L.

III. 7) likened his works to the sweet song of the cicadas hidden


among the trees of Academus, and his biographers fabled that bees

filled his lips with honey, as he lay on the slopes of Hymettus. 1


sweetness blended with dignity 2 and elevation, the "supreme serenity

and smile of divine wisdom" (Cousin), justify the title "Homer of



from the Homeric source,

Indeed so rich and full is the stream that flows softly

that some declared that such would be the

speech of great Zeus himself. Plato rivals the great poet also in his

dramatic power, exhibited in the vivid and powerful delineation of

character and the variety and beauty of his scenery. In this (5#o?)

he excels all writers, and even Demosthenes is but an imitator. 4


makes his dialogues a faithful mirror of the best Athenian society and

imparts refinement by

the association of the reader with cultured

people. So brilliant are his pictures, so rich in color and warm with

sensuous feeling that the ancients thought that, like Euripides, he must

have been a painter in his younger days. 5

At any rate he was once a

poet ; indeed, fragments of his elegies remain, and he never wholly lost

his poetic character. 6

It was a true dream of Socrates when he saw

Apollo s swan fly from his bosom and soar singing to the clouds. The

vocabulary is largely poetic (Longin. 13), and the wonderful extended

similes as well as the myths, to which he resorts when dialectic fails,

exhibit the power of the poet as well as of the rhetorician. The

rhythms, too, are often poetic, 7

yet their perfection is praised by

Dionysius (De Adm. Vi, 41), and the periods are harmonious, flexible,

and smooth, though judged inferior to those of Demosthenes. Para

taxis is the foundation principle of his composition, and we sometimes

find as many as nine or ten clauses strung together, so that we scarcely



the periodic structure ; yet he often blends longer sentences

with shorter. Anacoluthaand parentheses at times interrupt grammati

cal sequence and skilfully imitate the movement of conversation, while

the participle and the infinitive, of which Plato, like Herodotus, is so

V. H. X. 21. 2 Long. 13, Cic. Brut. 121.

8 id. Tusc. I. 79. This combination of qualities led Cousin to compare Plato

with Bossuet.

4 Dionys. Rhet. X. 2

5 v. Note 58. 31.

6 Aristotle ap. Diog. L. III. 37 yu,eTcti> TTOI^UCITOS KCU irefrv \6yov.

7 Quint. IX. 4. 77 notes especially the Timaeus.

8 Demetr. de eloc. 21.


fond, 1

contribute to the smooth flow of clause and sentence. Yet

though the style seems so easy, it was elaborated with great care, and

till the day of his death 2 he revised and corrected and rearranged

the words and phrases.

All these details show that Plato excelled not only in the quality but

the number of his beauties (Longin. 35. i). Simple narrative is used

in the introductions and the myths, then more ornate or lofty style in

the solemn discourse or extended simile, in one dialogue rapid question

and answer, in another continuous dialectic, where the answers are

merely formal. There is an endless variety of moods and tones, which

blends gravity with vivacity, comedy with tragedy, profound reasoning

with irony or satire, poetry with prose. As Chaignet says, he makes

not only his characters but his philosophy live and breathe. It is in his

earlier dialogues that these literary elements are most prominent. In

his later works his advancing years and maturing mind lead him to

neglect somewhat the beauty of external form. The style becomes

more precise and didactic, at times even heavy and obscure, 3 the

periods are more elaborate and the prder of words less natural, the

witty sallies and the poetic grace are lacking, the dramatic setting is

almost lost. Moreover, the minuteness of distinction makes the style

exceedingly dry and monotonous,

while it causes the formation of

many new words and endows others with new shades of meaning. 4

Certain formulae of question and answer, certain phrases and particles,

and certain verbs of saying (A. J. P. X. 470) are used for the first

time, or much more frequently. There is a marked tendency to revert

to Ionic and Old Attic words and forms, and to employ tragic diction.

The latest works also show considerable care in the avoidance of

hiatus. 5

It is beyond our province to speak of the importance, the original-

1 Engelhardt, cle period. PI struct. II., pp. 27, 29, notices that we sometimes find

whole pages of infinitives.

2 Cic. de Sen. V. 13.

3 Dionys. ad Cn. Pomp. 2.

4 The Soph, and Pol. have 270, the Tim., Crit., and Laws 1492 words not used

elsewhere by Plato. v. Campbell, Introd. Soph, and Pol., p. xx ; Jowett and

Campbell, Rep. II. 46-61.

5 Average 2-3 to a Teubner page.

Blass, Att. Ber. II. 426.


ity, or the breadth of Platonic philosophy. Emerson calls his works


the Bible of the learned, out of which come all things that are still

written and debated among men," and another writer says, "The

philosophy of Plato rises before us as the mightiest and most perma

nent monument ever erected by unassisted human thought."



In the same sense that Herodotus was the father of history, Plato

may be called the creator of the philosophic dialogue, and moreover

he was the first to clothe it in dramatic form, so that it

is, to a certain

degree, the forerunner of the modern prose drama. The analogy is so

well sustained by the numerous indications of time and place, by the

movements and emotions of the interlocutors, and by occasional parody

of style or dialect, that we see the likeness to a tragedy in the Phaedo, to

a comedy in the Protagoras, we may call the Euthydemus a satyr-play,

or the great Republic a tetralogy. Indeed, the Protagoras was actually

put on the stage in Roman times. The action is localized sometimes

in a private house (Rep., Prot.), sometimes in a public square Euth o),

in the palaestra (Char., Lys.) or at a banquet (Sym.), in the confine

ment of a prison (Crito, Phaedo) or in the freedom of the country

and the

(Phaedr.), but in every case the scene is presented clearly,

surroundings often accurately and fully described (so Char., Lys.).

Time is treated with poetic freedom, and we often find anachronisms, 1

of which the most famous are the dispersion of the Arcadians (385 B.C.)

in the Symposium, and the bribing of Ismenias (395) in the Menon,

dialogues in which Socrates (ob. 399) participates. Since the personsof

the dialogue are drawn from everyday life, they seem more real

than the characters of the drama itself, but as their delineation is only

a means to an end, they are few in number and are not allowed to dis

tract attention from the thought presented.

Since they are typical of

intellectual and moral tendencies, they have a universal and lasting

value, and the lines are more subtly drawn than for the mere individual.

1 Zeller, Berlin Academy, 1873.


Plato s own rule was oyxt/cpov TL jnepos ev TroXAo) Aoyw T^S /xi/Ar/crews (Rep.

396 E) . The chorus, which the later comedy discarded entirely, survives

here only in the audience, whose presence is indicated by applause or

by occasional comments in the mouth of a minor interlocutor, such as

Chaerephon in the Gorgias. Furthermore, the dialogues have a unity

of action, complete in itself and limited in extent, 1 which distinguishes

them from the continuous memoirs of Xenophon, as the dramatic

representation from the historical account. It is not alone by the

external form but also by the internal structure that the analogy to the

drama is maintained. There are definite divisions in the dialogues

which correspond roughly to the acts of a play, and these are usually

marked, as in tragedy, by the entrance or retirement of an interlocu

tor ; sometimes the change is announced beforehand (so 2. 15, 10. 32).

The acts are not necessarily five in number, any more than in the

drama, although this is usually the case (v. Analysis of Char., Lach.,

Lys.). At any rate within the frame of an introduction and conclu

sion some difficulty is developed, and then partially or completely

solved. Doubt and perplexity are created in the mind, just as tragedy

inspires fear and pity in the heart, that by their removal the purifying

effect may be produced, which Aristotle prescribed as an essential of

the tragic drama. Although in structure tragedy furnishes the model,

and the irony and word-play belong to this sphere, the dialogue is

closer to comedy in its tone and mode of treatment as well as in the

humor, the parody, and the satire, although much more delicate and

refined. As an early critic observed, Aristophanes excites our laughter,

but Plato provokes a smile. We know, in fact, that he was a careful

student of the great comedian, as well as of the prose mimes of the

Sicilian Sophron.

Although the greatest perfection is attained in the longer dialogues,

the more youthful works, like brief interludes, often exhibit many

features of dramatic art. The Charmides and Lysis present the same

typical Athenian scene ; the young men, as eager to develop the mind

as the body, leaving their athletic sports to cluster around Socrates and

learn the lessons of abstruse philosophy, admiring now the wisdom of

the teacher, now the beauty of the pupil. Both these dialogues are

1 Ar. Poet. ch. 7.


enlivened with the same humor and adorned with the same richness

of dramatic setting, but the Charmides has the more perfect form and

a calm and statuesque dignity that gives somewhat the effect of sculp

ture (Taine). When we remember that these are perhaps the earliest

works of Plato that we possess, and that he is said to have written

dramas in his youth, we see that he is still under the inspiration of

Dionysius, and still employs the methods of composition which were

consecrated to the honor of the god. In the Laches the youthful

vivacity and playfulness are lacking and the scenery is less prominent,

but irony and witty repartee enliven the discussion, in spite of the

more serious and earnest tone. Though the introduction of the

Charmides seems long in proportion to the rest of the dialogue, it not

only lays down foundation principles for the philosophic discussion

(v. p. xxi), but it serves to present living examples of temperance,

alike in the youthful Charmides to whom the world is yet untried, and

in the more mature Socrates, who has withstood the temptations of his

own perverse nature (v. Note 3. 22). So the Lysis shows us the two

friends, the Laches the two generals, who, in each case, typify the

virtue about to be discussed, as in the opening of the Republic we see

the incarnation of justice in aged Cephalus. Finally, each of our

three dialogues consists of two parts, a popular and a scientific, and

each section is discussed by a person especially adapted to that mode

of treatment.


In the Charmides and Lysis, as in all the earlier dialogues, the chief

interlocutor and the conductor of the investigation is the great teacher

in whom Plato has merged his own personality, the wisest and best

man of ancient times. Socrates, 1

son of Sophroniscus, a sculptor, and

Phaenarete, a midwife, was born about 469, and drank the fatal hem

lock in the Athenian prison, May, 399. Though by birth belonging

only to the middle class, he associated intimately with the most

aristocratic families, as our own dialogue shows. Nor did he neglect

his duties as a citizen. He fought bravely at Potidaea, Delium, and

1 The best sketch of his life is found in Grote s History of Greece, ch. 68.


Amphipolis (v. Note 30. 3); as prytanis in 406 he defended the gen

erals returned from Arginusae; he married a wife, the famous Xanthippe,

and reared children for the state. But his chief concern in life was

the search for truth, everywhere, at all times, with all people, and,

making mankind his study, he feared neither tyrant nor sophist, but

resolutely attacked all error, conceit, and sham, that he might find the

real and abiding essence. 1

Barefooted at all seasons and awkward in

his gait, a single dingy cloak covering a robust figure hardened to heat,

cold, or fatigue, a face so ugly as to be a byword, yet showing the

strength of mastered passions, 2 a hard but steady drinker, playful and

witty, yet devout, he had a homely eloquence that caused the hearts

of young men to throb and their tears to flow, and despite his rough

exterior, he was, like the king s daughter, "all beautiful within." 3

His modesty (56. 5), real or assumed, that led him naively to profess

his ignorance (Note 14. 5-6), and the keen and subtle irony (v. 42. i,

46. 23, etc.), which was so powerful

an instrument in his dialectic

method, are his most prominent characteristics. The two principles

of investigation which Aristotle ascribes to Socrates as his peculiar

property are induction and definition. The first step in induction is

the example, which is often drawn from the most ordinary spheres of

action (Notes 18. 20, 46. 26). His refined friends objected to his

vulgarity, but its familiar character added to its force, and the great

teacher of Galilee consecrated it by frequent use. The usual result

of the inductive example is the definition (v. Note 40. 28), which is

necessary to the exact knowledge demanded by Socrates, and the

dialectic portion of our dialogues is made up largely of these two

elements. Since Socrates, like Christ, left no written memorial, we

must depend on the testimony of his disciples, Plato and Xenophon.

Though the former often blends his own thought with the conceptions

of his master, and develops as well as reproduces, his powers of

dramatic presentation are so great, and his appreciation so refined,

that he gives a more vivid and sympathetic account, and so paints a

1 v. Notes 10. 31, 13. ii, 15. 23.

2 v. Note 3. 22.

3 The locus classicus for Socrates personality is Alcibiades description, Sym.



truer picture than does Xenophon. Following the indications given

by the earlier dialogues, we learn how eminently familiar and con

versational was the language and style of Socrates. The modest litotes

(Note 13. 33), the sportive fancy that led to mock solemnity

(Notes 3. 22, 1 8. 14) or to a clever play upon words, the abundant

proverbs (Note 2. 17) and the many cases of etymological construc

tion (Note 1 6. 31), contribute to the familiarity of his discourse. His

fondness for oaths and interjections (Note 2. 31) illustrates the same

tendency. The carelessness of compact structure and the lack of

grammatical consistency, which he himself confesses in the Symposium

(199 B), are manifested in frequent anacolutha (Notes 4. 16, 20. 29,

42. 17) and parentheses (Note 18. 14), in the omission of conjunc

tions (asyndeton), and in careless repetitions (Note 4. 34), all of

which imitate the movement of easy conversation.

Chaerephon s function, as in the Gorgias, is merely introductory and

mediatory, and after presenting

Socrates to Critias he retires from the

field. He must have been nearly as old as Socrates, for he was the

friend of his youth, and the same enthusiastic devotion which he dis

plays in our dialogue led him to ask the Delphic

oracle to indorse

the wisdom of his master (Apol. 21 A). He was ridiculed by Aris

tophanes as the model Socratic pupil, and in the Gorgias he imitates

his master s manner. His lean figure, his sallow face, and his hasty


movements won him the nickname of the bat." His hot temper got

him into difficulty with his younger brother, but he was easily recon

ciled (Mem. II. 3). He did not survive his friend and teacher.

Critias and Charmides were both near relatives of Plato, the former

being his mother s cousin, the latter her brother (Note 6. 8), and he

was naturally disposed to present them in a favorable light. He gives

Critias an honorable place in the Timaeus as well as in the dialogue

that bears his name, where he relates the traditions of Athens earliest

history with such skill and learning that he wins the praise of Socrates

(Tim. 20 B). In our dialogue Socrates treats him with great respect

and delicately alludes to his poetic skill (IT. 7). Indeed, Critias was

one of the most versatile and gifted men of Athens, for he was not

only successful in tragedy and elegy, but he was an able orator and

historian ; so the famous A^vcuW TroAireta in the Xenophontean cor-


pus was ascribed to him by Bockh. He gave, moreover, such atten

tion to abstract knowledge that he was called a philosopher among

dilettanti, though a dilettante among philosophers. So, although

Critias is known to history as the most greedy and cruel of the Thirty

Tyrants, there was a more agreeable side to his character, and this

Plato wishes to bring to our notice. Critias was, however, as much

devoted to the sophists as to Socrates, as appears in the Protagoras,

where he mediates between them (336 E), and we may notice indica

tions of sophistic training in our dialogue (Note u. 30). Thus he

employs longer and more artistic periods (13. 8 ff.), he is confident of

success (Note 12. 23), he follows Prodicus in the distinction of syno

nyms (12. 12), and he refuses to acknowledge

his own definition

(9. 29, cf. Prot. 331 E). Moreover, he betrays his aristocratic preju

dices by his preference for TO, tavrov Trparreiv, since if each man minds

his own business, the nobles will rule and the rest must obey. Xeno-

phon maintains that Critias frequented Socrates society merely in

order to be better equipped for his political career, and we know that

when he came into power, he showed little respect for his former

teacher, but rudely bade him quit his prating of artisans and shep

herds, of justice and virtue, lest he suffer for


it. There has been an

attempt to identify Callicles in the Gorgias with Critias, and the theory

seems plausible. Both change ground and object to Socrates dialectic

method 2 or the vulgarity of his examples, 3 both defend TrAeoreKretv, 4

both enter the discussion suddenly at a critical moment ; they enter

tain the same aristocratic sentiments, yet use democracy to further

their ends. 5

Still other points of similarity might be mentioned.

Charmides and Lysis belong to a class of young men 6 of which

Phaedrus is the type. Modest and retiring (59. 5), prone to blush

when disconcerted (v. Note 6. 28) yet eager for discussion (58. 16-19),

rich and aristocratic (6. 7, 57. 10-17), beautiful in form and pure in

heart (5. 33-4, 59. i), their fresh and buoyant natures enliven the

1 Xen. Mem. I. 2. 37.

3 n. 32, Gorg. 491 A.


13. 11, 14. 22, 15. 8-13, Gorg. 497 A. 4

Gorg. 483 D, Xen. Hell. II. 3. 16.

5 Gorg. 489 C, 481 E.

6 Taine, Les jeunes gens de Platan, Essais de critique, pp. 155-197.


Platonic pages and endow them with a special grace. Charmides

added to the natural advantages of his position some skill in poetry

(3. 6) and was enough of an athlete to train for the Nemean games

(Theag. 128 DE). It may have been in sports that he lost his fortune,

for he jokes about his poverty in Xenophon s Symposium (IV. 29).

There is a trace of mischievous humor in his suggestion of Critias

ignorance (10. 30-32, cf. 26. i). Though he went with his guardian

to hear the sophists (Prot. 315 A), he was one of Socrates most

devoted followers (Sym. 222 A). The philosopher urged him to enter

of himself

public life (Mem. III. 7), and to overcome by a knowledge

the timidity which continued even into manhood. However, when

actually in the political arena, he followed his aristocratic friends, was

made one of the committee of Ten, who ruled the Piraeus under the

Thirty, and was slain with Critias while defending the unrighteous

cause (Hell. II. 4. 19).

Lysis is younger than his companions, and his conversation is full of

frankness and naivete". The needless details added to his an


swers, his frequent oaths (ch. 4), and his mischievous desire to see his

saucy cousin discomfited (63. 14), are evidences of his youth. Though

he is too bashful to join the company without some excuse (59. 5), he

can laugh merrily at Socrates questions (60. 31), and becomes so in

terested that he answers out of turn (66. 4). Socrates, accordingly,

adopts a simpler style, asks naive questions (e.g. 60. 34), draws his ex

amples from family life, and treats the subject more fully. We know

nothing further of Lysis, nor yet of Hippothales, the sentimental lover,

who wearies his friends by his poems and his eulogies, though he too

can blush and change color (56. 7, 75. 4). Ctesippus is pert, impa

tient, at times even rude (63. 29), but he is good at heart (Phaedo

59 A). In the Euthydemus he has a more important role, and shows

his cleverness and wit as well as his


roughness. Menexenus is prob

ably the same as the Menexenus who gives his name to one of the


Both he and Ctesippus were with Socrates in his last hours.

In contrast to the two other dialogues, the Laches puts the young

people quite in the background, in fact, they utter scarcely a word

1 284 D, 299 E, 284 E, 288 A, 298 B to 299 E.


(29. 31),

but their devotion to Socrates serves to introduce him to

their parents. Though they made considerable progress under his

instruction, they did not persevere in their studies, but through evil

association soon lost all that they had gained (Theat. 150 DE). The

old men, Lysimachus and Melesias, are so closely united as to make

practically one character, and are usually addressed and mentioned

together (28. 30, 35. 30, etc.). Lysimachus

is rather the more ener

getic of the two, but he suffers from the infirmities of age (29. 18-20,

39. 23-5), and his prefatory remarks are so diffuse and verbose that he

himself realizes his weakness (27. n). His life of narrow seclusion

has kept him from acquaintance with the almost omnipresent Socrates,

and he has no independent views of his own. Besides, the glory of

his father, the great Aristides, makes his own insignificance more ap

parent. Melesias, too, though a great wrestler in his youth (Meno

94 C), did nothing to equal the fame of Thucydides, his father, the

statesman and opponent of Pericles, and his share in the dialogue

(34. 2-28) is confined to a few brief answers. Laches and Nicias, on

whom the burden of the discussion rests, were leaders of the aristo

cratic party and had great influence in the state. Like all men of

noble birth, they admired Spartan institutions (v. Note 31. 34) and

favored peace. All that we know of Laches life is that he led an ex

pedition to Sicily (v. Note 33. 10), served as hoplite at Delium (v.

Note 30. 3), was associated with Nicias in negotiating the peace of 421

(Thuc. V. 43), and fell at Mantinea in 418. The allusion to Delium

in 30. 3 and the date of Laches death enable us to fix the time when

the conversation is supposed to take place. Laches is, first of all, a

he has had no experience in abstract thinking (45. 27)

and cannot form a general conception, he is confident (41. 10) and

practical man :

hasty in his conclusions, he appeals to facts (2/oya ; 32. 18, 38. 29),

which, however, have no bearing on the question, and he is guided

largely by his prejudices (cf. 31. 34). Furthermore, there is in his

character a strong tendency to criticise. This appears in his first

words (29. 5-9), again in the keen satire of Stesilaos (32. 24 ff.), but

especially in his bitter and scornful attacks on Nicias (33. 9, 47. i, 5, 1 1,

49. 25,50. 6, n, 19). Even Socrates does not escape (35. 23). His

impatience and anger cause him twice (48. 33, 50. 24) to give up the


discussion, but he is finally reconciled (53. 30-34), and it is perhaps

because he learns the most that the dialogue bears his name. Nicias,

after the death of Pericles (429), was the most highly esteemed citizen

of Athens, because of his integrity and piety and the generous use of

his great wealth in public works and in private benefactions. As a

general he took a kindly interest in the welfare of his soldiers, and by

his prudence gained considerable success (Thuc. III. 51, 91, IV. 42,

53, 129), but he lacked energy, promptness, and decision, and was

often hampered by superstitious fears (v. Note 48. 7). Sent to Sicily

against his will in 415, after many disasters, for which he was himself

largely responsible, he met his death at Syracuse in 413. Nicias pre

sents throughout a strong contrast to Laches. Quiet, thoughtful, and

mild (v. Notes 49. 34, 50. 19), he is ready to accept new ideas (30. 28),

and is fond of argument. He is eminently a theorist, and restricts

courage to knowledge. While Laches knows Socrates only on the

battle-field, Nicias has attended his instruction as well as the lectures

of the sophists (38. 7, 53. 17, 26), so that he is familiar with Socratic

doctrines (46. 14) and makes better progress. Each general presents

the aspect of courage that is consistent with his own experience, but it

is Socrates alone that unites both qualities in his own character and

presents a perfect example.




I. Introduction (TrpoAoyos), ch. 1-6.

(a) Socrates returns from Potidaea, and, meeting some friends in

the palaestra, tells them of the battle. He then inquires about the

young men, and is introduced to Charmides, whose soul is as beauti

ful as his body (ch. 1-3). (b) Socrates poses as a physician, and

offers a remedy for Charmides headache, which must be accompanied

by a charm. This consists in fair words, which will cure the soul, the

source of good and evil to the body, and impart temperance. Although

Critias declares that Charmides already possesses this virtue, the latter

consents to submit to an examination (ch. 4-6).


II. The Definitions of Charmides (oriVacns), ch. 7-9.

(a) Being asked to define temperance, he replies that it is (ist) quiet

ness, but he is shown that activity is often preferable to inaction, and

since temperance is always desirable, this definition cannot stand (ch. 7).

(b} Charmides is urged to regard his inner self rather than outward

appearances, and he defines temperance as (2d) modesty. This goes

deeper, but modesty is sometimes out of place, while temperance never

is (ch. 8). (c} He then quotes the opinion that it is (3d) doing one s

own business ; but all artisans work for other people, so the definition is

not clear. Critias, from whom Charmides had borrowed the statement,

becomes impatient to define it, and takes his cousin s place (ch. 9).

III. The Definitions of Critias (7rAo/oj), ch. 10-14.

and "

(a) Critias distinguishes




making," for while work

(making) is vulgar, (4th) doing applies only to what is good. From

this it would follow that one can be temperate without knowing it, for

good may be done unwittingly (ch. 10, n). (b)

This forces home to

Critias the importance of knowledge, so he takes a fresh start, and

declares temperance to be (5th) self-knowledge. Being asked what is

the product of such knowledge, or to what object it is directed, he

replies that it differs from all other sciences,

for it has no external

object or product, but is (6th) the knowledge of itself and of other

sciences (ch. 12-14).

IV. The Discussion of Socrates (Awns), ch. 15-22.

Taking more definite control of the conversation, Socrates considers

(a) the possibility of such knowledge. If we know what we know, we

must also know what we do not know. This is neither subjectively nor

objectively true of other mental activities, which makes the question

more perplexing (ch. 15, 16). We then pass to an examination of

(a} the utility of this knowledge (18. 12), which further implies that

we must know what others know and do not know. This cannot be,

since temperance does not teach technical details, nor does it make

learning easier. In short, we only know that we know and not know



(19. 26) (ch. 17, 18). (V) Even if we knew what we know, it would

only increase material prosperity, and it is still uncertain what kind of

knowledge brings real happiness (ch. 19-21). (d) Critias then sug

gests (7th) the knowledge ofgood and evil (2$. 29). But if temperance is

only a knowledge of knowledge, it can have no part in specific sciences,

and since all happiness comes from the knowledge of good and evil,

temperance is of no practical utility (ch. 22).

V. Conclusion (/caTaorpo(/J), ch. 23, 24.

Such a conclusion is absurd, and we have failed to discover the

nature of temperance ; the fault must lie in Socrates stupidity. Char-

mides, however, has confidence in him, and resolves to follow his guid

ance in the future.

Summary of the definitions proposed.

I. Superficial, (i) Quietness. (2) Modesty.

II. Universal. A. Action (3) Doing one s business. (4) Doing

good. B. Knowledge (5) of self, (6) of knowledge, (7) of good and



In the introduction Socrates himself defines temperance as the health

of the soul and the control of the body. It is the harmony of all the

virtues rather than itself a single virtue (cf. Prot. 330 AB). Starting

with this assumption, Socrates leads the discussion by a gradual

development to the desired end. He rejects the first three definitions

as insufficient, and objects to the fourth as superficial, since it lacks

the knowledge which is at the basis of right action. The identifica

tion of virtue with knowledge is a genuine Socratic doctrine, 1 and

when self-knowledge is proposed, we feel that we are on the right

track. The discussion of the knowledge of knowledge consumes so

much time that it seems more important than it really is. Plato,

however, by leaving the investigation unfinished, shows clearly that

this course will not lead us to the truth, and Socrates declares (21. 30)

1 46. 14-15, Mem. III. 9. 5.


that all their labor was in vain. He here makes Critias responsible

for the definition, and he himself explicitly rejects the i-ma-Tr)^ l-ma-T^-

ju,7;s in the Theaetetus (200 BC). But when knowledge takes on a

moral tone and is limited to the good and evil, Socrates shows by his

delight (23. 29 ff., cf. Gorg. 499 B) that the goal

has at last been

reached, for nowhere else can true utility be found. Now we may

weave the tangled threads together, joining good knowledge and the

resultant good action to the health of the soul with which we began,

and we gain the complete definition of temperance. The result then

is only apparently negative, and as in the other earlier dialogues, the

intelligent reader is left to draw the conclusion. Socrates has practi

cally demonstrated that cTritmj//^ eVi^T^s is not temperance, and his

negation of success really applies to this point alone. Charmides, by

his determination to follow Socrates, and Critias, by his approval of

this course, show that they understand the true meaning veiled by the

Socratic irony, and are satisfied with the results. Moreover, Socrates

himself consents to impart temperance (26. n), so he must have

reached an understanding of its nature.



I. Introduction (TrpoAoyos) ,

ch. 1-8.

(a) Lysimachus and Melesias wish their sons to have a better edu

cation than they themselves received, and ask the advice of Nicias

and Laches regarding the importance of fencing (ch. i, 2). (<) At

Laches suggestion, Socrates, as a philosopher and also a brave soldier,

is invited to join their deliberations (ch. 3, 4). (c] Nicias approves

of fencing, as tending to strengthen the body, prepare young men

for military service, and make them more courageous (ch. 5), but

(</) LacJies rejects the art because the Spartans do not practise it,

and fencing-masters make no better soldiers than other men, though

more is expected of them (ch. 6-8).


II. Preparation and Specialization (rira<ns), ch. 9-16.

(a) Socrates is asked to cast the deciding vote, but such weighty

matters can only be determined by a trained man. He himself is

too poor to be taught by the sophists, but the two generals should be

well informed on such matters. Since, however, they disagree, they

must prove their knowledge by telling who their teachers were, or

whom they have taught (ch. 9-11). (&) Nicias is well acquainted

with Socrates dialectic skill, by which he gives a personal application

to every discussion, while Laches has full confidence in him, because

he has seen his valiant deeds (ch. 1.2-14). ( f ) Socrates now proposes

that, since they wish to make the boys virtuous, they first try to dis

cover what virtue is, or, still better, consider only the nature of courage,

the part of virtue that fencing claims to produce (ch. 15-16).


III. The Definition of Laches (TrAo/oj), ch. 17-21.

Laches declares the brave man to be one who stands in line

to meet the enemy, but Socrates shows that a man may

be brave even

in flight, and may exhibit courage in emotion or in poverty (ch. 1 7-18).

(b) Laches now defines courage as constancy of the soul, but, as

bravery is a good thing, he is forced to limit it to reasonable constancy.

This appears, however, in business and in medical practice, where

there is no question of courage, and, on the other hand,

the soldier

who ignorantly resists superior force is braver than his skilled opponent

(ch. 19, 20). (c) Laches is disgusted at his failure (ch. 21).

IV. The Definition of Nicias (Averts), ch. 2229.

(a) Nicias now suggests that courage is the knowledge of things

dangerous and safe, but Laches objects that this is also possessed by

physicians and farmers. Nicias replies that, at any rate, physicians do

not know whether death or recovery will be better for the sick. Only

the soothsayer knows the future, says Laches, so he must be brave.

Yet, says Nicias, even he does not know whether death is really an

evil. Laches thinks this is all foolishness (ch. 22-24). (b) It is sug

gested that the brute beasts are usually considered brave, but Nicias


replies that they are ignorant of danger, and so, merely fearless (ch.

25, 26). (c) Socrates shows that since fear (Seos) is the expectation

of coining evil, danger (TO, Sai/a) lies only in the future, and courage

would be the knowledge of simply future good and evil ; but since

knowledge really admits of no limitation in time, the definition should

read, knowledge (not of danger merely) but of all good and evil. This,

however, is virtue itself, not one of its parts, and cannot stand as the

definition of courage (ch. 27-29).

V. Conclusion (Karaon-po^??), ch. 30, 31.

Laches rejoices over Nicias discomfiture, and commends the boys

to the care of Socrates. To this Nicias agrees, though he believes that

he has himself come near to the truth.


The two definitions of Laches are practically one, for the second is

only an extension of the first, a more general conception designed to

meet the objections advanced by Socrates, but both are finally rejected

(45. 9-10). In discussing the definition of Nicias, Socrates assumes

that courage is a part of virtue, but he does not prove this, whereas the

definition is introduced as Socratic, and is then amplified and improved.

In fact, Socrates does not criticise the definition itself, but only its rela

tion to the above supposition, and it is the latter which is really put to

the test. If the two disagree, it does not follow that the definition is

so that the

wrong, but either it or the supposition must be discarded,

and is not

rejection of the definition (53. 5) is manifestly illogical,

seriously intended. As in the Charmides and Lysis, the apparent

failure is only a sort of philosophic irony, and it is expected that the

reader will form the correct conclusion. Socrates says, it is true,

6/Wws Travres iv aTropia eyevo/a$a (54. 15), but only because he never

raises himself above the other interlocutors, while they would not all

express such confidence in him, if he had been unsuccessful. Though

Laches admits his failure, Nicias, who is never ironical, claims to be

right, and his definition agrees with Prot. 360 D. Moreover, he is a

representative Socratic pupil (38. 7, 53. 17, 26),

and can understand

his master better than the rest. His definition, then, must be accepted,


and the supposition that virtue is made up of parts cannot stand. In

fact, it seems to be the real purpose of the dialogue to show that virtue

is single and indivisible, as the Republic and Protagoras teach, and is

the knowledge of good and evil; courage is, then, only an example

chosen to illustrate this truth.

The discussion, however, is felt to be incomplete (53. 25-27) ; it

needs a better foundation (/3e/3cuWi?) , for it is not proven that virtue

is knowledge, and it needs correction (eTravoptfaxns), since it does not

appear what is the real nature of good and evil. These points are

given full treatment in the Protagoras, so that the Laches merely serves

to prepare the way for the greater dialogue.



I. Introduction, ch. 13.

Socrates meets some young friends and learns of Hippothales

extravagant love. They enter a palaestra, where Socrates offers to

teach Hippothales dialectic as a better means of success than poetry.

II. Socrates and Lysis, ch. 4-6.

Socrates shows Lysis that his parents loving restraint is intended to

confine him to those occupations with which he is sufficiently acquainted

to be of some use. This is also true in trade and politics. Friendship

is based on utility.

III. Socrates and Menexcnus, ch. 7-9.

When one man loves another without return, which is the friend?

Both are not, since one does not love, nor can we say neither is, for

there are friends of wine, of wisdom ;

not the lover, nor yet the loved

one, for each might be the friend of his enemy, which is absurd.

IV. Socrates, Lysis, and Menexenus, ch. 10-18.

(a) Does like love like ? The bad cannot, for they are never at

unity with each other. The good cannot be the friend of the good,


since like cannot add anything to like, and without benefit there is

no friendship (ch. 10, n). () Nor can the unlike be friends, for

the good cannot love the bad (ch. 12). (c) The indifferent (neither

good nor bad) is friend to the good, but only when there is an addi

tion of the bad. So the body needs a physician only when sick


3> 14)- (O


But friendship must have a reason and a purpose. So

the body needs medicine for the sake of health. Yet health is not an

end in itself, and we must seek that end which alone is loved for its

own sake, and of which all else is but the shadow (ch. 15, 16).

(e) We love the good, because it is a remedy for the adherent bad.

Yet if there were no such thing as bad, we should still love the good,

for there are desires which are merely indifferent (hunger). Therefore

friendship is really due to the presence of desire, not to the adherence

of the bad. We desire what we have lost, what belongs to us (OIKCIOI/)

(ch. 17). (/) This last is true only if our own (OLKCLOV) is different

from the like

(o/xoioi/), and so we assume it to be. Since we love the

good and also our own, is the good identical with our own, and does

the good belong to every one, or only the good to the good and the

bad to the bad? The boys accept the latter alternative, and since like

does not love like, the discussion has been fruitless (ch. 18).

V. Epilogue. The boys have to go home (75. 31-76. 10).


The Lysis treats of many emotions, not of friendship alone, and

their common basis is desire. The foundation thought, from which

the discussion starts, is that all desire is directed toward the useful

(62. 25-26), and this is repeated at the close (75. 10). The example

of parents love to children (II.) is chosen because it is extreme, and

so proves the universality of the rule. 65. 15-1 7 shows that the parents

do not seek selfish utility. Plato then demonstrates (III.) the falsity

of the usual conceptions of friendship, and finally (IV.) comes to the

conclusion that the good is the highest object of desire. The appar

ent failure of the discussion lies merely in the thoughtless answer of the

boys. They forget that, as they have just said, the like is different from

our own, while if the good belongs to the good, like would belong to


like, and like be the same as our own. Therefore, the good can only

belong to the unlike, i.e. to the indifferent. If we, however, do what

the boys failed to do, and admit that the good belongs to every one, we

obtain a positive and logical result. The good has an absolute value,

and the desire for the good is the basis not only of friendship, but of

every human aspiration.

Though the Lysis seems like a comparatively slight performance, it

contains the germs of all Platonic philosophy, and is closely related to

several important dialogues (v. p. xxv). The nature of the good is

treated more fully in the Protagoras and Gorgias ; in fact, the latter

work makes the same division of good, bad, and indifferent (467 E,

cf. Sym. 202 B), and repeats that desire which looks beyond the pres

ent object to the final good (468 B). The Phaedrus 1 continues in a

poetic form the idea that the good is our original possession, and the

Symposium 2 studies the desires more carefully, and elaborates the con

ception that love arises from seeking its own, which it has lost.


There is a tradition that Socrates read the Lysis and exclaimed, By

Heracles, how many lies this young man has told about me." Although

the story may be a mere invention, the elementary nature of the dia

logue, both in structure and contents, makes it probable that it is the

earliest of the Platonic dialogues. Certain linguistic tests (v. p. x),

the beauty of its style, and its advance on the pure Socratic teaching

have induced some scholars to put it much later, but statistics in such

matters can only be confirmatory, not determinative : the literary

excellence is characteristic of youthful fancy rather than of matured

art, and in his first essay Plato may have taken steps ahead of his

master, which it did not suit his purpose to take in the succeeding

dialogues of the earlier period.


The dialogues with which the Charmides has the closest affinity are

the Lysis, Laches, and Protagoras.

1 Ast compares 66. 34 and Phr. 255 B inter al.

Both the dramatic form and philo-

2 62. 20-9 and Sym. 205 E, 66. 20-5 and Sym. 195 15, 68. 13-19 and Sym. 186 D,

70. 26-33 and Sym. 204 A.


sophic contents of the Lysis connect it very closely

with the Char-

mides. In the Lysis only boys participate, and Socrates suggests their

answers to them ; in the Charmides a full-grown man appears, who

uses his own experience and draws his own conclusions, so that the

discussion is deeper and more independent. The Lysis teaches that

human endeavor is not worthy in itself, but only when directed toward

the highest good; the Charmides, that the sciences, which aid this

endeavor, must seek the same end. In the one dialogue the good is

praised, in the other the knowledge of the good. The Charmides

extends the views propounded in the Lysis and must be later. The

Laches also employs the same method of investigation as the Char

mides. Both attack the virtues first from their external side, then

pass, with a change of interlocutor (so also the Gorgias), to deeper

aspects of the question ; both uphold the knowledge of the good

(v. 52. 32). The Laches, however, states the result more clearly, and

hints at the existence of separate virtues, which the Charmides does

not recognize. It thus marks the transition to the Protagoras, where

the single virtues are distinguished, and by their common reference to

the knowledge of good are made to prove the unity of virtue (Note

40. 31). The Lysis, Charmides, and Laches are so closely related that

Christ believes they were published in one volume by Plato himself

some time before 390. We cannot fix the date more precisely, for it

must always remain uncertain whether Plato published anything before

the death of Socrates. 1

Scholars are very evenly divided on this ques

tion, and after all it is more or less a matter of individual feeling. It

is hardly likely that our dialogues were intended to serve any but a

philosophic purpose, unless it be to honor the memory

of Socrates.

Steinhart, however, suggests that the Charmides was written in 404, in

order to win back Critias and Charmides to a better life, while Teich-

muller holds that Plato (about 393) is defending his relatives against

the aspersions contained in Xenophon s Memorabilia. He conceives

the Charmides to be a sort of criticism or recension of this work,

wherein Plato also ridicules certain philosophic doctrines set forth by

Xenophon (Note 12. 26). The genuineness of the Charmides, Laches,


1 Grote (Plato, I. 328-334) gives a good summary of the arguments for the nega


and Lysis is so generally accepted that it is hardly necessary to defend

them against the attacks of Ast and Schaarschmidt, whose criticism

is so severe that they accept the one only fourteen, the other only nine

dialogues. Their literary excellence, their Platonic diction, and their

agreement with the greater dialogues place them above suspicion.

is only fair to say, however, that the Lysis does not stand on quite so

sure a footing as the Charmides and Laches.



TIME: 432 B.C. PLACE: The palaestra of Taureas.



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veaiTepos &v, alv%pov av TJV aura) 8ta\eyecrOaL r^lv evavTiov 76 10

, eiriTpoTTOV re dfjia KOI dve-^riov 6Wo?. AXXa /caXw?, e(f)fj,

, Kal fca\wfjiev avTov. KOI dpa irpbs TOV aicdXovOov, Hal,

efyr), /caXet Xa/o/^t^T/^, eiTrayv OTL /SouXo/zat avTov laTpw CTUCTTT)aai

Trepl TT)? aaOeveias ^? Trpwrjv TT/JO? /ue e\ejev OTL daOevol.

7T/30? ovv efie 6 K/otrta?, "Ewa^^cfe rot e^>?; ftapvvearOai TI TTJV 15

tce(f)a\r)V ecoOev aviGTCL^evos d\\d TI ere Kw\veL TrpoaTroir^aaa0ai

TT/oo? avTov eTfiorTaaOai TL K(f)a\r/s (frdp/maicov ; QuBev,

rjv 3 eja) fjiovov e\0TC0. AXX f)%ei, ecf^Tj.

4. "OTrep ovv real eyeveTO. rjice yap, /cal eiroirjcre <ye\G)Ta

7ro\vv e/caaTOS <yap rj/Jiwv TCOV fcaOrj/jLe vcov avy^copcov TOV 7r\rj- 20

aiov ecoOei crTrovSy, iva Trap avTG) KaOe^oiTO, e&)9 TMV eV ecr^ara)

Ka6rjjjLV(DV TOV /Jiev aveo-TrjO-a/jLev, TOV Be TrXdyiov /caTe/3d\ofjiev.

o & e\0MV /jieTa^v efiov re Kal TOV Kptr/ou eVa$eero. evTavOa

cf)i\e, eya) TJ&TJ r/Trdpovv, tcai /JLOV rj TrpoaOev 6paavTr)<s

, i]V ei%ov eja) w? Trdvv pqSicos aura) SiaXe^oyu-e^o? 2?

eireiorj Be, (frpdo-avTOS TOV K/Mr^bv OTL 700 elr)v 6 TO <f)dp/jiaKOV

eTTLo-Ta/jLevos, eve/3\e-^ev re /JLOL rot? o</>#aX/xot? aprftavov TL

olov ical dvijyeTO w? epcoTTJcrcov, Kal ol ev TTJ TraXaicrTpa aTcav-

re? TrepLeppeov ^fta? KVK\O> KO/jLLSfj, rare 8r), & yevvdSa, elSdv re

TO, eVro? TOV IpaTtov Kal e(f)\e<yd/*7]v Kal OVKCT ev eftavTOV ?)V 30

KCLI evojjii&a dO(j)a)TaTOV eivai TOV KvBtav ra epcoTLKa, o? eljrev

eVt Ka\ou \ejcov TratSo?, aXXa) v7roTL0e/jievo<?, ev\a/3eLcr0aL

fJLTj /caTevavTa Xeoz^ro? veffpbv e\0dvTa f j fjiolpav

Kpewv auro? 7ap yu,ot eftoKOW VTTO TOV TOLOVTOV


ea\a)Kevai. o/zco? Se avrov epatTrjcravTOS,

el ITTterra Lrb

T7JS KecfraXfjs cfrdpfjiaKOV, fjidyis TTCO? dTreKpivd^v on

e7TL(TTaLfJL7jv. TV ovv, rj 8 09, ecrTiv ; teal eya) eiTrov OTL avTO

pev eirj (f>v\\ov TI, CTrmBrj e ri? eVl TO) (pappd/cq) eirj, rjv

5 et /LteV Tt9 7rd8oL a/jia KOI Xpyro CLVTO), TravrdiraaLV vyid TTOIOL

TO (fidp/jia/cov dvev Se TT}? eTrcaS?}? ovbev o<^eXo? et?; TOV

\ov. KOI 09, ATToypd^lro/jLai TOLVVV, ecfrr), Trapd aov Trjv

Stfv. HoTepov, r]V 706, edv /ze TreiOys T) tcav y^j] ;

ovv, Eaz^ ere ireiOa), (f)r), & Zowpare?. Ele^, ^z^ 8 e 7&> Kal

10 Tovvo/Jid IJLOV crv aicpi[Sols ; Et (JLTJ a8i/cco 76, e^ ou yap TL

crov 0X^709 ^0709 eVrtz> eV rot9 ^/xeTe)oot9 f)\ifcia)Tais, //-e/i^r^at

Se 70)76 /cat 7rat9 w^ K/Jtrm ra)8e (TVVOVTCL ere. KaXco9 76 o^u,



6*70), TTOL&V fjid\\ov yap (TOi Trapprjcndo-OfjLai Trepl T7J9

e7rft)8?59, cua Tvy^dvet ovcra apri rjTrdpovv, TIVL T/OOTTO) o-ot

15 evSeL^alfjLtjv TIJV Svvafjiiv auT7J9. ecrrt 7^, a>

Xap/it^, TOiavTr)

oia /Jirj SvvacrOai Trjv Kecj)a\r)V JJLOVOV vyid Troielv, aXX cocrTrep

/cal o-u afcrjfcoas TWV aryaOwv laTpwv, eVetSazv ri9

rou9 o^)^aX/xou9 a\<ywv, \eyovcri TTOV, OTL ov%

oldv re aurou? JJLOVOVS eTTi^eipelv rou9 oc$aX/-iou9 lacrOai, aXX

20 avayicaiov *av* elr] djjia /cal Trjv Ke$d\r)V Oepatreveiv, el /xeXXot

/cat ra TWZ^ ofji/JidTCOv ev e^eiv Kal av TO TTJV tcecj)a\r)p o lecrOai

av Trore OepaTrevcrai avTrjv ecp eaVTrjs dvev 6\ov TOV

7ro\\r)v avoiav elvai. etc Srj TOVTOV TOV \dyov &atrat

TO croj/jia TpeTrofjievoi /Ltera roO oXou TO /^ep09 eTn^eipovcnv 6epa-

25 Treveiv Te /cal lacrOai rj OVK r)cr9r](Tai OTI TavTa OVTW \eyovcriv

Te Kal e^ei ; Tldvv ye, ecj)rj. OVKOVV /caXa>9 crot SoKel \eye-

aOat, Kal aTrooV^et TOV \6yov; TldvTcov fjid\L(TTa, ecbrj.

5. Ka7&) aKQVcras avTOv eTraivecravTOS dveddpprjad Te, Kal

fjiOL KaTa (TjJLiKpov TcaKiv 7] OpacrvTi^ o-vvrjiyeLpeTO, Kal ave&irv-

30 povfjiTjv Kal elTrov TOLOVTOV TOLVVV ecrTiv, a) Xa/o/xtSr;, Kal TO

TavTys T?)9 e7rft)SrJ9. e/JiaOov o avTrjv eya) eKel eVt (TTpaTias

Trapd TIVOS TWV pqKwv TWV ZaX/^o fto\)9 laTp&v, 01 \eyovTai

Kal aTraOavaTL&iv. eXeyev oe 6

/3af oi/T09, 6Vt TauTa fiev


ol r/

EXX?;^e9, a vvvbrj eya) e\eyov, /caXa>9 Xe yoiev


a\\a ZaX/zot9, effrrj, \eyei 6 faerepos /3acn\evs, #609 wv, on

cbcrTrep 6(f)0a\fjiovs dvev Ke$a\rjS

ov Bel


IdaOai ov&e

Ke<pa\r)V avev crcoyu-aro?, oirr&)9 ovSe aa^^a avev ^f%?79, aXXa

TOVTO teal aiTiov eiij TOV Siacfrevyeiv TOVS Trapa rot? "EXXfio-^

iarpovs ra TroXXa VGa-r^aTa, on TO o\ov dyvoolev ov oeot TTJV 5

e7rL/jLe\eiav TroLelcrOai,, ov /JLTJ /caXco? e^oz^TO? a^vvarov elr] TO

/xepo? ev e%eiv.

TrdvTa jap e(f)rj

Ta Ka/ca /cal Ta ajaOa TO) crw/Ltart Kal Travn TU>

e/c TT)? -^^7}? oopfjirjaOai Kal

av0pa)7rq), Kal

etceWev eTTippelv coaTrep eK TT}? Ke<j)a\r)S eVt ra o/Ltyu-ara oelv

ovv eicelvo KOI Trp&TOV Kal paKiGTa depaTreveiv, el yLteXXet

Kal 10

Ta T7J? KecfraXrjS Kal TCL TOV d\\ov crw/xaro? /caXco? e^eiv. Oepa-

Tcevea-dai 8e Trjv ^VXTJV e(f>r),

a> fjLaKapie, eVcoSat? TLO-IV ra?

8 eVwSa? raura? rou? \6yovs elvai TOW Ka\ov$ eK oe TWV

TOLovTcov \6<ya)V ev rat? i^ru^ats craxfrpocrvvrjv eyytyvecrOai, r^?

ey<yevofjiev7)$ Kal Trapova^ pdSiov r)8r) elvai Tr)V_ vyieiav Kal TTJ 15

Kal TOJ aXXft) crco/^art nropi^eiv.

SiSdcrKcov ovv pe TO re

Kal ra? eVa)8a?, OTTCO?, (77, TO) $>apndK(p TOVTW fjLrj-

ireicrei Trjv avTOV Ke<f>a\r)V Oepajreveiv, 6? az^ /u,?) TTJV

7rpa)TOV Trapdo-^rj Trj eVcoS^ VTTO aov OepaTrevOrfvai. Kal

yap vvv, e$r], TOVT ecrnv TO d/JidpT^^a irepl TOI/? dvOpMTrovs, 20

on %ft>/ot9 eKaTepov larpot nves eTri^eipovcnv elvai Kai imoi

Trdvv a(f)o8pa eVereXXero /JL^Te TrXoixnov OVTCO /jirjSeva elvai fjLiJTe

yevvalov fjuJTe Ka\6v, 6? e /u-e TretVet aXXa)? Troielv. eyco ovv

6/JLco/jiOKa yap avno, Kai /u-ot dvdyKrj TreiOeaOai vretcro/u-at ovv,

Kal croi, edv pev {3ov\r) KOLTCL ra-9 TOV evov evTO\ds TTJV -^v^rjv 25

rrpwTOv Trapacr^elv eVacrat rai? TOV SpaKOS eVco&u?,

TO (pdp/jiaKOV Ty Ke(j)a\rj

el Se fjuj, OVK dv e%oifjLev

o Ti

6. A/eoucra? ovv JJLOV 6 K/otrta? TavT etVoWo?,

^(DKpaTes, yeyovbs dv eii] 77 TT}? Ke(f>a\7J^ dadeveia TW 30

e(f>7], &

veavia-Ky, el dvayKao-O^aeTai Kal TTJV Sidvoiav Bid TTJV Ke<f>a\r)v

/3e\TiO)v yevecr9ai. \eyw aevTOi croi, OTi Xa/o/atST;? TWV r)\iKico-



ISea SoKel Sia(f) peiv, aXXa Kal avTw TOVTQ, ov


o-co^poo-vvrjs 7} yap ; Hdvv

(TV (^779 Trjv eircoorjv e^eiv </>7J9


ye, rjv $ eyco. E TOIVVV IcrOi, e(f)rj, on Tr\eicrTOis Bo/cel craxfrpo-

veo-raros elvai TCOV vvvi, teal rdXXa Travra, et? oaov r)\iKias

rj/cei, ovoevbs X e ^P wv v - Kcu

Xap/JLi8r), &ia<f)epeiv

yap, j]V 8 eyco, /cal Bi/caiov, a>

ere TWV d\\wv Trdcriv rot? TOLOVTOIS ov

5 yap ol/jiai d\\ov ovSeva TWV evQdSe paSicos av e^Eiv eTuBei^ai,

Trolai ovo ouciai crvve\6ovaai et? ravrbv rcov A.Orjvrjo Lv e/c rwv

elicoTwv /ca\\Lco av /cal aueiva) yevvijcreiav rj ej; &v (TV yeyovas.

rj re yap Trarpwa vfjilv ol/cua, 77 K/om bu rov A/3ft)7riSof,


Ava/cpeovros /cal VTTO SdXw^o? /cal VTT aXkwv 7ro\\MV Trotr;-

10 TCOV ey/ce/cQ)fAi,a<T[jievrj TrapaSeSorai rjfuv, a)? Siacfrepovo-a Ka\\ei

re /cal apery teal rrj d\\7j \eyofjiei>rj evSai/movia /cal av f] TT/OO?

yu,?;T/oo? wcraimw? Hvpi\d^ 7Tov^ yap rov aov Oeiov ovbek rwv

ev TTfTreipw \eyercu /ca\\Lcov /cal fuctfov dvrjp $61~ai elvai, oad-

/ci? etcelvos T) Trapd peyav (3aa-i\ea 77 jrapd d\\ov rivd Trpecr-

15 ftevcov d(j)ifceTO, crv/jLTracra Se avrr) rj ol/cia ovftev

TT)? erepas

vTroSeeo-repa. e/c

Brj TOIOVTCOV yeyovdra el/cds ere et? Trdvra

TTpwrov elvai. rd fjiev ovv opu>jjieva r?)? ISe as, a>



TXav/coovos, So/eels /AOL ovev.a TWV Trpb aov ev ovSevl V7ro/3e/3ii-

Kevai el Be Srj /cal Trpo? crw^pocrvvijv /cal TT/OO? rd\\a /card

20 TOZ^ rovSe \6yov l/cavus 7re(f)V/cas, jma/cdpidv ere, 7jv 8 eyco, &

(f>t\e X.ap/jLi8ij, rj ^rr)p en/crev. e^ei 8 ovv OVTCOS. el pe v

aoi TJSr) Trdpecrriv, w? Xeyet K/otr/a? obe, crcocfrpocrvvij

/cal el

craxfrpcov l/cavws, ovbev en croi Sel ovre rwv ZaX/^ofi8o? ovre

rwv A/3a/)tSo9 TOV "TTrep/Sope ov eVa)8a)Z ,

aXX avrd aoi dv rjSrj

25 Soreov eirj TO TT)? /ce^aXijs (frappa/cov el 8 en TOVTCOV eVtSe^?

elvai So/cels. eTraareov Trpb TT}? TOV (frappd/cov Socrea)?. auro?

ovv /Ltoi eljre, Trdrepov 6/jLO\oyels rwSe /cal 0^? l/cavws rjSr)

crco(f)pocrvvr)S fjiere^eiv r) evBerjs elvai ; ^KvepvOpidcra^

Xap/jiiSrjs TrpwTOV fjiev en /ca\\icov e<j)dvfj

/cal ydp TO

30 Tr)\bv avTOV TT) ffKiictq eTrpe^rev eVeira /cal ov/c dyevvws a

ovv 6

KpivaTO- eljrev ydp OTL ov paSiov eirj ev TO> TrapovTi ovO 0/1,0X0-

yelv ovTe e^dpva) elvai ra epcoTCD/jieva. edv /nev ydp, 77 8 09, pr)

(f)(o elvai aa}(f)pcov, d/Jia fiev

CITOTTOV avTov /caQ eavTOV

\eyeiv, d/j,a Be /cal Kpniav TovSe ^jrevBrj emBei^a) /cal


TroXXoi;?, ot? So/cco elvai crctxfrpcov,

<w? o TOVTOV Xcfyo? edv 8

ay (fro) /cat e/JiavTov eTraiva), tcra)? eVa^e? fyaveiTai ware ov/c

e^o) o TL crot aTTO/cpivcofjLai. Kat eya) elirov on pot et/coVa (f>at-

vet \eyetv, a>


/cat pot o/cet, ijv 70), /coti T? az^ elz^at

(TKeTTTeov, eiVe KetcTrjaai elre JJL^ o TrvvOdvofjiai, Iva fjLTJre av 5

avay/cd^rj \eyeiv a fjirj fiovXei, fJLrjT av eyco aa-rceTTTcos eVt TTJV

iarpiKrjv TpeTTco/mai. el ovv crot


eOeXco (TtcoTrelv

crov el 8e fjLrj, eav. AXXa Trdvrcov /jLaXicrra, (f)T},

ware TOVTOV ye evefca, oTrrj auro? olei (3e\TLOV %av*

TdVTr) (TKOTTei. 10

7. Tfj$e Toivvv, e^rjv eyco, Sofcel /JLOL /BeXTiaTTj elvai fj

jrepl avTOV. &fj\ov yap OTI, el crot TrdpeaTiv crajffrpoo-vvr),

TL Trepl avTrjs So^d^eiv. dpdy/cjj yap TTOV evovcrav avTrjV, elirep

evecTTiv, aiaQj](jiv Tiva 7rap%eiv, ef ^5 8da av rt? crot Trepl

avTyjs eirj, o TL edTiv KCLI OTTOIOV TL rj acoc^pocrvvj] rj OVK olei ; 15

"70)76, e $?7, ol/Jiai. OVKOVV TOVTO ye, ecfrrjv,

o otet,

eVtcrTacrat, tcdv etVot? SrjTrov avTO o TL aoi


\va Toivvv T07rdo-(o^ev etre crot eveaTiv etre /JLTJ,

, ecf)?].

etVe, r]V S eya), rt (77? eti^at crwfypocrvvriv /caTa TTJV crrjv So^av.

Kat "6? TO fjLev irpwTOV wfcvei re /cat ov irdvv r)6e\ev cnroKpiva- 20

cr$at eVetra pevTOi elirev ort ot So/col Gax^poo vvri eivai TO

Koa/jiicos irdvTa irpaTTeiv /cal f)o-W)(ri, ev re rat? 6Sot? jBa^i^eiv

ical oia\e yecr0ai, real ra aXXa TrdvTa cocravTcos iroielv Kai /JLOI,

ootcei, e(f)rj, (rv\\ri/38r]V ^cru^toV??? rt? eti^at 6 e /owra?.

*Ap ovv, rjv 8 6700, ev \eyeiS ; <$>acri ye

rot, ai Xap/jLi&rj, rou? 25

r)aw%iovs <T(D<j)pova<; elvaf ISw^ev Srj et rt \eyovcriv. etVe 7a/o

/-tot, OL> TWi^

tca\wv f^evTOi rj crco(j)poo"uv7j CCTTLV ; Tidvv ye, e(prj.

TloTepov ovv tcdXXiov eaTiv ev ypa/JL/maTio-TOv ra oftota ypd/ji-

ypdfaiv Ta%v r} rjo V xfj ; Ta^v. Tt 3 dvayiyvcocrKeiv ;

^ /3/oaSea)? ; Ta^ew?. Kat /Ltez^ 8^ /cat TO KiOapi^eiv 30

/cat TO Tca\aieiv ofea)? vroXu /cdXXtov TOV rjcrv^f) Te /cal

; Nat. Tt Se ; Trv/CTeveiv Te teal TrayKpaTid^eiv

Tldvv ye.

%elv ce /cat d\\ecrOai real Ta ToO

TO? cnravTa epya, ov Ta /jiev o^eco? /cat Ta%v yiyvdfjieva TCI TOV





veTaL. t&atvercu dpa -r^lv, e^v eya>, /card ye TO crco/jia ov TO


7} yap ;

Haw ye. H Be ye o-axfipoavvrj /caXoV TL tfv ; Nat . Ov TOLVVV

5 Kara ye TO crwua 77 770-1^0x779 av aXX 77 ra^urr/? crw^poveaTe-

pov eirj, eTretBr) KO\OV rj act>cf)poo~vv7j. "Eot/ce^, e^rj. TV Be; r)V

% eyd), evpaOia KaXkiov 77 Svo-paOia; EvpaQta. "EaTiv Be

y, efav, r) ^ev ev^aOia ra^elw? pavOdveiv ; 7} e

rjo-vxfi Kal fipaBew ; Nat. kiSdaiceiv Se a\\ov ov

10 KaXkiov /cal a<t>dBpa ^d\\ov 7) r)GW)(7) re Kal fipaBea)?; Nat.

Tt r

Be; avafupvyaricea-Qai Kal {jLe/jLvrjaOai ^o-v^y re Kal fipaSew

77 Kal a-<fx)Bpa ra^eW ;

^<poBp\ e 07;, Kal ra^eco?. H

OVKOVV Kal TO o-vvievaL Ta \eyd/jLeva, Kal ev

1 5 O-TOV /cal KL0apLo-TOV Kal d\\o6i Travra^ov, ovx &>?

aXX &)9 ra^to-ra eVrt icd\\io~Tov ; Nat . AXXa


/XT)^ eV 76

rat9 ^rjT7JcrecrLV 7779 1/^1^779 /cat rw pov\eveo-0ai ovx V (TV X L(^~

a>9 raro9, 7^ ot/^at, /cat ^074? ftovXevopevd? re /cat


eTraivov BoKel afto9 etz^at, aXX o

yoacrra re /cat ra^to-ra roOro

20 S^wz/. "Ea-Ttz^ raOra, ec/)77. OVKOVV TrdvTa, rjv B eya), & XappiBr),

r)iLiv Kal TCL jrepl TTJV tyvxrjv Kal TCL Trepl TO crw/Lta, ra TOV

re /cat

T7J9 0^x77x09 /caXXtw (^at^erat 77 ra T779 /3paBv-

Te /cat



; Ktz^^L ^euet, 6^)77. Ou/c a^a 770-1;-

rt9 77 (TCD^pocrvvrj av et77, otS rjcrv^o^ o acocbpcov /3to9,

25 e/c 76 TOVTOV TOV Xdyov, eireLBrj KO\OV avTov Bel elvau a^pova

ovTa. Bvolv yap Br) TCL eTepa, 77 ovBa/JLOV r^ilv 77 Traz/y TTOV

o\Lyaxov at T^o-u^tot TT/oafet? eV TO) ^tXe,

yStw /caXXtbf9 etpavrjaav 77

at TaxeldL re /cat iaxypai.

el 8 ot-z/,


o rt ^taXto-ra

firjbev eXaTTOf9 at riav^ioi TWV crcfroBpwv re /cat Tayeiwv Trpd-

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et77 aa\\ov TL TO tfcrvxy TrpaTTeLV TOV a<pdBpa Te Kal raveft>9

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770-1^09 /3t09 roO ^77 ^Q-VXLOV cra)(f)pove(TTepos av etrj, eTreiBrj ev

Ta \oya) TWV Ka\a)V TL I^IMV 77 aaxppoavvij vTreTeOr), /caXa Se


So/eels, e(j)ij,


c5 Sow/oare?, elprjfcevcu.

8. TLdX,iv TOLVVV, rjv 8 eyco, a>

Xap/iuc)?;, JJLO\\OV

TOV vovv teal et? aeavTOV a7ro/3Xe^ra?, evvoTJaa^ OTTOLOV TLVCL ae

?) acocfrpoa-vvr) irapovaa KOI Troia rt? ouo-a TOIOVTOV anrep- 5

av, TrdvTd Tavra crv\\o r


yio dfjLevo


$ eljre ev /cal

avBpeici) ?,

TL CTOL (fyaLverat elvai ; Kal o? eTna^wv /cal Trdvv av$piKay$ TT/OO?

eavrov Stao-Ke-^rd/jLevo^, Ao/cel TOLVVV /JLOI, e^rj, alcr xyveaOai TTOL-

elv 7} craxppoo vvr) /cat al<j

xyi>T^\ov TOV avOpwrrov, /cal elvai ojrep

j] crcocfrpoavvrj. Etiev, rjv 8 70), ov /ca\ov i

apri ft)/ioXo yei? 10

w<j)po(TVV7]v elvai ; Tldvv <y\ e^rj. Ov/covv /cal ayadol

ol aaxfrpoves ; Nat. ^Ap* ovv av eirj dyaOdv, o /JLTJ dyaa7T6p<yd%eTai

; Ov Srjra. Ov /JLOVOV ovv dpa /ca\dv, d\\d

real dyaOov eanv. "JLfjiOiye So/eel. Tt ovv ; rjv S eyco O/^tjpw

ov TTLcrreveis /caXws Xeiyetz^, \eyovrt OTI

al8a)S S OVK d<yaOrj /ce^prj /mevqy dvSpl Trapelvai;

"70)7 , e(f)Tj.

"EiO-riv dpa, w? eoi/cev, alScos OVK dyaObv /cal

djaOdv. <&alverai. ^co^poavvrj 8e 76 djaOdv, eiTrep dyaOovs

04? dv iraprj, /ca/covs Be ^. AXXa jjLrjv OVTCO <ye

Bo/cel /JLOL

, &)9 av Xe^et?. Ov/c dpa aco^poavvT] dv eirj at^w?, elnrep 20

TO fjiev djaOov rvj^dvei ov, alSws Se Srj ovSev fjia\\ov djaObv

r) /ca/cdv.

9. AXX e/JLOiye Sotcel, <f>r),

\er ye&8ai


Sco/epare?, TOVTO /Jiev opOws

roBe Se a/ce^ai rl CTOL Sofcei eivai Trepl cra)(f)poo~vvrjs.

dpri yap dve/jLVijad rjv o rj^>7] TOV

TJ/covaa XeyovTos, OTI craxppo- 25

crvvrf dv elrj TO ra eavTOv 7rpaTTiv. (TKOTTGL ovv TOVTO el opOws

croi Bo/cei \eyeiv 6 \eya)V. /cal eya), *fl /juape, e^r]v, KpiTLov

Tovoe d/cijrcoas avTo 77 d\\ov TOV TWV aotfrwv. "JEot/ve^, e(f)rj 6

KpiTLas, d\\ov ov ydp Srj e/jiov ye. AXXa TL Sia^epet, TJ 8

69 o Xa^ya/S?;?, co ^,a)KpaTs, OTOV rjKovcra ; Ovfiev, rjv 8 eyco 30

Traz^Tco? yap ov TOVTO cr/ceTTTeov, ocrrt? avTo elirev, aXXa Trorepov

d\7]0es \eyeTai TJ ov. NOz^ op0co$ \eyeis, rj 8 09. N^

ia, TJV o eya) aXX el /cal

euprjcrofjiev avTo OTrr) ye %ei, Oav-

dv alvlypari yap TLVL eoi/cev. "OTL 8rj TL ye ; e^.



"On ov SrjTrov, rjv 8* eya, y rd prj^ara e^Oey^aro, ravrrj KOI

evoei %o* \eycov aco^poavvijv elvai TO ra avrov Trpdrreiv. rj

(7V ovoev rjyel Trpdrreiv TOP ypafjL/jiario~ri^v, orav ypd^rj rj dva-

yiyvci)(TK7) ; "E^wye, Tjyovjuiai /mev ovv, ex/)?/. Ao/cet ovv CTOL TO

5 avrov ovofjia [JLOVOV ypdcfreiv 6 ypa/ji/^ano-rr}^ Kal dvayiyvaxrKeiv,

?} Uycta? rou? TratSa? SiBdo-tceiv, TJ ovBev rjrrov ra r&v e^Optiv eypd-

KOL rd rwv

(f)6T6 TI TOL v/Jierepa <f>i\tov ovo^ara ; OvSev rjrrov.

H ovv 7ro\u7rpayijioveLT6 teal OUK ecrdx^povelre rovro Spwvres ;

OvSa/Aws. Kal fji^v ov rd v^erepd 76 avr&v eTrpdrrere, elirep

10 TO ypd(f>etv Trpdrreiv rl eanv /cat TO dvayi^v^aKeiv. AXXa

fj,r]v e&riv. Kat yap TO iaaOai, a>

eralpe, KOLL TO oifcoSo/jieiv xal

TO v(f>alv6LV Kal TO ynviovv re^vrj onovv rwv T6%vr)s epycov

aTrepyd^eo-Qai Trpdrreiv SIJTTOV rl ea-nv. Hdvv 76. TV ovv ;

TJV o 700,

oo/cel dv (TOL Tro Xi? ev olfcelddaL vrro rovrov rov

15 vo/jiov rov /ceXevovros TO eavrov if^driov e/cdcrrov vfyaiveiv /cal

Tr\vveiv, /cal vTroS/j^ara orKvrorojjieiv, Kal \r)Kv6ov KOI ar\eyyLoa

Kal rdXXa rcdvra Kara rov avrbv \oyov, rwv fjiev d\\o-

rpicov fjir) arrrea-Oai, rd Be eavrov e/caarov epyd^eaOal re Kal

Trpdrreiv ; OVK efioiye SoKel, 77 8 09. AXXa jjuevroi, ecftyv

20 eya), awfypovws ye OiKovaa ev dv oiKolro. Ilw? o OVK ;


OVK dpa, r)v 8 eyca, TO rd roiavrd re Kal ovrw rd avrov Trpdr

reiv (Tcofipocrvvrj dv elrj. Ov fyaiverai. Hivlrrero dpa, eo?

eoiKev, orrep dpri eyco e\eyov, 6 \eywv TO rd avrov Trpdrreiv

cro)(f)pocrvvrjv eivai ov ydp rrov ovrw ye rjv evijOrjs ?j nvos

25 r)\i6iov iJKOv&as rovrl \eyovros, ay Xap/niSr] ; "HKiorrd ye,


errei roi Kal rrdvv eSoKei aocfrus elvai. Ilavros rolvvv

/jLa\\ov, ft)9 e/jiol SoKel, alviyfJLa avro Trpov/3a\ev, w? ov ^aXeTrov

TO rd avrov rrpdrreiv yvwvai o rl rrore ecrnv.


lo-a)?, ecf)?).

Tt ovv dv elt] rrore TO TO, avrov Trpdrreiv ; e^et? elirelv OVK

30 ol8a /za Ata eycoye, ?} 8 09 aXX, fo-ft)? ovSev K0)\vei /jUjSe rov

\eyovra fjL7)$ev elSevai o n evoei. Kal dfia ravra \eywv vireyeXa

re Kal els rov Kpirlav drreftXeTrev.

10. Kat o Ivp^Tta? /}\09 J^iev rjv teal rrd\ai dywviwv /cal

Trpd$ re rov Xap/jLiSrjv Kal Trpbs TOU? rrapovras


S* eavTOV ev TW rrpocrOev Kare^wv rore ov% ot09 re 76-

vero So/eel ydp /xot Travro? /uaXXoy a\r]0e<; elvai, o eyoj VTre-

\a(3ov, TOV Kpmou d/crj/coevai TOV Xap/jii&rjv TavTrjv rr)V CLTTO-

KpLcrLV rrepl TI}? aco^poo-vvTj^.

6 JJUGV ovv Xap/u-iSr^ ftovXofJLevos

fir) auro? vire^eiv \6yov aXX etcelvov rrj? djrofcpio-ecos, vireKivet 5

avrov efceivov, fcal eveSelrcvvTO co? e feX^Xey/ueVo? et^ o S OVK

, d\\d p,oi eSo^ev 6pyicr0r)vat aura) wcnrep


dK&s SiandevTL ra eavrov Trot^/Ltara

eltrev, OUTOJ? otet, co Xa/o/x/S?/, et (ru /A?) olaOa o TL

TTOT VOl 09 e0?7 (7(i)(j)po(7vvr)v elvai TO ra eavrov Trparreiv, 10

ouSe 8r/ eicelvov elSevai ; AXX*, co /SeXrtcrTe, l^p 6706, Kptria,

TOVTOV fjiev ovBev Oav/juacrrov a<yvoelv rrfXiKovrov ovra ere Se

TTOU 6t/co? elSevcu real ^\Licia^ eve/ca /cal eV^yLteXe/a?. el ovv

TOVT* elvai crwfypQcrvvrjv birep OVTOCTL \eyei, KCLL

TOV \6<yov, eycoye TTO\V av ijSiov fiera aov a/co- 15

, elV aX^^e? eiVe fir) TO \e%0ev. AXXa TTCLVV o-vy%Q)p(0,

607;, /cat TrapaSe^o/jiai. KaXco? 76 o-i) TOLVVV, rjv o eya), TTOIWV.

KOI poi Xeye, rj teal a vvvSrj rjpa^TWV eyco crv^wpel^, TOW 877/^6-

TrdvTCiS TTOielv TL ; "70)76. H OVV OOKOV(Ti CTOL TO,

IJLOVOV Troielv TJ KOI TO, TOJV a\\wv ; Kat TCL TWV ci\\a)V. 20

^a)(f)povovo-iv ovv ov TO, eavTwv povov iroiovvTes ; TL yap

KO)\V6L ; t 0?/. Ovoev e /^e 76, ?]V 8 67^0 aXX opa fjurj e/celvov

KW>\VeL, O? V7To9e/uLVOS (TO)(f)pO(TVV7]V




TOVTCLS o-axfrpovelv. 70) yap TTOV, o r) 09, TO{}$ a)/JLo\dyr)Ka, 25


ovvTas o)/jio\6<y^a-a ; EtVe /u,o/, rjv 8 eyco,

ov TCLVTOV /caXet9

TO TTOLelv KOI TO TrpaTTeLV ; Ov f^evTOi, (f)ij ovSe ye TO epyd-

%<r0ai teal TO TTOLelv. efjLaOov yap Trap* Ho to SoL , 09 e<j>r],

epyov ov&ev elvaL ovi8o<;. otei ovv avTov, el Ta TOLavTa 30

epya e/cd\eL KOI epyd^eadaL KOL rrpaTTeiv, ola vvvorj av 6X6769,

oi&evl av oveiBos (pdvai elvaL CTKVTOTO/JLOVVTL rj

77 evr* olrcrffMaTos KaOrj/juevw; OVK ofcffBat ye %pr), w 2.tQ/epa-

T69, ttXXa Kal eicelvos olfjiai TTOLIJO-LV rrpd^ecos /cal epyaalas

I 2


aXXo evojjii^ev, Kal TTolrj/jLa fjiev yiyveaOai 6Vet8o? eviore, orav

$e ovBejrore ovSev dveibos

/jLTf fjiera TOV /ca\ov yvyvyrai, epyov

ra /caX&>9 yap re Kal o)0eXtyitco9 Troiov^eva epya efcaXei, KOI

epyacrlas re /cal Trpd^eis ra? rotaura? 7rot?/cret9. (fedvai <$e

5 ye %pr) /cal olfcela jjiova TCL roiavra rjjelcrOai avrdv, ra Be {3\a-

/3epa Trdvra dXXorpia wcrre teal Hcr/oSoz^ %pr) oiecrOai /cal

a\\ov, ocrrt? (frpdvi/jios, rov TCL avrov TrpdrruvTa TOVTOV aa)-



11. ^H Kptrla, rjv S eyco, /cal evOvs ap^o^evov o-ov o"%$ov

10 efidvOavov TOV \6yov, on TO, oi/celd re /cal rd avrov dyaOa

KaXoifis, /cal ra<? TMV ayaOwv Troirjcreis Trpd^eis /cal ydp

Hpo8t/cov fjivpla Tivd d/ctj/coa Trepl ovojjLdrwv Siaipovvros.

d\\ y

eya) doi TiOeaOai fjbev TWV ovofidrcov SiBco/jii oTrrj av j3ov\rj

/ca(TTov Sij\ov Be ^ovov e(f) o TL av (frepys rovvo/jia

o rt av

15 Xe^?. vvv ovv 7rd\iv ef p%^9 aa^ecrrepov opiarai apa rrjv

TMV dya0a)V TTpa^iv TJ TTOLTJCTLV rj OTTO)? en) (3ov\i ovo/uid^eiv,

Tavrrjv Xeyei? av cra)(j)pocrvv Tjv eivai ; "Ejycoye, ecfrr). QVK

dpa crcD^povel 6 rd /ca/cd Trpdrrcov, aXX o ray add ; Sol e, fj

S 09, a>


ov% ovrco So/eel ; "Ea, rjv S eya) pr) ydp

20 TTCD TO e/u-ol SOKOVV or/coTTM/bLev, dXX* o av \ey6is vvv. *AXXa

/jievToi eycoye, e(f)rj, TOV fj,rj dyaOa d\\d /cared Troiovvra ov (frrj/Ai

oruxppovelv, rov $e dyaOa aXXa ^ /ca/cd aco^povelv T^V ydp

TWV dya0a)V Trpd^tv awf^pocrvvrjv eivai cra^>w9 GOI Siopl^ofjiai.

Kal ovSev ye ere tcra)9 KW\vei d\rjdf) \eyeiv roSe ye ftevTOi, rjv

25 3 eyco, Oav/Jidtyd, el awtypovovvTas dv0pa)7rovs rjyel arv dyvoelv

OTI (70)(j)povovo LV. AXX* V X vyovfAtii, e^r], Ov/c o\iyov

TTpuTepov, e^v eyd), e\eyeTo VTTO aov, OTL roi>9 ^fiiovpyov^

ovbev KW\VGL /cal av TO, TWV d\,\cov TroiovvTas aoxppoveiv ;

EXe^ero ydp, e^r) aXXa TL TOVTO ; QvSev aXXa Xeye el

30 So/eel r/9 croi tar/309, vyid Tiva TTOIWV, co^eXtyLta

/cal eavTw Troieiv

Kal KiVO) OV IwTO / "EyLtO^y 6 - Qv/COVV TO, SeOVTa TTpaTTGL

d ye TavTa TrpaTTWV ; Nat. O ra SeovTa TrpaTTWv ov crux^po-

vel ; ^ci)(>povei fjiev ovv. H ovv Kal yiyvctMTKeiv dvdyKrj rco

to, oTav re &>(/)eX/yLta)9 tarat Kal OTav JJLIJ ; Kal eKao-TW TLVL



av TrpaTTy, /cal orav /JDJ ; "lo-o)? ov. EWore dpa, r/v 8 eyco,

ft)0\//ift)9 Trpdgas TI /3\a{3epw 6 tar/00? ov yiyvwaKei eavTov

ft)? 7rpa^ev

Kairot, co^eX/y^o)? Trpafa?, GO? o <70? \6yos, aw^po-

I/CL)? eTrpagev rj ov% oura)? 6X676?; "70)76. Ou/cou^, <i?

eoixev, eviore o)^>eX//>ta)? vrpafa? irpdrrei fJiev acocfrpdvcos /cal

(raxfrpovei, cvyvoel 8 eavrov oil (rcocfrpovel ;

12. AXXa TOVTO [lev, M OVK av TTOTC

e(f>rj, 2<a)KpaTes, yevoiro,

aXX et rt o-u ot et /c TWV e^irpoarOev VTT e /u-oO o)fio\oyrjfjievcov


et? roOro dvayKalov elvai <ru/J,/3aiV6iv, eKelvcov av ri 670)76 10

fjia\\ov avaOeifJi^Vy KOI OVK av alo-^vvdel rjv Tore fjirj ov^l opOws

<f)dvai, elprjtcevai, fjiaX\ov r) TTOTC av*y%a)pi]o-aijLi av ayvoovvra

aurov eavTov avdpwjrov crw^povetv. o"%e$ov <ydp

TI 670)76

avTo TOVTO (frrjjLii elvai a-wfypoavvriv, TO <yi"yv<bcnceiv eavTov, /cal

<TVfi(f)epofAai TO) ev AeX^ot? dvaOevTi TO TOLOVTOV ^pdfJLfJia.

/cal 15

yap TOVTO OVTCO /uot So/eel TO ypafi/ma ava/celcrOaL, w? Sy TT/QOCTprjcris

ovaa TOV Oeov TWV elo~iovTwv CLVT\ TOV o)?



fjiev OVK opOov OZ/TO? TOV TTpoo-prj/jiaTos, [TO %alp6i,v], ovSe

TOVTO TrapatceXeveo-Oai aXX^Xo^? aXXa crwfypovelv.


&r) 6 ^60? TTpoo-ayopevei rou? elcnovTas et? TO iepov Bia^epov

T) ol dvOpcoTroL, co? &iavoovfjLVos dvedrj/cev 6 dvaOets, oj? yLtot

&orce2- /cal \eyei Trpo? TOI^ del elaiovTa OVK aXXo TL TI crco(f>p6-

vei, (f)7jo~iv. alvtyfJiaTCO^eo Tepov Se S^, o>? /JLUVTIS, \eyei TO 7a^>

aavTov.Kal TO awfypovei eaTiv fjiev TavTOV, co? TCL

TI 20

rjcnv Kal eya), Taya 8 av Ti? oltjOeiT) aXXo elvai, o 25

o)j fjLOi SoKovaiv TToOelv Kal ol TCL VGTepov ypd/jL/jiaTa dvaOevTes,

TO Te /jiTjSev dyav Kal TO eyyvrj Trdpa 8 CLTT], Kal yap

OVTOL avfji{3ov\r)V cor/0r]crav elvai TO yvwOi cravTOv, aXX ov

TWV elcriovTcov VTTO TOV Oeov Trpocrprjcriv

ei9 iva Sty Kal <r06t?

{Aij8ev TJTTOV crf/i/3ofXa? xprjcriaovs dvadelev, TavTa ypdtyavTes 30

dveOeaav. ov 8?) ovv eveKa \eyco, co ^coKpaTes, TavTa TrdvTa,


jjuev e/JLTrpoaOev TrdvTa &<f>li)/u

fcro)? aev ydp

TL av 6X676? Trepl avTwv T<jo)? 6p9oTepov, 8 eyco, cra^)e? 8 ovSev

Trdvv rjv cov e\eyo/jLev vvv 8 e0\<O TOVTOV crot Si&ovai \oyov,



el fJL?] 6/^,0X07669 o-co(f)poo-vvr]v elvai TO yLyvd)o~KeLV avTov


13. AXX ,

r)V S 70), & K.piTia, av fJLev 0)9 (fidcrKOVTOS C/JLOV

elBevaL, Trepl cov epcorco, TrpocrcfrepeL TT/OO? /ue, /cal edv STJ /3ouXo>-

5 fMaL, 6/JLO\oyr)o-ovTd<> O-QL TO 8 ovx OVTWS X ei > a

/JL6TCL (TOV del TO TrpOTiOejjievov $ia TO fjirj avTos ei^evai

yLtez^o? ovv e6e\w elirelv etre 6fJLO\oyco etre /JLIJ. aXX e

av (TKetycofjiai.

^Koiret Brj, rj 8 09. Kal 7/>, ^^ 8 70), CTKOTTW.

el 7/3 &?) ryiryvwcTKeiv 76 rt eaTiv 77 Grtofypocrvvri, SijXov OTL eiri-

10 <7rrJ/Ltr; rt? a^ etr; /cat rtwfc rj ov ; "Ecrrt^, e^)?/, eavTOV ye.

QVKOVV teal laTpiKrj, e^v, eTTLo-TTJfjLTj eaTlv TOV vyieivov ; Tldvv

76. Et TOLVVV pe, e<f)r)V, epoio crv, IctTpifcr) vyieivov CTrio-Trf/Ar)

ovaa TL T)/JLIV xprjcrifjirj ecrTiv Kal TI arrepyd^eTai, eLTTOL/jC av OTL

ov cr/juicpav d)<f>\iav TTJV <yap vyteuiv KCL\OV rjfjilv epyov aTrep-

15 7aferat, el cnrooe^ei TOVTO. A7rooe%ofjLai. Kat el TOLVVV fie

epoLO Trjv oi/coBofUtciqv, eTno-Tr^^v oixrav TOV olfcooo/jii/cov, TL

(j)r}fjLL epyov ajrepja^eaOaL, eLTTOLfji av OTL ol/crjcreLS waavTay^ oe

/cal TWV a\\wv Te%va)v. XP?) ovv KaL ere vTrep 77)9

7reiS?) (/>7}9 avTrjV eavTOV eTTLo-T^/uLTjv elvai, e^iv elirelv

20 OevTa, & Kpma, o-axfrpoo-vvr], eTTLaTi^fJirj ovcra eavTOV, TL /ca\bv

r)/jLLV epjov cnrepyd^eTaL Kal d^Lov TOV 6vd/jLaTO<; ; WL ovv, elire.

AXX , c5 OVK Sa>:/?aTe9, e(f>r], bp6w ??Tet9. ov yap 6/jiOLa avTrj

Tre^VKev rat9 aXXai9 e7rio-T7j/Ltat9, ovoef

(TV $ ft>9

ye at aXXcu aXX?^Xat9


25 r^9 \oyLaTLKf)S Te^z ?/9 ^ T^9 yewfJLeTpLKrjs


epyov olov ot/aa OLKoSo/JLLKrjS rj 1/JLaTLOv v(f)avTLKr)S 7) d\\a

OV X ^? ei? - Ka

epya, a TroXXa dv Ti9 e%ot TroXXw^ re^oo^ SelgaL ;

ovv LioL Kal av TOVTCOV TOLOVTOV TL epyov oel^aL ; aXX

^ eV^ ^ITTOV OTL AX??^ Xe yeLS aXXa Tooe CTOL

30 e^o) Sel^aL, TLVOS eaTlv eirurTrffM} eKdaTij TOVTWV TWV ITTLCTTT]-

IJLCOV, o Tvy%dveL ov aXXo avT^ r^9 eVicrT7j/>i7;9. olov TI \oyL-

eaTLV TTOV TOV dpTLOV Kal TOV TrepLTToi), 7rX^of9 O7r&)9

7T/309 avTa Kal 7T/D09 d\\rj\a r) ydp ; Tldvv ye, e^y.

OVKOVV eTepov 6Vro9 TOV TrepiTTOV Kal dpTLOV avTijs


ITw? 8 ov ; Kat ^v av 77

<JTCLTIK,I TOV /3apvrepov

re KOI KOV(f)OTepov crraO/JLOv IQ-TLV erepov Be ecrriv TO flapv Kal

TO Kovifiov -7-779 crraTt/C779 avTrjs. avyxwpeis ; "70)76.

877, Kal r) crco(f)pocrvvT] TLVOS eo~Tlv eirurrrjfArj, o Twy^dveL eTep

ov avTriS TI)? crcotppoa-vvr)? ;

14. TOVTO eaTiv eicelvo, e</>77,

co ^w/c/aare? eV

epevv&v, orft) Siacfrepei TCCLG&V TWV eTTicrTri/Awv f]

av Se o/jiOiOTTjTd TLVCL ^T/ret? aur?}? rat? aXXat?. TO 8 ov/c

e&Tiv ourft)?, aXX* at /xez^ a\\au Tracrai a\Xov elalv

avTO)v 8* ov, TI


o~e fjiovrj TWV T a\\(ov eTricrTTj/Aw

fcal -avTTj eavTrjs. KOI raOra ere TroXXoO 8eZ

7V> ^^ ai J <^/OT^

oz)^ e(f>rjcr0a Troieiv, TOVTO

iri xeipels e\e<y%6iv, eacra? Trepl ou 6 X(ryo9 ecrriV. Olov,


o 670), Troiet? ?}yov/JLVo<?,

i o TI /LtaXtcrra <re \ey^a),


eve/co, e\e<y%i,v TJ ovTrep eve/ca KCLV epavTov ^iepevvMjji^v 15

ftov/JLevos [Mr] 7TOT6 \d6co ol6/nevo$ fjiev Ti el^evai,

Se /u,?;. /cat i/O^ S>) o5i^ eycoye (f>rjfjiL TOVTO iroielv, rov \6^ov

(TKOTreiv fid\i(TTa pev euavTov evetca, tV&)? oe Srj teal TWV d\~\cov

rj ov KOLVOV Oii dyaOov eivai a"%e$6v

TI Trdaiv

, <yi<yvecrdai /cara^az^e? etcacrTOV TWV OVTWV 07777 e^ei ; 20

Kat /^.aXa, TJ 8 o?, ey&^e, a>



app&v TOIVVV, r)v o

a) /jLa/cdpre, airOKpivofievo^ TO epWTtofJuevov oirr) crot <^>at-

ea ^aipeiv, etre Kptr/a? eaTiv etre ^(DtcpdTrjs 6 e\ey%daXX

aura> 7rpoo~e%(ov TOV vovv TCO Xo^a) cr/coTret, OTTT;

ere/3i)aTai eXey^o/jievo^. AXXa, e^)?;, Trot^cra) OI;T&) 25

So/eet? 7^ /xot yLterpta \eyiv. Aeye TOIVVV, r^v 8 70;, 7re/ot TT;?

(rwfypQo-vvrjs TTCO? Xefyet? ;

15. Aeyco TOIVVV, 77 8 o?j OTA (JLOVYJ TWV aXX&>^ e

avTrj re avTrjs GCTTIV real TWV a\\wv eTrio-TrjfjL

QUKOVV, rjv 8 70), /cat dve7no~Tr)iJioa vvris eino Trj^ri av e lrj, 30

O apa craxppcov JJLOVOS

/cat eirio-TTj^77? ; Tldvv 76, 6^)77.


T6 eavTov yva)o~TaL /cat oto? re ecrrat e^eracrat rt r

w9 /cat rt ^77, /cat rou9 aXXof9 <wcrauTft)9 SWCLTOS

ecrrat 67rto~/co7rety, rt Tt9 olSev /cat oi erat, ecjrep oiSev, /cat rt



av (Herat fiev elBevai, olBev B* ov, TWV B* d\\wv ovBets KOI

eCTTiV $7) TOVTO TO (7Ci)(f)pOVeiV T6 KOI CTCO^pOaVVrj KOi TO kdVTOV

avTov yiyvcoo-KeiV, TO elBevai a re olBev KOI a /Jirj olBev. dpa

TdVTa eaTiv a Xe yet9 ; "Eiycoy\ e(j)7j. Tld\iv Tolvvv, TJV 8* eyco,

5 TO TpiTOV TO) CTCOTrjpi, WGTTep % dp^fj? eTTiCTKe^COfjieda,

el SVVCITOV eaTiv TOVT elvat, rj ov, TO a olSev Kal a


aKOirelv. "I#t

Sij, e$j]v eya), & KpiTia, aice^ai,

edv TL

10 irepl avT&v evTropaiTepos <f>avrjs efiov e<ya) fj,ev jap airopa) y

Se aTropw, (ppdorco aoi ; Tldvv 7 , ecfrr).

"AAAo TI ovv, TJV

av elr], el CCTTLV OTrep arv vvvSr) eXeyes,

] OVK a\\ov TLVOS eaTiv TI eavT^ re /cal TWV aXXcov

eTrio-TTJUTj, Kal Srj /cal dveTTLorTij^oo-vvrj^ 77 avTTj

15 avTr) ; Tldvv ye. ISe Srj GO? aTOTrov eTTi^eipovfjiev, co eTalpe,

\eyeiv ev d\\oi<> yap TTOV TO avTo TOVTO edv CT/COTTT}?, So^et

croi, GO? eyp/JLai,, dSvvaTOV elvai. Ilco? 8r) /cal TTOV ;

evvoei ydp el aoi So/eel O^TL^ TLS elvai, r) &v /JLEV al d\\at

el(Tiv, OVK ea-TLV TOVTCDV o^t?, eavT^ 8e Kal TWV d\\wv o

20 o^t? ecFTW) Kal fj,rj otyecov cocrauro)?, Kal ^pwfjia fjiev 6pa ovSev

o-^ri? ovaa, avTrjv 8e Kal r9 aXXa? o-^et? So/eel r/?

Ma AT OVK e/moiye. Tl Be aKorjv, rj ^0)^9 f^ev

<TOL elvai

aKOvei, avTrjs Se Kal TWV d\\wv CLKOWV aKOvei Kal TCOV

H/T] CLKOWV ; Ov&e TOVTO. 2v\\tf/3$r)V or) aKOTrei irepl

25 TWV alo-0r]o-ea)v, el r/9 crot BoKel elvai alo-6r]crewv /Jiev

Kal avTrjs, wv 8e &?) al d\Xat alaOrjaeis alaOdvovTai,

alaOavo/jLevrj ; OVK efMOiye. AXV eTTiOv/Jiia SoKet r/9 O-QL

elvai) r)Ti<$ rjSovfjs f^ev ov^efJiia^ eaTiv eTriQvjmla, avTijs Se Kal

TWV aXkwv eTTiOvfjiiayv ; Ov SfJTa. OvSe ^v /Bovver is, GO?

30 eywjjiai, i) dyaObv /Jiev ovo ev /3ov\Tat, avTrjv

Be Kal ra? aXXa?

/8ouX^cr6i9 /3ov\eTai. Ov ydp ovv. "Epcora Be <f>ai7js dv


elvai TOiovTov, 09 Tvy^dvei a)v e/oco? KO\OV fjuev ovBevds, avTov

Be Kal TCOV d\\a)V epcoTwv ; OVK, e<p7j, eywye. t&o/Bov Be

Tivd KaTavevdrjKas, 09 eavTov /Jiev Kal rou? aXXof9


rwv BeLvwv & ovBe ev (fropelrai ; Ov rcaravevdrjrca,

Be Boa)v Bo^av real avrijs, wv Be al d\\ai Bod-

Bo^d^ovcrav ; Ot Sa/xco?. AXX emarri ur)V, o>?

eoiicev, (ftafJLev riva elvai roiavrijv, rjns uaO /; /Ltaro? /zey ovBevos

eanv 7ri(TTtjfjLr), avTr)s Be /cal rwv a\\a>v eir i<nri i^wv eTricrrrj JJLT] ; 5

<&a/jiev yap. Ovrcovv aroirov, el apa /cal eariv ; /JLrjBev yap

TTCD Bi,io"%vpi^ct)fjLe0a ft)? OVK ear iv, aXX el eanv en


<&epe 8rj ecm fjiev avrrj rj eTTiorT^/J-rj nvos

teal e^ei Tiva TOiavr^v Svva/jLiV cocrre nvos elvai rj yap ; Haw 10

ye. Kal yap TO fjuelfyv (fra/jiev TOiavrrjp rivd



ware nvos elvai fjiel^ov ;

"E^et yap. OVKOVV eXarroi^o?

eljrep ecrrai fjiel^ov. Avdyfcrj ; Et ovv TI evpoi/Aev fjiel^ov, o

TWV fjiev /jiei^ovcDV ecrrlv pel^ov teal eavrov, &v &e ra\\a pel^a)

earlv fjirjBevos /jiei^ov, Trdvrws dv TTOV e/celvo y avrw V7rdp%oi, 15

elirep eavrov fjuel^ov eiy, /cal e\arrov eavrov elvai rj ov ;

IToXX^ dvdyfcrj, e(j)7), &> ^coKpares. OVKOVV /cal ei TI 8i7r\dcridv

ecrnv TWV re aX\cov 8i7r\ao-ioi)V real eavrov, ^/z/creo? SIJTTOV

6Vro? eavrov re xal ra)V dXXcov irr\dcriov dv elr) ov yap

ecrriv TTOV d\\ov SiTrXdcriov r) r)jj,icreo<>. *A\r)0f). IlXeo^ Se 20

avrov ov ov /cal e\arrov earai, /cal /Bapvrenov ov Kov^drepov,

/cal Trpeaflvrepov ov vecorepov, /cal raXXa rrdvra wcraurce)?, o ri

rrep dv rr^v eavrov Svva/Jiiv Trpo? eavro e^rj, ov /cal efceLvqv e^ei

rrjv ov&tav, TT/OO? r\v r) Svvauts avrov TJV ; \e<vo^ Be TO roiovBe

oiov f} dtcorj, (frauev, OVK, d\\ov nvos TJV d/corj i) 01/77$ ^ ydp ; 25

Nat. Outcovv etTre/3 avTr) avrfj^ dfcovaeraL, (frcovrjv e ^oucr^? eav-

r?79 aKOvcrerai ov ydp dv aXXco? dicovo-eiev. IToXX?) dvdy/crj.

Kal 77 o fyis ye rrov, co dpicrre, e irrep otyerai avrr) eavrijv,

Xpwfjid n avrrjv dvdy/crj e^eLV d%pa)V ydp oi/rt? ovBev jj,r) rrore

iBrj. Ov ydp ovv. Opds ovv, w KpLrla, on ocra Bie\7]\v- 30

Oauev, rd uev avr&v dBvvara rcavrdrracn fyaiverai rjfj.lv, rd B

a^dBpa pr] rror dv rrjv eavrwv Bvva/jiLV TT/OO? eavrd

fJieyeOrj fjiev ydp /cal rrKr)drj

/cal rd roiavra rravrd rra-

(TLV dBvvarov r) ov%l ; Hdvv ye. A/corj B av /cal o^ri? teal


en ye Kivrjo-is avrrj eavTrjv Kivelv, Kal QepfJLOTrjs Kaeiv, Kal

TrdvTa Srj ra roiavra roZ? pev aTridTiav %av* irapdo-^oi, LCTCO^

Se TKTIV ov. jneyd\ov Srj TIVOS, ft) cf)i\e, dvSpbs Bel, OCTTLS TOVTO

Kara irdvTwv iKavws Siaiprjo-erai, nrorepov ouSev TWV OVTCOV rrjv

5 aurov SvvafJLiv avro vrpo? eavro Treffrvtcev e^eiv, a\\a TT^O?

aXXo, rj ra {Jiev, ra 8* ov KOI el earns av ariva avra Trpo? avra

t%ei, ap ev TOVTOIS earlv eTrio-Trjfjbr), T)V Srj ?;/x6t? acocfrpoo-vvTjv

(f)a/uiev elvai. eycb jjiev ou nTLcrreva) e/JLavrco iicavo<$ elvai ravra

Sie\eor0ai Sib KOL our el Svvarov ecrn TOVTO yevecrOai, e

10 yu,?;? eirio-Ttj/jujv elvai, e%co SLio-^vplaao-Oai,

ecrrf, o-(0(j)poo-vvrjv aTroSe%ofAai avTo elvai, Trplv

OVT el o TL

iT6 Tt av ^a? o)(f)\ol TOLOVTOV ov, elre /u-r;. rrjv jap ovv Srj

(Tco(f)pocrvv7]v axfreXifAOV TL real dyadbv {AavTevo/jLat, elvai cru ovv,

w iral Ka\\aio-%pov TideaaL jap crw^pocrvv^v TOVT elvai,

15 eTTHTTrjfjirjv 7ri(TTrJi^rj<; Kal $rj Kal dveTTiaTrj/JLoavvr}^ irpwTov

/JLV TOVTO v8ei!;ai, OTi $VVaTOV O VVvSrj 6\JOV, 7TLTa 7T/009 T<W

OTI Kal (jcx^eKifJiov fcdfAe Ta^ av inro r

rr\r]^(Kiai^y &)9

Trepl o-Q)(f)poo-vvr)s,

o earriv.\/

17. Kal o Kpm a? aKovcras TavTa Kal lSa)V pe ajropovvTa,

20 Mairep ol rot/? ^aa/jLco/jievov^ KaravTiKpv opw^re? TavTov

TOVTO (7V/jL7rdo %ovo iv, tcateeivos eSo^e /JLOL VTT* e/Jiov aTropovvTos

Kal avTOS a\wvai VTTO airopLas. are ovv evSoKiptov e/^acrrore,

ya~%vveTo TOVS TrapovTas, Kal ovTe <Tvyx&pf}(rai H.OL tf@e\V

o&vvaTQs eivai St,6\^(7@ai a r

rrpovKa\ovfjLr]v avTov, e\eyev re

25 ovoev cra<j(>e9,

l rmKa\v r 7TTWv TVJV dvropiav. Kayco THMV iva 6

\6yo<> Trpotoi, eiTrov *A\X el SoKei, w K^urta, vvv /jiev TOVTO

, BvvaTov elvai yeveaOai 7n(TTr)/Jir)V eVto-rrJ/^T;?

oe eTTio-Ke^ro/jLeda elVe OVTGW e%6t el re ^77. Wi Srj ovv,

el o TL /xaX-tcrra SvvaTov TOVTO, TI fjiaXXov olov re e&Tiv elBe-

30 vai a re rt? oZSe Kal a prj ; TOVTO yap orfirov e^a/jiev elvai

TO yiyvcoaKeLV avTov Kal craxfrpovelv rj yap ; Hdvv ye, rj 8 09,

Kal av/jL&aivei, ye TTOV, co Sco/^/xzre?.

el ydp ri? ^X eL ^7ricrT1 Jl ji r J 1

r) avTrj avTrjv yiyv(i)(TKei, TOLOVTOS av atro? etij olovirep earlv

o e^ei. wcrirep orav ra^o? rt? 1^, ra^u?, Kal orav


, /cal OTav yvwaLV, yiyva)(7K(0i> orav Se 8rj

avrrjv avT ijs rt? XV> yLyvGMTKWv

Ov TOVTO, rjv 6 ov% yd>, dfjL(f>La^7]Ta),


TTOV avTOS eavrov Tore

orav TO avTO


rt? eftr), O.UTO? avrov jvaxrerai, aXX %OVTL

el&evcii a re olSev KOI a />tr/ oi&ev ;


Ori, co Sw^pare?, 5

ravrov ecrnv TOUTO e/celvy. "Icro)?, ecfrrjv, dX)C e<ya)

ael oyu-oto? eli/at ov <yap av p,av9dv(D &>?

eariv TO avTo [a ol

elc evai Kal a Tt? ^ olSev el&evai~\. Hw? Xe^et?, 6(^77;

7 V S 70). 7r(,(TTT]fjL7J 7TOV 67T I O~T)j/jLlJ^ OIHTO, apO,

7T\60V Tl Ota

r ecrTCii Siciipeiv, rj OTL TOVTCOV ToSe fjiev 7ri(TTi]/j, r], TO$ 5 ov/c 10

eTTio-TrjfjiTj ; O#/c, aXXa TOGOVTOV. TCLVTOV ovv ecrTiv

T6 /cal dveiTL(TT7]fjiocrvvj] vyietvov, Kal eiriaTrj fj,rj T6 Kal

/JLOCTVVTJ SiKalov ; OuSa//.a>9. AXXa TO JJL&V olfJLai laTpiK/j, TO

Se 7ro\iTLKrj, TO 8e ovBev aXXo rj e7Ti(7Tr]/jL7j. lift)? V&P v >

QVKOVV edv pr] TrpoaeTTLa-TijTal Tt9 TO vyieivov Kal TO SiKaiov, 15

aXXa eTrHTTijfjirjv JJLOVOV <yi<yva)O Kr) are TOVTOV [JLOVOV %G)v

jdp ;

, OTl fjiV Ti 7TL(TTaTai, Kal OTi eTriCTTrj/JMjV TtVCL


av Kal yi<yv(t)(TKOL irepl avTOV Kal irepl TWV dXXcov rj

f/O TL Se yiyvoyaKei, TavTy Trj eTnarTr)py TTW? eicre-


TCLI ; ryLfyvcocTKeL yap &r) TO fJiev vyieivov Trj iaTpiKrj

aXX* ov 20

aro(f>poo-vvy, TO Se dpfJiOVLKOV fiovcriKf) aXX ov (Twfypocrvvr), TO

8 OLKoSo/jLiKov oiKoSo/jUKy aXX* ov ffaxftpoa-vvp, Kal OVTCO

r) ov ; <&aiveTai.

^.cofipocrvvr) Se, eiTrep /JLOVOV e

fJLMV 7no-T) i/jLri, 7Tft>9 i(T6Tai OTL TO vyL6Li>ov yi<yvd)(TKei r) OTL

TO OLKoBofjiLKOv ; OuSa/tco?. OVK dpa ei(T6Tai o oi8ev 6 TOVTO 25

dyvowv, aXX OTL ol&ev JJLOVOV.


18. OUK dpa o-(0(f)poveLv TOVT av elr] ovbe crco^poo-vvr), elbevai



"? \<N V * ?^ f " f/ "t

"\ "\

Z V f/

a T6 OLoev Kai a /JLTJ OLOCV, aXX , co? eoLKev, OTL oibev Kai OTL

OVK olSev fJiovov. K.LV$vveveL. Ov8e d\\ov dpa oto? T6 e&Tai.

OUTO? %rd(FtU (f)d(TKOVTd TL CTTlO TaO Oai, TTOTepOV eTTldTaTai 30

o (frrjaLV 7ri(TTacr0aL r) OVK Tri(TTaTai aXXa TOO-QVTOV fjiovov,

&)? eoLKev, yvaxreTaij OTL e%L TLvd cTTLo-Trj/jLrjv, OTOV &e ye, i]

acotypoavvr) ou TfOL^crei avTov yLyvcocrKELV. Ov fyaiveTai. OVTC

dpa TOV TrpocrTTOLov/JLevov laTpov elvai, ovTa Se firf, Kal TOV &><?


u><; ovra


olds re earat Siatcpiveiv, ovre aXkov ovoeva rwv

Kal ^urj. crKe^^^eOa Be e/c rwvBe el y^eXXet 6

v bcmcrovv aXXo? TOP ft>?

T) ttX?7#ft>? larpov SiayvocxrecrOai

Kal rbv w, ap ovx w&e iroir)(ji rrepl fiev tarpunfc SrjTrov

5 aura) ov StaXeferat ouBei> yap eiratei, co? e^afiev, o larpo?

tt\X 77 TO v^ieivov ical TO voo-wSes r) ov ; Nai, ovrws. Tlepl

Se 76 eTTia-TiifJLrjs ovSev olbev, a\\a TOVTO &rj rfj (ra)<f>po(rvvy povrj

aTreoofiev. Nat. Ov&e Trepl larpiicf)^ apa olSev 6 larpi/cos,


eTreiBriTTep rf larpLKT} eiTiffT^fMf ovcra Tvy^dvet. AXijOfj.


10 fjbev 8/7 eTncrr^^v riva

^eit yvcocrerai o araxfrp&v rov larpov

&iv 3e Trelpav \aftelv ^ri? ecrr/i/, aXXo TL o-Ke^erai &VTLVWV ;


Tf OV TOVTCp WpHTTaL fcd(TT7) eVtCTT^7 ? M

aXXa KOI Ti5, TO) TLV&V elvai ; TOUTW ovi/. Kal yLtez^ fj larpitcrj

&rj erepa elvcu rwv a\\o)V eTTiarrrjfJi&v a>pl<r0T)

rco rov vyieivov

15 elvai Kal vocr^ov^ eirio-rr)^. Nai. Ovtcovv ev TOVTOIS avay-

KOLOV (TKOirelv rbv /3ov\d/JLVOV larpitcffv aKOTreiv, ev 049

effTiv ov yap SIJTTOV ev ye rot? ev ol? ou/c earTiv ;





Ei/ rot? vyieivois apa Kal voo-^oecnv eTrio-Ke^rerai rov

larpdv, y larpiKos eornv, 6 bpO&s orKOTrov/nevos.

20 OUKOVV ev rot? euro)? 17 Xeyo/ievot? ^7 TrpaTTO/uievois ra

\eyo/jLeva, el a\vj6-fj \eyerai, o-KO rrov/jievos,

ra S

el bpOws rrpdrrerai ; AvdyKrj. *H o5^ az^ef laTplKYfi Sv


av ri? rovrwv irorepois e jrao\ov0rj(Tai ; Ov Srjra. Ovre ye

aXXo? ouSei?, ft)? eoiKev, TrXr/z^ larpds, ovre &} 6 o-axfrpcov larpos

25 7/3 <xz>


TT/DO? T^ croKfrpocrvvr). EtTTi ravra. Tiavros apa

earlv Kai

, el rj aw^pocrvvrj eVicrT^^? eTTicrTijfvr) JJLOVOV

, ovre larpov SiaKplvai oia re earac errio~ra-

fjievov ra rr}? re^vr)^ TI {JLTJ eTriardfJievov, rrpocrrroiovfJLevov Be fj

old/nevov, ovre d\\ov ovBeva r&v emo-ra^evwv Kal onovv, rr\r)v

30 76 rov avrov b/jiore^vov, wcnrep ol d\\oi Byfiuovpyoi.

rai, e(f)7j.

19. T/9 ovv, rjv 8 eyM, a)


"Kpirla, ft>0eX/a rjfilv eri av eifj

arrb rr)? cra^pocrvw?? roiavrvjs ovcrrjs ; el pev ydp, o ef apxffc

a, rjBeiv b cra)(f)p(ov a re fjBet Kal a pr] y$tt rd


aev on olSev, ra 8* on OVK oiSev, Kal d\\ov ravrbv TOVTO

oto? r rjv, ue<ya\(t)(7Tl dv ijulv,

ev, axfteXiuov rjv croo^poaiv elvai dvaadpTTjTOi jap

/3loi> e^ayuev avToi re 01 TTJV aco^pocrvvr^v e^o^re?

av TOV

fcal ol d\\oi

TraWe? cxroi v<$ rjfJL^v r^p^ovTO. ovre <yap av avrol eVe^et- 5

povfiev Trpdrreiv a fjurj rjTTLo-rd^eOa, d\\* e^evplo-Kovre^ rou?

etceivoi,? av TrapeSiSo/Jiev, ovre rot? aXXo^? eVewv

rfp^o/Aev, d\\o n Trpdrreiv TJ o n

e/j,\\ov Trpd^eiv rovro 8 rjv dv, ov e

teal ovTO) Srj VTTO

craxfrpocrvvr)? oiKia re olfcovfAevrj

re 7ro\iTevo/uLevr), /cal d\\o nrav ov

<ydp e^rjp^/Jievri^, opOor^ro^ Se

, ev Trcrrj Trpei vajKalov AraXw? Kal ev Trpdrreiv

rou? ovro) Sia/ceL/jievovs, TOU? Se ev Trpdrrovras ev^aifjiova^

elvai. dp* ov% ovrcos, rjv 8 e<ya),


K^otr/a, eXeyo^ev irepl 15

ao)(f)poo-vv7]^, \eyovres oaov dyaOov ely TO elSevat a re olSev

rt? fcal a fir) olftev ; Tldvv fjiev ovv, e(f)ij, ovrco. NOz^ Se, 971;

8 eya>, opas on ovSa/JLov eirttrryfjuq ovBeftla roiavrrj ovaa

7T(f)avTai. *Qpa), e(f)7j. Ap ovv, TJV 8 ejct}, Tovr e^ei TO

djaOov rjv vvv evpiaKOfJiev o-co(f)po<7VV7]v ovaav, TO eirttrr^fMjv 20

eTrio-TaaOai /cal dveTrio-Tij/AOo-vvrjv, on o TavTijv e^cov, o n

av d\\o /uLavOdvrj, padv T6 fjLadr)<TeTai KOI evapyeaTepa nrdvTa


(fraveLTai, are 777)09 e/cda-TO)

(j> av

pavOdvy rrpoaKaOo-

pwvTi Tr)V eTTto-TTjfjLTjv Kal Tou? aXXou? Brj KaXXiov e^erdaei

/cal avTos /JidOr), ol 8e dvev TOVTOV e^era^o^re? 25

Trepl d>v dv

dcrOevecrTepov Kal (f)av\OTpov TOVTO Spdo-ovaiv ; dp\ a)

TOiavTa aTTa ecrnv a diro^avo-o/jieOa T?}? o-co^pocrvv^^,

Be fjiel^ov n ^KercQ^ev Kal ^TOVfJiev avTo fjiel^ov n elvai r) oaov

eaTLV ; Td%a o dv, efyrj, OVTCOS e%oi.

20. "I<J6)?, TJV S eyo) tcrft)? $e ye rjueis ovSev %pr)(7Tov e^rjTrj- 30

vauev. TeKfjiaipo^ai 8e, on JJLOL CLTQTC aTTa KaTa

irepl o-ccKJipocrvvris, el TOIOVTOV COTTIV. ^coaev <ydp, el

wyxcopijo-avTe? Kal eTricrTacrOai eino-T^^v SvvaTov elvai Kal

o je e dpxfis eTiOe/jieOa a-wtypoa-vvTjv elvai, TO elS&ai a re


olBev Kal a /jirj olBev, yitr; drrocrrepi}o-w^ev, d\\d Bwjjiev /cal

rrdvra ravra Bovres en pe\nov aKe^r^jJieOa, el dpa n /cal

rjuds ovt]o-ei roiovrov ov. a jap vvvBrj e\eyofjiev, &)? ^eya av

eirj dyaOov /; acoc^poavvTj, el roiovrov eirj, rjyov/jievTj BiOiK/j crews

5 Kal olfclas /cal TroXeo)?, ov JJLOL BoKOVpev, c5 KjOtr/a, Ka\a)$

\Q<yr}K..vai. ITw? 8tj ; r) S 09. "On, r]V 8 eja), pa$iw<?

eya TI dyaOov eivai rot? avOpaiTrois, el

a [lev i crao-iv, Trpdrroiev ravra, a Se /JLT) eTriaraivro,

trapaSiSolev rot? eraara^voi^. Ou/c ovv, 6<pr),

10 a)iAo\oytfo-auev ; Ov aoi So/cov^ev, r^v S 6700. "AroTra

&)? a\r]6a}^, (f>r),

a) Hcbrcpares. N^ rov Kvva, e(f)7jv, /cal

roi So/eel ovra), /cdvravOa /cal apn aTro/SXe^a?

aroir arr

fjLOL TTpofyaiveadai, Kal on (froftoL/jirjv JJLJ] ov/c 6p0a)<s CTKO-

a)? aXtTjOws yap, el o n ^d\Lcrra roiovrov eanv r)

15 (Toxfrpocrvvii, ov$ev poi &f]\ov eivai So/eel o n dyaOov

aTrepyd^erai. Hco? 8)j ; r) 8 09. \eye,


iva Kal rj/jLels el

o n Xe^ei?. Ol/uai fj^ev, rjv S eye*), \ijpeiv fie 6 yuco? TO 76 nrpo-

fyaivo/jievov dvay/caiov a/coTreiv Kal ^ eiKrj Trapievai, el rt? 76

avrov Kal crfJLiKpov KtjSerai.

KaXw? yap, efyy, \eyeis.

20 21. "AKove

Btj, e^yv, ro efiov ovap, elre Sid Kepdrwv elre

Si e\e(f)avro<$ e\tj\v0ev. el yap o n ^aXiura rjawv ap%oi r]

vaa o f

iav vvv opi^o^eOa, d\\o n Kara ra? eVt-

av rrparroiro, Kal ovre rt? Kvfiepvtjrrjs (f)do~Kc0v elvai,

wv Be ov, e^aTrarwTj av ^/ia?, ovre tar/30? ovre arparTjyos ovr

25 aXXo? ouSet?, rrpoarroioviJLevo^ n eiSevai o ur) olSev, \av9dvoi

av K Srj rovrcov ovrcos e^ovrwv aXXo av I^/MV ri (Tva/Salvoi

%r)* vyieaiv re rd aoo/jLara elvai /JiaXXov r) vvv, Kal ev rrj

6a\drrr) KivBvvevovras Kal ev TroXe/^ro a^edQai, Kal rd

(TKevrj Kal rr]v d^rre^ovriv Kal VTrdSecriv rrdaav Kal rd Xp r

30 para rrdvra re^viKO)^ ^/Jilv elpyaa/jieva eivai Kal aXXa TroXXa

Bid TO d\7i&ivoi<; orjfuovpyois xpfjo-flai ; el Be /3ov\oi6 ye, Kal

rrjv fjLavriKTfV eivai avy^wp^crco/jLev eTricrrrj/jujv rov fjie XXovros

i, Kal rrjv ac0(f)poo-vvjjv, avrrjS emararova-av, TOU<? fjiev

drrorperreiv, a>?

roits Be

d\r)0a)S fiavreiS KaOiardvai


TWV fjLe\\dvTO)v. KaTecrKevacr/jievov &rj OVTQ) TO

yevos on fjLev eTno-Tij fjidvcos av Trpdrroi Kal 0)77,

r) yap acocfrpoo-vvrj (j)V\aTTOV(7a OVK av ewrj irape/JLTTL-

rjv dveTnaT^iJLOo-vvTjv avvepybv TJ/JLIV elvai OTL 8 eVt-

av Trpdrrovres ev av Trpdrroifjiev /cal evBai/JLOvol/nev, 5

TOVTO Be OVTTCO SvvdfjLeOa fjiaOelv, w (f)i\e K/jm a.

22. AXXa fjievroi, rj 8 09, ov paS/co? evprfaeis a\\o TI reXo?

TOV ev TrpdrTeiv, eav TO eTTKrTiyfjidvcos CIT todays. 2</uLi,Kpov

TOLVVV fie, rjv 8 eyci), ert 7rpoa$i$a%ov. TLVOS eTrio-T^^ovw^

TJ (TKVTWV TO///*}? ; Ma A/ ov/c eycoye. AXXa %O\KOV 10

; OuSa/zco?. AXXa eplcov r) ^v\a)v rj aXXof TOV TWV

TOLOVTCOV ; Ov SijTa. OVK dpa, rjv 8 eyco, en e/A/jievo/jiev TW

rco ev&atfjLova elvai TOV eVicrT^/xoi/ft)? a)VTa. OVTOL yap

^re? ov% o/JLoXoyovvTai Trapd aov evSai/jioves

eivai, aXXa Trepi TIVWV eTTto Tfj/jidva)^ ^covTa crv So/ceis f^oi d<j)o- 15

pi^ea-Oat TOV evSal/mova. /cal tVa)? \eje^ ov vvvorj eyco e\eyov,

TOV elooTa TCL peXXovTa ecrecrOai TrdvTa, TOV pdvTLV. TOVTOV r)

a\\ov Tiva Xe^et? ; Kat TOVTOV eycoye, e0^, Kal d\\ov. Tlva ;

T}V 8 eyo). apa pr) TOV TOiovSe, el rt? TT/DO? rot? /jueXXovcnv Kal

Ta yeyovoTa TrdvTa elSeirj Kal Ta vvv ovTa, Kal f^rjBev dyvool ; 20

<ydp Tiva elvai avTOV. ov jap ol/zat TOVTOV ye erf av

ovoeva eTTicrT^iJiovea-Tepov wvTa elvai. Ov or/Ta. Tdoe

TrpoaTTodco, T/<? avTov TWV eTna Tr) /JLMV iroiel evBal/^ova ;

o/Wa>9 ; Ovo~afjiws ofioicos, t(f)rj. AXXa Troia jud-

\io~Ta ; rj TL oiBev Kal TWV OVTCOV Kal TWV yeyovoTcov Kal TWV 25

fj,e\\dvTcov ecrecrOai ; apd ye f) TO TTCTTCVTIKOV ; Tlolov, S*


o?, TreTTevTiKov ; AXX r) TO \oyio-TiKov ; OuSayLtft)?. AXX*

r) TO vyieivov ; MaXXov, 0^. E/eeiV?; 8 rjv \eyco //,aXt<TT<x,

TJV 8 eyo), r) TI ;


Ht TO dyaOov, e^rj, Kal TO KaKOV.


fl /nape ,

(f)7]v eyco, TraXai /Jt,e 7repie\Kei<; KVK\(D, aTroKpVTrTOfjievo^ OTL ov 30

TO tTTLCTTrj/jLovct)^ rjv f)v TO TTpaTTeiv Te Kal

TTOIOVV, ov$e av/jL7racra)V TWV d\\wv 7TLcrTr)JJLWV , d\\a

OUCTT;? TavTijs JJLOVOV TT)? Trepl TO dyaOdv Te Kal KaKOV.

& KpiTia, el 0e\eiS e%e\elv TavTrjv Trjv eTriaTTJfjirjV eK TWV d\\cov



, TJTTOV Ti 77 fJiev larpL/cr) vyialveiv Troirjo-ei, f)

Se O~KV-

r) V7ro$e&e (r0ai,, 77 Se vcfravTiKrj rj^iecrOai^ 77 Se /cv/3epvr)Titcrj

KcoXvaet, ev rfj Oa\drTrj aTroOvrjo Keiv KOI f) aTpaTrjyiKrj ev TTO-

Xe/Ltft); Ovoev TJTTOV, AXX o>

^>r]. , c/u Xe K/oma, TO ev ye

5 TOVTCDV etcaara yiyvea-Oai KOI w^eXtyLta)? aTroXeXoiTro? 77 /ua?

ecrrai ravrrj^ airovo-^. AX^^T) Xeyet?. Ou^ aurr; Se 76, <w?

eoiicev, eciTiv TJ crcoffrpocrviirj, 779 epyov earlv TO a)(j)e\elv rj/JLas. ov

yap 7ri(TTTj [JLa)V re Kol av JTi(JT r]^QCfVV(^v rj eTTLo-r^fJLTj eaTiv,

aXXa ayaOov re teal /caicov ware el avrrj eo-rlv co^eXi/Jio^, 77

10 (Tco^pocrvvr) aXXo TL av elr) rjfjilv. Ti 8 , 77 S o?, ov/c av avrrj

(0(f)e\ol ; el yap 6 n ftaXicrra rwv eTTLcrrrj/Jicov eTTLcrT^fjirj earlv

Y] o-a)(f)poo-vvr], eTTiorrarel 8e KOL rat? aXXcu?

rauTT^? ^Trof ai^ ap%ovcra TT}? Trept rayaOov e

av 77/^0,9. H /ca^ vyiaivew Troiot, 77^ 8 670), avrr), aXX ou^ 77

15 larpiKri ; real raXXa TO- rwy Te^vtov avrrj av TTOLOI, Kal ov% al

a\\ai TO auTT}? epyov etcdo-Tr) ; 7) ov TraXat Bie/JLapTVpofjieOa, OTL

eTTLo-TtjiJLrjf; JJLOVOV (TT\V Kal aveTno-TTUJLoa-vvris e7ricrTr)[Jir), aXXou

Se ov&evds ov% OVTCO ; QaiveTai ye. Ovtc apa vyieias eVrat

SriiJLiovpyos. Ov $r)Ta. "AXX?;9 yap rjv T%vqs vyieia T) ov ;

20 "AXX?79. Qv8 dpa a)^>eXta9, w eTalpe aXX^ 7^ au

TOVTO TO epyov re^vrj VVV^TJ 77 yap ; Tidvv ye. IIco9 ovv

ecrTai r) crwfypoa-vvri, ovSefuas &}^>eXta9 ovcra

23. Opas ovv, a>

Sco/c/3are9, eoi/cev ye.


OJ9 70) TraXat etVora)9 eSeBoL/crj

25 t;atft)9 e/JiavTOV yTicb/jLrjV OTL ovSev ^prjaTov Trepl

(TK07TM ; ov yap av TTOV 6 ye Ka\\icrTOV TrdvTwv 6/mo\oyelTai

elvai, TOVTO r^lv dvco(f)e\e<; e<f>dvr),

/caX&)9 &Telv. vvv Se

el TI e/jiov o^>eXo9 rjv Tr/309 TO

7ravTa%fj yap f)TTa)/J,e0a, Kal ov Svvd-


fjieOa evpelv efi OTO> TTOTC TWV OVTCOV 6 oVo/naTO #67-779

30 voua eOeTO, Trjv aaxfrpoo-vvTjv. KaiTOi 7ro\\d ye

ov a-v/jLjSaiVOvO rj/jilv TW \dya>. Kal yap


o-vve^copTJo-aiJLev, OVK ewvTOS TOV \dyov ovSe $>d(TKOVTO<;

eivai Kal TavTrj av Trj eTTHTTtj fJirj Kal TCL TWV d\\a)v eTTiaTrj/jicov

epya yiyvaxrKeiv o-vve^cup^aa/jLev, ov&e TOVT e&VTOs TOV \dyov,


iva Brj rjfjiiv yevoiTO o atotypcov e n iaTijfjiwv a)v re olBev, on olBev,

KOI &v pr) oiBev, oTi OVK oiBev. TOVTO fjiev Brj /cal TravTairaai

/jieya\07rpe7r(t)S avve%(0pi)aaiJiev, ov& eiTiaKe^jfdfjLevoi TO dBvvaTOV

elvai, a ri? /LIT) olBev {jirjBa/JLW, ravra ei&evai ayuco? ye TTOJ? OTL

yap OVK oiBev, (frrjalv avTa el^evai TJ rjjJieTepa 6/jio\ojLa. KCIITOI, 5


eydp/JLai, ovSevbs OTOV ov)(l a\o<ya)Tepov TOVT av (fraveirj. aXV

o/i&)9 ouro)? TIP&V evrjOifcwv TV^ovaa i] f^r^crt? /cal oil o-/c\rjpa)i>,

ovSev TL /jia\\ov evpelv SvvctTai TTJV a\r)6eiav, a\\a TO&OVTQV

KaT6j\ao-ev a^T^?, wcrre 6 ^/Ltet? TraXat crvvo/jLoXoyovvTes /cal

eTiOe^eda aw<$>poavvr)V elvai, TOVTO r^julv Tcdvv 10

avci)(f)e\,e<> ov aTrefyaive. TO /jiev ovv IJJLOV KOI rjTTOv

ayavarcTO) virep Be croO, rjv 8 6706, w Xa^/uS?;, Trdvv dyava/CTw,

el av TOtoOro? &v TTJV ISeav /cal

TT/JO? TOUTCO TT)^ ^TV^TIV aco^po-

^ecrTaTO?, jJLrjSev ovijaei CLTTO TavTTj^ r?)? o-wfypocrvvris /jujbe TI ae

a)(f)e\r)o-et ev TO) j3iq) Trapovaa. eTi Be fjid\\ov dyavaKTco virep 15

TT)? eTrwS /)?, r,v Trapa TOV

pqfcbs epaOov, el /nrjBevbs d^iov Trpdj-

/Ltaro? ovcrav avTrjv /-tera TroXXf;? crTrovBfjS efjidvOavov. raOr

ovv Trdvv fjiev OVK oio/Aai OVTCOS ^Xelv ^\\ ->


e/jie $av\ov elvai

%r]Ti]Tr)V 7rel TrjV ye acixfrpoa-vvTjv /j,eya TL ayaflbv elvai, /cal

eiTrep 76 e^et? auro, /jLa/cdptov elvai ae. aXX opa el e^et? re 20

/cal /JirjBev Beet TT)? eVajS?)? el yap e^et?, /LtaXXoy av eycoye aoi

o-V{i/3ov\evo-aL/jii, e/Jie fjiev \f)pov rjyelo-Oai elvai /cal aBvvaTov

\oyw oTiovv r)Teiv, aeavTov Be, oawTrep aaxfrpovecrTepos el,

ToaovTO) elvai /cal evBaifJioveaTepov.

24. Kal o Xap/jLiBrj?, AXXa pa Aia, tf 8 09, eycoye, a) Sco- 25

, OVK olBa OVT el e^w OVT el /u-r) e^a). TTCO? 7^ av

o ye fiTjB vpel^ oloi re eVre e^evpelv o TL TTOT

w? ^)?/5 av ; eyu> pevTOi ov Trdvv aoi TrelOouai, /cal e/


Zw/CjOare?, Trdvv ol/jiai BelaOai TT)? CTrpBrjs, /cal TO y

ovBev K0)\vei eTraBeaOai VTTO aov oaai rj/jiepai, ecos av <??9 au 30

i/cavw e^eiv. Elev aXX , e^rj 6 Kpirlas, w XapptSrj, Bpd

TOVTO e/Lioiy eaTai TOVTO Te/c^piov OTi aaxfipoveis, TJV ejrdBeiv

aTei /cal pr) d7ro\i7rrj TOVTOV jJirjTe peya

d/co\ov0>jaovTos, ecfrr), Kal JJLTJ


oeiva yap av Troioirjv, el firj TreiOol/jiyv crol TOJ eTrirpOTTto /cal

^r] Troioirjv a fce\eveis. AXXa /-t^, e(f)rj, Ke\evco eyatye. Hoi-

rj(7co TOIVVV, ecferj, airo ravrrjcrl TT}? T/yLte/oa? dp^dfjievos. Ovroi,

r)v & ilyco, TI /3ov\eveo-0ov iroielv ; OvSev, tyr] 6 Xap/xt^T;?,

5 d\\a f3e(Sov\eviAe6a. Btacret apa, tfv 3 eyw, /cal ov& ava-

Kpiaiv IJLOI Sftjcret? ; H? fiiao-o/jievov, e$7j, eVei^^Vep 6 Se ye


TT/JO? ravra av av /BovXevov o TI iroi^crei^. *AXX

ovBe jiiia, e<pTjv eyco, XetVerat /3ov\rj aol yap eTr^eipov^rt

TTpdrTeiv OTIOVV /cal fSia^ofJievw oi)a? olo? r carat, evavTiovloadai

avOp(Dirwv. M^ roivvv, 17 8 09, /joySe av evavnov. Ov

roivvv, tfv S eya), e


77 irepi avdpdas.

TIME: About 420 u.c. (v. Introd., p. xviii). PLACE: A palaestra.




1. TeBeaade /mev rbv dvBpa ^a^ofjievov ev oTrXot?, & Niicta re \ (

teal Acr^?79

ov eve/ca v/Jids e/ceXevaa/Jiev avv6ed(racr9ai

re Kal MeA,77<7ta? o^e, Tore pep OVK eiTrofjiev, vvv

a <yap xpijvai Trpo? 76 u/u-a? TrappTjatd^eo-Bai. ei&l yap

o l TWV TOLOVTCOV KarayeXwcri,, Kal edv rt? aurot? o-v/jL/Sov- \$

\evorr)Tai, OVK av eiTTOLev a voovcriv, d\\a crTO^a^dfjievoi TOV

av/jiflovXevo/jLevov d\\a \jovai Trapa rrjv avT&v S6av upas

8e rj/jiels rjryrjo-d/jLevoi Kal iKavovs yv&vai Kal yvdvras avrXco? av

elirelv a SOKCL vyCiv^ ovrco TrapeXd/Bo/jLev eTrl Tr)V av/jil3ov\r)i> Trepl

S)v jjLe\\ofJLev dvaKQivovaOai. ecmv ovv TOVTO, Trepl ov 7rd\ai 10

roo-avra Trpooifjiid^ofjiai, ro Se.

rovSe, TraTTTrov e%cov ovo/Aa QovKvSiSrjs, e//-o?

r)/j,iv elcrlv uet? ourott, o&e

Be av 63e

TTWOV Be Kal euro? ovofji e%et TOV/AOV Trarpo?* Apia-rel&rjV yap

avrbv KaXov/jiev. TJ/JLIV ovv TOVTCDV SeBoKrai e7rifJ,e\r)0fjvaL w?

olov re /JidXiara, Kal /JLT) Troirjj-at ojrep ol TroXXot, eVe^S?) jjieipd- 15

Kia yeyovev, avelvai avTOvs o n /3ov\ovrai, Troielv, d\\d vvv Srj

Kal dp^eaOai avT&v eVt/LteXetcr^at Ka6* oaov oloi r ea/Jiev. el-

8ore? ovv Kal v/jilv vet? 6Vra? # et? o-v/jL/SovXrjv v/Jias 7rapeKa\-

cra/jiev on* rjytja-dfjieda fjLe/jLe\r)Kevai nrepl avrwv, etvre/o

aXXot?, TTCO? av OepaTrevOe vres ye voivro dpicrTOi el & dpa 20

TroXXa/a? /Jirj Trpoo-ea^Kare TOV vovv rQ) TOIOVTW,


on ov %p7) avTOV djjieXelv, /cat Trapa/caXovvres i/yLta? eVt

riva TTOLTjaaaOaL TWV vecov KOLVY) /jLeO rj^wv.

2. "Q6ev 8e r^uv ravr e8oev, & Nt/aa re KOL Aa

\ a/covcrai, Kav f) oXt/ya> /Aa/cpdrepa. crvao-LTOvfjiev yap Srj eyw re

5 Kal M.e\rjcTLa^ o8e, KOI r^uv TO, ^eipdiaa Trapao-trel. ojrep ovv

Kal apftd/jLevos eiTTOV rov \dyov, Trapprjcnao-o/jieOa Trpbs V/JLCIS.

TI^V yap e/cdrepos Trepl rov eavrov 7rar/oo?

7TO\\a Kal rca\a

epya e^et \eyew Trpo? row veavidKOVs, Kal oaa ev 7ro\e/jiw

elpydoravro Kal oaa ev elprjvrj, SioiKOVvres rd re rwv orv/jifjid^cui

10 Kal ra TT)? TroXeco?- rj/uLerepa 8 avrwv ep<ya ovberepos e%eL


ravra Srj vTraicr^vpo/JLeOd re roucr&e Kal alrLco/jieOa TOU?

v, on ^/u,a? /jiev eicav rpvtydv, eVetS?) fieipaKia eje-

a, rd $e TWV d\\(ov Trpdy/nara ejrpaTTOV Kal rolaSe rot?

veavi<TKQis avrd ravra ev8eiKVV/jie0a, Xe yovres on, el fjiev d^e-

15 \tjo-ovo-iv eavT&v Kal ^ Treia-ovrai rj^lv, a/cXeet? ryevrjcrovrai,

el 8 e7n/jie\r)croi>Tai, rd% dv rwv ovofjLdrwv d^toi yevoivro a

OVTOL fjiev ovv fyaalv rreio-ecrOai ?$/aet? Se Srj TOVTO

TL dv ovTOt /jiaOdvTes f) eTTLTTj Severavres 6 n dpLcrroL

jevoivro. elo-rjyijcraTO ovv ns r^fuv Kal TOVTO TO fjiddrj^a, OTI

paOelv ev oTrXot? fJLa^eor6aL Kal eTrrjvet, TOV-

20 KaXbv eii] ra> vew

TOV ov vvv y/xet? eOedo-aaOe eTn&eiKvvfjievov, KCIT eK6\eve Bedcra-

a@ai. eSoge or) xprjvai avrovs re e\6elv errl 6eav TavSpbs Kal

^a? (TV/jLTrapaXafteiv ^j^a pev o-vvOeaTd^^d^a oe^

re Kal KOIVCOVOVS, edv /3ov\rjcr0e, Trepl TT)? TO>V vecov e

25 TavT ecrnv a e/3ov\d/jie0a VJMV dvaKOivaxraaOai. TJOTJ ovv v

Tepov /^e/oo? (rv/jL/3ov\eveiv Kal irepl TOVTOV TOV /-ta^^/u-aro?, are

XP*l val pavBdvetv etre ^, Kal Trepl TWV aXXa)^,

el TL

eTraiveo-ai fJidO^^a vey dvopl TJ eTTLT^Sev^a, Kal Trepl T^?

Xe yeiv OTTOIOV TL TroLTJaeTe.

30 3. NL 700 fjiev, & AvaL/Aa^e Kal MeX^crta, eTraLvw re

V/AWV TrjV ^LavoLav Kal KOLvcovetv erot/^o?, ol^aL Se Kal Aa^ra


AA. AX?;#7} yap olei, S>


cb? o ye e\eyev o Aucrt / -

dpTL Trepl TOV Trar/309 TOV avTOV re Kal TOV


Trdvu /not Bo/cel ev elpijcrOat /cal et? eiceivovs KOI et? T^/u-a? KOI

et? aTravras ocrot rd T&V 7rd\ecov Trpdrrovatv, OTL avrois a^eBov

rt ravra av/jL/3aivei, a OUTO? \eyeL, KOI Trepl TralBas real Trepl

raXXa t Sta, b\Lya)pa)S re /cal a/>teX&)9 StaTt$ecr$at. Tavra pev

ovv /caXeo? Xe^et?, w Af cri/Aa^e

OTL 8 ^^a? i^ev o-v/ji(3ov\ov<>

Tra/oa/caXet? eVl rr/z^ rw^ veaviaKWV 7raL$eLav, ^cotcpdrrj

Be rovBe

ou Trapa/caXet?, Oav/uid^ci), trpwrov nev ovra BrjfjLorrjv, eVetra ev-

ravOa ael ra? Biarpipas Troiov/jievov, OTTOV ri eari rcov TOIOVTCOV

&v av TOL"? f^ret? Trepl veovs j) i^dOrj/jia rj eTnrrjBev/jia Ka\dv.

AT. a> Ilw? Xe^et?, Aa^r;? ; ^cotcpdrrj^ yap oBe rtzw

TOIOVTCOV eTTifJieXeiav TreirOLijTaL ;

AA. Tldvv jjbev ow, GO A-vaL/jLa^e. ^

NI. TOUTO fteV <rot ;a^ 670) e^oifJLi elirelv ov %elpov

TO? /cal 7<z/o aurw

/xot eVa7^o? dvBpa Trpov^evijae ry vel

BiBdaKa\ov fjiovcTLKT]^. Aya00K\eovs fjia0r)Tr)V Aa/ucom, avBpwv 15

yapieGTaTOV ov LLOVOV TTJV /^ovai/cr^v, aXX-a^./cat raXXa oTrocra

(3ov\ei d^top cruvBiarptfteiv T^LKOVTOL^ veavidfcovs.

4. AT. OVTOL, & 2c6/c/3aT? re /cat Nt/aa /cat Aa^r;?, ot 17X6-

/cot eVco ert yiyvojo-fco/jLev rou? ^ecore/oof?, are /car olfcav ra

TroXXa Biarpipovres VTTO TT}? ^Xi/cta? aXX et rt /cat cru, co ?rat 20

^o)(f)povi(T/cov, e%et? ra)Se TO) aavrov Brj^drrj ayaObv (7Vfji(3ov\ev-

aai, %pr) o-vfji^ov\eveiv. Bi/caios B* el /cal yap Trarpifcos r^uv

^>tXo? Tvy%dveLS wv ael yap eyo) /cal 6 <ro? 7rarr//o eraipco re

/cal (/uXft) ^/Lte^, /cat Trporepov e/celvos ereXevrrjae, trpiv rt e/^ot

aXX ,

i. 7repi(j)epei Be rt? /x-e /cat /JLV^/JLTJ dpn rwvBe \eyov- 25

ra 7ap /Ltet/aa/cta raSe TT/OO? aXXTJXof? ot/cot B(,a\eyd/Aevoi

e7nfJLefjLV7]vrai ^Lcofcpdrovs

/cal o~(f)6Bpa

eTraivovoriv ov

7ra)7rore avrovs dprjpcorrjo-a, el rov ^co(f>povi(T/cov \eyoiev.

a) TratSe?, \eyere /JLOI, 68 e crrt ou e/cacrrore

Sco/c/oarr;?, vre/ot

pdfjanjffBe ;


IIAI. Ilaw )Lte^ ow, co Trdrep, o5ro?.


AT. EV 76 vr^Tr)V Hpav, & Sco/cpare?, ort opOols rbv Trarepa,

apiarov avBpwv bvra, /cat aXXco? /cat 8^ /cat ort ot/ceta ra re

era" jj/uti vTrdp^ei /cat (rot ra rjfjLerepa.



AA. Kat IJLIJV, & A.Vfffta% $ /JLTJ afyleao ye TavBpds- &>?

Kal d\\o6i <ye


avTov eOeaad/jLr).v ov fjidvov TOV Trarepa aXXa Kal

TTJV TraTptBa opdovvra ev yap Ty CLTTO A^Xibu <f>vyrj



avvave%a)peL, Kayco aoL \eyco on el #oi* aXXot 7JOe\ov TOLOVTOL

5 elvai, 6pj)rj av rj/jL&v j) TroXt? rjv


KCU OVK av eTreae rore TOLOVTOV

A AT. T H Sco/^jOare?, o&ro? yLteWot o jhraivos eanv rca\ds, ov

ai) vvv CTrcuvei VTT avBp&v a^ia)i> TTLo-revecrOai ical et? ravra

et? a OVTOI, eTTaivovcriv. ev ovv Ia6i OTL eyu> ravra a/covcov

10 X a ^P a) TL evSoKi/jieis, real av Se 97701) fjie ev rot? 7 evvovardroi^

aot elvai.

xpfjv fjiev ovv Kal Trpdrepdv ere (froirav avrov Trap

rj/uas Kal .oltcejovs rjyeicrOai, coaTrep TO Si/catov vvv 8 ovv CLTTO

rrja-Be TT}? rjpepas, eTreiBrj aveyvwpLcrafjiev aXX^Xof?, /JLTJ a\X<w?

Trotet, a\\a avviaOi re Kal yvcopi^e Kal rjuas Kal rovaBe rou?

15 vewrepovs, OTTW? av Stacrco^re Kal u/zet? TTJV rj/jieTepav $i\iav.

ravra aev ovv Kal av Trot^crei? Kal f]nels ae Kal av0LS v

aopev Trepl Be wv r^p^d^eOa TL <f)are ; TI BoKel ; TO

rot? peipaKiois eTTiTtjBeLov elvat T) ov, TO paOelv ev

20 5. SH. AXXa Kal TOVTCOV Trepi, & Afcrt/^a^e, eycoye Treipdaopai

avu(3ov\eveiv dv TL Bvvco/jiai, Kal av a TrpOKoXel TrdvTa

TTOielv. BLKatoTaTOV /ULGVTOL fioL BoKel elvai, efjie vecoTepov ovTa

T&vBe Kal aTreipoTepov TOVTCOV ctKoveiv TrpoTepov TL \eyovaiv Kal

pavOdveiv Trap avTcov edv B eyw TL aXXo irapa


25 TCOV Xeyopeva, TOT rjBrj BiBdaKeLv Kal TreiOeLV Kal ae Kal TOV-

rou?. aXX ,

a> Nt/cta,

NI. AXX ovBev Kto\veL, a>

TL ov \eyeL Trore/oo? V/JLCOV ;


BOKCL yap e^ol TOVTO

TO ^dOri^a TO? VGOLS w^eXL^ov elvaL eTTiaTaaOaL TroXXa^.

Kal yap TO ^TJ d\\odL BLaTptfieiv, ev ol? Brj (f>L\ovaLV ol veoi ra?

30 BLaTpiffds TTOLelaOaL, oTav a^o^v aycoaLV, aXX ev TOVTM, ev

e%eL, odev Kal TO aco^a (3e\TLov ta%eLV avdyKrj ovBevbs yap

TO>V yvpvaaLWV <f)av\oTepov ovB" eXarra) TTOVOV e%eL Kal d/jia

TrpoarjKeL fj,d\iaT eXevdepw TOVTO re TO yvuvdaiov Kal -rj

TTLKT) o&ydp dywvos d6\r)Tai eapev Kal ev ol? rj^lv 6 ayayv


AAXHS. 3 1

TrpoKeirai, /AOVOL OVTOL yvpvd^ovTaL ol ev TOVTOLS rot? Trepl TOV

TroXe/Jiov opydvoL? yvfjiva^d/jievoL. eVetra bvr^orei pev TL TOVTO

TO fJuWijfAa /cal ev TTJ l^d^rj avrfj, orav ev Ta^ei bey

fjL6Ta TTO\\WV dX\cov /jLeyiaTOV fievTOL av

\v6a)(TLV al rafet? /cal TJBrj TLva Bey JJLOVOV TT/OO? JJLOVOV r) Sia*- 5

Kovra afjivvo^evti) rivl ewiOecrOai rj ical ev <pv<yfj

a\\ov dfJivvaaOai CLVTOV ov rav VTTO ye ew9 et? o TOUT

ovftev av Trddot, tcra)? 3 ov$e VTTO TrXetoVa)^, a\\a irav-

av ravrrj 7r\eoveKTOL. en Se Kal a? d\\ov /ca\ov

eTrtOvfjiiav 7rapaica\el TO TOLOVTOV Tra? yap

ev oVXoi? ^d^eaOai eTriOv/jLtjo-eie ical rov e%r}S (JiaOr^^a-

TO? ToO Trepl TO.? Tafet?, ical ravra \a/3a)V /cal (f>t\orifjirj0el^ ev

auTot? eVl trav av TO Trepl TO,? aTparrjyias op/jujcreie

ical rjSrj

SijXov OTL ra TOVTCDV e^dfjieva /cal fJLaOrj/JLara Trdvra /cal eTTLTr}-

av 10

Bev/jLara /cal /ca\d /cal TroXXoO a%ia dvSpl fjiaBelv re /cal av TOVTO TO /jLaBij/jLa.

eTrirrj- 15

8evaai, u>v

tca0r) r



avTw ov o-jJLLKpdv 7rpoo-0iJKr)V, OTL TrdvTa dvBpa ev

0appa\ea)Tepov /cal avftpeiOTepov av Troirjo-eiev


oX(/ya) avTii TI eTrLaTrj/Jir). fjirf aTt/Ltacrco/xe^ Be eiTrelv, el fcai TCO

ovv a>

f Afo-^ta^e,

So/eel elvai, OTL Kal evo-^rjfjioveo-Tepov evTavOa ov 20

TOV dvSpa evo ^r] /^ovecrTepov fyaiveaOai, ov a/ma /cal oeivo-

Tot? e%9pols (fraveiTai Bta TTJV evcr^ijiJLOo-vvrjv. e/Jiol /JLev

warrep \eyco, So/eel Te XP^ val BtBdcr/ceiv TOU?

veavicr/covs TavTa teal 8t a So/eel eipifica Aa^?/To? o , et TL Trapa

TavTa \eyei, /cav auTo? TjSea)? a/covaai/jLL. 25

6. AA. AXX eWt & />teV, Ni:ta, %a\e7rbv Xeyeiv Trepl

OTOVOVV /aaOrj/JiaTOS, a)? ov %/JT) pavOdveiv TrdvTa yap 67TW7Ta-

aOai dyaObv So/eel elvai. /cal Srj /cal TO oTrXiTi/cbv TOVTO, el fJiev

CTTIV /jLdflrjfJLa, oirep (f>aalv ol BiBdcrfcovTes, /cal olov Nt/aa?

Xe yei,, ^prj avTO /jLavOdvetv el 8 eariv fJLev fjirj /jLd0Tj/j,a, aXX 30

ol vTria^vovfjievoL, rj fjidO^/jia fjiev Tvy%dvei ov, fj.vj

Trdvv aTrovSalov, TI ical Scot av avTO fjiavOdveiv ; \eyco

Be TavTa Trepl avTOv et? TaBe aTro/SXei/ra?, OTL ol/jiaL eyw TOVTO,

el Tt fy, OVK av \e\Tt]6evai Aa/ceBaL/jLoviovs, ol? ovBev aXXo



ev TO) ftiw rj TOVTO fyrelv Kal eTTiTrjSeveLV, o TL av paOovTes Kal

eTTLTr^BevcravTes TrXeoveKTolev TOJV d\\cov Trepl TOV TrdXe/Jiov. el

& eKeivovs e\e\r)0eiv, aXX ov TOVTOVS ye TOVS

avTov \e\r)0eiv avTO TOVTO, OTL eicelvoi /xaXtcrra TWV

5 (TTrovSd^ovcnv eirl rot? TOIOVTOLS Kal OTL Trap* eKeivois av

et? TavTa Kal irapa TWV a\\wv TrXeZcrr av

, axrirep 76 Kal Tpaywoias TroirjTrjs Trap r^uv

6? av otT/rat TpajwSiav /caXw? Troieiv, OVK e^wOev

KVK\W Trepl Trjv ATTiKrjv KaTa ra? aXXa? TroXet? 7neiKvv-

10 fjievos TrepiepxeTai, aXX evOvs Sevpo (frepeTai

Kal Tola& 7ri8et-

KVVCTLV eiKOTCDS TGI)? 8e ev oVXot? /xa^o/ieVof? eyw TOUTOU? opo)

Tr)v /mev AaKeSai/jiova rjiyov/jLevovs elvai aftaTov lepbv Kal ovbe

aKpw TToBl 7ri(3aivovTas, KVK\O) 8e TrepuovTas avTrjV Kal iraai

fjia\\ov 7ri8eiKvvijievovs, Kal fjidXicrTa rouroi? 01 KCLV avTol

15 6/JLO\o<yrj(Teiav TroXXou? a(f)wv TrpOTepovs elvai



ra TOV

7. Evretra, 5) Afcrt/Lta^e, ov Trdvv oXt<yot? eya) TOVTCOV jrapa-

jejova ev avTw TO>

6/070), Kal 6pw oloi elaiv. e^ecrrt

8e Kal

avro&ev rjfjiiv (TKe-^racrOai. wairep yap eVn-^Se? ovSels TTWTTOT

20 evooKi/jios yeyovev ev TO) 7roXe)u,a) avrjp TCOV TCL a7r\iTiica eTriTTj-

SevadvTcov. KaiTOi efc 76 raXXa TrdvTa CK TOVTWV ol ovo/jiacrTol

yfyvovTcu, eic TWV eTTLTrjSevcrdvTCDV e/cacrra* OVTOL 8\ 0)9 eoiice,

Trapa rou? aXXof? OVTCO a(f)d$pa els TOVTO ^e^vcrTV^riKao Lv.

eirel Kal TOVTOV TOV ^TrjaiXecov, ov y/aet? /^er CJJLOV ev TOO-OVTM

2 5 QX^-y e@edo-acr0e eTriSeiKVii/jLevov Kal Ta /jieydXa Trepl avTov

\ejovTa a e\e<yev, MptoOi eyco Ka\\iov eOeacrdfjirjv ev

deia a)? a\7j9a)^ emSeiKVVfAevov ov% eicdvT

<yap TTJ? vews ec/> 17 eVe/Sarefev Trpbs 6\KaSa Tivd, e/Jid^eTO

BopvSpeTravov, OLacfrepov Srj OTT\OV are Kal auro? TWV a\\wv

30 Siafapcov. Ta /mev ovv aXXa OVK af ta \eyeiv Trepl TavSpds, TO

Q Be croffricr/jLa TO TOV Speirdvov TOV TT/OO? Ty Xdj^rj olov aTrej3r).

fjLa^o/jievov jap avTov evea^eTo TTOV ev rot? r/)? vecos crKeveaiv

Kal avTe\d(BeTO el\Kev ovv 6 ^TrjoriXecos /3ov\6/jLevos aTroXOcrai,

Kal ov% olds T j]V TI Se vavs TTJV vavv Traprjei. reiw? jjiev ovv


TrapeOei ev ry VTJ L avTe^ofjievos TOV BdpaTos errel Be Brj Traprj-

/jLi{3eTO TI vavs TTJV vavv KOI erreo-rra avrbv rov Soparos

fjievov, efyiei TO Bopv Bid TTJ? ^ei/oo?, eW d/cpov TOV

avre\d/3ero. rjv Be ye\(DS /cal /cporo? VTTO TWV e/c rrj? o\/cdBo<;

eTri re TO) <r^i?/Ltom avrov, KOI eirei^r] (Ba\6vros TWOS \i6(p Trapa 5

rov? TroSa? avrov errl rb /cardo-rpco/jia afyierai rov Soparos, TOT

ijSrj /cal ol etc TT)? rpirfpovs ov/ceri, oloi r rfcrav rbv jeXcora tca-

T%ei,v, opwvres alcopov/jievov e/c TT}? oX/caSo? TO BopvBpejravov

efcelvo. laws pep ovv eirj av TL TavTa, oxrTrep Nt/ctia? Xeyet ol?

8 ovv ejcD evrerv^/ca, rotavr drra eariv. 10

8. *O ovv /cal ef ap%i)? elrrov, on eire ovrws jjiitcpas &<f>e\a<i |

ov, etre JJLTJ 6V, ^>acrt

:al rrpocrTroiovvTai avTO elvai

OVK d^Lov eTTL^eipelv fJiavOdveiv. ical yap ovv JJLOL So/eel,

el /Jiev SetXo? ri? (bv OLOLTO avrov eTTLorTacrdai, Opacrvrepos av

Si avrb yevo/jievos emfyaveo Tepos <yevoiro olo? rjv

el Be av- 15

8/3660?, (f)V\aTrd/jLevos av VTTO rwv dv6pa)7ra)v, el /cal a/jLL/cpov

fie^d\as av Bia{3o\ds la^eLV errifyOovos yap 77

T}? rotavrr)^ ema O>O"T


et rt



oaov Btafapei rrj apery rwv d\\wv, OVK ecr^ OTTOJ? av rt? .

TO /cara^/eXao-ro? yeveo-0at, (pdcr/ccov e^eiv ravrrjv rrjv emo-rr]- 20

roiavrr) ri? e/jioiye Bo/cel, & Aucr/yLta^e, 77 Trept TOVTO rb

elvai crrrovSri %pr) 8 oVe/o <rot ef /o%^J9 e\e<yov, /cal

rdvBe ^ dfaevai, d\\d BeiaOai, aVfji/BovXeveiv orcy

Bo/cel avra) rrepl rov Trpofcei/Jievov.

AT. AXXa BeofAai eycoye, a>

^(o/cpares ical yap wvrrep en 25

rov Bia/cpivovvros Bo/cel JJLOL Belv rjfjilv rj /3ov\r). el pev yap

GVvefyepeaOriv rcoBe, rjrrov av rov roiovrov eBei" vvv Be TTJV

! evavriav yap, a>?

opas, Aof^?/? Nt/cta edero ev Brj e%ei dtcov-

crai Kal croi), rcorepw rolv dvBpolv o-v/^-v^^^o? el.

9. 2H. TV Be, a) A.vcri/iia%e ; oTrorep^ av ol TrXetou? eTraivco- 30

(Tiv rj/jL&v, rouroi? />teXXet? xpr)(r0ai ;

AT. Tt yap av rt? /cal rroiol, w ^M/cpares ;

2H. T H /cat cru, (S MeXTyo t a, owrco? a^ Troiot? ; :a^ et rt?

t dywvias rov veos aot /3ov\r) eirj TL %pr) da/celv, dpa



TrXeioaiv av TJ/JLWV rrei6oio y 77 KCLVW oaris rvy^dvei VTTO rra&o-

rpipr) dyaOw TreTraioevaevos teal rj

ME. EtfetW et /co? 76,

a> Z

2ft. Avrw ap av ud\Xov rreiOoio 7) rerrapaiv ovcnv

5 ww;

ME. "Io-a>?.

ME. IIw? 7ap ou;

ov 7r\r0ei TO

10 2ft. QUKOVV KOI vvv %pri 7rpa)Tov avro rovro (ncetyaa-Oai, el

eo"nv ri? rj/Jitov re^vLKO^ Trepl ov {3ov\ev6/jie9a, rj ov teal el fJiev

ecmv, eKiV(t) ireiOeaOai evl OVTL, TOU9 8 aXXof? eav el Se pr),

a\\ov Tiva fyreiv. r) Trepl (TfUKpov oleaOe vvvl KivBvvevetv teal

av teal Aucrt/xa^o?, aXX ov Trepl rovrov rov KTrj/jLaros, o T&V

15 vnerepwv peyia-TOV ov Tvy%dvei ; vecov yap TTOV rj %pr)<TTO)v 7)

rdvavria jevofievcov Kal Tra? 6 oi/cos 6 TOV TraTpbs QVTGft ol/cr)-

crerat, oiroloi av rives ol TralSes tyevcovrai.

ME. A\ri0fj XeVet?.

2ft. TIo\\r)V dpa Sel TrpOfirjOiciv avrov e^eiv.

20 ME. Tldvv 76.

2ft. Ilaj? ovv, o eye*) apri eXeyov, eo-tcoTrov/jiev av, el e/3ov-

\6fJieOa (TKe^raaOai T/? rjfjiMV Trepl dycoviav re^w/cwraro? ; ap*

ov% 6 fjiaOo)v /cal eVm/Sevcra?, w /cal Si&do-tcaXoi djaOol yejo-

v6re<s rj&av avrov rovrov ;

25 ME. "RfJLOije So/cei.

2ft. OVKOVV en Trporepov, riVo? 6Wo? rovrov ^rov/jiev TOU?

ME. ITw?Xe7ei?;

10. 2ft. r ft&e tVo)? fjLa\\ov Kard^\ov ecrrai. ov uoi So,

30 ef a/3%^)? rj/Jiiv co/jLoXoyrjaOaL, ri TTOT earlv Trepl ov (BovXevo^eOa

Kal CTKeTrrofjieOa, ocms Tjfjiwv re%viKos Kal rovrov eveKa

cr/caXou? etcrrjcraro, Kal oaris JULIJ.

NI. Ov yap, w 2aJ^aTe?, Trepl rov ev OTrXot? fjid

(TKOTrov/jiev, elre %pr) avro TOU? veaviaKovs aavOdveiv elre


Sfl. Haw /JLV ovv, & Nt/aa. aXX orav Trepl (f>apfJid/cov

rt5 TOV Trpo? o($aX/zoi>5 (7/coTrrJTaL, eire %p?) avro vTra\ei$>ea6ai

eire prf, Trdrepov olei rore elvai TTJV {3ov\rjv Trepl TOV (papfjid/cov

77 Trepl TWV 6cf)0a\iJLWV ;

NI. Hepl TMV b$6a\fJLwv. 5

211. OUKOVV real brav ITTTTW %a\ivov a-fcoTTTJrai rt? el Trpocroi-

orreov T) pr), real oirore, rore TTOV Trepl TOV LTTTTOV /3ov\eveTai

aXX ov rrepl TOV %a\ivov ;

NI. A.\r)0t).

2-fl. Ov/covv evl \6ya) orav rt? ri eveicd TOV cr/coiry, Trepl 10

etceivov rj (Bov\r] TV<y%dvei ovaa ov eve/co, ecrKOTrei, aXX ov rrepl

TOV o evetca d\\ov Ityrei.

NI. Avd^KTj.

2H. Aet a/oa ^al ro^ o-vfi^ov\ov cr/coTreiv, apa T%vifcds

t? e/ceivov Oeparreiav, ov eve/ca o-KOTrov/jLev o cncoTrovfiev.

NI. Hdvv ye.

2H. OUKOVV vvv (frafjLev Trepl fAaOrj/JiaTOS aicoTrelv

eveica TTJ? rai^ veavicncatv ;

NI. Na

i9 apa 77^0^ T^w/co9 Trept ^rv)(fi^ Oepaireiav

KOI 20

re AcaXw? rouro 6epaTrev(rai, /cal orco SiSacr/caXot d<ya6ol


AA. TV 8e, w ZtoKpaTes ; OVTTO) ea)/oa;a5 a^ev Si8ao-fcd\a)v

Te%i>i/cci)Tepovs yeyovoTas et? ewa ^ /u/era SiSacrrcdXcov ;

2H. "Eyw^e, a) Aa^??? ol? 76 cry OLVC a^ eWXot5 TriaTevo-ai, 25

et (f>alev dyaOol elvai Brj/juovpyoi, el /JLJJ TL aoi rfjs CLVTWV

e%oiev eim^el^ai ev elpyao /jievov, teal ev /cal

AA. Touro /ae^ d\r)0fj \eyeis.

11. SI1. Kal ?7/xa? a/oa Set, <w Aa^5 re #al

;at MeX^crta? et5 (rv/jiftov^Tjv Trapefca^eo-dTrjv ^/u-a? 30

rotz^ ueotv, TrpoOvfjiovfjievoi avTolv o TL apforas

ra? -^ru^a?, et /xev fyapev e%eiv, eTTloel^ai avTols teal

crtcdXovs oirives TI^V yeydvao-iv, # ot* avTol TrpwTov ajaOol

6Vre? /cat TroXXw^ i/e&>z/ TeOeairevKOTes vcte eireLTa real



avr&v eavrw BiBd-

BiBdi;avre<; fyaivovrai- rj ei -TO r)^a>v

aKa\ov /Jiev ov (frrjo-i yey6vvai, aXX ovv epya auro? avrov

e%et elrrelv, teal eVt8etat, we? AflrjmtW % ra)v gevcov, T)

Bov\oi T) eXevOepoi, Si eiceivov o^o\oyov^evw^ dyadol yeydva-

5 a- iv el Be fjLrjBev ffplv TOVTMV vTrdp^ei, aXXou? KeXeveiv fyrelv

rj ev eraipcov avSpwv vecnv KivSweveuv %ia$6eipovTas TTJV

alriav e%e^ VTTO rcov olfceLordrwv. eya) pev ovv, w

re Kal Me\r)aia, TT/OWTO? irepl e^avrov Xeya) on

St8ao-/ca\o? fJLOL ov yeyove TOVTOV jrept.

tcairoi e-mOv^o) ye rov

10 TTpdy/jLaros IK veov ap^djjievos. a\\d rot? j^ev aofyicrTals OVK


re\elv /jLicOovs, oiVe/o povoi e7rr]yje\\ovT6 pe

oloi r eivat

7TOir)0-ai Kd\dv re icdyaOov avrbs 8 av evpelv rrjv rex^v aovvaru

ert vvvl. el Be Nt/eta? fj Aa%??9 yvprjKev j) fAepdffrjicev,

OVK av Oavfjida-aifJii Kal yap ^^a<jiv efiov SvvarwTepoi, ware

15 paOetv Trap d\\uv, Kal ware d/jia Trpea/Svrepoi, TJ^rjvprjKevaL.

SoKOvaL Bvvarol elvai nrai^evcrai

877 /JiOL avOpwrrov ov yap av

r^ v re

TTore aSeco? aire^aivovro Trepl eTriTrj&ev /jLarcov veto XP r )"

Kal 7rovr)p(*)v, el /xr) aurot? eTri&Tevov IK.CLVW elSevat. ra pev

ovv d\\a eycoye rouroi? TriaTevco OTL Be Biac^epeaOov a\\rj-

20 \oiv, eOavjMicra.

rovro ovv crov eyw avriBeoiAai, &>


KaOaTrep dprt Aa^9 p T) d^ieaOai ere e>oO Ste/ceXevero

epcorav, Kal eya> vvv 7rapaKe\evo/jLai croi JJLTJ afyiecrdai A

fjirjBe Nt/ctou, aXX epcordv \eyovra, on 6 pev ^coKpdrr)^ ov

(frrjo-LV e-rrateiv Trepl rov TrpdypaTOS, ov& iKavos elvai SiaKplvai

25 oTTore/ao? vfjiwv d\i]6ri \eyei ovre yap evperrj^

ovre /xa^^r^? ov-

Aa%^? Kal Nt/cta,

8e^o? Trepl TWV TOLOVTCOV yeyovevac crv & , w

eiTrerov rjfJLiv e/care/oo?, TLVL Brj Beivordra) avyyeyovarov Trepl T^?

rwv vewv rpocf)^, Kal irorepa /jiaOovre Trapd rov eTrLcrrao-Oov rj

avra) e^evpdvre, Kal el pev fJiaOdvre, TI? 6 BiBdcrKaXos eKarepw

30 Kal TLves aXXot o/xorex^ot auroZ?, tV, av ^ vplv o-%oXr^ fj VTTO

rcov r^? TToXea)? TrpayjJLdrwv, eir eKetvovs Lco/^ev Kal

T) Bwpois fj xdpto-iv rj a^orepa eVt/ieX^^7}^at


Kal ra)v v/JLerepcov TratBcov, OTTO)? pr)

vva)crL KaTaicrx


Trpoyovovs (f)av\OL yevd/jievoi

el B avrol evperal yeyovdre rov

TOLOVTOV, Sore TrapaBeiy/Jia, TLVCOV rjBrj d\\wv eTrifjieXrjOevTe^ eK

cj)av\wv Ka\ovs re KayaOovs eTroitjaaTe. el yap vvv ap^eaOe

TrpwTov Tratoeveiv, a-KOirelv %p7j fjirj OVK ev TW Kapl vfMV

o KIV-

Svvos Kiv&vveviiTai, aXX ev rot? v/jLerepois re Kal ev rot? TWV

(f)i\wv Tratori, Kal are^va)^ TO Xeyd/Jievov Kara rr)v TrapoLfiiav 5

vfjilv crvfji^aivr) ev TriOu) rj icepafjieia ytyvofAevr). \e<yere ovv, TL

TOVTGDV TJ (pare v[uv vTrdp^eiv re Kal TrpocrrjKeiv, j) ov (frare.

ravT\ <a

Tot/? avSpas.

Aucrt/Lta^e, Trap avr&v TrvvBdvov re Kal /AT) peQiei,

12. AT. KaXw? pev efjioiye SoKei, w dvSpes, ^coKpdrrj^ \e- 10

jeiv el 8e /3owXo/aeVot9 vfuv ean irepl TWV TOIOVTCOV epcordadai

re Kal Si&ovai, \dyov, avrovs Brj %prj yi<yva)o-Keiv, <w N^/c/a

re Kal Aa^?;?. e/jiol fjiev yap Kal MeX^cr/a rcoSe $fj\ov on r)Bo-

av eiij, el irdvra, a ^coKparrj^ epcora, e9e\oiTe \dyq)


Kal yap e dp^i]^ evrevOev j>/r

Jjpxdf lv \eywv t on els 15

v bid ravra v/nds TrapaKaXeaai/jLev, on /jL/^e\7jKevai

rjyovjjieOa, co? euKos, Trepl TWV TOLOVTCOV, Kal aXXw? Kal

rj ol TratSe? vplv 6\iyov waTrep oi rj^erepoi i]\iKiav

TraiSeveadai. el ovv vfj.lv JJLY] TI Siacfrepei, eiTrare Kal

fjLerd ^WKpaTovs o-Ke^aaOe, ^^SoVre? re Kal Se^o/jievoi, 20

\dyov Trap d\\ij\cov ev yap Kal TOVTO \eyei oBe, OTI


TOV fjieyiaTov vvv ^ov\evo^e9a TWV r]^eTepwv. d\)C opaTe el

SoKel xpijvai, OVTGD Troielv.

NI. fl J^vaifJia^e, SoKels JAOI a>? d\r)6w$

^WKpaTij iraTpo-

6ev ycyvcoa-Ketv /JLOVOV, avTw $ ov crvyyeyovevai aXX rj TratSl 25

ozm, et TTOV ev rot? SrjfioTais yu-era TOV TTO-T/OO? aKo\ovdwv

e7T\ rjo iao ev croi rj ev lepa> rj ev aXXco TW avXXoyw TWV ^JJLO-

TWV eTreiSr) Se Trpea-fBvTepos yeyovev, OVK evTeTV^rjKco^ raJ

AT. TL [jLd\io~Ta, w Nt/cta ; 30

13. NI. Ov fjiOL SoAret? elSevai, OTI, 09 av eyyvTaTa ^coKpd-

TOU9 r) Xoyw, Kal Tr\r^(TLd^rj Sia\ey6fjievo<>, dvdyKTj avTw, eav

dpa Kal Trepl aXXou TOV TrpoTepov dp^rjTai, Sia\&y<r0cu t /j,r)

i VTTO TOVTOV TrepLayd/jievov rc3 \6yw, Trplv *av*



f fJUTTo~rj 6t9 TO BiBovaL Trepl avTov \6yov, ovTiva Tpoirov vvv

re %r) Kal ovTLva TOV Trape\7]\v00Ta ftiov /Be/SlajKev eTreLodv

8 efji,Tceo~r) ) OTL ov TrpOTepov avTov d(f)ijo~eL Z&)/cpaV?79, Trplv av

ftaaavLar) TCLVTCL ev Te Kal /caX&>9 diravTa eya) Be o~vv/)0r)<$ T

5 el/JLL TcoSe /cat olo* OTL dvdy/crj VTTO TOVTOV Trda^eLV rauTa, /cal

tVt ye auT09 OTL Trelo-oaaL TavTa ev oloa X a ^P a} J^p, w Aucrt-

?, TOJ dvBpl TT\rio~id^(dv, Kal ovBev ot/u-at /caKov elvai TO

o~Keo~0aL 6 TL JJLT) /caXco9 TJ TreTTOL7]Ka/^ev rj TTOLOV/jiev,

TOV eVetTa /3lov Trpo/JLrjOeo-Tepov dvdyKTj elvai, TOV

10 raura arj favyovTa, aXX* 60e\ovTa /caTa TO TOV ^0X0)^09 /cat

dEiovvTa jJiav0dveLV ewaTrep av ff}, /cat /u,^ olo^evov


7?}pa9 i^oOy e^ot TrpoaievaL. e/u-ot yu-ez^ o5z/ ovBev dr)0e$ ovB

av dijBes VTTO Sa)/cpaTOU9 (3ao~avi%eo~0aL, aXXa /cat TraXat

8oV Tt 7/TTtO-Ta/Lt?;^, OTt OL 7T6)Ot TWZ/ UeLpaKLCOV rjfJLLV 6

15 eaoLTO 2&)/cparou9 7rapo^ro9, aXXa 7T6jOt rjfAWV avTwv. OTrep

ovv \eya), TO uev efjiov ovoev /ccoXuet Sco/cpaVet avvBtarpifteiv

o7Tft)9 ouT09 /SouXeTat Aa^Ta Se Toz/Se opa 6Va>9 e^6t ?re/ol


14. AA. f

ATrXoO^ TO 7* e^toV, w Nt/cta, Trept \6ywv ec

20 el Be (3ov\ei, ov% dirXovv, aXXa BLTT\OVV. /cal yap av

TO) 0tXoXo709 etz/at /cat a5 fjLLcr6\oyos. OTav uev ydp d/covco

dvBpos Trepl apeT>/9 Bia\eyo/jievov ?} Trept TLVOS crofyias

^co9 OVTOS dvBpos Kal d^LOV TO)V \oycov (bv \eye

009 a

^)fW9, OecDuevos d/^a TOV Te \eyovTa /cal TO, \eyoueva OTL

25 TrpeTTovTa aXX?/Xot9 /cat dpfAOTTOVTa eo~TL /cat KOfJii^f) JJLOI

BOKCL /JLOVQ-LKOS 6 TOLOVTO? elvai, dpfjiovlav /ca\\io-Tr]V yp/jio-

cr/jievos ov \vpav ovBe ?rat8ta9 opyava, aXXa TW oz/Tt ^}i^

r)p/jLoo~ijLevos ev auro9 avTov TOV ftiov crvacfrcovov Tot9 \dyoL?

?rp09 Ta epya, aTevyws owptcrTt aXX ou/c tacrTt otyitat ofoe

30 (f)pvyLo~Tl ovBs XuStcrrt, aXX iJTrep /juovrj EXX^t/cr; eo~Tiv

dpuovia. 6 aev ovv TOLOVTOS ^aipeiv pe vrotet

/cat Boicelv OTWOVV cj)L\o\oyov elvai OVTCO cr<poBpt


Trap avTov TO, \eyoaeva 6 Be ravavria TOVTOV TrpaTTwv \VTrel

/j,, oo~a) dv Bo/cfj dfJieivov \eyei.v, ToaovTfo /J.d\\ov,

\ ..L.Aft. t.



av BOKCLV elvcu jjbio~o\oyov. L


OVK efjLjreipos ei/JLi, aXXo. TrpoTepov, &>?

2.WKpdrovs & eyco TWV fiev \dywv

eoifce, TCOV epywv eweL-

pd07jv, Kal eKel avTov rjvpov d^Lov ovra \dycov Ka\wv Kal

Travis Trapptjcna^. el ovv KOI TOVTO e%ei, (TVfj./3ov\o/ji,aL

ravSpt, Kal TJ^HTT av e^era^oif^rjv VTTO rou TOIOVTOV, Kal OVK 5

av d^doifji rjv pavOdvav, d\\a Kal eyo) rw ^EoXw^t, ev povov

TroXXa idcrKecr6ai

7rpo(T\aj3a>v, avy^wpw yrjpdaKcov jap

e6e\w VTTO xpTjaTwv fidvov. TOVTO yap JJLOL o-vy^copeLTO), dya-

6ov Kal avTov elvai TOV $idaKa\ov, r

iva fjirj Svo-f4a07js (ftaiva)-

jjiai dySws fjLav0dvcov el Be vea)Tp&s 6 SiSda-Kcov eo-Tai rj /JL^TTCO 10

ev Bogy wv TJ TL a\\o TWV TOLOVTCDV e%(ov, ovBev p,oi fjieXei,. aol

ovv, w Sw/cpare?, eyw e7rayye\\ojuai, Kal BiBdaKeLV Kal e\ey%eiv

6/u.e o TL av /3ov\rj, Kal fjiavBdveiv ye o TL av eya) olBa OVTW av

Trap e yLtol BiaKeLcraL CLTC eKelvr)? T?}? 7)/j,epas, f/ /tier e yu-oO crvv-

$LKivBvvevo-as Kal eB&Kas aavTOV Trelpav a/oeri}?, rjv ^prj BiBd- 15

i. /Vai TOV (Jie\\ovTa BiKaicos Bct)o-eLV. \ey

ovv o TL O-QL

v TTJV rjfjieTepav r)\LKiav V7ro\oyov Troiovpevos.

15. SO. Ov Ta v/jieTepa, &>? eoLKev, alTiaaofjieOa

elvai Kal o-v/A/3ov\eveiv Kal avo-KOTrelv.

AT. AXX rj/neTepov Brj epyov, co


^u>KpaTe^ eva ydp ere 20

eywye r)/jLwv riOtifU (TKOTrei ovv dvT e/uoO vwep TWV veavlo-KO)v,

o TL Bed/j^eOa irapa TwvBe TrvvOdveaOai, Kal avfJiftovXeve

yopevos TOVTOLS. eyco /juev ydp Kal iirCKavQavo^ai

TroXXa Bid TTJV rj\LKiav wv av BiavorjOco dpeaOai, Kal av a

dv aKovaa), edv ye fJLGTa^v d\\OL \dyoL yevcovTai, ov Trdvv 25

ftefJLWj/jLai. v/jLeis ovv Xeyere Kal Bie&Te 777)09 vfjids avTovs

Trepl ayv TrpovOe/jLeOa eyco S* aKovao/jLaL Kal aKovaas av /zera

MeX^cr/ou TovBe TTOL^OTW TOVTO d TL av Kal V/J.LV BOKT).

Sll. Heia-Teov, a> NIK la re Kal Aa^?, Avaijud^a) Kal

MeXrja-la. a /jiev ovv vvvBrj ejre^eLp/io-a/biev aKOTrelv, TiW? ol 30

ctodo-Ka\oi fifj.lv r% TOiavTr)^ TraiSetaq yeydvao-LV

aXXof9 fleXriovs ireiroi^icafAev^ t cra)? //-ev ov /^a/cco? e

fetv Kal Ta TOLavTa ?yyLta? aurou? aXX ol^ai Kal rj TOLaBe

e^rL^ els TavTov (f>pl, o-^eBov Be TL Kal ^aXkov eg a



I t7; av. el jap Tvy%dvo/JLv eTTLdTd^evoL OTOVOVV TrepL, on Trapa-

yevoaevov TW fte\TLov Troiel e/celvo co TrapeyeveTO, teal TrpoaeTL

olol re eo~fjiev avTO Troielv TrapaytyvecrOaL e/celva), Brj\ov OTL

avTO <y


TOVTO, ov Trepi cru/A/SouXot av yevoLfieOa &)9 av

5 T9 avTO pacrra teal dpLaT av KTrjcrano. i<rw<;

VT /JLOV O TL \6J(D, ttXX 0)O


pOLOV fJLa6rj(Te(T06.


eTTio-rdfJievoi, OTL o-^t? Trapajevo/jievrj 6(f)6a\fAOLs /SeXr/ou? Troiel

e/cetvovs ol? Trapeyevero, /cal TrpocrerL oloi r ea/^ev iroielv avrrjv

TrapaylyvecrOai, Ofii^ao-i, &f)\ov OTL o-^nv ye la/juev avTrjV OTL

10 TTOT eaTLv, Tjs TrepL avjji(Bov\QL av >yVOLfA0a


&)? av Ti? av-

Trjv pa&Ta fcal apLcrTa KTijcraiTO. el yap /^S avTO TOVTO

eiSeljjiev, o TI TTOT ecrTLv otyis r) o TL CCTTLV dfcoij, a^(o\r) av

av/A/3ov\oL ye CL^LOL \6yov yevolfjieda /cal laTpol rj Trepl 6<j)0a\fjL&v

TJ Trepl WTO)V, ovTLva TpOTTOv aKor)V rj O-^TLV Ka\\L(TT av

15 KTTj(TaLTO Tt?.

AA. y

K\7]6i) \eyeLS, w 2w/c/?are9.

16. SO. OVKOVV, a) Aa^?, /cal vvv rj/nas rcoSe Trapaica\el-

TOV 6t? crv/jifiovXTJv, TIV av TpoTrov T0t9 vecTLv avToyv dpeTr)

7rapayevo/j.evr] rat9 ^v^al^ d/ueivovs TroLijaeLe ;

20 AA. TIdvv ye.



Ap ovv TOVTO y vTrdp^eLV oei, TO el&evaL o TL TTOT

apeTrj ; el ydp TTOV /ct^S apeTrjv elSel/jLev TO nrapaTrav

o TL TroTe Tvy^dveL ov, TLV av TpoTrov TOVTOV (TV[Ji[^ov\OL yevoi-

fjLeda OTWOVV, O7rco9 av avTO

2$ AA. QvSeva, e/uoiye Sofcei, w

SH. Qauev apa, co Aa^?79, eloevaL avTO o TL CCTTLV.

AA. <&aaev fjievTOi.

SO. OVKOVV o ye icr^ev, Kav elTTOLjjiev SIJTTOV TL e

A A. n&)9 yap ov ;

30 SO. M^ TOLVVV, a) apLCTTe, Trepl 0X779 aperf? evOews

a Tr\eov yap icrcos epyov d\Xa uepovs TLVOS TrepL

, el ifcavws e-^o^ev 77/009 TO elftevaL real IJ/JLLV, ro9 TO

pdo)v i-] o-fcetyLS eaTai.

AA. AXX OVTCO TTOLwuev, a) &>9 2.a)/caTs,


AAXH2. 4 1

Tt ovv av 7rpoe\olaeOa TWV T?)9 dpeTT/s fjiepwv ; r^

r) OTL TOVTO et9 o relveiv So/eel r) ev rot? 07rXo9 /jidBrj-

o~t9 ; $ofcei 8e TTOV Tot9 7roXXot9 et9 dvBpeiav. rjjydg ;

AA. Kat fjiaXa &r) ovrco So/cet

SO. ToOro Toivvv Trpwrov eTri^eiprjcrcDfJiev, a) Aa%^?, elirelv, 5

avSpeta rl TTOT ecrriv eTreira /^era TOVTO (TKe^rofJieOa


av TpoTTW rot? veavi<TKOi<$ vrapayevoiTo, fcaO* ocrov olov re e f

eTTtTrj^ev/jidTcov re /cat fJLaOrnjidTwv 7rapa<yvea-0ai.

elirelv o Xeyco, TL eaTiv dvftpeia.

17. AA. Ov fjid TOV Ata, <w


01) ^a\7rop

d\\a Treipa)

eiTcelv 10

et 7/? rt? eOe\OL ev Ty rafet /jievcov d/jivvecrOat, TOT)? TroXe/A/of?

/cat /x^ (f)6vyoL, ev ladi OTI dvbpelos av elf].

SO. E yuez^ Xe7et?, co Aa^? aXX tcrco? e ^cb aiVio?, ou

CLTTCOV, TO o~ aTTOKpLvaaOai fjirj TOVTO o Siavoov/juevos b**^

, aXX eTepov. 15

AA. IIco? rotOro X^et?, w Sco/cpare? ;

^O. E^w <$>pda(*), edv oTo? re ^evwfjiai. dvBpeids TTOV ov-

?, Xe76t9,

ozv /cat <7i)

09 ai^ eV r^ rafet fJbevwv yu-a^T/rat rot?

A A. 70) 701)^ L (fr TJfJ 20

SH. Kat 7a/) 70). aXXa rt ay oSe, 09 a^ (frevywv yLta^rat

Tot9 7roXe/Lt< ot9, ttXXa /u,^ /jievcov ;


(f)6v<ya)V ;

SO. r

la7rp TTOV Kal ^KvOai \eyovTai ou% TJTTOV fav-

70^x69 ^7 $i(i)KOVTes fJid^eaOaij Kal "O^pos TTOV eTraiVMV 25

Toi>9 roO Aiveiov 17T7TOU9 K p a i Tc v d /xaX evOa /cat

ev a e<?7 avTOvs eTcivTacrQai Stco/cetz/ 77^6 <e/3e-

cr 6 a i Kal avTov TOV A.lveiav /cara TOUT eveKcoutacre, /caTa

T^y ToO <j)6/3ov eiTLCTT^j/jLrjv, Kal elTcev avTov elvai fJLrjaTwpa

(fro/Soio. 30

AA. Kat /caXw9 76, a>


Trept dp/jiaTCOv yap e\e<ye

/cat cri) TO TWV ^Kv6a)V LTTTrewv Tcepu \ejeis. TO yue^ 7p ITCTCI-

KOV ITO eKelvcov/ OVTCO /za^eTat, TO 8e OTr\iTiicov /TO 76 TCOI/

>9 670)


42 11AATJ2N02

H\tjv y to-o)?, w A<rj779, TO Aa/ceScu/JLovicov. Aa/ce-

yap $aaiv ev TlXaramt?, eVetS^ TT/OO? rot? 76/9/30-

eyevovTO, OVK e6e\eiv aevovTa? irpos avrovs /md^ecrOai,

a, favyetv, CTreiSr} S e\v6riaav al ra^ei? TCOV TLepacov, dva-

5 GTpecfrouevovs coo-jrep tTTTrea? f^d^ecrBat, KOL ovrco vi/cfjcrai rrjv

KL jLLd%r)V.

A A. AX?7#7; Xeyet?.

18. ^fl. ToL/TO TOIVVV apTL \JOV, OTl JO) aiTlO? yU-7/ aXa?

ere dTTOKpivaaOai, OTL ou /caXco? r^pofjirfv. ^ov\6fjievo^ <ydp aov

10 TTuOeadaL ^rj povov roL/9 eV rw OTT^TLKM avSpelovs, aXXa /cat

TOU? eV TW iTTTn/cq) teal ev O-V/JLTTCLVTI reo 7ro\fJiiKU) eiSei, fcal

fj/rj povov roL9 eV rc3 7ro\fiep, aXXa /cat TO 1/5 eV rot9 7T/309 rr/i;

6d\arrav KLV$VVOIS dvSpeiovs oVra?, /cat oo-ot 76 ?r/?09 vocrovs

/cat oaoi 7T/009 irevias rj KOL 7T^09 ra 7ro\iTiKa dvSpeloi elaiv,

15 /cat ert a5 ^77 /^oi/o^ oo-ot 7T/009 Xu?ra9 avSpeiol elaiv rf (f>o/3ovs,

dXXa /cat 7rp09 eTTldvpias rj rjSovas Seivol fJid^eaOai, /jLevovres

rj dva<TTpe(f)OVTs ela-l yap TTOU rtz/69, a>

Toiovrois dv^peloi.

AA. Kal atydSpa, a) ^co/cpares.

Aa^?;9, /cat ev roi9

20 ^H. OVKOVV dvbpeloi /JLEV Trdvres ovrol elcnv, aXX oi uev

ev rjSovals, ol o ev X^?rai9, oi 8* eV eiri6vfiiai^ t oi 8 eV <f)6/3oi$

dvSpelav eKTqvTai oi Se y olpai SeiXiav ev rots

AA. Hdvv ye.

25 2O. Tt Trore 6z/ e/cdrepov TOVTWV, rovro

7ra\tv ovv Treipo) elnrelv avBpelav Trpwrov, rl ov ev

rourot9 ravrov ecrriv rj OVTTCO KarauavOdvei? o \eya> ;

AA. Ov Trdvv TL.

19. SO. AXX wSe \eyco, coajrep dv el ra^o9 rjpwrwv ri

30 TTOT ecrTiv, o real ev TO) rpe%eiv rvy^dvei ov i]^lv Kal ev TW

KiBapi^ew Kal ev TO) \eyetv /cat ev TW fjiavOdveiv Kal ev aXXot9

7roXXot9, /cat o-^eSo^ TL avTO KeKTrj/jbeOa, ov Kal Trepi d%iov

\eyeiv, TJ ev Tat9 TCOV ^eipwv Trpd^eaiv TJ crKe\&v rj

Te /cat ^>ft)i^r/9 rj Siavolas TJ ov% OVTCO Kal crv \eyeis ;

AA. Tldvv ye.


Sfl. El Toivvv T/9 a)

fJie epoLTO 2a)KpaTes, Ti \eyei? TOVTO,

o ev Traaiv ovofid^eis ra^vTtjra elvai; eiiroifjC av avrw on


TTJV ev oX//ya> XP V( P 7ro^ L ^tawparrofteviffv Svva/jav ra^vrrjra

670)76 tca\w Kal Trepl (pcovrjv KOI Trepl Spof^ov /cal irepl raXXa 5


AA. QpOws 76 av \eya)v.

SO. Heipo) ty teal av, w Aa^?, rrjv avSpelav

ovrws etVeti/,

T/5 ovaa $vva/j(,is r) avrrj ev r)$ovf) Kal ev \V7rrj KOI ev aTraaiv

ot? vuvSr) e\e<yo/jiev avrrjv elvai, eireiia dvbp-ela KeK\7jrat,. 10

AA. Ao/cet Toivuv (JLOL /caprepia rt? elvai, rr)S et ^^%^9, TO

76 8ia jrdvTcov [^repi dv^pela^ nrefyvKos

8ei eijrelv.

SH. AXXa /JLTjV Set, ei ye TO epcorw^evov airoKpivovfJLeOa

rj/jilv ai}rot9. TOUTO TOLVVV e/Aoiye (fraLverai, ^ort*

ov TI Trdad

76, &)9 eypfjiai, Kaprepia avSpela aoi (fiaiveTai reK/jLaipofiai 8e n a>

<ydp olSa, Aa%^?, on TWV Trdvv /ca\a)v

av dvSpeiav elvai.




EL> /aev ovv laQi OTL rwv /ca\\iara)v.

SO. OVKOVV r) i^ev /jLera (frpovrjaews Kaprepia /ca\rj /cayaOij ;

AA. Tldvv ye.

Sf!. Tl 8* f] /ier d(j)poavvr)S ; ov Tovvavriov ravrrj (3\a-

(3epa Kal /cafcovpryos ;

AA. Na/.

Sil. KaXo^ ovv TL 0>/(T6fc9 cri) elvai TO TOIOVTOV, ov /ca/covp-

yov re /cal {3\a(3epdv ; 25

AA. OVKOVV oLKaidv ye, w 2co/cpaT69.


Ou/c a/oa TTJV ye Toiavrrjv KapTeplav dvftpetav 6/jio\oyr)-

Ka\6v eaTiv.

(ret9 elvai, eTreiSiJTrep ov Ka\i] eaTiv, rj &e avopela



A\rj67j \eyeis.

H (ppdvifjios apa KapTepla KaTa TOV aov \6yov dvSpela 30

av eiTj.

AA. "EoiKev.

20. SO. "I8a)yae^ 877, 97 6t9 Tt (f)poviuos ; rj ?; 6/9 aTravTa

Kal TCL jjieyd\a Kal Ta aui/cpd ; olov el TI$ Kaprepel ava\i-



OTKCOV apyvpiov <pom/ia>?,


aerai, TOVTOV dv opelov /caXofc civ ;

AA. Ma At" OVK eya)ye.

et Soo? OTL dvaXtoaas ir\eov e/cT^j-

5)H. AXX* olov el Tt? larpos wv, 7repi7r\evfjiovia

TOV veo$

5 e^o/mevov 77 d\\ov rtz o? /cal Seo/jievov Tuelv r) <j)a<yelv Sovvai,

fir) /cajjiTTTOLTO a\"\,a tcaprepol ;

AA. Ov& oTrcoariovv ov& avrij.

^O. AXX* ev 7ro\e/jLM tcaprepouvra avbpa Kal eOeXovra

fjid^eaOai, (frpovl/Jicos \oyio/jLevov, elSora fiev OTL /3or)0r)(rov-

10 (Tiv d\\oi aura), Trpo? eXttTTOU? Se teal (f>av\orepov^ /^a^elrai

77 fjieO wv auro? e(mv t en 8e %c0pia e^ei Kpeirrw, TOVTOV TOV

yu-era T?]? rotaur^? (frpovrjcrea)? Kal TrapaaKevrjs KapTepovvTa

avSpeioTepov av (paiTjs 77 TOV ev rc3 evavricp aTpaTOTreSw e6e-

\OVTO, VTro^eveiv re /cal KapTepeiv ;

15 AA. Toz/ ev TO) evavTiw, e/iot^e So/eel, a) Sco/c^are?.

SH. AXXa yu,^ d(f>poveo-Tepa ye ^ TOVTOV rj rj TOV eTepov


AA. AX?7#7} \eyeis.

Sn. Kat TOZ^ yu-er eVicrT^yLtT;? apa ITTTTL/CTJ^ /capTepovvTa ev

20 tVTTOyLta^ta TjTTov ^^Vet? avSpeiov elvai 7} ro^ a

AA. "Et/jioiye So/eel.

Kal roz> /icra a^ev^ovr^TiKm rj TO^AO}? 77 aXX?79


AA. HaVu 7 6.

25 2H. Kal oerot ^77 ede\ov(TiV et? (f>peap KaTaftaivovTes teal

/co\Vfji{3(*)VTes KapTepeiv ev TOVTW TO>

epyoy, /JUT) 6Vre? Seivol, rj ev

TIVI aXXw TOIOVTW, dv$peioTpov<s ^^crei? TCW raOra Seivwv.

AA. Tt 7a/>

ai/ ri? aXXo (fralr), M Sco/cpare? ;

Sll. OvSeV, elTTEp OLOLTO ye Ol/TO)?.

30 AA. AXXa yu-7)^ ol/jial ye.

Sn. Kal ^771; Trof d(j)pove(rTep(i)s ye, a) Aa^T/?, ot TOLOVTOL

Kiv^vvevovcriv re Aral KapTepovcnv 77 ot //.era Te%vi)<> avTo




2fl. OVKOVV alcrxpd -Y) d^pcov rd\/jLa re Kal Kaprepyo-is ev

T&) rrpoaOev e(j)dvr) rjjjilv ovcra teal /3\a/3epa ;

AA. Tidvv ye.

SO. H 8e ye dvSpeia u>fJio\oyelro Ka\dv n elvai.


ercevo TO

fcapreprja-iv, avSpeiav elvai.

AA. EotVa/zez>.

SH. KaXco? oyz^ crot So/cov/Jiev \eyeiv ;

AA. Ma TOZ/ Ata, a>


efjiol /JLev ov. 10

21. Xn. Ou/c a/oa Trof /cara rbv aov \6yov Swpio-rl rjp/JLO-

o-fieOa eya) re Kal av, co Aa^? ra yap epya

rj/jilv rot? Xctyoi?. epyw fjiev yap, a>9

eoi/ce, (f)air)

ov av

av rt?

dvSpelas fjuere^eiv, \dyqy 8 , to? eyw/JLai, OVK av, el vvv

aKovcreie ^La\eyo^ev(i)V.


AA. y

A\7j6eo-Tara \eyeis.

2O. Tt ouz^ ; So^et Ka\ov elvai oura)? ^/-ta? SiafceicrOai, ;

AA. Ou8 6rrci)(7Tiovi>.

Xn. BouXet o^i/ w \eyojjiev 7rei9(*)/Jie0a TO 76 roaovrov ;

AA. To 7TOLOV &r) TOVTO, Kal TiVi TOUTft) , 2O

SO. Tc3 \6yw o? Kaprepetv Ke\evei. el ovv /3ov\si, Kal

?7/Aefc? eVt r^ tyfTiq<Ft eTTi/JLeivco/jiev re Kal Kapreptfo-cofAev, iva

Kal /AT) rj/juwv aurr/ rj dvSpela Karaye\da"r), on OVK av&petcos

avrrjv fyrovfjiev, el apa TroXXti/ct? avrrj t] Kapreprjais eariv


AA. E-yft> fJLev erotyLto?, co Sco^/Dare?, /jirj rrpoa^iarao-Oai

Kai roi ar]Qr]^


y elfjil rwv roiovTwv \6ycov aXXa r/? //.e Kal

(f)L\ovLKLa ei\rj(f)V TT/OO? rd elprj/Jieva, Kal tw? aX^^w? dya-


, el ovrwcrl a VOM /A?J 0409 r el/jl elrre tv. voeiv fj,ev ydp

&OKW rrepl dvbpeias o ri eariv, OVK olSa 8 oTry fjie dpru 30

, wcrre yLtr; (Tv\\a(3eiv rco Xoya) avrrjv Kal elrrelv o n

SO. OVKOVV, ay (f)i\e, rov dyaOov Kvvvjyervjv peraOelv %pfy

Kal jur dvLevai.


46 nAATsaros

AA. Tlavrdiracri, fjuev ovv.

2fL BouXet ovv /cal Nadav rovBe TrapatcaXw/jiev eirl TO

rcvvrjyecriov, e n TJ/AWV eviropwrepos eornv ;

AA. BouXOyltat 7TGO? jap OV ,

5 22. ]n. "I#



eV Xoyft) /cat

a-jropovcnv /3oi]0r}(rov, el nva e%6i<; ovva/uuv.

^V jap Sr) &>? ri^erepa opas aTTOpa- av 3 etVcoy o

avBpelav elvai, ij/za? re r% airopia^ e/cXvaat /cal avros a

TO) \6jW fieftatGHTOl.

10 NI. Ao/cetre roivvv /not 7rd\ai ov AraXw?, co ^LcoKpares, opi-

rrjv dvSpeiav -

rovro) ov yprjcrde.

ITo/w S/;, a) Nitcla ;


o yap eya) crov -tjSTj /ca\co$ \eyovros

NI. IToXXa/c^? d/cTJKod aov \eyovro<?, on ravra

15 eWo-ro? T/^WI/, aTrep o-o^o?, a 8e dpaOfc, ravra

^11. K\7]6ri pevroi VTJ A /a \eyeis, a) Nt/aa.

NI. OVKOVV elirep o dvSpeios dyaOos, 8rj\ov on 0-0^09

AA. "70)76, /cat ou (rcfroopa ye pavOdva) o \eyei.

20 SO. AXX* 700 SOATCO fjiavOdveiv, /cal JJLOL SoKel dvrjp aofyiav

TLVCL rrjv dvSpeiav \eyeiv.

AA. IToiai^, w 2a>A:paT9, orofyiav ;

SO. QVKOVV rovoe TOVTO epcoras ;

AA. "70)76.

25 SO. 10* S/;, aurw etVe, w Nt/c/a, ?ro/a crofyia dv&peia dv

eirj Kara rbv crov \6yov. ov yap TTOV rj ye au\7jTi/c/).

NI. OvSanw.

SO. OuSe /u>)^ ?; K

NI. Ou ^ra.

30 Zil. AXXa rt? OT; avrri rj T/I/O?

AA. Tla^f yu-ez^ ouz^ opOws avrov epcDras, w 2,a)KpaTS, teal

elirercd ye riva (prjcrlv avrrjv elvai.

NI. Taur?;^ eycoye, co Aa^?, rr/z^ TWI^ Seivwv teal Oappa-

\ewv eTTLo-Ttj/Arjv KOI ev 7ro\efj.w /cal ev rot? aXXo*? diracrLV.

AA. fl? aroTra \eyei, o>



]n. IIpo? TL TOVT etTre? /SXei/ra?, w Aa^i^ ;

AA. 11/309

o TL ; %copls $) )TTOV ao<f)la eo~T\v d

2n. Ov/covv (frycri ye Nt/aa?.

AA. Ov fJLevTOL Ata* IJLCL ravrd TOL KOI \7]pel.

2O. OVKOVV ^i^do-KWfJiev avrdv, aX\a p

NI. Ov/e, aXXa /^ot So/eel, a>

23. AA. Hdvv fjiev ovv, a>



/jir)8ev Xeyovra, OTI KOI auro? a/ort TOIOVTOS

ovSev yap Xeyet? *


/cat Treipdao^al ye aTro- 10

eVet avri/ca ev rat? VOO-OLS ov% ol

larpol ra Seiva eirLcrTavTai ; rj ol dvSpeloi

(TTaaOai ; ^7 rou? larpovs av Ka\el<$ dvbpeiovs ;

So/covai aoi ewl-


AA. OtSe 76 TGI/? yecopyovs ol^ai. KalroL rd ye ev rrj 15

yecopyla Seivd OVTOI Bijwov eTrtorravTai, /cal ol dXXoi 87j/jnovp-

yol anravres TO, ev rat? avrwv re^yai^ Seivd re /cal Bappa\ea



ciXX ov$ev TL /xaXXoz^ OVTOI dvbpeloi elcnv.

TL So/eel a> Aa^? *\eyeiv, Nt/a ; eoi/cev fievroi \e-

yeiv TL. 20

NI. Kal yap Xeyet 76 TL, ov fjievToi d\r]0es ye.

2n. nw? 8/7;

NI. f/

Ort o leTaL TOU? tar/oou? Tr\eov TL elSevcu Trepl rou?

rj TO vyLeLvov [elTrelv olov\

Te /cal voawSes. ol Se

TOCTOVTOV fjLovov laaorLV el Be Setvdv TO) TOVTO eo~TLv TO 25

XXov TJ TO /cdfAveLV, rjyel av TOVTL, ay Aa^?;?,

TOU? laTpovs 7TLo-Tao-0aL ; rj ov TroXXot? oleL e/c TT}?

vdaov dfJieLVov elvai /ATJ dvaaTrjvai rj ava(jTr\vai ; TOVTO yap

elire av TrdaL <T}? a^eLVOv elvaL ffiv /cal ov TroXXot? KpelTTov

TeOvdvcLL ; 30

AA. QlfjiaL eycoye TOVTO ye.

NI. Ot? ovv TeOvdvaL \vo-LTe\el, TavTa oleL SeLvd elvaL Kal

06? taflV ;

AA. Ov/c eycoye.



NI. AXXa TOVTO &rj av S/Sa)? rot? larpols yLyvdi)o-KLV 77

aXXco nvl Sij/jLiovpya) TrXr/i/ rco TCOZ> Seivwv /cal yu-r/

, ov eyco dvopelov /caXco ;

Karai oet?, a> Aa^T/?, 6 rt \eyeL ;

SeLVtov eVt-

5 AA. "70^, OTL Toi>9 ye pdvTeis ica\el TOU? dvSpelovs r/?

^a/o S?) aXXo9 elcrerau orco apeivov ?}z> ^ reOvdvai ;

ait, a) Nt/a, TTorepov 0/^0X07669 HULVTIS elvai r) ovre

NI. Tt x

Se; jjLavrei, av oUi TrpoarJKei, ra Sewa <yi<yi

10 /cal ra 0appa\.ea ;

AA. "E7a)7

24. NI. 7

rt^t 7/o aXXw;

Ht 670) Xe70> TTO\V yuaXXoi/, a>




IACLVTLV 76 ra arf^ela JJLOVOV Sel ryiyva)(TKeiv T&V ecro/jievcov, el re

TW Odvaros eire voaos etre a?ro/3oX^ ^prj/jLarcov effrai, eire

15 i/t/ci; 6tre ^rra ^7 7ro\jJLOv r) KOI aXXT/9 Ti^o9 ajcovias o ri Se

TO) afJbeivov TOVTWV 77 iraOelv rj f^rj 7ra0elv, TL fAa\\ov

7TpO(77]K6L Kplvdl T) ttXXft) OT(t)OVV /

AA. AXX 700 TOVTOV ov /jiavOdvco, co Sco/cpar69, o rt

Xerat \,eyeiv

ovre yap ^dviiv ovre larpov ovre dXXov o

20 877X06 ovTiva \eyeL rbv dvBpeiov, el fjurj el 9eov TIVCL \eyei avrov

elvai. /jLol /jiev ovv (fraiveTcu Nt/c/a? ou/c e6e\eiv yevvatcos

ofjio\oyelv OTL ov$ev \eyei, aXXa arpe^erai dvco /cal /cdrco eVt-


apn eyct) re KOI av Toiavra crTpe(f>ea-0ai, el e/

25 /AT) So/cet^ evavria rj/nlv avrol? \eyeiv. el fjiev ovv ev

pLw rffjilv ol \6yoi rjcrav, ^l^ev av TLVCL \oyov

ravra Troielv

vvv 8e TL av Tt9 eV crvvovcriq TOLaSe fjuaT^v icevols \6yoLS ai)ro9

avTov KOO-/JLOL ;

2O. OvSev ovo~ y

fj,ol SoKel, w Ad^^ "^ op&fjiev ^

30 N6ia9 o leTai TL \eyeiv /cal ov \oyov eve/ca TavTa \eyeL.

avTov ovv aa(f)eo~Tepov TrvOco/uieOa TL vrore voel /cal edv TL

(ftalvrjTaL \eycov, o-vy^cop^o-o/jLeOa, el Se fiii, SiSd^of^ev.

AA. 2i TOLVVV, a) 2o)tcpaTe<;, el /SouXet 7rvv6dvecr0aL, TTVV-

Odvov eya) 8 tcr&)9 i/cavws



ov&ev JJL K0)\v6t KOivrj ryap eaTai 77

VTrep e/JLov re KCLI aov.

AA. Tldvv fjbev ovv.

25. Sfl. Ae76 8rj /not, w Nt/aa, paXXov

S 1


<ydp <yu) re /cat Aa^? TOI^ \dyov rrjv dv&peiav e

(7)9 beivwv re KOI

NL "E7 76.

0appa\e(ov elvai ;

SH. ToOro 8e ou TTCLVTOS 8rj elvai ai/Spo? yvwvai, oirore 76

fjL?]T larpos fJLi]T6 fJidvTis avro r

yvcii)O 6Tai, /jirjSe dv&peios earai, eav

fir) avrrjv ravr^jv rrjv eTrLo-nj/jLrjv r

jrpoa\djBr) ov% ovrcos e\6ye<; ; 10

NL Ol/Tft) OVV.


^11. Kara r^ TrapoL/jiiav dpa rcG 6Vri ou: az^ Tracra t>9

yvolrj ov& av dvbpeia yevoiro.

NI. Oi; /Ltoi So/eel.

211. AijXov Si),

co Nt/aa, OTA oi)Se T?)Z^ ^pojjbfjivwviav vv 15

Trio-revets av 76 dvbpeiav yeyovevai. TOVTO Se Xeyw ou Trat-

dvay/calov oZ/zat rco ravra \eyovn fjirj&evbs Orjplov

dvSpeiav, TJ avj^copelv 6r)piov TI ovrco arofyov

elvai,, ftWre a 0X1706 dv0po)7rcov iaacn Sia TO %a\67ra eivai

yvwvai, ravra \eovra 77 7rdp8a\iv r) nva Kcnrpov (f)dvat el&e- 20

vai aXX* dvdy/crj oyu-o/co? \eovra Kal e\a$ov /cal ravpov KCU

iriOrjfcov TT/QO? avSpetav (frdvai irefyvKevat rov TiOe^evov dv-

Spetav TovO* O rrep av riOeaai.

AA. NT) rot/9 ^6ou?, :al e5 76 Xeye^, ft) UtoKpares. KOI

rj/jilv ft>9 d\r)6a)<; TOVTO diroKpivat, ay Nt/cta, TTOTepov ao<f)a)- 25

repa ^779 ^(w^ raOra elz^at ra Oiypia, a TrdvTes 6fjLo\oyovjjiev

dvopela elvai, rj iraaiv evavnovfjievos roXyita9 yu,^Se dvbpeia

avTa Kdkelv ;


7a/o rt, w Aa^?79, eyooye dvbpeia Kakoy OVTC Otjpla

ovT6 aXXo ov8ev TO TCU Seivd VTTO dyvoias /AT) ^>o/3ou/ze^Q^, aXX* 30

d(f)o(3ov ical fjL&pov r) KOI ra TratoYa iravTa oiet fie avSpela

Ka\elv, a OL* d<yvoiav ovoev Se&oi/cev ; aXX* olfjbai TO d(f>o/3ov

rcai TO dvbpeiov ov TavTov laTiv. 6700 Se dvBpelas fjiev /cal

Trdvv Ttalv 0X^70^9 oZ/^at fjLGTelvai, 0paavTr)TO<; 8e


Kal ro XyLtT/9 Kal TOV d(j)o{3ov yLtera dTrpourjOtas Trdvv

Kal av opwv Kal yvvaiKWV Kal Trai&cov Kal Orjpicov. TavT ovv

a crv Ka\ei$ avftpeia Kal oi TroXXot, eya) Opacrea Ka\w, dvSpela

e ra (frpdvifia Trepi MV \eyci).

26. AA. eacrat, co 2co/cpaTe9, fo>9


oSe eavTov 8rj, &>9 oie-

Tai Koo~Liei TO) \6 f

yo) ou9 Se TrdvTes oaoXoyovcrLV dv$peiov$

TouroL 9 aTTOCTTepelv eTTi ^eipeL TavTrj? r^9 Tifirjs.

NI. OVKOVV eycoye, co Aa^9, aXXa Odppei (f)r)/^l yap CTG

ao(j)dv, Kal Ad/jia^dv ye, elrrep ecrre dvbpeioi, Kal

10 76 av^vovs AOrjvaicov.

aX?7^co9 Al^wvea elvai.

M.r)Be ye et7T09, w Aa^9 ;al 7a/c> /i.ot SOKCLS Tov&e

OTI TavTrfv TTJV crofyiav Tcapd Aa/Ltcoi 09 TOV

15 eTaipov Trapefarjcfrev, 6 Se Aa/xcoi; rw IlpoSt/co) TroXXa TrX^crta-

fet, 09 8^) 8o/ce TCOZ^ CTO^ICTTCOV /caXXtcrra ra TOiavTa ovdjuaTa

AA. Kal 7p Tr/oeVet, co Sco/c/oare?, o-ocfrio-Trj

ra roiavra

\ov KO^evecrOai rj avBpl ov rj ?roXt? affot aur?)? Trpoeo-rdvai.

HpeTret fjuevTOi, a) /JiaKapie, raw /jLeylorrcov Trpoo-rarovvri

<^>pov?;creco9 /Jiere^eLV

SoKel Se /^ot Nt:ta9 af^09 a)S, OTTOt 7TOT6 {3\e7T(DV TOVVO/jia TOVTO TiO^d


AA. ALro9 TOIVVV crKOTrei, co ^co/cpare9.

25 Sft. ToOro /LteXXo) Troielv, co dpiare fir) pevroi otov fie

dcfrricreiv ere r?}9 KOivwvias rov \6yov, dX\d jrpocre^e TOV vovv

Kal o-vdKOTrei TCL Xeyoaeva.

AA. TaOra Sr/ ecrro), el BoKel xpfjvai.

30 a/5%^9

27. ^n. AXXa BoKel. <rv Be, Nt/a, Xeye ^tv 7raX/v e?

olcr^ ort T^V dvbpeiav KaT a/3%9 roO \6yov IO-KOTTOV-

fiev &)9 /Ltep09 dperfjs

NI. Tldvv 76.

vKOTrovvTes ;

^11. QvKOVV Kal (TV TOVTO direKpivW ft)9 ftdplOV, OVTdDV Sr)

nal a\\o>v fiepcov, a avfJiiravTa dperr) K6K\r)Tai ;

NI. Ho)? yap ov ;

AAXHS. 5 1

Sfl. ^Ap* ovv direp eya) teal av ravra Xeyet? ; 670;

Be /caXco

TT/oo? dvBpela aaxppoavvrjv ical BiKaioavvi^v ical aXX* drra TOLavra.

ov KOI av ;

NI. Hdvv /uiev ovv. 5

2ll. "E^e Bt] ravra /juev yap 6/jLO\oyovfjiev, Trepl Be TWV Bei-

vwv Kal 0appaXeo)v o-Ke^lrco/^eOa, 07ra)9 flfy crv JJLGV aXX* arra

rjyf), rj/jiets 8e d\\a. a fjiev ovv rjjjiels ^yovfJieOa, ^pdcrofjiev

aoL (TV Se av /JLTJ 0/160X07779, 8t3afet?. r)<yov/JL60a


rjfjieis Seiva

fj,ev elvai a Kal Seo? 7rape%ei, 6appa\ea Be a yitr) Seo? Trape^ei

e Trape^eiv ov ra jeyovora ov$ ra Trapovra rwv Ka/cwv,

a ra TrpoaBoKco/jieva 8eo? 70,^0 elvai Trpoo-So/ciav

Ka/cov rj ov% ovrco Kal av, c5



Tldvv a) 76 ^


Ta fjiev rj/jLerepa TOLVVV, a) Nt/cla, aKoveis, on Seiva 15

fj,ev rd /jb\\ovra tcaicd (fra/jiev eivai, Oappa\ea Se rd /JLTJ /cared

rj dyaOd fieXKovra crv Be ravrrj r) a\\r) irepl rovrcov Xe^yet? ;

NI. Tavrr) 70)76.

SH. Tovrwv Be ye rrjv eTTKTTTJfJWjv dvBpelav irpoaayopeveis ;

NI. Ko/jLiBfj ye. 20

28. SH. "Er

ical riyCiv.

NI. To TTOLOV Br) rovro ;

Sfl. E7&r Br) (fypdcrco.

Brj TO rplrov <TKe^a)fJie6a

el crvvBofcel aol re

Bo/cel ydp Brj e/jioi re Kal rcpBe, Trepl

ocrwv ecrrlv iiriaTif)^, OVK aXX?; jJiev elvai Trepl yeyovdros, elBe-

vai oTrrj yeyovev, d\\r) Be Trepl yiyvo/Jievcov, OTTTJ yiyverai, a XXr;

Be oTrrj dv /caXXtcrra yevoiro [/cat yevrjcrerai] TO fjirJTrco yeyovds,

aXX TI avTrj. olov Trepl TO vyietvov et? aTra^ra? row %pdvovs

OVK d\\r) rt? rj ^77* laTpiKr), fjiia ovaa, efopa Kal yiyvd/jieva Kal

yeyovoTa Kal yevrjo-d/meva [OTTT; yevijcreTai^ Kal Trepl TCL K T?)? 30

77)9 av (f)vd/j,eva rj yewpyia wcravra)? e^et

/cat BTJTTOV ra ?re/)t

TOI^ TToXejjiov avTOL dv fjiapTVpr/a aLTe OTL r) crTpaTrjyLa /caXXtcrra

lTai, TCL re aXXa Kal Trepl TO fi\\ov ecreo-0ai, ovBe Trj

oterat Belv vTrrjpeTeiv aXXa dp^eiv, W9 elBvla icd\\iov





ra Trepl TOP TrdXe/Jiov /cal yiyvd/jLeva fcal yevrjo-6/jLeva-


vofjios OVTCI) rarret, //,?) TOV pdvTiv TOV orrpar^yov ap%iv, aXXa

TOV crTpaTTjybv TOV [jLavTecos. ^ao/jiev ravra, & Aa%r?9 ;

AA. Orjo-o/xez .

5 2fl. Tt e; cru r;/^, &>


a, CTU/X^T;? ?re/3t Taiz^ CLVTMV rrjv

avrrjv eiTLorrijijLrjv /cal ecro/JLevwv ical fyi<yvo/JLevcov /cal yeyovorcov

eirateiv ;



E 70)76 So/cet 7a/o /JLOL o(m?, w JLcorcpares.

211. Qv/covv, & apLcrre, /cal 77 avSpeia T&V Seiv&v e7TL(7Trji^r)

10 eVrti ;al OappaXecov, cb? ^779 7} 7a/3 ;

NI. No/.

2H. Ta Se Setm a)/jiO\6yrjTaL real ra 6appa\ea ra pev fj,e\-

\ovra aya0d, ra Se /AeXXo^Ta /ca/ca elz^at.

NI. Haw ye.

15 SI!. H Be 7 aur?) eTTio-njiJuj rwv avT&v /cal fieXX-ovrcov ical

Trdvrcos e^ovrcov elvai.

NI. "Ecrri raura.

Ov IJLOVOV apa T&V Seivwv ical OappaXecov rj avSpefa

earLV ov yap /zeXXoWa)^ /JLOVOV Trepi TMV ayaOwv re

20 /cal rca/cwv eirat ei, aXXa /cal yiyvo^evwv KOI yeyovorcov [/cal

jrdvrws e^oVra)^], cocrTrep at aXXat e7rio T7}/xat.

NI. "EoL/cevye.

29. 2fl. Mepo? apa avSpeias r^lv, & Ni/cia, aTretcpiva) cr%e-

SoV TL Tpirov /caLTOL T^/xet? rjpcoTWfjiev o\r]V av&peiav 6 TL en;.

25 /cal wi^ 877, a>? eoi/cev, Kara rbv GOV \6yov ov JJLOVOV Seivwv re

/cal 9appa\e&v eirLo-T^/Jirj rj avbpela ecrriv, aXXa o-^e8oV TL rj

irepl TTCIVTWV ayaOwv re /cal /ca/ciov ical TTCLVTWS e^ovTayv, w? vvv

av o (709 Xo709, avbpei av eirj. OVTCOS av /Lterart^ecr^at 77

\eyeis, & Nt/aa ;

30 NI. "E/^ot7e Bo/cel, w ^corcpaTes.

2H. Ao/cet ow <S

crot, 8at/xoVte,

aTro\eiTreiv av TI 6

a/3err}9, elVe/o el&elr) TOL re ayaOa TrdvTa /cal TravTCLTracnv a>9

yiyveTai /cal yevrjaeTaL /cal yeyove, ical ra :a;a wo-avTcos ; ical

TOVTOV oiei av av evSea elvai orw^poavvi^ fj Sucatoo-vvrjs re /cat



0) 76 fJLOVW 7TpO(7r)/Cei ICdl 7Tpl 060VS KOI TTepl aV0p(O-

7rof9 e%ev\a(3ela-6a( re ra Beivd [/cal rd ^j]\ Kal rdja0d Tropl-

^ecrOai, e Tncrra/ueW op0w Trpoa-o/jLiXeiv ;

NI. Aeyew rl & Sco/cpareV poi So/eels.

SH. Ov/c dpa, & Nt/aa, /jiopiov aperf) 1

? av eir] TO vvv aoi 5

\eydfjievov, aXXa (jv^nraaa aperij.

NI. "Eot/ce^.

Kal /^?)^ e(f)a/JLv ye TTJV av&peiav fjiopiov elvai ev rcov

NI. "EjC^a/jiev yap. 10

2O. To 8e 76 vvv Xeyd/Jievov ov (fraiverai.

NI. Ou/e eoi/cev.

2fl. Ou/c apa rjvprjfcafjiev, co Nt/c/a, avSpeia o TI eariv.

NI. Oi) (paLvdfjieOa.

AA. Kat yu^ a> 70)76, <7e

0t\e Ni/c/a, w^?;y evprjaeiv, 7rei8r) 15

e /Ltoi) fcare^pdvrjo-a^ ^ay/cpdrei, airoKpLva/JLepov irdvv Srj /jLjd\rjv

eXTTtSa efyov, a>?

r^ Trapa rov Aa/xcw^o? cro^/a avrrjv a

30. NI. E5 76, (S Aa^r;?, ort oi>8ev otet av en Trpay/Jia

OTL auro? a/ort e(f)dvr)S av&peias irepi ovSev et Sco?, aXX et /cat

70) ere/oo? rotouro? ava^avrjcro/maL, TT/OO? TOVTO /3Xe7ret?, /cat 20

elSevat wv

ou8e^ ert Sioiaei, a>? eoi/ce, oral per efjiov /jLTjSev

e^eiv avSpl olo^evw rl elvai. GV fjiev ovv

av0pa)7reiov nrpa^jJia ep<ydeo 0ai, ovftev

avrov {3\7reiv aXXa TT/OO? TOU? d\\ov? 70; 8 oZ/^at e/>tot 7re/?t

oj^ eXe yo/Aev vvv re eTrieitcws elpr)(T0ai, Kal el n avrwv /JLTJ i/ca- 25

z w? eiprjrai, vcrrepov e7ravop0cbo-ecr0ai /cal /x-era Aayuco^o?, ou au

TTOU otet KaTa<ye\av, teal ravra ouS tSwv TrcoTrore TOZ^ Aa/ift)^a, /cal

/uer aXkwv /cal ejrei&av ^e/Saicoacofjiai avrd, BiBd^w /cal ere, /cal


(p0ovijo-co So/cet? 7ap /uot /cal />taXa (T(f)dBpa Seia0ai /Jia0eiv.

AA. Soc^o? 7d/3 rot <TL> el, c5 Nt/cta. aXX Oyaa)9 700 Aucrt- 30

/cal MeX^cr/a o-fyLt/3ouXeuco, ere /^ei^ /cal e />te ?re/ol TT}?

veavia/ccov %a(p&V edv, ^co/cpdrrj Se rovrovi, oTrep

e\e<yov, jjirj afyievai el Be /cal e/^ol eV r)\i/cia rjaav ol

ravrd av ravr eiroiovv.


NI. Tavra pev Kay CD avy^copa), edvirep e6e\rj ^La)KpdTT]S TWV

fjieipaKiwv e7TLfjLe\elo~0ai, fJLtjBeva d\\ov ^rjrelv 7rel Kav eyco

TOV NiKtjpaTov TOVTW ^Stcrra eTrirpeTroi/jLL, el eWXot OVTOS. d\\d

yap aXXou? poi e/cdaTore O-VVLO-TTJO-LV, orav TL avry Trepl TOVTOV

5 {JLvrjcrOo), ai^ro? 8e OVK eOe\ei. aXX opa, & A.v<rtfAa%, el TI crov


AT. Ai/caidv ye rot, & Ni/cia, eirel KOI eya) TOVTO)

av eOeXrjaai/uii, TroLelv, a OVK av aXXot? iravv TroXXot?

TTCO? ovv (779, &) Sco/^joare? ; viraKOvaei n KOL

10 &)? /SeXrtcTTOt? yeveaOcu rot? fjieipaicioi^ ;

31. 2H. Kat 7<zp a^ Seivbv elr], & Avcrl/Jia^e, TOVTO ye, fjir) e0e~

\eiv TO) avfjiTrpodvfjielcrOaL <? /3eXr/o-T&) <yeve a0ai. el nev

ovv ev

rot? 8taXo70i? TO? a/ort 670) /u-ei^ e^dvrjV et Sct)?, rwSe Se /Lt^ et Sore,

Si/caiov av fjv efj,e /zaXtcrra eVt TOVTO TO epyov 7rapa/ca\elv vvv 5

15 6fJLoici)<$ yap TrdvTes ev cnropia eyevo/jieOa TI ovv dv rt? rjfjiwv

Tiva TrpoaipolTO ; ejJLol /nev ovv Srj

avTO) Bo/cel ovBeva aXX

TavTa OVTCOS e%et, crtce-tyac-Be dv TL So^a) (7VfjL/3ov\eveLV

70) yap </>?7/u

%pr)vai,, & dvbpes ouSet? yap e/ccfropos

\dyov fcoLvrj TcdvTas rj/Jids ^rjTelv /xaXtcrra fJiev TJ/JLIV

20 Si$do-tca\ov cb? dpLo-TOV, Sed/neda yap, eVeira /ecu rot?

]j,r)Te %pr] /jiaTcov <f>ei$o jjievovs fjLrjTe aXXof fArjSevos edv Se

e%eiv, &)? vvv e^ofiev, ov av/ji/3ov\eva). el &e ri?

Tai, OTL TrjXi/coiSe 6Vre? 6t? SiBacr/cdXtoV

, TOV "OfjLijpov Botcel /JiOi xprjvai 7rpo/3d\\ecr0ai, 09 ecj)ij

25 OVK dyaOrjV elvai alSco Ke^pij fj^evo) dvSpl Trapelvat.

Kal rj/jLets ovv edaavTes %aipeiv el rt? TI epel, KOIVT) TJ/JLWV avTcov

Kal TO)V /JLeipaKidov eTrifie\eiav TTOLrjcrco/jLeOa.

AT. Eyu-ot pev dpecfKei, w ^oi)KpaTes, a \eyeis Kal eWXa>,

oawTrep yepafcaTOS el/M, TOO-OVTW TrpoOv/jLOTaTa jjiavOdveiV yitera

30 TCOV veavidKcov. aXXa JJLOL ovTo&crl Troirjaov avpiov ecoOev d(j)L-

KOV olWSe, Kal fir) aXXco? Troirjcrrjs,


iva ftovXevcrw/jieOa Trepl

avT(*)v TOVTCOV TO Be vvv elvai TTJV o~vvovo~iav $La\v(TCd/j,ev,

SH. AXXa Troitfo-ct), w Ava^a^e, TavTa, Kal $&> irapa

<re avpiov,



77 irepi

TIME : 409-400 B.C. .

(v. p. 76. 8) PLACE : A palaestra near Panops spring



1. ETTopevdfjLTjV [J,ev ef AKaSrifjielas evOv AVKCLOV rrjv

e%(0 refyovs VTT avro TO ret^o? eVetSr) 8 eyevo/uujv Kara

rrjv 7ruXt8a fj rj TldvoTTOS Kprjvr), evravOa crvve-rv^ov Iir-

TTo9d\i re TW lepcovv/jiov Kal Kr^criTTTTft) r<p Tlaiaviel /cal

aX/Vot? fjiera rovrwv veavicncois aOpoois aweo-Twcri. real /JLC 5

TTpoaiovra 6


l7T7ro0d\r)s i8o)V 9 fl Sa)/cpare9, e^, rrol Srj

iropevei Kal Trodev ; Ef A/caS^eia?, }z/ 8 70), Tropevo-

fjLai evOv Avrceiov. AeOpo Srf, rj 8 09, eu^w rj/JLtov. ov irapa-

{3a\eis ; a^iov fievroi,. Hot, etfrijv ya>, ^eyeis, Kal rrapa

rivas TOU? {7,10.9 ; AeO/30, e 0?;, Se/f9 /u<ot

eV TW Karav- 10

i) rov rei^ovs TrepiftdXov re nva Kal Ovpav avew^i^evrfv.

v Se, r} 8* 09, avroOi rj^els re avrol Kal a\\oi

TTCLVV TroXXol Kal Ka\ol. "Ecrrti^ Se Sr) ri rovro, Kal r/9 ^

&tarpi{3r) ; Ha\aiarpa, etyrj, vewarl MKoBofjL^/jLevij ?} Se

Siarpiffrj ra nro\\a ev ^070^9, wv rj&eays dv oroi aeraSiSoi- 15

Troiovvres SiSdcrKei Se T/9 ay-

fjuev. KaXco9 76, rjv 8 670),

roOu; So9 erai/909 76, ?; 8* 69, al eiraiverrj^, M.LKKOS. Ma

A/a, ^y 8* 6706, ou (f>av\d<? ye dvrjp, aXX iKavos aofyianis.

BouXet ot)y errecrOai, e^rj, lya Kal ^8779 rou9 6W9 avrov ;

Trpwrov 77866)9 dKovaai/ji dv, eV! r&>

AXXo9, e(/)77,

/cal eiaeifJii Kal r/9 o 20



8e 8rj r/9, GO iTTTro^aXe? ; TOUTO JJLOI etVe. /cal 09

rjpvQpiacrev. KOI eya) eljrov T

fl vrat lepwvv^ov

TOVTO jjiev /JMj/ceTi etTrT??, etre e/oa? rof etre JJLTJ olSa yap on

ov /jLOVov epas, dXXd KOI Troppw rjorj el Tropevo/uievos TOV epGDTOs.

5 el/M 8* 670; ra fiev d\\a ^auXo? /cal a^p^crro?, TOVTO Be fJiol

TTco? etc 0ov SeBoTai, ^a^v Gift) T* elvai yvwvai IpwvTa,

re /cat

p(bfj,6vov. /cal 05 dfcovo-as TTO\V ert /xaXXoz^ ypvOpicwev. 6

ovv KT^VtTTTTO?, Ao-Tetoi^ 76, ^ S 09, ort



6a\<$, teal ofcveis eiTrelv ^coKpaTei TovvofAa eav 8 oSro? <xt

10 o-fJLLKpov %povov o-vvBtaTpL^jfrj aoi, 7rapaTa0tjcr6Tai

CLKOVWV Oa/Jia Xe^yovro?. rjfjiwv yovv, a) ^to/cpaTes, e/c/cetcct

Ta WTa fcal e/i-TreTrX^/ce AvcriSos av fjuev 8^ /cal vTroirlr),

pia rjfjiLv eaTLV /cal et; VTTVOV eypopevoLs

VTTO aov

Auo-iSo? olecrOai TOV-

vofjia d/coveiv. /cal a fjuev KaTaXoyd^v SnyyeiTai, Seiva ovTa,

15 ov Trdvv TL Seivd eaTiv aXX* eireiSav TCL ironfi^ara rjfjiwv CTTL-

KaTavT\elv Kai avyypdfJifJLaTa. /cal o ICTTIV TOVTCOV

OTi ical aSet et? Ta 7rai$Lfcd <pcovfj Oav/maa-La, rjv

d/covovTas ave^eaOaL. vvv 8e epcoTcti/Jievos VTTO aov

epvOpia. "\LCTTIV &e, rjv S ^70), o Averts veos r/?, &)? eoi/ce

20 TEK^aipofJiaL Se, OTI a/coucra? Tovvo^a ov/c eyvwv. Ov yap

T\ avTov Tovvojjia \e<yovo-i,v, aXX Ti TraTpoGev

Sid TO a(j)dopa TOV TraTepa yiyvuxTKecrOai avTov.

67Tl ev olo* OTL TToXXoO Set? TO etSo? dyvoelv

^o? <ydp

TOV 7T<xtSo? i/ca-

fcal diro JJLOVOV TOVTOV yiyvoocrKe&Oai,. AeyeaOw, r^v

25 8 eya>, OVTLVOS eaTiv. A^yLto/fparof?, etfir), TOV All;a)V<&S o

7rpeo~/3uraT09 09. Ete^, rjv 70), w r

l7T7ro^aX69, 609 yevvalov

real veaviicov TOVTOV TOV epcoTa iravTa^f) dvrjvp<;

/cal fjioi Wi

eTTiBeL^at a /cal TolaSe eVtSetV^ucrat, wa elSa) el e7rio~Tao~ai

a ^pr) epaaT^v Trepl TCCLI&IK&V 77/309 avTov rj 77/009 XXou9

30 \eyeiv. TOVTCOV Se r/, etyrj, aTaO/ia, a) ^WKpaTes,

wv 68e

\eyei ; TloTepov, TJV o eyco, /cal TO epdv ej;apvos el ov \eyei

oSe ; Ov/c eycaye, CCJ^TJ, aXXa ^ Trotelv et9 rd 7rai8i/cd ^oe

o~vy<ypd(f)eiv. Oi*% vyialvei, e(f)r) 6 Krr;crt7r7ro9, aXXa \rjpei T


ATSI2. 57

2. Kal eyoo elirov ^1 iTTTroOaXes, ov TL TWV /JieTpwv

a/covaai ovSe /neXo9 ei TL TreTTOLTjfcas et? TOV veaviaKov, a\\a

T>J9 Btavolas, r

iva ei8w Tiva Tpotrov Trpoafyepei TT^O? ra TTCU-

SiKci. "QSe Bfjirou CTOL, (>?}, epei dKpi/3w$ yap eTTLararaL /cal

a><? i, eiirep, Xeyei, VTT" e /uou aei CLKOVWV iaTe6pv\r]Tai. 5

TOI)? 6eovs, ecfrr) 6 Kr^crtTrTro?, TTCLVV /cal dan

<ye. <ydp

ao-ra, co ^coKpares. TO yap epaarrjv ovra Kal Biatye-

TWV a\\(DV TOV VOVV TTpOQ-e-fcOVTa TCO TTttLol iftiOV /J,6V

^eiv \eyeLv, o ov^l Kav Trals CLTTOL, TTCO? ov%l KaTaye-

\aaTov ; a Se i] TTQ\IS o\j] a8ei Trepl A^/xo/cpaTOU? Kal AucriSo? 10


re Kal i7r7roTpo(f)La<> Kal viKas TlvOol Kal Icr$yuot Kal

ea TeOpiTrirois re Kal Ke\7)o-i, TavTa Troiel re Kal \eyei,

8e TOVTOis CTI TovTwv KpovtKWTepa. TOV yap TOV Ilpa-


iajjiov TrpMijv JIIMV ev iroirj^aTi TLVL Sirjeiv, &>? Sia

Trjv TOV Hjoa/cAe oi ? avyyeveiav 6 vrpdyovos

avTcov vTro


}lpaK\a, yeyovws auro? e/c Atd? re Kal r?}? TOV

dp^TjyeTOV OvyaTpos, airep ai ypalau a$ovo~i, Kal a\\a 7ro\\a

ToiavTa, a) Sco/cpare? TavT eaTlv a ouro? \eycov

re Kal aBcov

avayKa&i Kal ^/ua? aKpoaaOai. Kal eya) aKovaas eljrov T H 20

KaTaye\ao~T6 iTTTro^aXe?, Trplv veviKfjKevai, Troiels re Kal

ei? cravTov eyxdy/jLiov ; AXX ovic ei? epavTov, <fyq>



re?, OVT6 TTOia) ovTe dSto. GuK oi6L ye, rjv S eye*). To Se TTCO?

e^ei ; efyrj. TldvTcov fJLa\io~Ta, elirov, et? ere TeivovGiv avTai

al cuSa/. lav [Jiev yap 6X779 TCL Trai&iKa ToiavTa ovTa, KOO-/AOS 25

crot eo~Tai TOL \e^jdevTa Kal aaOevTa Kal TU>


8ia(f)vyr), oaw av /^ei^co CTOL elprjfieva f) eyKWfiia 7Tpl

OVTL eyK(*)/jiia

KaTayeXaaTOS elvai. OQ-TIS ovv TO, epcoTiKa, co

CCLV 8e (76

TWV irai-

(/uXe, 30

cro^>09, OVK eiraLvel TOV tpct)/jivov irplv av \y, SeSiws TO /LteX-

\ov QTCTI a7ro/3>7creT6U. Kal ayu-a ol KaXoi, tTrei&dv TLS

ejraLvf) Kal av^rj, (frpovtj/^aTos ^/JurifjiTrXavTaL Kal

rj OVK OLL ; "70)76, e(f)r). OVKOVV oaw av


waiv, Svaa^cDTOTepOi yiyvovrai ; Et/eo9 76. IIoto9 rt? ovv

av GQI SoKei O^pevTTj^ elvat,, el dvao~o/3ol Orjpevo)v teal Svcra-

\a)TOTpav rrjv dypav nroiol ; A?}Xoz> on, <auXo9. Kat f^ev

Brj Xo 70t9 T teal &)8at? fJir) KrfKelv aXX e^aypialveiv TroXX?)

5 d/jLovala rj yap ; Ao/cet /-tot. ^tcoirei orf, c5

OTTO)? ^ Traai TOVTOLS evo^ov o-avrov Troirjae^ Sia TTJV

criv fcairoi oljjiai e<ya) avSpa TroirjaeL /3Xa7rrovra eavrov ov/c

av ere ede\eiv 6/uLO\oyr](raL a>? dya6ds

ffepos wv eavTM. Ov /Lia rbv At a, e(f>r)

TTOT earlv TroirjTtfs, /3\a-


?roXX^ yap av a\oyia

jo iij aXXa Sia ravra Srj crot, w ^cD/cpare^, dvaicoivovfJiaL, real

L TL aXXo e^ei?, crf/x/3ouXeu6, rtW aV rt9 \6yov

i} TL Trpdrrcov 7rpocr<f)i\r)<$ Traibitcols yevoiro.

3. Ou paSiov, r]V 8 70), eiTreiv aXX et /x-ot e

avTov Troirjcrai, et9 Xo70f9 e\delv, Tcra)9 ai^ Swal/A^v aoi CTTL-

15 Setfat, a %p?7 ai)rc5 SiaXeyeaOai dvrl TOVTWV wv OVTOL \eyeiv

re teal a$iv (fra&i ere. AXX ovSev, etyrj, %a\67rdv. av yap

ei<re\6r)s /Ltera Kr^o-tTTTroy roOSe /cat KaOe^o/Jievos Sta\6yr},

fjiev Kal avrds GQI Trpbcreio-i (fri X.rJKoos ydp, a>

eo-rlv, Kal apa, a>9


E/oyttata ayovaiv, dva/ji6[jLi,yjjie-

20 VOL ev ravT(f> eicriv o i re veaviG/coi, /cal ol TraiSes. Trpoo eicriv

ovv aoL el Se /mrf, Kr^criTrTrft) avvijO^ earlv Sia rbv rovrov

avetyibv Mevet;evov M.evet;ev(p fjuev yap 8rj Trdvrcov

wv rvy^dvei.

tfaXeeraTft) ovv ouro9 avrdv, eav apa /AT)

Trpocrlrj avros. TavTa, rjv 8 eyco, %p^ Troielv. Kal afta \aftwv

25 rbv KTija-iTTTrov Trpoo-ff 6/9 rrjv 7ra\ai(7Tpav ol 8 aXXot vcrre-

poi rj/jiwv rjdav.

EtVeX^6^re9 Se Kare\d/3ofJLev avroOi reOvKora^ re TOU9 Tral-

Sa9 Kal rd Trepl rd lepela o"^eSbv n tfSr) TreTroLTj/meva, do-rpaya\lovrd<;

re Srj Kal KeKOd/jurujLevov^ aTravras* ol pev ovv

30 TToXXol ev TY) av\rj eirai^ov e^w, ol Se lives TOV d

ev ycovla rjprla^ov do-Tpayd\oi<$ 7rayLt7roXXot9, 6K

TLVCOV Trpoaipovfjievoi TOVTOVS $e Trepiecrracrav aXXot Oewpovv-

T69. o)v $rj Kal 6 Avo-is rjv, Kal elffnjiceiv ev rot9 waivl re Kal

veavlo~KOi<> eo~re(^avwiJLVo^ KOL TTJV o"fyiv biafyepwv, ov TO


elvai fJiovov a%ios aKovaai, ciXX OTL KO\Q<S re KayaOds. KOI

ridels et? TO Karavritcpv airo^wp^aavTe^ eKade^o^eOa rjv

yap avToOi rjcrv^ia

/cat- TI aXX?/Xot9 ^Le\eyo^eda. TreptcrTpeovv

o Aucn,9 Oa^a eTreaKOTTecTO ?}yu,a?, KOI &}Xo9 rjv

7rpocre\0iv. rew? pev ovv rjiropei re teal coKvei 5

Trpocnevcu -

eTreira 6 Mevegevos e/c TTJS av\rjs

i<TepXTai, teal w? elSev epe

rji TrapaKaOifyo-o/jievos


IScov ovv avrov 6 Avert? eiTrero KOI

^eTO pera rov Meve^evov. 7rpo<T7J\0ov Srj Kal ol

teal or) /cal 6 \7T7T06aX^s, 7reir) TrXe/ou? ecopa efaara-

TOUTOU? eV^X^tcra/xe^o? Trpoo-eo-TTj rj fir) wero Karo-

TOV A.vo~iv, 8eSta)9 yii?)

Kal 670) 7T/009 rov M.eve%vov a

avru> aire^QavoiTO Kal ovro)

ro9, ^y S eyco, 7rorepo9 w/Ltw^ irpeo-jBvTepo^ ; AjjL^Lo-prjTOv- 15

/ie^, e</)?;. OVKOVV

Kal oTTore/309 yevvaioTepos, epl&iT dv, rjv

8 70). Tldvv 76, e07/. Kal ftr/y O7roT6/oo9 76 KaX\.Lcov, cocrau-

Tft)9. E*y\a(rdTr]V ovv a/x^w. Oi) /i^i/ OTTorepo? 76, etytjv,

7r\ov(ri(t)Tpos v/jitov, ovK pt] a opal <f)i\a) <ydp

6(TTov. rj yap ;

Tldvv 7 , e^aTVjv. GVKOVV Koivd TCL ye (j)i\a)v \eyeTai, 6)o~T 20

TOVTM ye ovSev SiotcreTOV, eiirep ak^Orf Trepl r^9 </)iXta9

TOV. %vve<f)dTriv.

4. ^Tre^elpovv o~r) /zera TOVTO epwTav, oiroTepos

Kal cro0ct>repo9 avTcov CLTJ. fJiTa^v ovv r^9 7rpoore\0a)v dve-

aTTjcre TOV M.evef;evov, fydarKWV Ka\elv TOV Tra&OTpifSyv e&d/cei 25

ydp IJLOL tepOTroiwv Tvy%dveiv. e/celvo^ ^ev ovv ft)%ero eya) Se


TOV AvcriV rjpdaTjv, H TTOV, rjv o a>

eya), Aval, o-(f>6Bpa <f)i\el

ere o nraT^p Kal rj /mr)Tijp ; Tldvv ye, rj o 09. OVKOVV /3ou-

\OLVTO dv ere 009 evSat/jiove(TTaTOV eivai ; IT<W9 yap ov ; Ao/^et

oe CTOL eu&aijiiwv elvai %dv* dvOpwiros oov\eva)v re /cal oo [Jirjoev 30

e^elr) TTOICIV &v eTTiOvfJiol; Ma At" OVK efJLOiye, QVKOVV


el ere cf)L\el o iraTrjp Kal rj urJTrjp Kal evBaifJtOVa ere eTT ^

yeveadat, TOVTO TcavT\ TpoTTfo SrjXov OTL irpoOvfJiovvTai O

av evoai/jLovoiys. rico9 7ap ; ov%l ecfrr).

^Etcocriv dpa ere a




Troieiv, KOI ovSev iTnTrXrjTTOvcrLV ov$e SiaKcoXvovai TTOL-

elv &v av eTri0v/jLf)$ ; Nat pa Ata e /te ye,

a> ^coKpares,


/itaXa ye TroXXa KcoXvovaiv. Hco? \eyei<$ ; rjv

6" 67^0. flov-

\6jUL6voi ere fiaKapiov elvai Si,aKco\vovai TOVTO iroielv o av

5 /3ouX?7 ; coSe Se /-tot \eye. r)v eTriOv/jitjays

eiri TLVOS rwv TOV

TraTpbs apfjidrcov oyeluQai \a/3a}V ra? fjvias, orav afu\\arai,

OVK av ewev ae aXXa $iafca)\voiev ; Ma At" ov JJLCVTOL av,

efah ewev. AXXa rl fjirjv ; "Eicmv rt? //z^to^o? Trapa TOV

Trarpo? p.i(r6ov (frepcov.

II w? Xeyet? ; /jHcr0a)Tu> fJLa\\ov CTTL-

10 rpeTrovcriv TJ aol iroielv o n av /3ov\7]rai Trepl TOU? LT

A\Xa rt

Kal Trpocreri avrov rovrov apyvpiov reXovaiv ;

(>?). AXXa TOV opi/cov ^evyovs, olfjiai, eTriTpeTrovaiv crpi ap-

, /cav el (3ov\oio \a{3cov TTJV f^dcrTLja TVTTTGIV, ea)V av.

, rj 09, ecpev ; T/ Se; rjv S e<yco ovSevl e^eaTiV

15 avTOVs TV7TT6LV ; Kat /iaXa, e$ri, rc3 opeo/co/jLO). AouXco OVTI

r) ekevOepw e<$>7].

; AouXw,


SoOXoz^, 0)9 eoi/cev, ^yovvrai

Trepl TrXe/oz/o? r) ae TOV vdv, Kal ITTLT penr overt Ta eavTwv /-taX-

Xoz^ rj crol, Kal ewcriv Troielv o TL /SouXerat, ere Se SiaK(o\vov(ri ;

Kal fjioi eTi ro8e et?re. ere avTov ea)cnv dp%eiv creavTOV, r) ovoe

20 ToOro 7riTpe7rovcri croi ; II 0)9 ^dp, e(f)7j, e7riTpe7rovo-iv ; AXX

ap^ei Tt9 crov ; "QSe, TTa L Saycoy6s, e(j)rj. Mwv 8oOXo9 cov ;

AXXa rl fMJv ; ^/xere/309 ye, e^y. *H Seivdv, r) 8 70;, eXeu-

Oepov ovTa VTTO SovXov ap%eerOai. T I Se TTOLCOV av OVTOS 6

TraiSaycoyos crov dp%ei

25 Mcov fjirj Kal ovToi crov dp^ovcnv,

; "Aycov SrJTrov, ecprj, els SibacncaXov.

ot 8iSdcrKa\OL ; IIaWa>9

SIJTTOV. HafjiTrdXXovs dpa CTOL 8e<77roVa9 Kal apxpirras eKcov

6 TraTrjp e<j)LcrT7]criv. aXX* apa eVetSaz ot /caSe eXOys Trapa

/jLTjTepa, eKelvrj ae ea iroielv o TL av /3ov\r}, LV avTrj

079, rj Trepl TO, epia i) Trepl TOV laTOV, OTav v^alvrj ; ov TL yap

30 TTOV $iaKCO\vei, ae r) TT/S aTrdOrjs r) Trjs KepKiSo? r) aXkov TOV

TCOV Trepl Ta\aaiovpylav opydvcov aTTTeaOai. Kal 09 ye\aaas,

Ma Aia, e$rj, co Sco/cpar69, ov /ULOVOV ye StaKcoXvet, aXXa Kal

TVTTTOifirjv av el f

CLTCTOI^V. HpaK\i<;, r}v o eya), n&v prj TL

TOV TraTepa rj TTJV jju/Tepa ; Ma At" OVK eycoye, e^rj.


5. AXX CLVTL TLVOS fjirjv ovrco ere Secvws iaK(0\vovcnv ev-

BaLfjiova elvai KOI Troielv o TL av /3ov\y, /cal 81 f^epas 0X7/9

Tpe(f)ovcrL ere dei TW Sov\evovTa KOI evl \6ya) o\iyov &v eTTiOv-

ov&ev TroLovvTa ; ware croi, <? eoifcev, ovre TWV ^pr] /judrcov

OVTCOV ovSev oc^eXo?, aXXa Traz^re? avrwv /jid\\ov 5

ap%ova-iv rj (TV, ovre rov o-w/^aro? ovrco yevvafov 6Wo?, aXXa

/cal TOVTO aXXo? Troi^aivei teal depairevei

crv Se /o%et? ouBewfe,

w Avert, oi)Se Trotet? ouSe^ wz^ eTriOv/jieis. Ov yap TTCO, CC^TJ, rjXi-

Kiav e%a), ft) ^COK pare?. M^ oj) TOVTO ae, w rrai ^Tj/no/cpaTOV^,

K(D\i>rj, eVel TO 76 rocroVSe, ft)5 eyppat, ical 6 TraTrjp /cal TJ ^r]Tr]p 10

o-ot eTnTpeTrovcnv fcal OVK avajjievovaiv e&)9 a^ fjKMclav e%r)S.

OTav yap (Sov\wvTai aurot? TL rj avayvcDo-OrjvaL T) <ypa(f)f)vai,, ere,


yap ;

eyu>fjiai, TrpWTOV T&V ev Trj OLKLO, eVt TOVTO TCLTTQVGIV. j]


Tldvv y Qvtcovv J e<j)r). e^ecrrt

croi evTavO o TL av /3ov\r}

TrpwTOV TWV ypa/ui/JLciTcov ypdtyeiv fcal o TI av SevTepov /cal 15

avayiyvwa/ceiv (oaavTws e^eaTLV. /cal eir&Sdv, ft)? eyw/jiai,

\vpav \d/3r)S, ov Sia/cc0\vovcri ere ovTe o TraTrjp ovTe 77

enTLTelvai re /cal avelvai rjv av (3ov\y TWV ^opSa)v, ical

ical Kpoveiv TO) 7T\r)tcTpq). r) iaKW\vovcnv ; Ov &}ra. Tt

TTOT av ovv elr], c5 A^vcn, TO alTiov OTL evTavOa jmev ov $ia/c(0\v- 20

ovcriv, ev ot? $e apTi e\eyo/Jiev Kw\vovcnv ;


Ort, ot/xat, ecfrrj,

TavTa fjiev eTrlcrTa/JLai, e/celva 8 ov. EZev, fy S eyco, & apicrTe -

OVK dpa Trjv rjXi/ciav crov Trepi^evei o TraTrjp 7riTp7reiv rrdvTa,

aXX 77 av rjuepa rjyrjcrriTai ae (3e\Tiov avTOV cfrpoveli , TavTrj

CTOL /cal avTOV /cal Ta avTOV. OtyLtat eycoye, e^rj. 25

, TJV S 700 rt Se; TW yeiTOVi ap ov% 6 auro? o/?o? oorTrep

TO) TraTpl Trepl crov ; TTOTepov oiei avTov eTTLTpe^eiv croi TTJV

avTOV OLKiav ol/covo/jLeiv, OTav ae r^yrjcr^TaL j3e\Tiov rrepl olicovo-

eavTOV cfrpovelv, TJ avTov eTTLcrTaTTJaeLV ; E^tot eTriTpetyeiv

TL 8 ; ABrjvafov? olei croi OVK emTpe^eiv TCL avTwv, 30

OTav alcrddvcovTai OTL iKav&s cfrpovels ; "Eiywye. IIpo?

rjv 8 eyco, TL dpa 6 /Aeyas /3acri\evs ; TTOTepov TW Trpe

vei, ov r) TT}? Acr/a? dp^rj ytyveTai ud\\ov av eTrLTpe^jreiev e

/cpea>v OTL av /3ov\i^TaL e^fBaXelv et? TOV fa/jLov, rj


el dfa/cd/Aevoi, Trap e/celvov evbe^aipeOa avrw, on rj^ets Kak\iov

(frpovovpev 97 o 09 avTOV Trepl o\jrov a-fcevavias ; Hfilv STJ\OV

OTI, Kcu TOP <$>?}. fjiev ye ovo av a/JLL/cpov edcreiev eu/3a\eiv

97>a? Be, fcav el fiov\oi/jLe9a Spagdaevoi, TWV d\vv, ew-q av

5 epffaXeiv. II w? jap ov; IV el rou? o(/)^aX^ou? o vos

avrov aaOevol, apa ewij av avrbv airreo-OaL ra)V eavrov 6cf)0a\-

pwv, pr) larpi/cbv rjyov/jievos, i) KCO\VOL av; Kw\voi av.



8e ye el viroXa^^dvoi larpitcovs elvai, KCLV el /3ov\oi/j,e0a Sta-

voiyovres rou? o^6a\jjLOv^ e/i-Trdcrai -n}? rec/ipas, al^ai, ov/c



10 KGoXvcreiev, fjyov/JLevos bpOws <ppoveiv. A\r)0ri \eyeis.


ovv /cal ra\\a Trdvra rjfuv eTTLTpeiroL av ^d\\ov 7) eavrw real

TO) vei, Trepl oacov av So^cofJLev avrw aocfrajTepoi, etceivcov elvai ;

6. Ourco? dpa e^ei, TJV 8 eya>, & (f)i\e AIXTL et? f^ev ravra,

15 a av (ppdvipoi, yevu>jjLe0a, aTravres f^uv eTrirpetyova-iv,


E\\rjve s

re fcal

/3dp{3apoi real dvBpes real yvvaltces, TTOL^cro^ev re ev rovrot?

o TL av /3ov\a)fjLe0a, /cal ovSels ^a? e/ccov elvai


avTOi Te e\ev9epoi eaofjieda ev avTols /cal d\\wv d

Te raOra ecrTai bvr]o-6fjLeOa <ydp

CLTT avTwv et? a 8

20 av vovv /ATJ KTrjo-aifjieOa, ovTe rt? TJULV eTriTptyei Trepl avra TTOL-

elv TO, rj/jLiv So/covvTa, aXX e/^TroSioucrt TrdvTes /ca@* o TL av

SvvcovTai, ov aovov ol dXXoTpioi, d\\d /cal 6 TraTrjp /cal rj

fArjTrjp K.ai e% TI TOVTCOV ol/ceioTepdv eaTiv, avTOi Te ev ai)Tol<$

ecro/jieOa dXXcov vTnj/cooi, /cal r)^lv ecrrai a\\oTpia ovoev yap

25 a-TT


avTcov ovrjcro/JLeOa. avy^wpel^ OVTCOS e^eiv ; ^vy%a>pw.

*Ap ovv TO) (f)i\OL ead/JLeQa Kai rt? rj/Jids faXrjcrei, ev rouroi?, ev

ol? av w/jiev dvcofa^els ; Ov S^ra, Nw e<p7j. dpa ovSe ere 6

TraTrjp ovSe aXXo? d\\ov ovBeva (j)i\ei, /ca@ oaov av y d%pr)-

crro?. Ov/c eoi/cev, efyrj. Edv /Jiev dpa cro^o? 76^77, &>

30 Tra^re? croi


cf)i\oL /cal TrdvTes CTOL ol/ceioi eaovTai ^P^CTL/JLO^

yap /cal ayaObs ecrei el 8e ur),

TraTr]p (^1X09 ecrrat oi/re 97 f^V^P

o~ol ovTe aXXo? ovSels ovTe 6

^Te l ol/celoi. oldv re ovv

7rl TOVTOLS, a) Avert, /uieya cfrpovelv, ev ot? TL<?

fiiJTrci) <f)pove1 ;

Kat TTCO? dv ; Et e(f)7). dpa av SiSaa/cd X.ov Seei, OVTTO)

Mo. AMI, e 0??,

o> ZaiK


Ov& dpa /jieya\d(ppcov el, elirep dtppcov en.

pares, ov poi So/eel.

7. Kal eya) dfcovaas avTOV aTre/BXetya Trpos TOV l7T7ro0d\r),

fcal o\iyov e^rj/jLaprov e7rr)\0e ydp fjLOi elTrelv on Ovrco XPtf>

a> I-TTTro^aXe?,

rot? 7rcu&/eot? SiaXeyeaOai, raTreivovvra /cal 5

ava-reXXovra, a\\a fjirj axnrep av ^avvovvra KOI

TTTOvra. KCLT&WV ovv dVTQV aytoViwvTa /cal

VTTO TWV \ejonevwv, avefjLVr)(T@r]v ore /cal Tr/oocrecrra)? \av6dveiv

TOV A.V(7CV e/3ov\eTO ave\af3ov ovv e^avrov /cal e7rea%ov rot)


Ka-t ev rovT(p 6 Mei^e^e^o? TrdXiv r)/cev, /cal e/caBe^ero irapa

TOV Avaiv, 69ev /cal e^avecrrr).

6 ovv Aucrt? fjid\a TraiSucw /cal

, \d6pa TOV f


o-jju/cpbv TT/OO? fjie \eycov ecfrrj ^11

, djrep /cal ejJLol \eyeis, etVe /cal M.eve^ev(D. /cal eyco

eiirov, TavTa jjiev av avTM epet?, c5 Aucrt *


TTCLVTWS yap Trpoaei- 15

%e? TOV vovv. Hdvv fjiev ovv, (f)ij. Heipw TOLVVV, rjv 8 e<yco,

avTa o TI /zaXicrra, iva TOVTW cra^w? irdvTa

edv Se TI avTcov e7ri\d6r], avOfc /ne dvepeaOai orav IVTV-

AXXa TTOLTJCTCO, (j)rj, raura, a>

Sw/CjOare?, irdvv

, ev IcrOi. d\\d TI dX\o avTw \eje, i va /cal eyco d/covw, 20

ea>? av oi/caSe copa rj aTnevai. AXXa xp h ^oielv Tavra, rjv o

eVeiS^ ye /cal crv /ceXeuet?. d\\d opa OTTCOS emKovpijo-ei^

edv /ie e\ejx eiv errri X ei PV Me^e^e^o? 7) ov/c olaOa OTL

eaTiv ; Nat fjid Ata, e^rj, a^dSpa ye Sid raura rot

/cal /3ov\o/JLai &e avTU) Sia\ejea0aL. "Iva, rjv S e<ya), /caraye- 25

Xaa-TO? yevco/jiai ; Ov jjid Ata, e<prj, aXX

iva avTov

Tldvev ; r]V 8 eyca ov pdStov Seivbs yap 6 dv0pa)7ro$,

TTOV /JLaOrjTrjs. TrdpecrTi 8e TOI auro? oi>x opas ;

MrjSevos am, ecj)7j, /xeXerto, w Sw/c/aare?, aXX Wi Sia\eyov

A.La\e/CTeov, rjv 3 eya). 30

8. TaOra ovv TJ/JLCOV \eydvTcov TT^OO? ^/-ta? avTOvs, Ti

(f)rj 6 KT7J<7t7T7ro?, avTO) fjiovw eaTLacrdov, rj/jilv

Se ov


\dya>v ; AXXa [JLIJV, rjv 8 eyco, ^eraSoreoz/. 68e ydp

Tt wv \eyo) ov ^avOdvet, aXXa (frrjaLV oiecrOai, M.eveevov el&evai,



Kal Kekevei TOVTOV epcoTav. Ti ovv, r) 6" 09, OVK epwras ;



epijao/JLai, TJV 5 eyco. Kai JJLOL eijre, & Me^e^e^e, 6 av ere epwfjiai.

Tvy%dva) yap e/c TraiSbs eTriOv^wv KTij/JLards TOV, coaTrep aXXo9

aXXou. o //-ey 7ap rt? ITTTTOVS eTnOv^el KTacrOai, 6 oe Kvvas, 6

5 Se ypiKTiov, 6 Be rtfjids eya) Se jrpbs jjiev ravra

7T/30? Se rrjv TWV <j)i\cov Krfjcnv irdvv epam/ca)?, KOI

av IJLOL (>L\OV ayaObv ryevecrOai ^ak\ov T) rbv dpidTOV ev avOpa)-

TTOi? oprvya ir) a\etcTpv6va, Kal val f^a Ata eycoye /jidXXov ?}

I TTTTOV re Kal /cvva oluai Se, vrj rbv icvva, /jLa\\ov TJ TO Aapeiov

10 xpvcriov KTYjaaaOai Be^aifjirjv TTO\V Trpdrepov eralpov owrw?


eyco <f>i\eraipd? rt? elfjii. v/Jids ovv opwv, ae re real A.VCTLV, e/c-

7re7r\T]<yfjiai, Kal evSaiuovi^a), on OVTCO veoi 6Vre? oloi r ecrrbv

TOVTO TO KTTJfJia Ta%v Kal paSicos KTaaOai,

Kal crv re TOVTOV

OVTCO (f)i\ov eKTrj&co Ta%v T6 Kal <7(/)oSjOa, Kal av OVTOS ae eyco

e owTO) Trdppo) elfjil TOV KT^uaTOS, waTe ovS* ovTiva Tpdjrov

yiyveTai <^>tXo? ere^o? eTepov oiBa, a\\a TCLVTCL Srj avTa ae

fBov\ofJiai epecrOat cure. e^Treipov.

9. Ka/ uoi, etVe* eireiSdv T/? Tiva fa^fj, TroVepo? TTOTepov

(f>i\os yiyveTai, 6 (j)i\a)v TOV <f>i\ov/JLCVOV 7) b faXov/mevos TOV

20 <f)i\ovvTOS 7} ovoev Siacfrepei ; OvSev, ecfrr}, euoiye

fapeiv. IIco? Xe^ei? ; ?jv


SoKel 8ia-

eject d/m^oTepoL dpa d\\r)\a)V

(j)L\ot yiyvovTai, eav /LtoVo? %/j,dvov* b erepo? TO^ eTepov

"Eyito^e, efyj], BoKel. TV Se ; OVK eaTiv <pi\ovvTa /-IT) a

\elcrdai VTTO TOVTOV ov av $C\r) ; "EcrTt^. Tt 3e; apa eaTiv

25 Kal /jLLaelcrOai <$>L\ovvTa ; oldv TTOV evioTe SOKOVCTL Kal ol epa-

aTal 7rd(T%eiv 77/309

TO, TraiStKa -

c/uXoiWe? yap

&)? otoV Te

jjid\icrTa ol fiev olovTai OVK avTityiXeiaOai, ol Be Kal ^io-ela6ai

r) OVK d\r)0es BoKei aoi TOVTO ; ^<f)d$pa ye, e(f>r), d\7]6es. Ov-

KOVV ev TO) TOiovTO), fy 8 eyo), b fjiev (f)i\e2, b Be (j)i\eiTat, ;

30 Nat. IloVepo? ovv avTcov TTOTepov (^tXo? eariv ; b (f)i\a)V TOV

(j)L\oviJievov, edv Te ur) dvTi<j)i\r)Tai, edv Te Kal /jLLoriJTai, r) b

TOU (f)i\ovvTO$ ; r) ovSeTepos av ev TW TOIOVTM ov-

ffTiv, av JJLT] dfJL^oTepoi aXXr^Xou? (friXwcnv ;

yovv OVTCOS e%eiv. AXXotco? dpa vvv rj^lv SoKel r)


TrpoTepov eoo^ev, rore uev yap, el o ere/oo? (tXot, cf)i\a) elvai

ducf)c0 - vvv be, av fjiri d^oTepoi <j)L\a)oriv, ov&erepos 0tXo?.

K.iv8vvevei, ecfrr). OVK dpa early $i\ov TO) $I\OVVTL ovSev fjirj

OVK dvTL(f)i\ovv. OVK eoiKev. Ou& apa $(,\nr f rrot elaiv ou?

av ol tTTTTOt ur) avTi$i\wcnv, ovSe (f)i\6pTvyes, ovS av $i\6tcvves 5

ye /cal <j)i\oivoi teal (j)L\oyvfjipacrTal /cal (f)L\6cro(j)OL ) av /JLTJ rj

cro(f>La avrovs avTi$i\r). TJ cj)L\oixn fjiev ravra etcacrTOi, ov

TOL cf)i\a ovra, a\\a tyevBeO 6 Trot^TTJ?, 6? e(f)r)

oX/3io?, w TralSes re <$>(\oi /cal /jLa)vv%es ITTTTOL

teal /cvves ajpevral teal feVo? aXXoSaTro ? ;

GVK e/AOiye Sotcel, rj 8 09. AXX a\r}6rj So/cel \eyeiv croi;

To (j)L\ovfjievov apa TO>

<j)L\ovvn (j)i\ov eariv, a>?

eoi/cev, & Me-

vefceve, edv re ^^r)* <f)i\f) edv re /cal purr) olov /cal ra vecoo-rl

yejovora TraiSia, rd fjiev ov$7rco (j)L\ovvra, rd Be /cal fjucrovvra,

orav /co\dr)Tai VTTO r^5 yu-^rpo? rj VTTO TOV Trarpos, o^tco? /cal 15

IJLiaovvTa ev e/ceivw TO) y^povw Trdvrcov adXiard eaTi rot? yovevat,

(f)i\raTa. "EyLtot7e So/eel, e^rj, oimw? e^eiv. Ov/c dpa 6


<^tXo? e/c rovrov rov \dyov, d\7C 6 (j)i\ovfjLevo$.

"JZoi/cev. Kal

6 fjucrov/jievos e%0pbs dpa, aXX ov% 6 fjLto-wv, <$>aiverai. IIoX-

Xol dpa VTTO ra)V e%0p(ov fyiXovvTai, VTTO Se TWV (f)l\cov JJLLCTOVV- 20

rat, Kal rot? jjiev e^Opols $i\oi elviv, rot? e ^>tXoi? e^Opoi, el

rb <pL\ov/jLevov <f)i\ov earlv aXXa /LIT) TO </>tXow.

/cairoi TroXX?)

aXo^ia, & (>i\e eralpe, jjia\\ov 8e, oifjiai, /cal d&vvarov, TW re

<f)i\q) e%0pbv /cal rw e%9pq) (f)i\ov elvai. AX?;^, e(f)rj, eoi/cas

\e yeiv, & *(i)Kpares. Qvfcovv el TOUT dSvvarov, TO (f)i\ovv av 25

LTJ (j)i\ov rov (f>L\ovfjievov,

<$>alveTai. To jJLio-ovv dpa TrdXiv

e%0pbv TOV /miaovfjievov. Ava^/cy. Qv/covv TavTa TJ/ULLV CTV/JL-

dvayrcalov elvai 6fjLO\oyelv, aTrep ejrl TWV TrpoTepov,

(f)i\ov elvai fJirj (^tXof, vroXXa/ct? Be /cal e%@pov, oTav

T) /jL rj (f)i\ovv Tt? <fii\f) r) Kal /JLLCTOVV (f>L\fj


7roXXa/ct? S e^Opbv 30

elvai UTJ e^dpov 7) Kal $i\ov, OTav i) %ur}* uicrovv Ti? ^^ i)

Kal (j)i\ovv picry. K.ivSvvevei, ecfrr). Tt ovv &rj xprjO co/.ieOa, TJV

$ e<ya), el fir^Te ol (f)i\ovvTes cfri\oi eaovTai /jLiJTe ol (f)i\ovuevoi

ol (f)i\ovvTes Te Kal (f>i\ovfjivoi, aXXa Kal nrapd


aXXou? rivas en (frijo-oaev elvai (f)i\ovs aXXfjXot? yiyvo (Aevovs ;

Ov pa TOV Ata, ecfrr), & Sco/c/oare?, ov Trdvv eviropw eycoye. *A/oa

fjLT) rjV 8 eya), & Mez efez/e, TO TrapaTrav OVK bp6w efyrovfjiev ;

OUK eaoLye So/eel, *(/>??*, & Sfow/mre?, o Aucri?. teal dua eljrcov

5 f]pv9piacrev

eSotcei yap /JLOL a/covT avrbv e/cfavyeiv TO \e^0ev

Sia TO (T(f)dSpa Trpoae^etp TOV vovv rots \eyojjLevois &}A,o? 8

rfV Kal ore rj/cpoaro OUTCW? X a)V -

10. 700 ow ySouXo/Lte^o? ToV Te Mez e f ez oz avaTravcrat Kal

eiceivov rjo-Qels ry <J)i,\ocro(f)ia, OVTCO /jLeTa/BaXwv TT/OO? TOZ> Avaiv

10 eiroLov/ji^v TOU? \dyovs, Kal elirov T I1 Auo-t, a\i]6ri /JLOL

\<yeiv OTL el opO&s ?y//,et? ecrKOTrovfjiev, OVK av TTOTG OWTO)?

va)fjie0a. aXXa ravrrj /JLV fJLTjKeri, ico/jiev Kal <yap ^aXeTT^ T/?

//,0 cfraLverai cocrTrep oSo? ?J crKetyis rj Be erpdTrrjfjLev, SoKel pot,

Xprjvai levai, cncoTrovvras Kara TOU? Trotrjrd^ oi/TOt yap

15 &(T7rep Trarepes TT}? o-o^)ta9 etcrt^ /cat ^7e/xoVe9. \eyovcri

STJTTOV ou (f)av\cos aTro^aivofJievoi Trepl TWV (j)i\cov,

VOVCTLV ovres a\\a TOV 6eov avTov ^>ao~lv Troielv (J>L\OVS

ayovTa Trap aXX^Xou?. \eyovcn be TTCW? TavTa, (?

20 alei TOL TOV O/JLOLOV ayei ^eo? &)? TO^ ofiolov

Kal Troiel yvcopL/jiov 7) OVK evTeTV%r)Kas TOVTOLS Tot? eireo-iv ;

\ ecfrrj. OVKOVV Kal TO<? TWV ao^GDTaTCD


avdyKrj ael (j)i\ov elvai ; elalv $e TTOV OVTOL ol Trepl

25 Te Kal TOV o\ov BLa\eydfJievoL Kal ypdfovTes. AXr;^, e^rj,


A/o ovv, r\v 8 eya), ev \eyovcnv;

o t


lo-&)?, ecfrrj. "Io-ft)9,


r)V 8 eya), TO TJ/JLLCTV avTOV, tVco? 3e Kal irdv, aXX ^et? oy erf vi-

fj,ev. SOKCL yap TJ/JLLV o ye Trovijpos TW Trovrjpco, oaw av eyyv-

Tepco rrpoa-Lrj Kal fjid\\ov o/LttX^, TOCTOVTO) e^Oiwv ylyvecrBaL.

30 d^LKel ydp doLKOvvTas Se Kal d$LKOv pevovs dSvvaTov TTOV


elvai. ov% OUTO)? ; Nat, rj 8 05. Taim; /Jiev av

TOLVVV TOV \eyofjievov TO TJ/JLLO V OVK d\rjOe^ el ?;, elirep ol TTOVT)-

pol aXX?jXoi<? ofJiOLOL. A\r]0fj Xe^et?. AXXa /JLOL SOKOVCTLV

\eyeLv TOW? ayaBovs o/xotbu? elz^at aXX^Xot? Kal


Be /ca/cou9, oTrep KOI XeyeTat Trepl avrwv, urjBeTrore opoiovs

avrovs auTOt9 elvai, aXX e /-t7rXrj/CTOL 9 re /cat aaraO fJLijrov 9 6

e aura a dvo^oiov eli) teal Btdfopov, cr%oX^ 7 # av* ra>

aXXft) o/JiOiov 7) (f)i\ov yevoiro r) ov /cat crot So/cet ovrcos ;

"Quoiy\ e(j)7]. ToOro TOLVVV alviTrovrai, cw? e/i-ol &OKOVO-IV, & 5

eraipe, ol TO O/JLOIOV TO) 6/Ltota) fyi\ov Xe^yo^re?, cb? o a<ya6bs rc3

ftoVo? /xoV&) <^)tXo?, o 8e /ca/co? ovre ayaOw ovre /cafca)

e et? a\r]6fj cj)i\Lav epxerai. aw^o/cel croi ; KareWu-

E^o/^ez; apa ^ Sr;, rtVe? etcrt^ ot <j)i\oi

, OTI ol av wcnv aya0oi. Hdvv ye, e (/>?7,

- 6 yap \6yos fjfjilv

Sorcel. 10

11. Kal 6/cu, ^z^ 3 C YCO KCLITOL &vcr%epaLVCt) T( ye ev avra>

cfrepe ovv, & TT/OO? Ato?, i&cd/Jiev TL KOI vTTOTrrevco. 6 o/Ltoto? TO)

/ca$ ocroy ofjiOLos ^/fXo?, /cat ecrrtz^ ^/otja-t/AO? 6 TOtouro?


oj(f)e\iav [e^etz^] ^ TtW (3\d/3r)v av Troirjcrai, &VVCLITO, o /j,rj KOI 15

auro avrw; r) TL av TraOeiv, o /Jirj /cat v(f) avrov TrdOoi ; ra

8rj roiavra TTW? av VTT d\\r)\a)V dya7rrj9eir), fjLrjSe/Jiiav eTTt/cou-

piav aXX^Xot? e^ovra; ecrnv OTTW? ; Ou/c eariv. *O Se /JLTJ

dycnrcpTO, TTW? (j)i\ov ; Oi)Sa/>t<w?. AXXa S^ o {lev o/^oto? rw

ov c/uXo? o Se dyaObs rw dyaOa) xaO* oaov dyaQds, ov 20

ocroz^ o/Ltoto?, c/uXo? az/ et?; ; "Icra)?. Ti Be; ov^ 6 dyaOds,

ocrov dyaOds, Kara roaovrov t/caw? az^ eiy avrw ; Nat.

O 5e 76 t/caw? ovBevbs Bed/jievos /card Trjv ItcavoTijTa. riw?

7ap ou; O Se /U-T; rou Sed/jievos ovSe rt dyairwr) dv. Ov yap

ovv. O Be fJLrj dyaTrwv ov& dv <pL\ol. Ov Brjra. O Be /JLTJ 25

(friXwv ye ov ^>tXo?. Ov fyaiverai. lift)? ovv ol dyaOol rot?

dyaOois TIIMV (f)i\oi ecrovrai rrjv dp%r)V, ot ^re avroVre? iroOet,vol

aXXTJXot? Itcavol ydp eaurot? /cat %/3t9 6We?

TrajOoWe? %pe(av avra)v e^ovcriv ;

Trepl TroXXoO vrotetcr^at aXX^Xov?


; OvBefjiia, e(j)rj.


76 ou/c az^ etez^ /AT) 7re/ot TroXXoO TroiovuevoL eavrovs. AX?7$>}.

12. "AOpei Bij, w Aucrt, TTT; Trapa/cpovd/jieOa. dpd ye oXw

efaTraraifjieOa ; II 0)987;; e^. "HBrj Trore rov TJ/covcra \eyov-

T09, /cat a/m a^ayLtt/z^cr/co/xat, ort TO /x-ez^ ofJioiov TO>

ofJA&p /cat


ol dyaOol rot? dyaOols TroXe/jucoraTOi, eiev /col $rj

oBov ernjyeTO /jidprvpa, Keyoav &)? dpa


Kal Kepapevs Kepa^el Korea /cal doiobs aocScp

Kal TTTCO^O? 7TTa)%CO,

5 Kal TaXXa Srj Trdvra o#ra>? efyrj dvayKaiov elvai fJbd\io~Ta

ra ofJLOiOTaTCi ^Trpos* aXX^Xa. <f)0dvov re Kal (f)i\oviKias Kal

e /z7nf67rXao-$at, rd 8* dvo/jLoiorara ^tX/a?. TOV yap

TW TrXovaiw dvajKa^aOaL elvai Kal TOV d


TW io-%vp(p TT)? eTTLKovplas eveKa, Kal TOV Ka/AVOVTa TW

10 Kal TrdvTa Brj TOV /AT) elSoTa dyaTrdv TOV elSoTa Kal

Kal or) Kal. en Ifret-rjet, rc5

\6<y(p /jLeya\o7rpe7reaTepov, \eywv

&)9 dpa TravTos Seot TO O/AOIOV TW O/JLOLM (f>i\ov elvai, d\\" avTO

TO evavTLOv elr) TOVTOV TO yap evavTia)TaTOv TW

elvai, /LfcaXtcrra (f>i\ov. emOv/jieiv yap TOV TOLOVTOV e

15 aXX ov TOV ofAOLov TO fjiev yap ^rjpov vypov, TO 8e

v, TO Se TTiKpov y\VKeo<$, TO Se o^v ayu-/3Xeo?, TO Se Kevov

Kal TO TrX^pe? Se Keva)crea)<; Kal TaXXa OVTO)

Kara TOV avTov \6yov. Tpo<fir]V yap elvai TO evaVTlOV TO)

evavTiw TO yap O/JLOLOV TOV ofjioiov ovSev dv diro\avo-ai. Kal

20 fjievToi,

co eTalpe, Kal KOfJL^ro^ eboKei, elvai TavTa \eycov ev

yap e\eyev. V/JLLV Se, rjv o eyco, TTW? BoKel \eyeuv ; ES ^e,

o Meve^evos, co? ye e<f>r]

ovTwal aKovo~ai. <&w/j.ei> dpa

TO evav-

TLOV TW evavTiw fjid\i(TTa d>i\ov elvai ; Tldvv ye. Efev, rjv

& eya> OVK d\\oKOTOv, co Mevef eve ; Kal TJ/JLIV ev0v<; dcrf^evoi

25 eTriTTTjSrjo-ovTai OVTOI ol Trdo-cro(f)0i dvBpes, ol dvTi\oyiKol, Kal

epy](TOVTai el OVK evavTiwTaTOv e%0pa (j)i\la ;

ot? TI dTTOKpivov-

fj,0a ; TI OVK dvdyxr) 6/no\oyeiv OTI d\r)0fj \eyova-iv ; AvdyKr).

Ap ovv, (frrjo ova iv, TO %6pov TO) (f)i\a) (f)t\ov 77 TO (f)i\ov TOO

e^6p(f> ; OvBeTepa, e^rj. AXXa TO BiKaiov TM aS/Arco, -r) TO

30 (Twcfrpov TO) aKo\d(TTti), r) TO dyaOov TOO KaKU) ; OVK dv poi

OUT609 e^eiv. AXXa /jievTOi, rjv 8 eyco, elirep ye KaTa TTJV

evavTLw <^i\ov.

a TI TM <plXov eoriV, dvdyKrj Kal TavTa (j)l\a elvai.

QvTe dpa TO TU>

ofjioiov ovTe TO evavTiov TCO

OVK eoiKev.



13. "E Be Kal ToSe aKetywueOa, /x?) er, ^d\\ov i^as \av-

Bdvei TO (f)i\ov co? d\7]6ws ot Sez TOI;T&>I> 6V, aXXa TO ^re

dyaObv urJTe /catcov <j)t\ov OVTW TTOTC yiyvouevov TOV ayaOov.

ITw?, >}

05, Xey5 ; AXXa yua A t a, S 971; eyco, OVK olSa,


aXXa rco OVTI auro? elKiyyiw VTTO TT)S rov \6yov airopias, KOI 5

Kiv&vvevei Kara TTJV ap%atav TrapoifJiiav TO /cd\bv $i\ov elvai.

eoi/ce ryovv /xaXa/cco TIVI Kal \eicp Kal \i7rapa)

Sto teal ovrcos

paSia)? Bio\ttrBalvt Kal SiaSverai ?;/ua?, are TOIOVTOV 6V. \eyco

<yap rdyaOov Ka\ov elvai av 8 OVK oiei ; "E^yaxye.

Toivvv aTropaVTudf*VO? t rov KO\OV re KaryaOov <f)l\ov

TO arJTe dyaOov fjujre fcatcdv Trpo? a 3e Xeywv

aicovcrov. SoKel fjioi waTrepel rpia arra elvai yevrj, TO uev

ayaOov, TO Be KaKov, TO 8 OI^T* dyaOov ovT6 KaKov TI Se uoi ;

Kal 6/W, 6(^77. Kal oi/Te TciyaOov TayaOw oi>Te TO KaKov TO)

KaKa) OVTC TayaOov TOO a/cc5 $>i\ov elvai, wcnrep ov& o e/jLwpo- 15

aOev Xo ^o? ea - XetVerat Stj, e iirep TCO TL eaTiv <f>l\ov, TO pyre

a<ya6ov fjiiJTe KaKov (>i\ov elvai rj TOV dyaOov rj TOV TOIOVTOV

olov avTo eaTiv. ov jap BtJTrov TOO /ca/ca>

(j>i\ov av TI yevoiTO.

AXrjOfj. Ov&e firjv TO opoiov TW oaoly e<f>apev apTi- rj <ydp ;

Na/. OVK dpa eaTat, To5 ^re dya6> jnr]Te KaKW TO TOLOVTOV 20

</)i\ov olov avTo. Ov (fjalverat.

Ta> dya9w

dpa TO

ayaOov /juJTe KaKov JAOVW fjuovov <TVfJ,(Saivet, rylyv<r0at


&)5 eoiKev.

14. *Ap* ovv Kal AraXco?, fy 3 eyco, w Traloes,

IIIMV TO vvv \eydfjievov ; el yovv eOeXoLfAev epvofjtrcu TO vjial- 25

vov o-wf^a, ovSev iaTpueffc SeiTai ov&e ax^eXta? ticav&s yap

e%6t, wo-Te vyiaivcov ovSels iarpto </>/Xo5

Sta rrjv vyieiav. fj

ydp ; OvSei?. AXX 6 Kauvcov, oluai, Sid Tr]v voaov. IIco5

yap ov ; NoVo? /Jiev 8rj KaKOV, laTpiKr) Se ax^eXt/iOV Kal dya-

66v. Nat. SwyLta Se ye TTOV Kara TO aw/Jia elvai ovTe dyaObv 30

KaKov. OVTWS. AvayKa%Tai Se ye awua Sid voaov

daTrd^eadai Kal (friXelv.

Ao/cet JJLOI. To fJLijT KaKov

dpa uiJTe dyaObv $i\ov yiyveTai TOV dyaOov 8id KaKov Trapov-

EiOiKev. AT}\OZ/ Be ye oTi irplv yeveaOac avTo KCLK.QV



V7TO TOV Ka/COV 0V %l. OV ydp S/J ye KCLKOV yeyOVO? Tl dv

TOV dyaOov eTTiOvfjLol fcal fyi\ov GITJ dSvvaTOV yap e&a/Jiev

Ka/cov dya9(D <j)i\ov elvai. ASvvaTov <ydp. ^KetyaaOe Srj b

\eyco. \eyco yap on evia {lev, olov dv 77 TO Trapov, rotavrd

5 eo~TL /cal aura, evta Se ov. waTrep el eOe\oi ri? ^pca^arl rw

OTIOVV a\el^rai, Trdpecrrlv TTOV rat aKetfyOevn TO 7ra\ei$>9ev.

Hdvv ye. ^Ap^ ovv teal eariv rore TOIOVTOV TTJV ^poav TO

olov TO eirov ; Ov /jiavdavo), 77 8 09. AXX c58e,

el r/9 crov J~av9a<$ ovcras ra? Tpi%as tyifivOito d\el-

10 tyeiev, TTOTepov rore \ev/cal elev r) fyaivoiVT av ; QaivoiVT

av, r) & 09. Kat jjir]v Trapeif} 7 av avials \ev/coT^. Nat.

AXV O/JLCO^ ov$ev TL fJLa\\ov av elev \ev/cai TTCO, d\\a Trapov-

0-779 \evKOTrjTos ouTe TL \eu/cal ovre ^eXaival elaiv.


AXA, oTav S/j, c5 ^>tXe, TO yripas avTals TavTov TOVTO

15 eTraydyrj, rare ejevovro olovrrep TO Trapov, \evKov Trapovala

\evfcal. riw9 yap ov ; ToOro TOIVVV epcoTW vvv 8ij, el w av

TL rrapfi, TOLOVTOV ecrrat TO e%ov olov TO Trapov rj edv aev

KaTa Ttva Tpoirov Trapfj, eo~TaL, eav 8e ai], ov ; OVTCO juid\-

\ov, e(p7j. Kat TO urjTe Ka/cov dpa u^Te dyadov evloTe /ca/cov

20 TrapuvTO? OVTTCO fca/cdv ecrTiv, eo~Tiv S 6Ve ij^ij TO TOLOVTOV yeyo-

vev. Hdvv ye. OVKOVV OTav /ATJTTCO KaKov 77 /ca/cov Trapdvros,


rj Trapovala dyadov avTO Troiei 7ri0vueiv 77

Se Ka/cbv

aTToo-Tepel avTO T% T6 IfnOv^ia^ dua KOL T% <j>L\ias

ov yap eVt ecrTlv ovTe /ca/cov ovTe dyaOov, d\\d fca-

25 KOV (f)l\ov Se dyaOa) /ca/cov OVK rjv. Ov yap ovv. Am

&r) cfraluev av /cal TOVS ijSij o-ocfrovs ^KeTL <f)L\o(ro(f)eiv,

veol eiTe dvdpcoTTOL elcnv OVTOL ouS av e/celvovs (f)L\oo~o(j)elv

TOU9 o{/T<W9 ayvoLav e^ovTas coo~T /catcovs elvai Ka/cov ydp /cal

duaOri ovSeva $>L\oo-o$>elv. \eiTrovraL 8^ oi e^ovTes

aev TO

30 /ca/cbv TOVTO, TTJV dyvoLav, urJTrco Se VTT avTov oz/re? dyvoo/jioves

fj,ij8e dfJiaOel^, a/VX en, yyovuevoi urj el&evai a arj

ccracriv. Sib

Srj /cal (j)i\oo-0(f)ovo-LV ol ovTe dyadol OVTC /ca/col TTCO oVre?

ocrot oe /ca/CGL, ov

(f)i\ocro(f)ov(n,v, ovBe ol dyaOoi ovTe ydp TO

evavTLov TOV evavriov ovTe TO ouoiov TOV ouoiov <pL\ov ry


ecpdvrj ev rot? e/jLTrpocrdei \dyois. r) ov fie/ivyaOe ; Hdvv ye,

e^aTTjv. Nuz^ dpa, rjv 6 70),

&> Aucrt re teal Meve^eve, TTCLVTOS

p,d\\ov efyvprffca/jLev o ecrTiv TO (f>i\ov

teal ov.

cfra/jiev yap

avTO, teal Kara TTJV ^v^rjv /cat Kara TO (TMfjia /cat, TravTa^ov,

TO /JLiJTe tea/ebv yLt^re dyaObv Bid teareov Trapovcriav TOV ayaOov 5

(f)i\ov elvai. HavTairao-iv (f)aTrjv re KOI avve^copeLT rjv OVTCO


15. Kat Srj KOL auro? eya) TCO.VV e^aipov, waTrep

T/,<? viro-^ia

o eOrfpevo/Jiriv. KanreiT* OVK oI

ela-r]\6ev, &>? OVK

teal evOvs a^OecrOels eiirov

d\r)6fj eif) TCL 10

re teal Meve^eve, KiV^vvevo/JLev ovap TreTrXovTrj/cevai,. Tl

\icrTa; e(f>rj

6 Mez efez o?. Qoflov/Jiai, rjv 8 eye!),

av6pa)7rois a\a%6criv Ticrlv TOIOVTOC?


Trepl TOV T

Hco? <f>l\ov. Srf ; IlSe, e<f)ij.

rjv & eya),

(f)t\o<; b? av elrj, TroTepov eaTtv TW (j)i\os rj ov ; AvdyKij,

ecferj. TLoTepov ovv ov&evbs evetca teal St ov&ev, r)

evered TOV

/cal Bid Ti ; "^vetcd TOV teal Sid TL. TloTepov (f)i\ov oVro?

eteelvov TOV Trpdy/jiaTOs, ov evetea (^uXo? 6 0t\09 TW <pL\qj, r)

OVT6 <[>l\OV OVT e^OpOV , Ov TTCLVV, (f)rj, 67TO/jiaL. Et /CoVft)? 2O

76, rjv 8 eya) aXX a)8e IVa)? aKO\ov6r]creis, olfjiai Be teal eya)

fjid\\ov elo-o/Jiai o TL Xeyco. 6 tedpvcov, vvvSrj e(f)afJLev, TOV

laTpov ^>/\09 ov% ourco? ; Na/. Qv/eovv Bid vdcrov evetca

vyielas TOV laTpov (j)i\o$ ; f

Nat. H & ye z^ocro? teatedv ;

ITco? S ov ; Tl Be vyieua ; TJV ft eya) dyaObv rj teateov r) 25

ovSeTepa ; Ayadov, efyrj. *}L\eyofjiev 8 dpa, &)? eotteev, OTL

TO crwfjia, ovTe dyaObv ovTe /eatebv ov, Sid Trjv vdaov, TOVTO Be

Bid TO /eatcov, TT}? iaTpltcffi (f)l\ov e&Ttv dyadbv S 77 laTpi/erj

eve/ea Be T% vyieias TTJV <pi\lav ; laTpi/erj dvyprjTai 77 Be

vyleia dyaOov. rj yap ; C

Nat. <&l\ov Be r) ov (>i\ov

r) vyieia ; 30


H Be z^ocro? e%0pdv. Tldvv ye. To ovTe rea/ebv OVTC

dyaObv dpa Sid TO teateov teal TO e%6pbv TOV dyaOov <f>l\ov

ecrTiv evetea TOV dyaOov teal (f)l\ov. Qatverai. r/

(j)l\ov TO (j)i\ov %TOV (f)l\ov*

<>i\ov Bid TO

Rve/ea dpa TOV



16. Elev, rjv S ey(D. eTreiBrj evTavOa rj/co/jiev, co

TT poao-^cofiev rbv vovv fir) et;a7raTr]9(t)/uiev. on /jiev yap

TOV <f)i\ov TO (f)l\ov yeyovev, e co ^aipeiv, KOI TOV O/JLOLOV y # OTA*

TO opoiov (j)l\ov yiyveTai, o e(f>a^iev aSvvarov elvai aXX 0/^0)9

5 roSe o-fce^co/JieOa, ^ ^yua? efavrartery TO vvv \yd/jievov. rj

laTpi/ctf, (fra/jiev, eve/ca rf;? u^te/a? (f)l\ov. Na/. Ovtcovv KOI

TI vyieia (j)i\ov ; Hdvv <ye. Et apa (pi\ov, eve/cd TOV. Nat.

<&i\ov ye TWOS $rj, elirep aKO\ov6^creL Trj TrpoaOev 6/j,o\oyta.

Tldvv ye. QVKOVV teal e/celvo (f)t,\ov av eo~Tai eveica

<pi\ov ;


Ap* ovv ov/c avdyKTj aTreiTrelv T^/xa? OVTCOS IOVTCIS, rj

10 Nat.

dcfri/ceo-Oai ejrl Tiva ap^rfv, rj ov/ceT eTravoio-ei eV aXXo (>i\ov,

[ttXX* ^fet] ITT etcelvo 6 e&Tiv %TO* TrpwTov (f)i\ov,

ov eveKa

real TO, aXXa c^afJiev TrdvTa ^>tXa elvai ; AvdyKrj. ToOro $rf

da-Tiv o \eyco, fjbrj rjfjbas raXXa nravra a elnTOfjiev e/celvov eveKa

15 (j)l\a eivai, Mairep efScoXa arra 6Vra avTov, e^airaTa, y 8*

e/celvo TO TrpwTOv, o 0)9 aX^^co? eaTi cj)i\ov. evvoijcrco/jLev yap

OTaV T/9 Ti TTepl TTOXXoO TTO^Tat, ol6v7Tp eVLOT

vbv OUVT\ TTCLVTWV TWV aXXwv ^pTj/juaTCOv 7rpoTL/^a, 6 8rj

eveKa TOV TOV vbv Trepl Trai TO? r)yelo~6ai apa /cal

20 aXXo TI av Trepl vroXXoi) TTOLOLTO ; olov el alcrOdvoiTO avTov

Kwveiov ireTrcoKOTa, apa Trepl TroXXoO iroiolT av olvov, eiirep

TOVTO rjyoiTO TOV vbv croocreiv ; Ti /jiijv ; ecf^rj. GVKOVV /cal

TO dyyetov, ev w o olvo<$ eveirj ; Tldvv ye. *Ap ovv rare

ovSev Trepl TrXetWo? TcoieiTai KV\iKa /cepa/meav r) TOV vbv

25 TOV avTov, ovSe Tpels KOTv\as olvov rj TOV vov ; r) w&e TTW?

e^et* Tracra r) TOiavTr) o-TrovBrj

ov/c eVt rourot? eaTlv eaTrov-

ejrl Sa<T/jievr], rot? eveKa TOV 7rapao~Keva^o/ULevois, aXX* e ?


eKeivw, ov eveKa TrdvTa ra TOiavTa TrapaaKevd^eTai. 01)%

OTI TroXXa/ct? \eyofjiev, co? Trepl TroXXoO Troiov^eOa yjpvcriov /cal

30 apyvpiov dXXa ar) ovSev Ti fJba\\ov OVTO) TO ye d\rj@ls e^rj

aXX erceivo eaTiv o Trepl TravTos Troiov^eOa, o av (fcavfj ov,

OTOV eveKa /cal ^pvcriov /cal TrdvTa ra TrapaaKeva^ofJieva Trapa-

aKevd^eTai. ap* OVTCOS ^aofjiev ; lldvv ye. QVKOVV /cal Trepl

TOV (f)i\ov 6 avTos \oyo<$ ; oaa ydp fyafiev (f>l\a elvai, r]


eve/ca <f)i\ov TIVOS erepov, pr/fJiarc (J)aiv6^e6a \eyovTes

(f)i\ov Be TO* OVTL KLvBvvevei e/celvo avTO elvat, els o nraaai

Te\evTcoo-iv. KwBvvevei, OUTO;?,

al \eyo^evai <j>t,\icu

Ov/covv TO TU> ye OVTI <j)i\ov

ov <f)i\ov TWOS eve/ca


17. ToOro pev Brj a7rr)\\a/CTai, ^37 (f)i\ov TIVOS everta TO

(j)i\ov elvai a\\ apa TO ayaOov eaTiv $i\ov ; "E

Sorcei. ^Ap ovv Sta TO KCLKOV TO a<ya0ov fyiKelTai, KOI

a)Be el Tpiwv OVTCOV &v vvvorj e\e<yo/jiV, ajaOov KOI /ca/cov /cal

ayaOov p,iJTe KCLKOV, TCL Bvo \ei(f>0eL7], TO Se KaKov etc- 10

aire\6oi real ^6^09 efaiTTTOiTo ^rjTe aw^aTO^ pyre

fMJTe TWV aX\a)V, a Stj (f>ap,ev avTa Ka9* CLVTO, oi>Te /catca

elvai OVT d<ya0d, dpa rore ov$ev av r]fuv xpijaifjiov eirj TO aya-

66v, aXX axpr)o-Tov av yeyovos efy ; el yap ^oev ^a? eVt

/3Xa7TTOf, ovBev av ovSe/jiids axf>e\las oeoi/jieda, /cal OVTCO &] av 15

Tore yevoLTO /caTaSr)\ov, OTL Sia TO tca/cov TayaOov rjyaTrw/jiev

/cal ety^ovfjiev, a>? fydpfJiaKOV ov TOV /ca/cov TO dyaOov, TO Be

/ca/cov voarji^a z/ocr^yu/aro? Be /-IT) OVT05 ovBev Bel (frap/AaKov.

ap OVTCO 7re(f)VKe re /cal <^Xemu TayaOov Bia TO /ca/cov v<fi

ij/jLtov, TWV /jieTa^v OVTCOV TOV /ca/cov re /cal TayaOov,


avTo B 20

eavTov eve/ca ovBe/jiiav ^pelav e%ei ; "Eoi/cev, rj B 09, OVTCOS

efteiv. To apa (f>i\ov r]fuv e/celvo, els o ereXewra Trdvia Ta

aXX , a eve/ca Mpov <f)i\ov cf>i\a etyanev elvai, ouBev Srj TOVTOIS

eoucev. TavTa fjiev yap <f)i\ov eve/ca <f>i\a KetcKijTai, TO Be rro

OVTL (j)i\ov TCCLV TOvvavTiov TOVTOV (palveTai Trecpv/cds (f)i\ov 25

yap rjjJilv dvecfidvr] ov e^Opov eveica el Be TO e^Opov aTrekOoi,

ov/ceTi, &)9 eoi/c\ eaO r}/jilv (f)l\ov. Ov poi Bo/cel, e<fyrj, W9


vvv \eyeTai. TioTepov, rjv B eyco, irpos Ato9, edv TO /ca/cov diro-

\7jTai, ovBe Treivijv ert eVrat ovBe Bi^frrjv ovBe aXXo ovBev TWV

TotovTcov ; T) irelvrj fjiev ecrrat, edvrrep avOpwrroi re /cal raXXa 30

fwa J7, ov fjievTOL (3\a/3epd ye ; ical Bfya By /cal al a\\ai eVi-

Ov/jiLai, aXX ov /ca/cai, are TOV tca/cov tt7roXft)Xoro9 ; r) ye\olov

TO epcoTrj/jia, o TL TTOT ecrrat Tore ^ ar) ecnai ; r/9 yap olBev ;

aXX ovv ToBe y la^ev, OTL /cal vvv eaTiv TreivwvTa /3\d7TTecr6ai,



eariv Se Kal a)(j)e\elo-0ai. rj yap ; Hdvv ye. OVKOVV Kal


eviOTe fjiev co^eX/yUco? e7ri6v/jieiv, eviore Se

evioTe $e f^rjSeTepa ; 2,(f)6Spa ye. OVKOVV edv a

5 ra tca/cd, a ye fj,r) Tvy^dvei ovra /ca/cd, TL TTpoo-iJKei, rot?

o-vva7r6\\vo-6ai ; QvSev. "Ecro^rat apa al fJ,ijre dyaOal

Ka/cal eiriOvpicu Kal eav diroXrjrai rd Katcd. QaLverai. Olov

re ovv ecrTLV eirLOvfJiovvra Kal epwvra TOVTOV ov eTTidvael Kal

epa fjir) <pi\eiv ; OVK e/JLOiye SoKel. "Eo-rat dpa Kal rwv KaK&v

10 aiToXo^evwv, co? COLKCV, ^6/X* drra. Nat. OVK dv, ei ye TO

KaKOV aiTiov rjv rov cf)i\ov TL elvai, OVK av rjv TOVTOV a?roXo/ie-

vov (j)t,\ov eTepov erepw. atria? yap aTroXoyLte^? O^VVCLTOV

TTOV rjv T eKelvo elvai, ov fjv avTrj 77 alria. Op^w? \eyeis.

OVKOVV a)ao\oy7]TaL IJ/JLIV TO (f)l\ov (f)i\elv TL Kal Bid Tf Kal

15 u)i]9rjfAev rore ye 8m TO KaKOV TO fjiiJTe dyaOov /jLrjTe KaKov

TO dyaOov <pt\elv ; A\7j0rj. Nvv &e ye, a>? eoiKe, ^aiverai

d\\7) rt? alria TOV fyiXelv re Kal (f>L\elo-0ai.

"EoiKev. *Ap

ovv TO) OVTI, coa-Trep dpTi eXeyopev, rj emdvpia TT}? <f>i\ia<;

aiTLa, Kal TO eTTiOvfJLovv (j)i\ov ecrTlv TOVTM ov eTTiOv^el Kal

20 roVe OTav eTriOvuf), o 8e TO TrpoTepov eXeyo/jiev (>i\ov elvai,

v0\os rt? rjv, wo-irep Troirj/jia K/aoW orvyKeiuevov ; KivSwevei,

ecfrr). AXXa /-teWot, r)v 8 eya), TO ye eTriOvpovv, ov dv evSees fj,

8* eVSee? dpa (f)i\ov eKei-

TOVTOV eTTiOvfjiel. r) ydp ; Nat . To

vov ov dv eVSee? ^ ; Ao:et IJLOL. E^See? Se yiyveTai ov dv TI

25 d(j)aipf}Tai. IIco? S ov ; Tov OLKeiov 8rj, <? eoLKev, o re e/oa)9

Kal r} (f)t\{a Kal rj ewiOv/Jiia Tvy^dvei ovcra, a)? fyaiverai, &

M.eveeve re Kal Avert. ^vve<f)dTriv. T/xet? dpa el

eo-Tov aXX^Xoi?, fyvaei, irrj olKeloi ea0 vfuv avTols.

e(f)dTr)V. Kal el dpa Ti? erepo? eTepov InnQv^d, rjv S* eya>, w

30 TratSe?, r) epa, OVK dv Trore eVe^u/^et ovSe rjpa ovBe e(f)i\ei, el

fjbr) ot/ceto? TFT; TO) epco/JLevay eTvy^avev wv r) Kara TTJV tyvxrjv r)

Kara TL TT}? ^v%fjs rj6os r) Tpdirovs r) eZSo?. Hdvv ye,



M.evet;evos 6 8e Avais ecriyr^a-ev. Elei^, rjv 8* eya). TO /nev &r)

olKelov dvayKalov rjfjiLV Tcefyavrai (f)i\elv. "Eowev, etprj.

TO> AvayKalov dpa yvi]o-iw epao-ry /cal //,?)


VTTO TWV TracBiKcov. 6 jJLev ovv Avcri? Kal 6

7r? e7revevadTi]v, b Be \7nro9d\^ virb r?}9 rjBovrjs iravTQ-

BaTrd r)$iei xpco/JLara.

18. Kat eyd> eljrov, /3ov\dfjievos TOV \dyov eViovce ^mr&u, Et 5

fj,ev TI rb oi/celov rov ofjioiov Sia^epei, \eyoLfjiev av TI, o>? e/jiol

So/eel, & Alien re /cal Meve!;eve, irepl (f>t\ov, o ecrriv el Be rav-

rbv Tvy%dvei ov O/JLOIOV re ical ol/celov, ov paBiov airojBakelv TOV

irpoa-Oev \6<yov,

a>? ov


TO Be d^prjdTOV $i\ov o/AoXoyelv 7rX7;/z,/<ieA,e?. /Bov- 10

ovv, TIV 8 eyco, eTreiBr) wairep /jieOvo/jLev VTTO TOV \dyov,

Kal <pa>fjLev erepov TI elvai TO olfcelov TOV O/JLOLOV ;

Tldvv ye. TloTepov ovv Kal TayaObv oi/ceiov (frtjcrofjLev TravTi, TO

Be Kaicov a\\OTpiov elvai ; rj TO fj,ev /ca/cbv TW tcaKw ol/celov, ro>

Be dyaBa) TO dyaOdv, TW Be fjiiJTe dyaOa) fjL^Te /ca/cw TO

dyadbv fJLrjTe /ca/cov ; Ourw? e^aTrjv Bo/celv

ol/celov elvai. Hd\iv dpa, rjv B eya), a>

7re/3aXo/^e^a Trepl (^)tX/a?,


ou? TO

et? rourof? elaTre-

6 ydp dBi/cos TW dBi/cw /cal 6 /ca/cbs TO) tca/cw ovBev

rjTTOV <^tXo? ecrTai rj 6 dya6b<;

TO> dyaOy.

"l&oi/cev, ecfrr). Tt 20

Be ; TO dyaObv /cal TO ol/celov dv TavTov (f)o)/jiev eivai, d\\o TL

?} 6 dyaObs TW dyaOw fjidvov ^xfXo? ; Tldvv ye. AAAa

/cal TOVTO ye wd/jLeda et;e\eyt;ai ^yu-a? aurou? 77 ov

M.e/AVij/uLe0a. Tt ovv dv ert ^prjo-ai/JLeOa ra> \6yw;

rj Bf)\ov

OTI ovBev ; Be o/j,ai ovv, wcrTrep ol cro<f)ol ev rot? BiKaorTTjpLO^, 25

ra elprjfjieva aTravTa dvaTrefJurdoraaOai. el ydp fMJTe ol

fjievoi /jiiJTe ol (f)i\ovvTe$ /ArjTe ol O/JLOLOI /JLTJTe ol dvdfjLoiot,

ol dyadol /J,IJT ol olKeloi yu-^re ra d\\a oaa B(,e\r)\v0a/uiev

ov ydp eycoye eTi /me/mv^/nai, virb TOV 7r\r)dov<$ a\V el /ArjBev

TOVTCOV (f)i\ov eaTLV, eyw pev OVKETL %CD TL \eya). 30

Taura 3 elTrwv ev vw el^ov d\\ov TJBrj Tivd TWV Trpecr/BvTe-

p(ov KLvelv KaTa, coaTrep BaifjLoves Tives, Tr/oocreX^oWe? ol

Baycoyoi, o re TOV M.eveevov Kal b TOV AvcriBos, e^o^re?

row aSeX^ou?, 7rapeKa\ovv Kal Ke\evov avTovs oiKaB dinevai


<yap rp o"^re


TO JJLGV ovv Trpwrov fca

re? avTOV<$ aTTTjXavvofjiev eTreiBrj Se ov&ev e(f)p6vTiov TI

aXX VTTO flapflap i&vres rjyavaKTOVv re KOI ovbev TJTTOV e/cd-

\ovv, KOI eSdicovv TJ/JLLV vTrotreTrcoKores ev rot? E/o/Licuot? airopot

5 elvai Trpoa^epeadai, r^TT^Oevre^ ovv avrwv Sie\vcrafJiev rrjv

<jvvovcriav. o/^a)? 8 70)76 7J$r) CITTLOVTCOV avrwv, Nvv

S 70),

a> Avcn

re /cal Mevegeve, Kar

re, 7eoa)^ avrjp, /cal u/x/et?. epovai yap otSe aTTtoVre? &)? olofjieua

77/xet? aXXTJXajy (/>tXot elmt /cal e/>te 7<z/o ev vplv riO^^L

10 OVTTCO Be o TL ecrTiv o (/)tXo? oloi re eyevo/jieOa e^evpelv.



G., Goodwin s Greek Grammar.

G M T., Goodwin s Greek Moods and Tenses.

H., Hadley-Allen s Greek Grammar.

M., Meisterhans, Grammatik der Attischen Inschriften.

R., Riddell s Digest of Platonic Idioms.

Schm., Schmelzer s annotated edition of the dialogues.

The opening lines closely resemble the beginning of the Lysis or the

Republic, and have been imitated in several non-Platonic dialogues. Though

the sentences are so simple and natural, they were doubtless elaborated with

great care. The story goes that after Plato s death a tablet was found, con

taining the first few lines of the Republic written and re-written, each time

in a different order, showing that the author subjected his work to a constant


P. 1. i. ex and GOTO are often synonymous. So in inscriptions we find

K and also GOTO rov "A0a> (Meisth. 173).

Potidaea, a Corinthian colony situated on the western arm of the Chalcidian

peninsula, revolted from the Delian Confederacy in 432 B.C. An Athe

nian army of 3000 hoplites, sent to reduce the city to submission, met a

large force of Corinthians and Chalcidians before Potidaea, and, after a brief

engagement, was victorious. The defeated army was driven within the walls,

the city was blockaded by the Athenians on land and sea, and since the

entire army was not needed for the siege, some of the soldiers, among whom

was Socrates, returned home. Our dialogue is accordingly supposed to

take place in the year before the beginning of the Peloponnesian war, when

Socrates was about 37 years of age. Grote, VI. 67-75, Thuc. I. 62-4.

2. SLO. xpovov,


after a long absence."

olov ( u as "), like ota and are (cf. 1. 8, 19. 16, 21. 23, 73. 32), gives a reason

on the writer s authority, ws is non-committal, and puts the responsibility

elsewhere. H. 977-8, G. 1574-5.



The palaestra was a stretch of trodden earth, where the young men

3. avvtjOeLs Siarpi^a?, "my usual occupation

wrestled (TraAxuetv) and exercised in the open air, and was surrounded by


78 XAPMIAHS. [P. !

colonnades. The opportunity for meeting the youthful athletes in the

moments of rest or idleness made it a favorite resort for Socrates and other

teachers. Cf. 29. 8.

The sacred enclosure of Basile, which she shared with Codrus and Neleus

(v. App.), was situated near the Itonian gate. This goddess has been iden

tified by Wieseler with Athena and by Loeschke with Magna Mater (cf. Har

rison, Myth, and Mon. 51, 229), but the recent theory advanced by E. Meyer.

(Herm. XXX. 287) seems the most satisfactory. He believes that Neleus

("pitiless") and Basile ("queen") were the earliest Athenian gods

of the

dead, and cites a relief (found 1893) which represents the Attic hero Eche-

los carrying away Basile in his chariot, an evident parallel to the rape of


14. TroAAovs . . . rtOvdvai. The actual loss was 150 men (Thuc. I. 63).

The -i appended to OUTWS indicated that a gesture accompanies the word

(so 72. 17, cf. 11. 14, 26. 3, 27. 1 i, TOUTI 10. 25), and is necessarily colloquial

and familiar.

15. eTTietKws aXrjOrj, a colloquial expression, "fairly correct"; nearly

equivalent to iKavu>? (53. 25).

1 6. Trapeylvov /xev; /xev expects an affirmative answer.

mpryevoprpf The repetition in the answer of a word contained in the

question is the most frequent form of reply in the Charm. (22 cases), and

is used here more (proportionately) than in any other dialogue. Trdvv ye

and vat are also very common.

Aevpo, a familiar ellipsis, "

1 8.

like our


" "

Here I for Come here !

ayoov. dyayoov would be more logical, but the present participle, like

the present imperative, of ayco is more common than the aorist, perhaps

owing to the continuity inherent in the meaning of the verb. Cf. Od. i. 30.


dvepoLTo. The so-called "iterative

optative," really a past general

supposition, which gains generic force from the repetition implied in the

is no iteration in the optative itself. H.

leading verb (Si^yotyzr/v) . There

894, G. 1393. 2, G M T. 462, R. 77. Cf. 12. 31.

T/poorw aAAos aAAos. Cf. 1. 7, rja-7rd^ovTo aAAos aAAo^er, Sym.

22O C.

Oavfjid^ovTcs aAAo? aAAa> eAeyev.

2. i.

vrept re TWV Wa>v. This the only place in the Charm, where single

re is used, and it is very rare in the earlier dialogues, but it becomes frequent

in the later works ;

the Timaeus, in particular, has as many as two hundred.

rot vvv for vvv is also characteristic of the later period (v. Introd. p. x).

2-8. Note the detailed color, the broad and leisurely tone given by the

accumulation of participles in this section ; there are five in a bunch at the

beginning (v. A. J. P. IX. 137 ff.).


n. vov is expressed here for the sake of contrast with dvei/ ioi/ (cf. Prot.

310 A, Euthyd. 275 A),

otherwise it would be omitted.

13. Charmides is called juetpd/aov here, veai/arKos in 1. 27, vecmas in 3. 9,

and dvr/p in 2. 32. The first is the most exact designation, about 14 years

old, between Trats and veos ; the second implies no definite age ; the third

connotes vigor and youthful strength ; and the last is a general term appli

cable to any male person. A similar interchange of these synonyms is seen

in Ant. 3 8. 6-8, Hdt. III. 53, Prot. 309 A.

16. E/xot ov&v orafyt^rw, "you must not judge by me."

17. XtvKr) ardO^r) ei/xi . Like many other proverbs, Aeu/o) crTa.dfj.rj is ellip

tical, and the full form, as given by Sophocles (in a fragment), is AeuKoS XiOu

XevKrj (TTdOfjir)-

Socrates means that fair youths are all so attractive to him that

a chalk line on mar

an individual makes no more impression on him than "

ble." Socrates was very fond of proverbs (cf. [13. 27], 16. 5, 22. 20, [32. 12],

37. 3, 5, 49. 8, 12, 50. 12, 54. 18, 57. 18, 59. 20, 66. 23, 69. 6, 71. 12), and

quotes more than a hundred during his participation

logues ;

in the Platonic dia

their use is in keeping with his familiar style (v. Introd. p. xv).

drexnos is often used in comparisons and with proverbs (cf. 37. 5), less

commonly with metaphors (Euthyd. 303 E), just as ok dA^tfws and ro> ovn

(38. 27, 49. 12). drex^w? is especially frequent in Ar. and PL, but rare

elsewhere ; this shows that its sphere is colloquial.

1 8.

drd/o always stands the first word in the sentence, and presents a

sudden contrast. It is poetic and at the same time familiar.

19. TO jtxeye^os KOLL TO /cdAAos- Cf. 6. 13 KaAAiW Kat |U,eian/. A command

ing figure was prized as highly as a fair face in the estimation of manly beauty.


-rjviKo. is more exact than ore, to which it bears the same relation as

to xpoVos ;

"at the moment that he entered." Cf. Pind. P. i. 48.

23. TO fjiv Ty/xerepoi/, "our (admiration)."

26. toWe/a dyaA/xa. So Aristaenetus calls Lais e/xi/^v^os TTJS Ac^oSiYr/s

(I. i), and we often say, "as pretty as a picture."


take off his clothes," to exercise in the palaestra.

29. ttTToSwcu,

ei e$eAoi, 8d^t. The eager expectation of Charmides causes a change

from the optative conclusion to the certain indicative future. It is the

reverse in 5. 2-4.

31. HpaKAas, cf. 60. 33, also vrj Ata 1. 1 1, 9. 32, 46. 16 ; /xa (rov) Ata 41. 10,

44. 3, 47. 5, 55. 1 8, 60. 32, 69. 4 ; vr) TOV Kwa 22. 1 1 (v. Note) ; vy rou? Otovs

49. 24; TTjOos Aio? 61. 31, 67. 12, 73. 28. Socrates swears more freely than

any other Platonic interlocutor, and is very fond of interjections (cf. fta/Bat

71. ii, his favorite). We see from Ar. that vrj Ata was common in low life,

and Demosthenes uses it four times as often as all the other orators together

go XAPMIAHS. [P. 2

(Rehd.-Bl. Ind.). These two great men swore so freely that they exhausted

the supply of oaths commonly used, and had to borrow from the women.

So "

by Athena


Socrates (cf. 29. 32) .

32. Tvyxavei TT/DOO-OV,

was a favorite oath of Demosthenes, and "


is added."


by Hera


3. 3. TL OVK dvreSuo-a/xev avrov avro TOVTO ; The aorist regularly follows

TL ou, since the surprise that the deed has not been done is equivalent to a

demand that it be done at once (Kriiger).

Cf. 1. 8, and often. The present

is sometimes found, as Prot. 310 E, though the aorist was used 310 A. Tr.

thought and

Why not investigate (lit. lay bare) this very point ?" The

language appear again in I Ale. 132 A. TOVTO, like rcumx in the line above,

refers to rr)v ^ro^ri v >

TrpoTtpov TOV ciSovs,

v> Note 34 24<


before the body."

4. TravTw? means "surely"; so 63. 15, and always in answers, whereas

it usually means "at any rate" (cf. 9. 31).

7. TOVTO TO jcoAdv, i.e. poetic skill.

8. TT}S SoAwi/os v. Note 6. 8.


10. ovSe aivxpov av ?v KTA. The Athenian boys were always attended by

a vraiSaywyds,

a faithful slave who took them to and from the school and

gymnasium. They were taught to be modest and retiring, and the peculiar

conditions of Athenian society made a chaperon as necessary to them as to

in Ar. Nub.

the girls.

The classic description of a guarded education is given

961-83 (cf. Luc. Amor. 44), and Autolycus in Xenophon s Symposium is

an example of a model boy.


12. Hat, but Contrast TTCU 62. ci>


29. The omission of w is

as unusual in Greek as is the insertion of O in Latin. It gives a more earnest

or rougher tone, and is appropriate to commands, reproaches, or eager requests

(cf. 50. 29 Nuatt, Sym. 172 A, etc.).

14. ao-0veias fo. This attraction of the relative to the case of its ante

cedent is post-Homeric, 1 but common in Hdt. and all Attic authors except

Euripides. Cf. 70. i, R. 189 a, H. 994, G. 1031.

15. /3apvv(T&ai TYJV Kt<j>a\r}v,


to have a headache."

1 8. /xovov cA06TQ>, cf. Phaedo 63 E dAAa povov TO lavTov 7rapa0-KevafTO>,

Menex. 236 C dAAa /JLOVOV ewre.

oTrep ow Kat cyevcro.

Cf. Euth o 4 D oirep ovv KOL 7ra0ev and Euthyd.

283 A OTrep ovv KOL o-vve(3rj, all formulae of transition.

22. TOV fiv KttT^dAo/xev,

the other man off the end of the bench."

" we

made one man stand up, and we pushed

Their excitement was so great


1 The case cited from Homer by Riddell is a partitive genitive, and not attraction at all.



they made room for two people instead of one. The whole tone of this passage

is playful and ironical, and must not be taken too seriously. The sportive

metaphors di/rjy 6

set sail and (" ") irepUppeov a (" regular flood the ") , mock

solemnity of the poetic quotation, and the exaggerated phrases oiWrt ev

and VTTO TOV Opi^aro^ caXtoKevai, all show that

e/xavroi; all out-of-doors ("


Socrates is giving free rein to his humorous fancy. His confusion is no

more real than his perplexity a little later (18. 20), or the dizziness (69. 5)

which he pretends that Protagoras eloquence produced (Prot. 328 D).

Moreover, the style of his conversation is patronizing and paternal, not at

all in the manner of a lover (cf. 26. 9). However, most scholars agree that

" a sensual element was the innocent foundation of his intellectual inclina

tion" (Zeller), and "his features are those of a man naturally gross (v. Introd.

p. xiv). Alcibiades, though he mentions Charmides as one of the favorites

of Socrates (Sym. 222 B), bears emphatic testimony to the absolute purity

of the philosopher s life

(id. 219 C). Furthermore, Xenophon, whose pur

pose was to defend Socrates from all calumny, reports language as erotic as

any in our dialogue (Sym. 4. 28), and he also tells how his master reproved

the failings of others (Mem. I. 2. 29, 3. 8), as he could not have done unless


his own life was blameless.

27. ifj.fyav6v TL oioi/, "I can t tell you how." d/M^avov n is more usually

joined with oaov or w? (Rep. 527 E), like Oavfrnarov ovov (33. 18), and is

so used often by Plato, to whom this colloquial phrase is peculiar.

29. w yej/vdSa. Similar forms of address are w ycwatos (Phaedr. 227 C),

yei/vatorare (ib. 235 D), /xaKapie (5. 12, 15. 22, 50. 20), dya0e, (3e\TLare (11.

II, 48. 12), and a/oiorc (40. 30, 50. 25, 61. 22), ^lAdrr;?, <iAe and (1X77

Kt(f>a\rj (Ion 531 D), 6avfJid<nc, Sai/xdvie (52. 31). Contrast w fjaape 9. 27

(v. Note). Each has its peculiar force, according to the context (v. Campb.

Theaet. p. 283).

31. Kv8xv. This is the only fragment of a poet of whom nothing is

known, and some words have probably been lost from the quotation. As it


stands, the sense seems to be, Take care lest the fawn come in sight of the

lion and be devoured." The fawn is the lover, and the lion is the beloved

who awakens the devouring passion (cf. Hor. Od. III. 20). There was a

proverb, py ?rp6? Aeovra Sop/cas ai/ w/xac pdx r )S-

4. 4. Though Demosthenes mentions incantations contemptuously (25.

80), their use was not confined to the lower classes (Aesch. Eum. 618).

They consisted in the repetition of the names of gods, or of mystic, unintel

ligible words, like our "


counting-out rhymes, and were used more especially

to drive away snakes or bugs, to win love (Theoc. 2), or to aid childbirth

(Theaet. 149 C), though they were a recognized remedy in popular medical

82 XAPMIAHS. [P. 4

practice (cf. Rep. 426 B, Euthyd. 290 A). The <vAAov

have been a sort of amulet ;

here mentioned may

such was the moly used by Odysseus, such was

the laurel leaf put in the mouth on leaving a house, so to-day people carry

horse-chestnuts to avert rheumatism.


dSi/oo ye,

TOWO/>WX fjiov crv aKpiftois; "Are you sure about my name?" Et py


If I am not mistaken. 1

11. ov crov oAiyos Aoyos e<TTiV.

Trf.pi crov might be expected,

but we find

the same use in cJv 6 Aoyos eoriv, Apol. 26 B, etc. So the Greek could

say Xtytw TLVOL, instead of Trept rtvog. Cf. Note 23. 13.

7Tf.pl TT}S eVo>&7s ota Tvyxava ovaa. The subject of the relative clause is

anticipated. This prolepsis is especially common in Plato; cf. 9. 19, 13. 3-

4, 18. 1 8, 20. 10, 57. 31. It is most frequently used with verbs of knowing

and fearing, and a person is generally the object of the verb.

16. Svvaa-OaL fjiY) TYJV K<f>aXr)v fwvov dAA . There is no conclusion to

this premise, for the construction changes at wo-Trep and an independent

sentence begins. Again, Aeyovcrt (dat. plu. of ppl.) does not agree with

tuTpwv, as grammatical consistency requires, but with the intervening aurois.

This looseness and irregularity of structure is characteristic of Socrates

manner of speaking (v. Introd. p. xv.).

25. Stallbaum explains TO.VTO. as the object of Aeyovcn and also the sub

ject of exet bu* it ^s > simpler to take ravra with Acyovtn alone and ovrws

with ex a >

*" 6m Ta-vTa

Xeyovcrt Kat ovrws L ex

30. Kat eiTrov. In the earlier dialogues etTroi/ precedes the sentence

and rjv 8 eyw are interposed.

quoted, <^>ryv

31. TO Tavrrjs TYJS 7ra>8^s. TO ("this matter of") gives a strong demon

strative force, and, since pointing is vulgar, it is decidedly familiar in tone.

32. Zalmoxis. The Greeks had a legend that Zalmoxis was a Thracian

slave of Pythagoras, who, obtaining his freedom, returned to his native

country, where he taught the doctrine of immortality. To prove his thesis,

he hid himself in a subterranean chamber for three years, and made his

friends believe, when he returned, that he had been living in the other

world (Hdt. IV. 94-6). The story was evidently invented for purposes

of ridicule. Incantations are often derived from Thrace and ascribed to

Musaeus or Orpheus (Eur. Ale. 968), while Thessaly was famous for its

magic (Gorg. 513 A). The same association of mystery with distant lands

leads Theocritus to make Assyria (II. 162) responsible for his love-charm,

and Lucian (Nekyo. 6) to refer his sorcery to Zoroaster.



a,7ra$araTietv, make men immortal," with the underlying meaning,


teach that men are immortal." This was the region where the Orphic rites


p. 5] COMMENTARY. 83

33-34. Aeyovrai eAeyej/ eAeyov Aeyotev Aeyet. The Greeks in gen

eral, and Plato in particular, had no objection to the frequent repetition of a

word, although extreme cases, like the above, give a certain naivete and imi

tate the freedom of living conversation. Cf. 16. 30-31 /3ovAercu, 29. 32 f.

opOols, 30. 7-9 e7raii/os, 32. 34 f. vcu)?, 39. 15-16 eScoKa?, 48. 25-7,30-1 Xiytiv

(v. Note). In 71. 34 the disagreeable accumulation of <tAov <tAov KrA. is

essential to philosophic accuracy. Almost identical phrases recur often (v.

Note 33. 22) in the same way. Isocrates was the first to attach importance

to variety of phraseology, and English style has learned through Cicero to

follow his example.

5. 2-4. ov Set, then The eirj. change from the indicative to the optative

may mark a transition from fact to inference, and may also be due to the need

of emphasizing the dependence of the verb, as it is further removed from the

principal clause. Cf. Note 2. 29, R. 282. For the indicative Set cf. et /xe AAet

in 1. 10. Artistic authors are more likely to keep the indicative in orat. obi,

so it is more common in Thucydides than in Xenophon.

4. TOV Stac^euyeiv. Plato, Euripides, and Xenophon use the genitive of

the articular infinitive with great freedom, but the dative is unusual. In

Plato the present is much the most common tense (A. J. P. III. 193).

6. ov IXOVTO?. The genitive absolute (cf. 21. 12-13) is rarely found in

Plato and the poets ;

it belongs to the narrative, and is frequently and skil

fully used by the great orators. The construction with the relative pronoun

is very unusual (cf. 1. 14, I Ale. 127 B) ; only

the orators (A. J. P. VI. 310).

7. TrdvTa IK rrjs J/nrj^?

/crA. Cf. Rep. 403 D.

fifteen cases are found in all

10-14. Notice how each clause in this section begins with the emphatic

word of the preceding clause (Schm.). This is the same chain-figure that

is so impressive in the first chapter of John s gospel.

17. OTTWS ^tr/Set?

ere TretVet,

" Don t let anyone persuade you." This

elliptical or independent use of OTTWS is familiar in tone, but as forcible as

the imperative. In fact, it is an exact equivalent, as may clearly be seen

from Ar. Ran. 377 l/x/fo X^TTW? (/cat OTTWS) dpets.

It is mostly confined to

Plato and Aristophanes (A. J. P. IV. 4), H. 886, G. 1352, GMT. 271-4.

the mood, v. App.

21. eKarepov depends on tarpot, v. App.

22. TrAoixnov OV TOO. This adverb is found after the modified adjective in

Phaedr. 256 E, Rep. 500 A ;

so TTO.VV and AtW often, sometimes TroAv.

23-24. eyto ow TretVo/xat ow. ow is often repeated after a parenthesis,

just as civ may appear twice (v. Note 34. i) or even thrice (Apol. 31 A) in

the course of a long sentence. R. 266.



26. cTreurai,


to be treated."


30-31. SidVoux and o-w/xa are often thus contrasted (Rep. 371 E, 395 D,

Prot. 326 B, etc.). A still more common antithesis is that of Aoyos and

epyov, which Thucydides in particular presents with wearisome persistency

(cf. Rep. 396 A).

"human form" 25.

(cf. 13),

like etSos in 2. 30.

33- rtf ^ V>

34. oil TT)V eTrwS^v. The construction follows the analogy of <ap/mKoi/,

which often signifies a means of obtaining, rather than a remedy for ; so

re Kat

/xv>J/x^s cro^ias <apju.a/<ov evpcOrj (Phaedr. 274 E).

6. 2. eis oo-ov ^AiKta? ^ KCI, "considering his age."

4. TTacrtv, dative of manner (respect). H. 780, G. 1182.

5. ov yap oI/Acu

a\\ov ovSeva KT\. Two ideas are blended in this sen

tence, "No one can show a lineage better than his," and "No one else can

boast of such a lineage." ycvi^o-ciav from yvi/aw, causal of yuyvofuu.

"What two families in alliance would be likely to produce a nobler and

better (son)?"


v. In-

rj T yap Trarpwa vfjuv oi/aa. This was Eupatrid on both sides ;

scheme it is not certain whether Solon is the

trod. p. vii. In the following

brother or only the cousin of Dropides.


Plato Glaucon Adimantus

lv is the dative of reference concentrated so as to include the idea of


R. 28.

9. Anacreon was the court poet of Hipparchus, son of Pisistratus, for

some eight years (522-514 B.C.), and during his stay in Athens made many

friends among the noble families. He is especially famous for his songs of

wine and love. Solon was as great a poet as he was a legislator ; by his

elegies he stirred his countrymen to warlike action and gave them wise coun

sel. It was in his youth that he wrote love songs and celebrated the praises

of his friends. His poems were so highly esteemed that they were sung at


the national festivals and often quoted by the orators. Plato cites him

38. 10, 39. 6, 65. 9.

12. Pyrilampes may be the same as the friend of Pericles (Plut. Per. 13),

who was famous for his peacocks. He had two sons, Demus, who was very

beautiful (Ar. Vesp. 98, Gorg. 481 D), and Antiphon, who is one of the

speakers in the Parmenides. Nothing is known about his embassies, but

Demus received a gold cup and sixteen minas from the King (Lys. 19. 25),

and this may point to a hereditary friendship in the family.


1 8. ovSeva vTro/Je/^KeVai, "inferior in no way to any of your predeces



v. App.

20. i/cavw? 7re</>vKa?,

fjuj.Ka.pLov o-e


you are well enough equipped."

17 pJTtyp eTiKTev. This is imitated from such Homeric pas

sages as Od. 3. 95, and may have become proverbial. Cf. Note 9. 16.

24. Abaris belongs to the same company as Zalmoxis, Orpheus, and the

other fabulous magicians. He is said to have subsisted without food, and

bearing an arrow, the token of Apollo s favor, to have come to Athens and

saved all Greece from pestilence by certain sacrifices.

28. Avepvflpiao-a?. Cf. 56. 2, 66. 5, Prot. 312 A, Euthyd. 275 D ;

trod. p. xvi.

30. TO alo-xwTrjXov, v. Note 9. 9.

OVK ayewtos, v. Note 13. 33.

32. eapv<i> agrees with at>To>

understood, and this depends on puoW.

v. In-

33. avrov Ka# eavTov Xeyetv. AUTOS is often used with the reflexive when

the action is unnatural or difficult. Cf. 17. 26 avrrj avrrjs aKova-erai ; G. 997.

13. 12-13, however (ayvoovvTa avrbv eaurov), may be merely emphatic (so

18. 33, 31. 1 8, 38. 28) and 16. 3 for contrast with TOVS aAAovs-

7. 3. etTTOv cm fjxLivti, v. Note 14. 17.

5. o-KCTrreoi/ and TroirjTeov are the two most common forms of the verbal

in -TC OS, which is frequent in Euripides, Aristophanes, Plato, and Xenophon,

and is familiar in tone.

7. el ovv VOL (friXov- Formula for beginning a discussion ; cf. el ovv /u.r/ rt

Sta^epet (37. 19) or iccoAvct (Prot. 310 A), and ei rt Cf. Note 22. 31.

{3ov\ear0e (ib. 317 C).

TOVTOV ye eVe/<a,


so far as this is concerned." DITTOS usually refers to

the second person ;


here TOVTOV means your scruple." oSe is the regular

demonstrative of the first person ; cf. Note 29. 21, also Soph. El. 387.

1 6. OVKOVV TOVTOV ye OLVTO KT\. avTo is not pleonastic, but repeats the

demonstrative TOT/TO, in the same way that atnros replaces a noun after- some

words have intervened. R. 223. Cf. also Thuc. IV. 93. Xen. Cyr. I. 3. 15

Tretpaoro/xou TO> 7ra7T7ra> ayadwv tTTTreW a>i/ KpaTio-TOs ITTTTCVS avTO).


86 XAPMIAHS. [P. 7


26. ei TI Ae youo-tv,


if they are right."

Cf. Note 31. 34.

27. TTOLVV ye,

v. Note 1. 16.

28. eV ypa/AjiiaTio-Tov,

v. App. 3. 30 eV e/xauTov. Cf. Note 54. 23. Tr.


Ta ofJLOLa ypa/x/x-ttTa, z>. letters like the copy.

27-34. This section contains an epitome of ordinary

Greek education :

i. ypa/x/xaTa, consisting of writing and reading from the epic and gno

mic poets. 2. Playing upon the lyre. 3. Gymnastic exercises, as here


32. 7rayKpa,Tiaetv. The pancration was a combination of wrestling and

was exhausted or

boxing, a sort of "free fight," which lasted till one party

admitted defeat. In the pancration the hands were bare, but in boxing

(TTVKTeveti/) they were covered with strips of leather studded with nails.

34. oew? KOL is

ra-^v. Tayys swift, ous is quick, implying bold, decisive

action. Plato uses pairs of synonyms, not for stylistic effect, like Isocrates,

but to give greater clearness of definition. Cf. 29. 23 cratpco re KOU <i Aa>,

56. 5 c^auAos /cat axp7?0"ros, 68. 10 dyaTrav /cat <^i\Civ (v. Note).

8. 10. /caAAtov Kat crc^dSpa /xaAAov 17. Here /xaAAoi/ is not superfluous,

but adds force to the comparison. The addition is natural when other words

rw dei axrai>T<Ds

intervene, as here. Cf. Phaedo 79 E, o/xotdrepov lorn ipvxfj

(.\OVTL jttaAAov r) raJ /j.rj, Xen. Sym. I. 4, but in Gorg. 487 A, aiaxyvTrjporepo)

/xttAAov TOV Seo^ro?, there is no such excuse. The pleonasm is as

old as Homer, and common in Shakespeare and other early English writers.

R. 1 66.

19. TOVTO Spwv. The verb is often repeated by the substitution of Spaeu.

Cf. 10. 8, 21. 26, etc. TTOteco (Ar. Plut. 524, etc.) and Trparro) (Aesch. i. 25)

are less common. R. 55.

25 . K TOVTOV TOV Adyov (" according to this argument Cf. 4.

"). 23, Gorg.

516 D, I Ale. 116 C. Similar formulae for drawing

a conclusion are IK run/

ov 13. 9, Gorg. 477 C (the most common form), CK roii/ (vrpo)

Phaedo 94 A, etc., and IK TOW tfjLTrpoaOtv I Ale. 1 18 A, etc.

" one or the other."

26. TO. erepa,

28. et 8 ovv on /acxAto-ra ovaaL.

" Or supposing that (ei

of the nobler actions (/caAAtovs ovcrat) there are as many (/wjSe

quite as quick and vehement" (Jow.). ovo-ai has to do double duty, being

complementary to rvyxavovo-tv with eAarrovs and descriptive with KuAAtous ;

v. App.

31. /xaAAw rt fjo-vxiorrj ; rt?. Cf. Trparretv TI, 10, 10. The indefinite

TIS, like Lat. quidam, gently qualifies the statement, and is thus used very

often in Plato ; so 1. 34 TWV *aAon> TI, 13. 33, 33. 21 (v. Note).

p. 9 ] COMMENTARY. 8/

31-34. Though the definition is here rejected as insufficient, the

(cf. Kooyzuos, 7. 22) are mentioned with the o-w^poi/es in the Gorgias (506 E)

and atSoos is coupled with St/o;

in the Protagoras (322 C D).

9. 4. ts creo/urov cbro/^Ae a ?.

i/ Introspection is an unusual element in

Platonic dialectic, although Socrates taught self-knowledge (v. Note 13. 14),

to which introspection is the chief means.

TrdVra o-uAAoyto-a//,evos, so Gorg. 476 B Stao-/<ei//a/xevos ere.

6. eiTre ev Kat dvSpetws, so Gorg. 521 A ev /cat yewuW

10. atSws is modesty, which regards other people, while alo-xvvr) is shame,

which considers one s self. The difference appears best in Eur. Hec. 968.

Aristotle (Eth. Nic. 4. 9) shows that atSws is a virtue, ala-\vvr) a vice ; yet

they are often synonymous, as here.

15. KoAws Ae yeti/. The infinitive is not governed directly by Trwrreveis,

but is added to make the meaning clearer; this is called the epexegetic

infinitive, and is common. Cf. etSeVat 51. 25.


Trto-reua? ; So Socrates asks O//,rjpou eiratvtTrjs ei, Prot. 309 A.

The quotation here is from Od. 17. 347; cf. 22. 20, 41. 25, 54. 24, 66. 20.

The Homeric poems were an important part of every boy s education (v.

Note 7. 27-34), so that Homer became as familiar to the Greek as our Bible

is to us. Indeed, this constant influence on the style and thought of Greek

Version on English literature.

writers is as powerful as that of King James 1

So Plato, though he banishes Homer from his ideal state, is constrained to

quote from the great epic most frequently, in fact, more than a hundred

times, and shows great accuracy and appreciation of the meaning. Hesiod

held somewhat the same position, so that Lysis recognizes readily the quo

tation selected by Socrates (66. 22 ; cf. 11. 30).

1 6. Kexp^eVco,



26. TO TO, eavroC Tr/oarretj/ was an old and popular maxim, as appears from

Tim. 72 A and from Rep. 433 A, where it is proposed as a definition of jus

tice, but its ambiguity is a serious defect. It may mean,


business," or Remain

27. w //tape.

in private life," or "Do your duty 11

" Mind

your own

(v. Introd. p. xvi).

Cf. 23. 29. Contrast 3. 29 (Note). This playful abuse

appears again in Phaedr. 236 E, Theag. 124 E, and is parallel to vfipLary;

or Travovpyos et in Sym. 175 E. Meno 80 B, etc.

30. r; 8 os 6 Xap/xt8r/s. 09 is the article with its original demonstrative

force, kept also in the phrase Kat os. Cf. Kat rov 62. 3. 8 rj os has become

so absolutely a phrase that it is practically equivalent to e^ and takes Xap-

//t^as a fresh subject. So y 8 os av av^p Ar. Lys. 514. In later times

its meaning was so completely obscured that grammarians gloss it by <a-

crav, or even <J

</>iAe. In

Plato it never stands first.

88 XAPMIAHS. [P. 9

32. The Socratic elenchus is no respecter of persons, but seeks only the

truth; cf. Prot. 348 C, Phil. 14 B, Phaedr. 275 C, also 15. 14-24.

34. on ST) TL ye;

" Because what?" sc.

ytyvercu. The shift of attitude

is due to a sort of self-interruption. Cf. Rep. 343 A, 449 B.

10. 6. fyias Siodo-Kfiv, i.e. to write your own names, too.


7roX.v7rpayiJLOve.iv is the recognized opposite of TO tavrov irpa.TTf.iv, cf.

Rep. 433 A-D.

13-" Trpa.TTf.lv STJTTOV TL, i.e. 7rpa.TTf.iv TL SYJTTOV.

1 6. XrJKvQov Kal o-rAeyytSa?. These hung from the girdle of every well-

dressed Athenian youth, especially when visiting the palaestra, so that the

illustration includes the entire visible costume. Cf. II Hipp. 368 B C a el^es

Trepi, TO aco/xa SaKTvXiov Kai o-TAeyyi Sa /cat XrjKvOov. Hippias, at any rate,

fulfilled the conditions of our dialogue, for he had himself made everything

that he wore.


1 8. epyaeo-$ai TC KOI 7rpa.TTf.iv.

Cf. Note 11. 29.

22. HiviTTeTo, "used lit. "riddles."

symbolic language,"

26. Traj/Tos //.ciAAov, cf. 11. 2, 20. 25, 71. 2, and TrdvTuv /u-aAiora 7. 8 ;



31. /jLrjof TOV AeyovTa /x^Sev eiSevcu. In I Ale. Socrates tells Alcibiades

that he is in just this predicament (113 B, etc.), and the dialogue is devoted

to a proof of his statement. The Prot. and Gorg. show clearly that the great

sophists were equally ignorant, although it is not put in so many words.

/xr/Se aSeVai, "not even the speaker knew."

32. ei? TOV Kpm av a.Tre.ftXf.Trf.v. Protagoras, too, casts a deprecatory side-

glance at Hippias (Prot. 318 E).

33. dya>non/.

Cf. 63. 7. Protagoras (333 E) suffers in the same way

(TCTpa^w^at Tf. Ko.1 dywviav Kat 7raprt.Tf.Ta.\Bai Trpos TO aTroKptveaOai), and

Nicias twists and turns in his confusion (48. 22 o-Tpe^eTcu avo> Kat KCITW).

^xAoTi/xajs tX 00^ "jealous."

" 11. 5. {iTrexw Xoyov, be for."


6. vTrfKivti avTov fKclvov. The nominative of atTos is always emphatic,

the oblique cases always may be. So here, "that very man." Cf. Note

6. 33. For v7TKu/t, cf. 75. 32 TLVO. TWV 7rpf.a-ftvTf.pwv Kivf.1v. Tr. "bring

into the conversation."

7. TroLrjTrjs. Critias was, in fact, a dramatist himself; v. Introd. p. xv.

8. SiaTiOfVTL. The regular idiom for reciting poetry ; cf. Leg. 658 D

Pai//o)8ov KaAois IXiaSa StaTt^evTa.

14. o-vyxwpet?,



1 8. a T7pa>TO)v. We might expect o, but the plural is suggested by the

general conception of the subject and the separate examples cited, rather


than by the subject itself. Cf. Phaedo 62 D rax av olfj^trj ravra, <f>evK-

reov eii/ai. Indeed, the neuter plural

plural, for it takes a singular verb.

is a sort of collective and not a real

21. ov TTOtowre?. The participle must be causal; for if it were condi

H. 1025, G. 1612, GMT. 832.

22. opa fjur] IKZLVOV KtoAva. /AI/ is construed with the subjunctive when

tional, the negative would be ^rj.

fear is felt for the future, but with the indicative when the action is present

or past. H. 888, G. 1380, G M T. 369, R. 62. Cf. 48. 30, 69. i. CTK^W-

/x,e#a fjiY) XavOava. We prefer an indirect question with such verbs, and

tr. /x?;



25-27. MfjioXoyrjKa (o/xoAoyrycra.

Cf. 22. 6-7. The aorist is a sort of

shorthand to the perfect; v. Gild, ad Find. P. i. 73.

27. ov ravTov KoAets TO TroietV /cat TO TrpaTTetv; Demosthenes uses these

synonyms without any distinction in 19. 6 and 21. 41, and confounds epya-


eo-#ai with Spav in 23. 71, just as Socrates does with TTOICIV in 10. 17.

ally, however, the difference is that Trparruv is



11 "

to create, make.


29. Zfj,aOov yap Trap" HcridSov. The quotation "


v. 309. Cf. 68. 3 ; v. Note 9. 14. Critias 1

11 "


to be busy, to achieve, 11

is from the

Works and

use of this passage is

sophistic, for all that Hesiod meant by epyov was agriculture, and ov SeV

modifies oVaSos (v. Note 66.9). He said, "Agriculture

is no disgrace."


Critias makes his words, mean, No work is

disgraceful." Protagoras inter

prets Simonides in much the same way (Prot. 339 AD); v. Note 41. 25.

It was this verse that Socrates accusers claimed that he misinterpreted

somewhat in the way which Critias here ridicules (Xen. Mem. I. 2. 56).

32. O-KVTOTO/XOWTI KaOrj^vw. All trades which caused the laborer to

remain seated, and lose the healthy exercise so highly valued, were consid

ered degrading to both body and soul (v. Rep. 495 D), and were called by

went so far as to forbid its

the general term (3dvavaroi (" vulgar"). Sparta

citizens to learn a trade ; while, on the other hand,

the Phocians and Locri-

ans did not allow their slaves to enter business, and most of the laborers were

citizens. Athens lay midway between these extremes, and, though the trades

were at first generally despised and left to slaves and aliens, in the days of

national disaster many citizens were forced to join this company. Shoe

makers were considered especially low and degraded, and are often men

tioned with contempt even by Plato himself. Cf. Rep. 456 D, Theaet. 180 D.

rapixoTrwXovvTi. Smoked or salt fish were brought from the Black Sea,

especially the Sea of Azov, from Gades (mod. Cadiz), and from Egypt.

34. TToirja-iv TTpa^ew? Kal epyao-ta? aAAo. The comparative meaning of

aAAos permits its construction with the genitive. Tr. "Doing

is different

go XAPMIAHS. [P. ii


from accomplishing and working. erepos is used in the same way ; cf. 14.

34, 20. 14. Instead of the simple genitive after aAAos, we sometimes find

TrAryv (Soph. 228 A), or -rrapa. c. ace. (27. 7, Gorg. 507 A), and, of course, TJ

64. 34, H. 753 g, G. 1154.

12. i.

7roir)/JLa and TTOI^O-IS are both 11


epya e/<aAei, "things well done he called i works. 111 - In

3. TO. KaAuis TTOIOU


the next clause ras

roicurras is

Troir/cret? simply a repetition of TO, Troiou/xeva, as epyacrtas

re /cat

7jy>aei9 repeats epya just preceding. So oiVeta (5) is the same as ra a^roi),

" one s own, 11

and dAAor/oia (6) is equivalent to ra rwv aAAwv.

7. TOV TO. aurou Trparrovra, TOUTOI/. The resumptive use of the demon

strative appears again in 11. 16-17, rrjv rwv ayuOwv irpa^Lv ravrr/v Ae ya?.

Cf. 44. ii.

12. Prodicus taught all branches of knowledge, but paid especial attention

to synonyms, and his superfine distinctions are parodied and ridiculed in

the Protagoras (337 A), where Critias appears in his company (336 D).

Cf. 50. 15.


13. TiOevOai,

14. 8>/Aov /xovov (/>

the name. 11

"define. 11


rt av <f>epr)S

KT\. "Only tell me what you mean

Socrates often insists that a clear conception of the thing

itself shall underlie the name by which it is called. Cf. Note 10. 31,

Phaedr. 237 C, Gorg. 488 C D.

20. TO e /xot SOKOW,

" what I think. 11

23. o-a(/>cos aoL SCO/DI^O/ACU. The confidence and almost arrogant pride

of Critias is characteristic of his sophistic training. Cf. 13. 25, ok TO.

ypa/x/xara (f>rj(nv Kat eyco and Gorg. 450 C o/o^w? Ae ycov, ws eyw t^/xi.

Introd. p. xvi. So Gorgias (448 A) and Hippias (II. 363 D) profess to

answer any question. Protagoras (318 A, 328 13) is sure of success.

24. ovSei/ tVws KwXvtL roSe ye /xeVrot Oav/Jid^w. This is not a partial

assent, but a modest, ironic, but none the less positive, disagreement. Cf.

41. 13, I. Ale. 124 D V

I<7W5, Ae ya> /xeVrot,

v. Note 39. 2.

25. 31. ayvoetv ort aw^povovcnv, ra SeWra Tr/aarret. These topics are

taken up by Xenophon in his Mem. IV. 6. 7-9, I. 2. 50, III. 9. ii, etc., and

Teichmiiller (II. 70) thinks our passage is intended to ridicule Xenophon"s

imperfect treatment. Cf. Note. 21. i ; v. Introd. p. xxviii.

31. ov luJro. Optative in a complementary clause, instead

usual subjunctive with av. Cf. 59. 31, Gorg. 482 C (Gild.).

of the more

34. TO) tarpa>. This should properly be the accusative as the subject of

ytyvwo-Ketv, but the proximity of it

dvay/o; changes to the dative of reference.

Cf. 22. 27, R. 183.

13. I. orav [JitXXr) 6vij(T(.(T@u.L

OLTTO TOV epyov ou av TrpaTTy. The sub-



junctive sparry is assimilated from the indicative (irpdrTti) to the mood

of the general supposition. H. 919 a, G. 1439, GMT. 563. Cf. Note

20. 34. 22. 8.

9. K Ttov fj.7rpo(T0v w/xoAoy^/xeVwi/, viz. rrjv TWI/ dyaOdv Trpa^Lv auxfrpovv-

vi)V tlvat 12. 23.

The longer and more elaborate sentences of Critias 1

show his rhetorical bent; v. Introd. p. xv.

speech (13. 8-14. 2)

ii. dvaO^LfJirjv, "take back.". A metaphor from the game of Trecro-oi (cf.

Hipparch. 229 E ua-rrtp TrerrevW e0e Aa> avaOivOai), which resembled checkers

in that the pieces were all alike, and chess in that the main object of the

game was to pen up the opponent s pieces. Socrates, too, was always will

ing to give up anything that was proved to be wrong ; cf. Prot. 354 E and

Gorg. 461 D, where the same verb is used v. also Note 52. 28 ;

/xeTaTi0ecr0ai. OVK av alaxvvOeLrjv rore <ai/cu.

fja/j ^ is used with the infinitive to

renew the negative meaning inherent in alvxwOctrjv, after the analogy of

verbs of denying and hindering, tr.


not ashamed to admit" (<arai). ov^

belongs to 6p#ws etpi/Kc vat. H. 1029, G. 1615, GMT. 815. Cf. 17. 32.

14. yvtotft o-eavToV was an old maxim, which was usually a great favorite

with Socrates, and indeed often identified by him with (T(a(f>poavvrj.


Tim. 72 A, Xen. Mem. IV. 2. 24-30, etc.

17. rwv etcnovrwv,


to the worshippers" (lit. "those who enter").

1 8.


Sew is probably another form of Seov, the accusative absolute parti

Cf. 20. 11, H. 973, G. 1569. If it be taken as infinitive, we may

cf. Leg. 626 B, o>? ovSei/ oc^eAos ov, ytyvecr&tt, Rep. 383 A, where the

infinitive depends on the idea of thinking implied in ok.

22. Aeyet, then ^crt in addition. This is the superfluous "says

he" of

English speech ; cf. Xen. Oec. 4. 23, 17. 10. In the latter instance $77 is

repeated a second time ;

26 .

Trafleiv, "felt."

v. Note 49. 22, R. 266 e.

27. These maxims were inscribed on a pillar in the vestibule of Apollo s

temple at Delphi. Mr/Sej/ ayav expresses the true Greek spirit better than

any other phrase ; self-restraint in morals, good taste in art, temperance in

daily life, moderation in all things. Eyyvrj, Ttdpa 8 arr; (napa. for Trapeon-i),

" Give a pledge and evil awaits thee," in other words,

" Beware of rash

promises, be prudent."

33. craves ovBev TTOLVV, lit. "in no way very clear," a sort of litotes, by

which we negative the opposite of what we mean, in order to make our

meaning all the stronger. So 14. 14 ov cr/xt/cpav, 4. 11 ov vov oAiyos

Adyos for TroA^s Adyos, 6. 30 OVK ayewoi? for 0appaAew?, 46. 19 ov <r<f>6opa,

55. 1 8 ov <cu)Aos. So ov irdvv r/BeXtv 7. 20, whereas (Prot. 338 E) TTOLVV

92 XAPMIAHS. [P. 13

OVK fjOtXtv ("he was very unwilling") expresses the same idea directly.

ov Trdvv (42. 28) is used chiefly by Plato and Xenophon, and is equivalent

to our "not slang much." It is ironic and modest, and only rarely (as

56. 20-21) to be taken literally. R. 139, Cope, Gorg. App.

34. eAeyo//,ev.

Critias conceit leads him to include Socrates in the judg

ment of error which he passes upon himself.

rovrov aoL SiSoVat Aoyoi/,

14. I. avrov eaurov, v. Note 6. 33.


give you a chance to speak about it."

3. av /zev ok ^ao-KGi/ros


address me as if I said. 7rpoa(j>epa, "you


as if I would agree."


56. ^rjrC) Sta TO JJLYJ auros etSeVai. Cf. 15. 18, 19. 7 act o/xotos, 23. 9,

24. 25, 56. 5, 63. 25. Socrates always professes ignorance; cf. Gorg.

453 A B, 455 B, 458 E, and constantly; v. Introd. p. xvi.

8. CTKOTTCL. Kttt yap o-K07rai. Cf. Farm. 144 D aOpa. dAA aOpw KOL opw.

Soph. 268 A, Gorg. 448 B Epcora. epwroo 877.

13. TL rj/juv X/


? ^7 ?- XP 7 ?

C. eis and eTrt are also found.

Rep. 382



/* 05 ^po? ri is more usual, but cf. 73. 13,

15. et a/TroSe xei TOVTO. So Theaet. 207 C, etc. Similarly et [AOV /xai/^avei?

Rep. 394 C. Formulae of assumption, cf. Note 18. 13.

17. on ot/o?o-ei<?. There is no need of supplying any verb, for on is

merely a sign of quotation, and has no influence on the construction. Cf.

7. 3 enrov on /uoi ei/coVa c^acVa. This usage is very common in Plato (cf.

14. 17, App. 9. 26, 63. 4) and Xenophon, and also in Demosthenes and

Andocides (A. J. P. V. 221). H. 928 b, G. 1477, G M T. 711. Cf. Prot.

318 C etVoi av ori Trpos ypa<f>iKrjv.


vTrep Trjs o-co(/>/3oo-w^5. In the later orators vwep is preferred to ?rept


concerning," and is very common. It occurs also in

for the meaning

Plato, but less often.

29. O.AA ov\ e^eis. This is a common formula for anticipating the oppo

nent s admission. Cf. Prot. 354 D.

30. rivos eo-riv eTTto-TTJ/xT/ Ka.<TTr),

Cf. 17. 9.



to what does each science refer?"

32. 7rA7J#ous OTTWS ^x^- Genitive of specification. This special form is

found generally with ex etv an<^ without the article. Cf. Gorg. 451 C TTUJS

X t TrAiy^ovs, 470 E TraiSetas OTTCO? c^et-

15. 6. TOVTO ecrrtv CKCIVO. tKctvo is "what I said before";

it may define a

relative more clearly, make an attributive or appositive clearer, or, as here, be

itself explained by the following clause with asyndeton. Cf. Euthyd. 296 B,

etc. The phrase appears in Aristophanes and Euripides, but not elsewhere.

ii. o-e TroAAov Set,


you are far from."

P. 1 6] COMMENTARY. 93

13. olov Troieis/ Exclamation of disgust (cf. I. Ale. 113 E, I. Hipp.

290 D), or of disappointment (Euth o 15 E). Cf. TTOIOV 23, 26, 46. 22


1 8. Socrates depends on his own convictions rather than the opinions

of others (cf. Phaedo 91 A). He constantly insists on brief replies to his

questions (Gorg. 448 D E, Prot. 334 D), and professes indifference whether

he or his opponent is proved to be in the wrong (cf. Note 9. 32, Gorg.

458 A B). This section is a partial statement of the principles underlying

Socrates 1

dialectic and didactic method. Cf. Note 14. 5-6; v. Introd.

p. xiv.

20. TWV 6vro)v OTTY) c^ei,


the facts as are."


23. ea xatpetv, "leave out of the question. 1

30. KOL avt7n(TTr)iJLo<Tvvr)s. We cannot, of course, know the opposite of

what we know, in the sense of fully understanding it ; but since we know

the limits of any conception that we possess, we can at least know where its

opposite begins its territory, though we do not know its full extent.


on this ambiguity of the word know

It is


that Socrates 1

argument rests.

34. rt rts otSev KO.I ol erai, sc. etoci/ai.

16. 5. TO TpiVov TCO cram/pi. At the beginning of a symposium or

drinking-bout, three bowls were dedicated and three libations poured, one

to the gods, one to the heroes, and one to Zeus the Saviour. Since three

is a perfect number, and the full ceremony was essential, the phrase was

proverbial for the complete performance of any duty (Schol.). Cf. Phileb.

66 D TO TpLTov


(T(j)Tr)pi Tov avTov Sta/AapTupd/x.ei

oi Aoyov eTre^eA^co/xei/.

Acs. Eum. 729 TOV Travra /cpau/oj/TOs rpirov SwTrJpos-

6. a fjijj olotv eiSeVcu. The subject of etScVai is Tit/d, not avrov ; so 19. 27,

21. 34, etc.

n. aAAo TI is merely a phrase for introducing a question, and is not

translated. It expects an affirmative answer and affects the whole sentence.

aAAo here seems to stand for an unexpressed proposition present in the

speaker s mind. The fuller form aAAo n 17 usually refers to some special

portion of the sentence; v. Note 22. 22, R. 22. This form of question is

akin to litotes ;

v. Note 13. 33.

22. Tt Se aKOTJv.

It is better to take this accusative as the object of

thought, the accusative of general reference, rather than to supply Ae ys>

especially as SOKCI precedes. Cf. rt TOVTO; 12. 29, Rep. 472 B, R. 20, 21.

31. ftovXtjcreis /SouXcrot.

Cf. 1. 23 O.KOCOV aKOvei, 1. 26 ata^cret? alaOd-

VOVTCU, 1. 34 ^o^ous $o(3eiTai, 3. 14 do-femas 17 s do-^evot, 14. 21,

21. 10-11

oi/aa oiKov/xei/r; and TroAts TroAtTevo/xevr/, 30. 7-8, 31. 16-17, 34. 16, 37. 4,

38. 2, 26, etc. This etymological construction is most common in the accu-

94 XAPMIAHS. 1 [P. 6

sative, but is found in all cases, with the relative and in the passive, as in

the passages cited. Although just here the philosophic subject demands its

use, this figure, as a rule, belongs to legal and political formulae and to

familiar speech. The epic is too dignified to admit it, and it is not abundant

in history, but the dramatists and orators use it frequently, though under

limits. Isocrates avoids it, but its free and varied use by Socrates is con

sistent with his popular style ; v. Introd. p. xv.

17. 13. Ei ovv TL evpoL/jiev fJiL^ov KT\. "If we could find something


greater} which is greater than self and greater than other great things,

but not greater than those things (in comparison) of which the others are

greater, then that thing, if it is greater than itself, would also be less than

itself. 1

Socrates is showing that science differs from the object of its rela

tion, so he simply substitutes /xetoi/ for CTTIO-T^/XT;, and instead of eVio-rry/xrj

TOJI/ aAAwv eTno-n^coi/, we get ^etov TWV (aAAwv) //eiovan/? and wv Se TaAAa

/x,ia) (rriv [Jirjotvbs /xeiov for wv at aAAai eTrtcrr^/xat dcnv ouSei/os CTTIO-T^/A^.

For the argument, cf. Rep. 438 B.

22-24. o rt Trep av avrov rjv.

"Will not whatever has a nature rela

tive to (TT/OOS) self have also the nature of (the object) to which its nature

was (directed)? 1

28. oi//ercu avrrj eavr^v, v. Note 6. 33.

29. ovoev /ur; TTOTC tor). The subjunctive (usually aor.) with ov jjirj is used

in independent sentences to express emphatic denial. This combination of

negatives cannot be explained by the ellipsis of a verb of fear (v. Gild, in

L. and S. ov but ov is


diate negation of the verb.

independent (no!), while /JLT/ gives the imme

Goodwin holds (GMT. App. II.) that ov ^

developed from the independent subjunctive with pr) (as /JL-TJ



(f>av\ov 77,

may prove This had become bad"). practically a cautious assertion, so

that the negative force of ^ was held in abeyance, and in the combined

form ov would be the real negative, ///// merely a survival.

GMT. 294.

H. 1032, G. 1360,

32. dTTto-retrat p) a^en/. The infinitive after verbs with a negative

idea may take pj to renew the negation.

H. 1029, G. 1615, G M T. 815.

34. aovvarov, sc. Tr)v eavrcov Swa/x,ii/ Trpo? eavra o^eii/.

18. 2. rois fJLCv Se TLCTLV. So aXXos 8e corresponds to 6 /xei/ in II.

6. 147 ; so also evtot Se.

4. Kara Trai/rwv,


in every detail."

5. rrjv avrov ovvapiv TTC^VKCV x tI/ "has its J own nature."

8. Ttorcuo) fj.avrw tKavos elvat. tKavo? is not attracted to the dative,

because it refers to the subject of the principal verb. R. 182.

10. ei on /mAto-ra |^, "if it really is (possible)."


irplv av 7ricr/<ei//a)/xat. Trpiv takes the subj. and opt. only after negatives

or their equivalents. H. 924 a, G. 1471. 2, G M T. 645-648, Gild, in L.

and S.

13. /xavrew/xat.

Cf. 69. 10, Rep. 349 A. A favorite expression for the

assumption of an axiomatic truth. Cf. Note 14. 5-6.

14. co TTtti KaXXaivxpov. Cf. 29. 20, 56. 2, co TTCU lepcoyu/xou, 59. 14, 61. 9,

and often. The tone is familiar, with perhaps a touch of mock solemnity.

For the parenthesis, cf. 33. 27, 36. 5, 63. 28, 67. 28, 75. 28, 76. 9? Introd.

p. xv.

1 6.


TCO Swarco,


beside being possible."

20. Notice the humor as well as the vulgar simile (roi>? xaoyzco/xeVous) ;

v. Introd. p. xiv. Cf. 3. 27-30, 26. 5, 64. 8. Few authors use similes so

frequently as Plato (cf. 66. 13, 71. 8, 75. 11, 25, 32, etc.), but the Socratic

example often provoked protest by its vulgarity (Gorg. 491 A, I. Hipp.

288 CD).

28. av$ts eTricTKei/ o/xetfa is the formula for introducing the fuller consid

eration of a question.

29. rt /xaAAov oloV re aSfW, i.e. "What use is it for increasing our


of the matter?"

19. 9-10. TrAe oi/ TL eVicmj/xr;.

decide that one is knowledge

and no more."

13-14. AAAa eTTto-rrJ/XTy.

"Will it be able to do more than-


and the other is not?



this much

"One is medicine, one is statesmanship, and

one is nothing but knowledge."

17. OTL ("that") /xei> eTmrraTcu. To this corresponds o n ("what") &

yiyvw(7Kt (1. 19).

27. eiSevat a re 20.

otSev, v. Note 16. 6.

i. cos aA^ois. Cf. 22. 14, 69. 2, 72. 16. Some explain the super

fluous ok as the adverb of the article, since TO dA^e s is used adverbially,

and rrj aAyOtia appears equivalent to cos aA^&os, as aArjQfia to dA.7?0cos ;

v. Note 49. 12.

9. <5rt


yvwo-erat rov iar/odi/. Prolepsis ; v. Note 4. 14.

1 1 . Setv Se Tretpav olvrti/wv.

" But

when he wants to discover (Treipav

Aa/?eti/) its nature (17x15 eartv), will he not consider the subject-matter?"

Be.lv is the participle, as in 13. 18 (v. Note). SetV (Seov) and TrAetv (TrAeov)

are peculiarly Attic. As OJI/TIVOJI/ is



by the nature of the subject."


19. y tarptKos eVriv, (to see) in what way


the subject-matter," so r<o

rti/toi/ etvat

he is versed in medicine."

23. "to

Trorepois l-jraKoXovOrja-aL,

follow either one or the other."


is usually interrogative, but in several places in Plato it is indefinite, and

96 XAPMIAHS. [P. 20

(like arepos) has the meaning here given (cf. 30. 26). Photius would write

it Trorepos when thus used.

29. ovre a\\ov OTLOVV, "nor distinguish (SiaK/nvcu) any one else who

knows anything at all."

TrXrjv ye TOV avrov 6/x.dre^vov. Construction according to the idea in the

speaker s mind, as if 6 o-u<j>pa)v were the subject of the sentence instead of

YJ o-w<pocTw?7 ; v. Introd. p. xv. Cf. Notes 29. 26, 34. 24.

34. The imperfects ?JSa, rjpXovTo (21. 5) rj-n-ifrrdfJieOa (ib. 6) ^p\o/Aev (7)

et^ov (9) in the relative clauses are due to the assimilating influence of the

imperfects in the respective principal sentences, although all refer to present

time. H. 919 b, G. 1440, G M T. 559, R. 57. Cf. Note 13. 2, 22. 8. on

olotv and on OVK oISsv are not affected, because they are not relative, but are

governed by the laws of indirect discourse (etSeVu 6Vi, GMT. 663. i).

21. i. a\\ov TO.VTOV TOVTO TrtirovOoTo. e7no-Kj//ao-$ai, "to consider another

man who has had this same experience." Socrates considers this same

question somewhat less carefully in Xen. Mem. IV. 2. 25 fF. ; v. Note

12. 26.

10-1 1 . t/xeAAev oiKtiaOai is equivalent to av CO/CCITO, and in the same tone

is eAeyo/xei/, 1. 15 (cf. Sym. 190 C ra tepa ^avi^ero), where the imperfect

expresses the unrealized future, or, from another point of view, past likeli

hood. H. 897, G. 1402. 3, G M T. 38, 428.

14. TOVS eil Trparrovra? evScu/xovas dvcu. This conclusion is obtained

through the ambiguity of tv Trparreiv, which may mean "fare well" as readily


as do well." Cf. Gorg. 507 C rov ayaOov ev re KCU KaXoo? Trparretv, TOV 8

v TTpaTTovra tvojiLfJiova. elvM, Rep. 354 A. Cf. Note 11. 27.

20. rjv vvv evpTKO/Av cT(a<f)po<Tvvr]v. The antecedent is often incorporated

in the relative clause (H. 995, G. 1037), but it is rarer that, as here, the

subject of the principal verb is absorbed. Cf. Phaedo 88 D 6V eAeye

Aoyov, vvv ets dTrtcrrtav KaTaTreVrcoKe, Crito 48 C.

22. 6. paStw?, "carelessly."

8. a /ji.v

tcracrtv a 8e /xr/ eTTiVratvro. The latter is assimilated to the

mood of the two optatives between which it stands. Cf. Note 20. 34.


a ^ so common

vrj TOV Kvva. Cf. 64. 9. This oath, like vr) TOV x*l va i

in the Socratic school, seems to have been an euphemism for vrj TOV Zfjva,

like our "by Gad,"

12. IvTavOa ?rpos TOVTO.


Je-hosh-aphat," and the like. Cf. Note 2. 31.

Cf. the shift from indicative to

13. 7rpo(j>aLV.o-0aL KCU OTL <f}oj3oifjir]v.

optative in 5. 2-4; v. Note.

17. oifjML Xrjpciv /xe. /xe is not at all necessary, but gives emphasis. We

should further expect eyw, since the subject of the infinitive is the same as

P. 24]


that of the principal verb, but cf. Rep. 400 B ot/xat 8e /xe dU^/coeVai, Sym.

175 E, etc.; v. Note 33. 14.

20. TO e/x6v oi/ap alludes to the proverb, TO e/x.oi/ e/xot A eyas orap (Rep.

563 D), and ei TC Sta KepaToov KTA. to Od. 19. 562 ff. : "Twain are the gates

of shadowy dreams, the one is fashioned of horn, the one of ivory. Such

dreams as pass through the portals of sawn ivory are deceitful and bear

tidings that are unfulfilled. But the dreams that come forth through the

gates of polished horn bring

aKove 8>7


a true issue (tr. Butcher and Lang).

is a formula often, though not exclusively (Gorg. 458 E, etc.),

used for introducing a myth (Gorg. 523 A, Tim. 20 D), or anything, which,

like the myth, is outside the dialectic, and so appears like a revelation (oi/ap,

cf. Phaedr. 230 E, Theaet. 201 D).


22. aAAo rt, but "surely, aAAo TI below , (1. 27), is merely a sign

of interrogation.

26. K TOVTWV OVTWS ^oi/Ttov, "In this condition of things. 11

959 C. Cf. Phaedo 68 A d.7rr)\\dx0ai CTWOVTOS cdrrois,

company. 11

R. 312.


So Leg.

"to be rid of their

This use of concrete for abstract is a species of metonymy.

27. vyieaiv is attracted to the dative by the proximity of V/MV, but the

more remote /avSwewvTas remains unchanged; v. Note 12. 34.

31. ei oe /3ov\oLo ye. Cf. 69. 25, I. Ale. 122 B et 8 av e fleAois aTroftXfyai.

R. 76.

34. TOVS dAaoVas,

23. 3.



"the false. 11

I admit. 11



interfering. 11

6. TOVTO 8e. The repetition of 8e with TOVTO gives greater force to the

antithesis. Cf. 19. 13 TO 8e, Phaedo 78 C.

9. 7rpocr$i$aov. Ironic humility. Cf. 41. 13 ; v. Introd. p. xiv.

Ttvos eTricTT^/xdvco?, but later (1. 15) irepi TIVWV eVto-Tr/^wa)?. Both con

structions are found, and often ; v. Note 4. 11.

13. TO) Adyo) TO) tvSai/JLOva elvat. The infinitive clause TO etVat is very

naturally attracted to the case of Aoyo>, with which it is in apposition.

R. 203.

26. TTOIOV TreTTevTiKoV. Scornful denial. Cf. Note 46. 22, Gorg. 490 D

TrotW i/xaTiW; I. Hipp. 285 D, Euthyd. 304 E; v. Note 15. 13. R. 319.

29. With 77 TL and with rj TO ayaOov, sc. ot8ev.

31. TO eVto-T^/xdvws TTOIOW, "living scientifically was what made good

fortune and happiness. 11

33- /was ovcrrjs TavTrjs, viz. TO e7ria-Tr;/x,dvws ^v.

24. 4. TO cv ye ecrTai, "the good and useful performance of these

actions will be lost. 11


28. vvv Se


TravTaxfj yap. This combination always contradicts a

hypothesis contrary to fact, and resembles dAAa yap. The particle Se indi

cates that the condition is really different from the supposed case, and ydp

shows that the inference must also be different. We need supply no

definite words, since Se alone gives the general idea (Riddell). R. 149;

v. Note 33. 27.



e#To, "defined ; v. Note 49. 22.

25. 3. /zeyaAoTTpeTTios, "generously,"

i.e. "off-hand." 68. 11 has the


more usual meaning of magnificent," "grandiloquent."

and attraction

6. ouSevos OTOV, "anything." The omission of the copula

of the antecedent to the case of the relative is not unusual with this combi

nation of words. H. 1003, G. 1035, R. 199. Cf. OavfwaTov 6ow 33. 18,


74. 7ri$v/Aet


7. cvyOLKitiv, "easily persuaded." Cf. ^Sus el Gorg. 491 E, yXvKvs et

I. Hipp. 288 B, et xp^o-ros Phaedr. 264 C. evtjOrjs etymologically means the

same as xpr/o-ros.

All these polite terms were originally ironical. So we


say, You re a nice fellow."

7-9. 17 r)T7](n<; KareyeXatrev avr^s. Cf. Prot. 361 A SOKCI ^/xtiov rj apri

to8os TO>I/ Adyoov co(T7rep aV$pco7ros Karrjyopf.lv re Kai KarayeAav. This per

sonification is especially common with Aoyos, as 18. 26 6 Aoyos Trpoioi. Cf.

69. 16, 71. 14 (also 69. 8), Phaedo 76 E, 89 B. The famous personification

of the laws in the Crito is perhaps the most extended. For KareyeAacm/,

cf. 45. 23 /JiY) i^/xcoi/ avrrj fj dvSpeta /carayeAacr^ .

ii. TO e/xoV, "as far as I am concerned." A colloquial expression not

rare in Plato. Cf. 38. 16 TO /xev e/xoi/ o^Sev KtoA^et and Note, Prot. 338 C

Gorg. 458 D. The fuller form is TO eyotov /uepo?.

19. After 7ret, sc. oto/xat. The infinitive is not common in relative

clauses in orat. obi. (H. 947, G. 1524, G M T. 755), but even if it were, a

state of orat. obL is not in existence here.

30. oo-at -iy/xepat, "forever." Cf. Menex. 246 B. A colloquial phrase.

Cf. 6o-?7/xepai Ar. Vesp. 479, Plut. 1006, oo-eV^ Thes. 624.

34. a>s

aKoAov^o"ovTos, sc. otavoov.

26. i. et p) TreiOoifJi-qv trot TW eVtTpOTra). This is mischievous irony, for

Critias 1 own definitions have been demolished and his wisdom set at


3. OVTOI! Lat. hens! A familiar address, often with av (OVTOS o-v).

is frequent in the drama, and not rare in Plato. Cf. Sym. 172 A ol $>a\.r]pev$

OVTOS , 214 E OUTOS, Tl lv V(O ^l?.

5. dAAa fiefiovXevfJLeOa. Cf. Crito 46 A oi>Se ^ovAeueo-^at eTi copa, dAAa



6. avaKpifTLv Soxms. A legal formula. The dvaKptcri? was the prelimi

nary hearing before a magistrate, at which the accusation and the defence

were received and depositions taken, to be sealed until the day of trial.

9. ovSets otos re tcrrat cvavTiowo-Oai. A compliment

to Charmides

beauty. Cf. Note 3. 22. So at the end of the Protagoras, KaAAux rcu KOL\W


27. i. rtOeaaOe rov avBpa /xa^o/xevov. He had been fighting in the full

armor of a hoplite, helmet, breastplate, and shield though his spear had

a blunt head, and had given an exhibition of his skill that the spectators

might engage him as an instructor in the art. This exercise was as old as

Homer (II. 23. 811), and was considered part of a liberal education, fencingmasters

ranking with the sophists, who taught rhetoric, philosophy, and the

like. So, in the Gorgias (456 D E), oTrAo/mxia is classed with these studies.

The instruction was, indeed, not confined to skill in handling weapons, but

comprised tactics and strategy, in fact the whole art of war. Cf. 31. 11-13.


eKeAeixra/x,ev, "invited." So 28. 21, "advised." /ceAevco merely means

that the imperative mood was used, without implying a tone of command.

5. cu/rots o-v//,/3ovAevcr>?r(H,

" ask their advice."

6. OVK a,v eiTroiev, equivalent to OVK ZOeXovaw etTretv.

OT<>xao/xevoi rov o"iyx/?ovAevo//eVov,


guessing at the wishes of the con-

suiter," since they desire to please him, but do not know just

what he would

like. Cf. Curt. IV. n. 10: Dili nemo quid sentiret ausus est dicer e, incerta

regis voluntate.

7. aAAa Trapa rrjv avrtov So^av,

Cf. 30. 24, 31. 24, 32. 23, Note 11. 31, R. 165, 174.

8. With t/axvo^s sc. elvat.


at variance with their own judgment."

yi/awxt Kai etTretv. These are emphasized by Thucydides (II. 60. 5) as

essential requisites of a statesman, and by Plato (Gorg. 487 A) as necessary

to any teacher or investigator.






OVTO), therefore," shows that is

iyy?y(ra/xevot causal.


7rapeAa/3o/xev KrA, we invited you to a consultation concerning a question

which we will now explain"; v. Note 34. 23 yeyovore? rjaav.

11. roSe,

"as follows."

12. TraTTTTov. The article is often omitted with words expressing kinship.

Cf. Note 57. 17. The eldest son was usually named for his grandfather,

the second son often bore the name of his mother s father.

I00 AAXHZ. [P. 27

1 6. yeyovev agrees in number with the predicate, as most frequently occurs

when the subject is not expressed. Yet in Gorg. 502 C Aoyoi yiytwrat TO

Aei7rd/xei/oi/ no such excuse can be offered. Cf. Note 40. 23,

R. 202.

1 6. 7TOLf.lv is construed with avelvai (" allow ") as well as with (3ov\ovraL.

vvv 877. 877 contrasts vvv with the time of infancy, when parents take the

most care, and KO.L lends emphasis to

18. vfuv depends on oj/ras and also on

19. eiTrep ricrtv aAAois,

" more

than any one else."

21. 7roAAa/as, "perhaps." So used chiefly after ei and ^,77. Cf. 45. 24,

Rep. 424 B <o/3ov/AeVovs ^,77 TroAAci/as TIS ouyrai, 584 B. R. 143.

28. i. With vTrofjLvrjfTOVTts and TrapaKaAowres (fut., H. 423, G. 665) sc.


be an anacoluth ; v. Note 4. 16.

Without the words between the stars (v. App.) there would

4. (rvowrov/xev 877. 87;, "you

know." Men who were single, or who

preferred to eat with their friends rather than with their wives, organized a

small club for this purpose. This arrangement was purely voluntary in

Athens, but in it Sparta was established by law for all citizens.

5. oTrep, "as."

10. fifJLtrepa avrwv = rji^wv OLVTWV.

11. vTraicrxwo/xefla rovcrSe, v. App. VTTO qualifies the verb, "somewhat


Cf. 76. 3.

12. etW rpv<av, "let us live in idleness," the opposite of eTri/xeAeurflai.

Plato merely means that they took no part in public life, for in the Meno

(94 A, C) he tells us that they received an excellent education.

1 6. rax ? "perhaps." av by its position often brings an important word

into prominence. Cf. ort av 32. 5.

1 8. o TI apio-roi, "as good as possible."

21. e/ce Aeve, "he urged us (again and again)," but 27. 2 eKeAewra/xev,

"we invited you (and you needed no second invitation)."

23. a/xa /xev a/xa Se,


partly partly."

33. aXrjBr) yap oiet. yap, "certainly," a common meaning

in answers.

The particle meets the doubt implied in ot/xai, and is characteristic of the

lively interchange of thought in animated conversation. Cf. dAAa in dAAa

8eo/xat 33. 25 and dAAa Kat TOVTWV 30. 20, 40. 34; also 29. 10 SwKparr;? yap

oSe, where yap indicates surprise, "really," so 33. 32, 34. 33.

ws, causal. Cf. 30. i.

29. 2. TL.


Cf. 39. 34, etc., ov TTOLVV n 42. 28. n thus limits the

force of adverbs, as TIS often modifies adjectives.

4. oAiywpws 8iaTi0ecr0ai = oAiytopeicr&xi re Kat d/xeAeuraai. These

words explain ravra.


7. The deme Alopece could number three distinguished sons, Aristides,

Socrates, and Thucydides the statesman.

8. evTavOa, i.e. in the palaestra ; v. Note 1. 4, and Introd. p. xi.

15. Damon was the most famous music teacher of his time, and had

among his pupils Pericles and Socrates, both of whom were also his intimate


1 8. olrjXiKOi eyw, "people of my age." A condensed expression for 01

Tr]\LKOVTOL T^AI KOS eyoo ei/xi.

21. rcoSe refers to the speaker, a demonstrative of the first person, as

often in tragedy. Here it is used playfully.

Cf. Note 7. 9.

av/j-povXevo-aL without reference to time, but av/jif3ov\(.vav with emphasis

on its duration.

22. SIKCUOS ct,


it is just that should."


23. ercupo) re KOL <iA<o; v. Note 7. 34.

24. irplv Sievcx^vai, "without ever having quarrelled

Xen. Anab. IV. 3.

12. Omit in



back to me."

with me." Cf.


25. 7TpL(j)peL, comes

26. A construction

/xeipa/oa StaAeyo^evoi. according to sense rather

than form. Cf. Theaet. 146 B TWV /xapa/aW TWO, where, however, BT

have TI. Cf. Note 34. 24.

29. oSe, the person present. oJros refers to the relative clause preceding.

32. 6p0ots,


you_d_credit to." For the repetition in opOovvra opOrj,

v. Note 4. 34, and cf. cTratvo? eVaivei amu/owni/ in 30. 7-9.

will be intimate with us."

33. oiKeta ra o-a "

ly/atv, you

30. 3. A^Aiov. This was a sanctuary of Apollo, which lay in territory dis

puted by the Athenians and the Boeotians, and here in 4^24 B.C. the former

sustained a serious defeat. On Socrates behavior on this occasion, cf. Apol.

28 E, and Sym. 221 A. "He and Laches were retreating, as the troops

were in flight, and there you might see him just as he is in the streets of

Athens, calmly contemplating enemies as well as friends, and making very

intelligible to anybody that whoever attacks him will be likely to meet with

a stout resistance. I particularly observed how superior he was to Laches

in presence of mind" (tr. Jowett).

5. Notice the shift of tense and meaning in ?Jv


7re<re Trroo/xa ; v. Note 16. 1 . 3


" even in this respect (with errati/el). Kat "

<rv, you also."

8. Kal et9 Tcujra,

<re avrov

= creavrdv.

1 1-13. Cf. Rep. 328, D pr) ovv aAAws Troi et, dXXa vvvivOi KT\.

11. dveyvwpicra/jiev aAA?/Aovs, "we found one another out" (Jow.).

12. a-vvicrO

IO2 AAXHS. [P. 30

15. OTTCOS av SiaoxJ^re. OTTW? and cos take av in final clauses, because

they were originally relative particles, and the sentence was governed by the

laws of conditional relatives. H. 882, G. 1367, G M T. 325. Cf. A. J. P.

IV. 422.

{yzets, you and the boys, rr/v tyxere/oav, Lysimachus and Sophroniscus.

17. rt <are ; rt SoKet ; TO /aa^/xa KT\. The rapid succession of questions

adds vivacity to the dialogue.

22. vewrepov. Yet he was nearly fifty at this time.

23. roovSe, masc. ; TOUTCOV, neut. with aTrei/ooVepov, or masc. repeating

24. Trapd ; v. Note 11. 34.



7roT/305, one or the other"

; v. Note 20. 23.

29. KOI yap is correlated with Kat aua in 1. 32. Cf. 36. 14.

aXXoOi lv aXAot? epyots.

31. j3e\Tiov to-xetv,

"to be better."

ouSevos "it is inferior <avAorepov, to none of the exercises."

34. ov yap dyeovos KT\. In the sport in which we take part and under

the conditions to which it is subject, only those are trained who are trained

of war."

in the implements

31. 7. ov rav. Crasis for ov rot av.

8. ouSev av TrdOoi. 7rao-^iv rt is a common euphemism for death.

9. Tcurny, t.e. rrj TIOV OTT\WV e7rto"T^/x,7^ .

12. ravra \a(3uv refers to the clause just before, and rovVtov (in TO, TOVTUV

c^o/xeva) to TTOLV TO Trtpl ras o-r/oar^ytas.

14. TO. Tovroiv e^o/xeva, "which are connected with these."

1 6. w Ka6r)yrjo~aLT


av, "of which this art would be the beginning."

18. avTov avrov, "than he was before." Cf. Prot. 350 A ot eTmmj/xoves

rwv (Jirj eTrto-ra/xevwv OappaXewrtpOL eto-tv, /cat avrol eavrcoj/, eTretSav /xa^(uo~ti/, 7y

?rpiv /xa^etv, where the last two clauses explain the meaning of avrol eavrwi/ ;

v. Note 6. 33.

20. on Kat evo"^/xoi/eo"repov, sc. av 7roi>yo"eiev.

24. Trapa ravra ; v. Note 27. 7.


30. eo-Tiv, emphatic.

31. ot vTTLcrxvovfjLtvoL = ot StSacrKovTes. eVayyeAAea^ai is similarly used.

Cf. 36. ii.

32. rt Kat Scot. Kat,



34. et rt "

rt is

rjv. emphatic (good for) anything." Cf. 7. 26, 33. 9,

47. 20, 53. 22 oio/xevw rt etvat, 54. 17, Apol. 41 E eav SoKoiat rt elvat


P. 32] COMMENTARY. 1 03

The article is not necessary with the name of a people

in the plural. R. 36. Laches was well acquainted with Spartan customs ;

v. Introd. p. xviii.

32. 5. on av and CKCIVOIS av;

6. rifjir)0(.is is conditional.

v. Note 28. 16.

7. oxTTrep ye KO.I rpaycoSc as Troir/r^s. In Athens alone were original trage

dies presented, although other cities had large and beautiful theatres, and

poets came from all directions to display their talent in the literary center

of Greece.

10. eTTiSet/o/r^ei/os

CTriSecKi/wii/ ; v. App.

roIo-Se, i.e. the Athenians ; v. Note 29. 29.

1 1 . eiKOTwg. Often placed, like SIKCUOJS, at the end of a sentence as an

afterthought, and usually followed by an explanatory clause. Cf. Apol.

32 B J3ov\eaOe aOpoovs Kpiveiv, Trapavo/xcos, ok c So^e, Dem. 21. 43.


TTJV /xev AaKeSaipiova. Sparta rigorously excluded all foreign influence

and culture, in marked contrast to the Athenian policy (cf. Thuc. II. 39), so

that Laches 1


is fallacious.

12-13. a/2arov tepov and a/<pu>

TroSi ("with the tips of their toes") are

proverbial expressions (cf. Isoc. Hel. 58 a/forov TOIS Trovrjpols aiWep tepoi/,

Cic. Coel. 28 extremis, ut dicitur, digitis) ; v. Note 2. 17.

17. OTJ Travv oAtyois. Litotes ; v. Note 13. 33.

1 8. cv atiro) r<5 epyw-

The same as ev r^ /^ax^ avriy 31. 3, though here

intended, in its literal meaning, to suggest a contrast with the boastful pro

fessions of these artists. Laches is preeminently a practical man, and is

glad to appeal to facts, though his story does not really prove the uselessness

of OTrAo/xaxta-

19. awd^ev, "on the spot," "immediately." Cf. Gorg. 470 E.

ciWep eTrmySes, imitated by Cicero in De Orat. I. 20. 91 quasi dedita

opera, etc.


7rir>;Ses CTTtT^Sevo-avrwi/. A sort of pun or play on words (v.

Note 38. 12), which is accentuated by the position at the beginning and

end. Cf. Note 34. 4.

TOI oTrAmKa, the plural with a tone of contempt, "the tricks of fencing."

23. Trapa TO^S aAAovs,

" more than the rest." Cf. Note 11. 34.

Se^va-rvx^KaaLv. Equivalent to the pres. tense. H. 849, G. 1263.

24. e?ret KCU, "so for example."

25. 7nSeiKvi;//evov is ironical of course, as throughout the story. Cf.

33. 9, 42. i, 46. 23, 48. 20, 53. 17, 30; v. Note 23. 9.

26. = i/

rrj aX-rjOeta

Iv rco epyw- v T. a. . ok aX.f]0^<; For the pleonasm,

cf. Phaedo 66 C ok oAruJs TW OVTL.

104 AAXHS. [P. 32

28. eVe/^dreve. He must have been a volunteer, for the marines (eVt-

/Sdrai) were usually drawn from the lowest class of Athenian citizens (Thuc.

VI. 43).

Notice the accumulated imperfects from 1. 28 to 33. 3, showing the gradual

progress of the narrative.

29. SopvSptTravov,


halbert," a spear (Sopv) with a sickle-shaped (Spe-

Travov) point at the side near the head. A weapon like this was sometimes

used to cut the rigging of the enemy s vessel.

33. 2. For the repetition of vuOs, v. Note 4. 34.

3. e<iei ? v. App.

4. di/TeAd/3ero, u it held fast." rov Soparos,


the shaft."

7, 8. e/c XT?? Tprfpovs oXKaSos for eV TT; rptTJpei oAxaSi. The preposition

6/ouWes. Simi

CK is suggested by the idea of motion in ^v (" arose ") and

larly eis is often found in passages where movement is only implied by the

context, not expressed by the verb. Cf. Phaedo 116 A dworaro s

TL tos Aovo-0/x.ei/os.

9- eK/O, V. App.

to-ws. Polite, but at the same time ironical. Cf. 42. i, 48. 34.

av n tir) ; v. Note 31. 34.

10. 8 ovvj "at any rate."

This adventure may have occurred during Laches expedition to Sicily in

427 B.C., when the Athenians undertook to aid the people of Leontini. Cf.

Thuc. III. 90, 103, 115.

14. oiotro avrov cmarTaorOai. The insertion of the reflexive as subject of

the infinitive is more rare in Greek than its omission in Latin. Cf. Note 22. 17.

1 6.




17. iVxeiv depends on SOKC?, though the nearer yeWro remains unaffected.

In the first clause SoKet is used parenthetically (cf. otfwu 34. 7), in the second

it asserts its rights. Cf. R. 284.

1 8. Oavpao-Tov ocrov was originally an ellipsis for Oav/naa-rov ovov ecrnV,

but is here combined to form a temporary compound, and stands in apposi

tion or agreement with TL.


Tr. "in some wonderful way ; v. Note 3. 27.

21. ToiavTr) rt?. rts makes roLavrrj definite and specific. Cf. Notes

8. 31, 49. 20.

22. oVep e dpx^S efAeyov. Cf. 1. 1 1 o ovv KOL e dpxv? CITTOV, 34. 21 o eyw

aprt eAeyov, 37. 15, 53. 33. Similarly ^p^ roi/Se ^ d^iemt. Cf. 30. I

tt^)tecro ye rdi/Spd?, 36. 21 p,^ d<(. eo-$ai, 53. 33 p,^ d<^)teVat ; v. Note 4. 33.

26. In rot) 8taKpti/owro5. In modifies 8eu/, and is out of place as in

Crat. 399 A In T^uepov (ro^wrepos, or ye in Trpos ye V/JLOLS 27. 4. This is

called hyperbaton. R. 293, 295 ; v. Note 47. 2.


P. 34] COMMENTARY. 1 05

SOKCI TJ ftovXrf. This use of a definite subject with Set is quite rare


Polit. 277 D), though it is common enough with Setrai.

27. vvv Se introduces ev e^ei, as the punctuation shows, but often, as in

54. 14, it forms a close union with yap, and, like dAAa yap, implies an ellipsis


of some such thought as it is not so. 1

Cf. Apol. 38 B vvv Se ov e crrti/.


A close parallel to the parenthesis in the present passage is found in II. 12.

326, where i o/xet/ takes up the vvv Se , with which the sentence began, after an

interruption of several verses ; v. Note 24. 28, where RiddelPs explanation

of vvv Se yap is given.

28. rrjv eVavTiav, sc. if/fj<f>ov, as avfjuj/rjcfjos shows.

30. rt Se indicates surprise and disagreement. Cf. 35. 23, Note 16. 22.

32. TL yap av TI<S /cat rrotot. Cf. Phaedo 61 E. rts stands here for the

speaker himself, as in II. I. 287 o S avrjp e#eAei Ttacn tnqpaivew, a TLV ov

ireio-ecrOai 6 to).

34. i. For the repetition of KO.V av, cf. 31. 7-8, 32. 5-6, 33. 16, 17

40. 4-5, 60. 13, 62. 4, 74. 10-11, etc. ; v. Note 5. 23, R. 266 d.

VTTO, not "by," but "under (the guidance of)."

4. owiv, concessive ; so evt OVTL in 1. 12.


yfjlv. The first and last word afford a sharp contrast. Cf.

Note 32. 20.

6. i o-cos, v. Note 39. 2.

9. TTOJS yap ou; yap often expresses surprise. Cf. I. 33 ; v. Note 28. 33.

13. r) ?rept oyxiKpou oieaOe. Cf. Rep. 344 D ^ oyxiKpov ot et KrA. Tr. vrept

vfjiiKpov KLvBvveveiv, "have a small matter at stake."

16. otKo? ot /oyo-erai ; v. Note 16. 31.

24. yeyovore? rjaav. This periphrastic form of the pluperfect foreshadows

the modern use of auxiliary verbs in forming the tenses. Cf. /xrowres

yiyvovrai Leg. 908 B. Similarly the aor. part, is used with l^w in tragedy

(Awras exw anc^ )> ftcXXw with the inf. takes the place of the future, as in

1. 8 and 27. 10.

avrov rovrov. The neuter pronoun here refers to a feminine noun (dyco-

vta), the natural gender taking precedence of the grammatical. Cf. 3. 3,

35. 21, 39. 4, 40. 23 ;

also Rep. 526 C, where avro TOVTO refers to yeoo/xerpm,

I. Ale. 1150. Cf. Note 29. 26.



TU/OS oi/Tos TOVTOV. The participle is often ysed with the interrogative,

where we expect the indicative. Cf. 42. 25. The case is due to TOVTOV above.

28. TTWS Ae yas is an indication that Plato regarded the subject as difficult.

Cf. 7TCU5 (^evyon/, 41. 23. In 40. 6 Socrates explains an obscure point of his

own accord.

106 AAXHS. [P. 34

31. crKeTrro/xe^a. This form is almost unknown in Attic, (TKOTrew being

used in the present system. Cobet ascribes its (rare) occurrence in Plato

to the influence of Homer.

33. ov yap ; v. Note 1. 7.

35. i.

(f>apfj.dKov, "ointment."

2. Trpos o^aA/Aou?. Parts of the body may dispense with the article.

TIS rov. Both pronouns are indefinite, the first enclitic receiving its

accent from the second ; so TLS rt in 1. 10.

6. 7TpO(TOl(TTOV (7TpO(T<epa>) .

OVKOVV en Aoyw marks the conclusion of the inductive process.

11. eo-KoVet. The imperfect is employed, because the preceding gradual

process of investigation is still present to the mind.


Tve.pl rov o KT\. Plato is the only Attic prose writer that freely uses

an article to introduce a relative clause. The dependent sentence is equiva

lent to a substantive, and the construction is similar to the articular infinitive

with subject and object.

R. 30.

14. TOV o-v^ovXov is object, not subject.

Texi/tKo s, "an expert."

21. TOVTO OepaTrevaai. TOVTO refers to //v^?? an<3 TOVTOV, just below, to

^VXTJS 6epa.irf.LCLv ; v. Note 34. 24.

KCU often means "or."

27. ev KO.I TrAeito. With numbers,


a\r)0rj Aeyeis is so stereotyped a phrase that it is practically a com

pound verb, and so takes a singular object, TOVTO, though aXrjOfj is plural.

Cf. Dem. 7. 43, where the Mss. have aXrjOf) /xev, "surely," like pyi/, with

which it was originally identical.

32. ei /xeV (fra/jLtv ex tl/ ? SC- ^Set^ai. exew? "can" (Tatham). Most

editors sc. SioW/caAovs, but this does not make as good sense.

36. 2. ov "denies." Cf. 37.



5. To et /xev in 35. 32 corresponds d Se /x^Sci/ KTA, while ^ rts yeyo-

vao-iv is a parenthesis.

7. alrtav tX LV ls ^ie P ass iye f (UTLacr&ai.

9. eVt^v/xoj gets from CK vcov dp^a/xej/o? ( = TraAai)


the force of a

10. o-o<iorats. The sophists were the earliest teachers in Greece who

received pay for their instruction ; they devoted themselves to all branches,

especially rhetoric and philosophy. For various reasons they later gained a

bad name, which they did not at first have, and which many of them did

not deserve.

n. cTrr/yyeAAovro /orA- Cf. Prot. 318 A, where "You

Protagoras says:

will return home a better man . . . every day than you were before," and


319 A, when Socrates asks if he promises to make men good citizens, AUTO

TOVTO eoriv TO e7rayyeA/xa o eTrayyeAAo/zai.

20. cOavpacra. Dramatic aorist of sudden action. The use of the

aorist, however, where the present might be expected, is not uncommon

with verbs of emotion, especially in the tragic poets. Cf. Leg. 686 D KOL

GMT. 60.

atiros e/xaurou vvv 8^ Karaye Acton ;

22. 7rapaKeAew>/zai repeats dmSoyuu, which the speaker had forgotten in

the meantime. Cf. Note 43. 14, 49. 22.

23. Trupa/ceAeuo/W CTOL Ae yovra. The nearness to epwraV and the dis

tance from o-oi prevented the participle from agreeing with its pronoun.

This looseness of concord is common enough in Plato. Cf. Note 4. 16,

20. 30, etc.

Aeyovra, on. on is merely a sign of quotation ; v. Note 7. 3.

27. (TV eiTrerov. The dual is due to the intervening vocatives. Cf.

to Sw/cpares re /cat v/xei?

ot aAAoi. The inclu

Euthyd. 283 B enre /JLOL, <f>rf.

sion of more than one person in the address was an afterthought.

Tivi &;. S?; lends a tone of impatience to the question.

Seivoraro), "especially skilled."

CTvyyeydi/arov, the "

regular word for receive instruction," but here with

the broader meaning, "converse with." Cf. 29. 17 o-w8tarpt^etv, Theaet.

142 C o-vyyevo/jievos re /cat SiaAe^et s ; v. Note 50. 15.

30. aAAot is, in sense at least, in apposition (not agreement) with 6/xo-


32. Sojpot? for the sophists, ^apto-tv

for friends.

d/x^>orepa, adv.

34. yeyovore (dual, sc. eo-rov, but 8dre, plu.). This shift of form, which

appears early, shows that the dual was slowly dying.

artificial revival in the works of Xenophon and Plato.

In fact, it received an

37. 3. OVK p,}) eV rw K.apt. The Carians were the first people to serve as

mercenary soldiers, and being less highly esteemed than the citizens, were

often put in the most dangerous position during a battle. Furthermore, so

many slaves came from Caria that Carian, like Thracian, became a synonym

for slave, and consequently a term of reproach. Indeed, so bad was their

reputation that they were classed with Cretans and Cappadocians as rpta

KaTTTra Ka/ao-ra. Here, as in our proverb (cV Kapt rov Ku/Swoi/), alliteration,

which has great influence in all folklore utterances, seems to have played an

important part. Kap, then, in this passage means "a worthless fellow";

v. Note 2. 17.

6 KivSvvos KivSwew/rcu. This verb is regularly followed by eV. Cf. Rep.

424 C. " Tr. make a dangerous experiment."

108 AAXHS. [P. 37

5. dre^i/cos;

v. Note 2. 16.

TO A.eyo/xei/oi/

is parenthetic and ^ Ktpafufa.

is the subject of (nyx/foiVr;.

For the proverb, cf. Gorg. 514 E TO Aeyo/xci/ov Brj rovro iv TU> 7u$a> rrjv

Kepa/j.iav eTrt^etpeti/ fjiaOelv- The TU$OS was the largest kind of earthen jar,

and to begin to learn the potter s art by attempting the most difficult piece

of work would be labor wasted. Tr. eV 7ri#o> yiyvo/aeVty


to begin pottery

with the wine-jar." Ceramic art was then at its height in Athens, and its

products were exported to all parts of the Greek world.

Cf. 36. 2.

7. ou 11

<<ZTC, "deny.


12. StSoVcu Aoyov. Here, "answer,

but in 38. i, "give account."

cdrrovs XP*1 yiyvwo-iceii/, "you must decide for yourselves."

18. oAiyov, "almost"; v. Note 61. 3.


fjXiKLav Covert, "are old enough." A temporary compound, hence no

19. ct ovv fJi-iJTL 8ia(epei ; v. Note 7. 7.

25. dAX ^f," except."

26. lv TOIS S^oTat?. When Athens became the head of the Attic state,

the townships or denies were allowed to retain jurisdiction over matters of

local interest. Each deme held assemblies, not only to elect its officers and

to revise the list of its members, but also to celebrate its peculiar religious

festivals, which it had preserved from ancient times.

38. i.


Treptayaytoi/ -^aa? e/i/?/?A.i?KC SwKptmys. The dialectic power of the

philosopher was irresistible, and is

none can escape.

compared to a hunter s net, from which


is driven." Cf. Phil. 19 A OK eis <f>av\6v ye epam/fia

2. PLOV (3e/3L(t)Ktv ; v. Note 16. 31.

4. eyo>. The

emphatic pronoun implies

I do." So the speaker continues, xoupw yap.


though others may not like it,

5. TaJSe and TOVTOV refer to the same person ; v. Note 30. 23.

10. TOV ravTa /z?) favyovra. ravra is the testing just mentioned.

KO.TO, TO TOV 2oAo>i/os. An allusion to the famous line, y^pao-Kw 8* aiei

TToAAa SiSao-Ko /xevos, quoted more closely in 39. 7.

1 1 .

eoxTTrep av 17.

curro, "of




Cf. Apol. 29 D eaxrTrep av e/XTrveto ("breathe "), ov /my

ar)0e$ d-^Se?. A pun like Trore pa TrarptBa in 30. 2-3 (cf. 32. 19-

20), or TlavaavLOv 7ra.vo-afj.evov Sym. 185 C, or o/xoVpOTros TC KCU 6/xoTpo^>o<;

Phaedo 83 D. Cf. Notes 1. 20, 45. 21-23, 47 - 2I R >

- 3 2 3 v - Introd. ? p. xv.

16. TO e/xw, "as far as I am concerned." Cf. TOL o-a and TO. ^/xeVepa

29. 34.

These phrases usually designate the person and all his belongings,

P. 39] COMMENTARY. 1 09

though in 39. 18 ra lyxeVepa and 46. 7, 51. 15 ra ly/xeVepa mean little more

than tyxeis and i^/ms. In 1. 19. TO e/xdv is "my feelings. 11

20. ovx d-jrXovv. Laches plays on the meaning of the word, the first



d-rrXovv being "simple ("straightforward ) as in Aesch. Fr. 173 dirXa -yap




ecm r^s dA^^ems while the second is

eVry, simple in the sense of single 11



26. /xovo-tKo?. Plato often uses this word in the sense of symmetrically


cultured and refined, both intellectually and morally.



mode, 11



scale. 11



really. 1

28. i^p/xooyxeVos ev. Cf. Rep. 412 A ttovcnKwraTOv KCU evap/xoororarov ;

tr. "well tuned. 11

cdjros avrov ; v. Note 6. 33.

rot? Aoyois is dat. of respect (H. 780, G. 1182), while Trpos TO. epya fol

lows <n;/x(a>K>v. For the thought, cf. Hdt. III. 157 rottn eVecrt TO, epya

Trapexo/xevov 6/xoia ; tr. "so that his words are in harmony with his deeds. 11

29. drexvws

S(opm. Plato carefully distinguishes the ethical effects of these four

modes in Rep. 399 A, and Aristotle agrees with him in commending the

; v. Note 2. 16.

Dorian. This was distinctively Greek, for the others were mainly of Asiatic

origin. The Phrygian was inspiring and exciting, the Ionian and Lydian

were weak and effeminate, but the Dorian was firm and manly. The theory of

Socrates regarding the Dorian mode is satirized by Aristophanes, Eq. 990 ff.

39. 2. ws eoi/ce is really ironical, for there is no doubt in the speaker s

mind. Cf. Phaedo 61 B oVa/xt 8e, o5s eot/cc, r^/xepov, when the time of

Socrates 1

death had already been announced to him. So 1. 18, 45. 13, and

to-cos 1. 32, 42. i, 48. 34, 52. 22. Similarly in guarded, though real assent,

as eoiKe 31. 32, 45. 8, areas 34. 6, <au/oi/rui 44. 34, 53. 14, and often ; v.

Note 12. 24.

TWJ/ epycov refers to his military achievements mentioned in 30. 3.

3. d^Lov 6vTtt Aoycov KoAwi/, "such that we might expect noble words

from him."

4. Tovro, i.e. Aoyoi KaAoi ;

v. Note 35. 22.

(Tt^ouAo/xai (not ar>/x/2ovAevo/xai) is said with reference to 38. 16; tr.

"I share his wishes. 11


z -^cnryxoopeiroo,


n. TWV TOIOVTWV, i.e. such apparent defects.

OUTW o-v

Trap e/xot StaKeto-at, "such has been my opinion of "

you (Jow.).

15. eSwKtt? SiSoVai Soxmv. The repetition is characteristic of con

versational style ; v. Note 4. 34.

1 8.

jjirj ovx , v - Note 13. 11.

110 AAXHS. [P. 39

19. <TVfjLJ3ovXevav KOL <rwK07mv. Their willingness to give

advice was

shown 30. 26-39. 16, and to join the investigation 37. 31-39. 16. Lysima-

chus asks Socrates to represent Melesias and himself in the proposed dis

cussion, and speak in their stead. By this action the dialogue is left entirely

in the hands of the principal interlocutors.

25. ov Travu; v. Note 13. 33.

26. v/xa? avrous = aXXrjXovs .

32. tcrws ; v. Note 39. 2.

34. o-^cSov rt; v. Note 29. 2.

ftaAAov e

dpx^? ? z -^ - more thorough and philosophical.

40. 12.

0-^0X17 av avfjLJSovXoL KTA. Cf. Rep. 354 C.

19. rais i/^xais makes the relation of dpe-n; to rots uiecriv more specific.

This joining of the part affected with the person who is the object of the

action (on^/xa *a0 oAov KCU /xepos) is common in the poets, but very rare in

prose. Cf. II. 14. 151 A^dioum/ of. /xeya <r$eVo? c/z/foA eKaoTu) KapoYry.

23. o TLTTOTt rvyxavet ov. The participle ov agrees with the predicate o

rt instead of the subject dperiy understood. Cf. Rep. 354 C TO oY/uov

eto-o/xat eiT dperr; ns ov(ra rvyxavcc ;

TOVTOV refers to OTTCOS av Kr^o-airo.

27. /zevroi,

"it is true. 1

Cf. 46. 16, 47. 5.

v. Note 27. 16.

28. etTTot/xev rt eo-riv. Exact definition is the chief aim of the Socratic

dialectic, and is usually reached by the inductive process, which leads from

concrete examples to general truths. Cf. Introd. p. xiv.

30. TOIVTJV does not here draw a conclusion, but merely continues the


Trf.pl O AT/S aper^s. The names of virtues and vices may


stand without an

31. /xepous. The Protagoras, which, like the Republic and Meno, treats

Trept oAr/s aper^s, distinguishes (349 B C) five virtues as parts of virtue

itself, Temperance, Courage, Justice, Wisdom, Piety; v. 50. 31. Four of

these appear in Aesch. Sept. 610, and only four are found in the Republic,

Piety being absent. See, however, Introd. p. xxviii.

34. AAA ; v. Note 28. 33 yap.

41. 7. K.a.6" oaov oldv re, since, as Plato maintains in his later dialogues,

natural aptitude and tendency must be considered.


Treipw, imperat. mid.

ii. ev TT; raa /ttevwv. The soldier speaks from his experience of the

phalanx, where it was essential to keep each line of soldiers firm and

unbroken that the enemy might be crushed by the united attack. So the

poet Tyrtaeus urges the Spartans, /xa^eo-^e Trap dAA^Aoio*i /xevovres.

P. 43] COMMENTARY. I 1 1

13. eyw atrios; v. Note 23. 9.

14. TO <7e aTTOKpLvacrOai. amos also takes the simple infinitive, as 42.

8-9, or the genitive of the articular infinitive.

TTOV, equivalent to ot/ucu.

17. Kttt yap eyai ; v. Note 28. 33. The answer, "Not you alone," sug



Laches remark, I, at least, agree," is here suppressed.

gested by

24. SKV&U. The same was told of the Parthians. Cf. Hor. Od. I. 19.

10 Scythas et versis animosum equis Parthum and 35. 9 T$ profugi Scythae.

Their descendants, the Cossacks, have preserved this manner of fighting.

25. "Ofjirjpos TJ-OU. II. 5. 223, 8. 108. /urJo-Ttop ^0^8010, applied at different

times to Aeneas, Hector, Diomed, and Patroclus, was explained by the

ancients as



creator of but is here flight," interpreted by Plato as skilled



flight ; the meaning which fjL-rjaTwp bears in other combinations, as

jur/o-Ttop dvr^s. Plato abounds in these rather far-fetched arguments from

Homer, and is perhaps parodying the practice of the subtile sophists, who

v. Notes 11. 30, 65. 9-10.

paid much attention to interpretation of the poets ;

32. TO TWV 2Ku0oii/, "as far as the Scythians are concerned."

Laches 1

answer shows that he misses the dialectic bearing of the Homeric


42. i. io-ws; v. Note 39. 2.

2. nAoraiats ; v. App.

TOIS yeppo<f> 0/3019. The yeppa were shields made of wicker-work, and

covered with leather, which were sometimes stuck in the ground to form

a sort of breastwork, behind which the bowmen took their stand (v.

Hdt. IX. 61).

3-5. The present (imperf.) infinitives show the progress of the action,

the aorist its result.

1 7. The sentence is so long that Socrates forgets the participle /2ovAo-

/txei/05, with which he began, and with eto-t yap breaks off abruptly, leaving

the sentence without any finite verb; v. Introd. p. xv. Cf. Notes 1. 32,

4. 16, 36. 27, 49. 16, App. 39. 25.

28. ov Trdvv TI and o-xeSoV TL (1. 32) ; v. Note 29. 3.

32. axe&ov Tt, "in fact it may be said that." KOL avro Ke/<T>^$a, where

we should expect /cat o. This free construction is very common in Plato.

oil KOL Trepi. The antecedent of ov is something like ej/ TTO.VTI, as may be

inferred from the context. KOL has here a depreciatory force.

43. 3. Ta^vT^Ta belongs to the agent, rdxos to the action.




7. Op#ws ye (TV Xiyw. Cf. 4. 10, 11. 17, Rep. 474 A KaAws y eyw


112 AAXHS. [P. 43

9. v aTTcunv ols. With ols, sc. eV from the antecedent aTrao-iv. R. 190.

12. TO 8ia travriav TTC^VKOS,


the universal character that all"


(Jow.). Cf. Meno 74 A rryi/ /AIUV, 77 Sia Trai/rcov eoriv. Lit.

in all cases."

" what is found

14. TOIWV has here almost the same meaning as /xeVrot.

e/xoiye <atVercu with ws eyw/xai is pleonastic. Cf. 49. 22 and Notes

36. 22, 74. 25.

44. 2 1 .

e/xoiye So/cet shows that Laches yields the point unwillingly, yet

he must admit that the wise man is not guided by constancy alone.

25. ei? <peup Kara/ftuvoKre?. Doubtless to clean the well, or to find lost

objects. The same example is used Prot. 350 A.

29. etVep OLOITO ye ourcos shows that Socrates does not agree with Laches,

for it is only on the basis of Nicias definition (52. 25) that we can appre

ciate the nobility of self-sacrifice, which looks beyond the present danger to

the higher good.

45. 6. TraAij "on the , contrary."





our principle or proposition."


19. fiovXti (cf. 46. 2) is parenthetic, like SOKCI and OI/-UH ; v. Note 48. 9,

G M T. 288.

21-23. Kaprepeiv Ka/3Tep^cra>/xei/, dvS/aeta d^S/oet ws. A playful appli

cation of abstract terms; v. Note 38. 12.

KarayeXao-?;. A not uncommon personification. Cf. Notes 25. 9, 51. 34.

24. TroAAaKi?;

v. Note 27. 21.

33. Kwrfyerqv and 46. 5 ^ei/xa^o/xeVoi? are both favorite metaphors in

Plato. So in Rep. 432 B Socrates tells Glaucon to stand beside the bush

and watch lest justice escape (cf. Siec^uyei/), and in Phil. 29 B says that he

is deluged with perplexity (cf. aTropovcn) .

46. 2. (3ov\a-, v. Note 45. 19.

5. xei/Aao/xevois arropovcrL. Plato often explains his metaphors by

adding a simpler expression of the same idea. Cf. Gorg. 447 A KaroViv

oprrj<s rjxo/xev KCU varepov/xei/, Prot. 314 A Kvfievys re KCU KtvSwevys.

7. ra ^/xeVepa; v. Note 38. 16.

10. AoKeire TOLWV KT\. More fully, Xe^w roiwv a i/ow So/ceire yap jixot.

16. fjL^vTOL ; v. Note 40. 27.

19. Kat ov a^>oSpa. We say "but," where the Greek said KGU. For ou

cr^>d8pa, cf. Note 13. 33

ov Travv.

20. <ro(iav nva. Here not one of the virtues, but equivalent to eirtan/fwy.

22. Trotav ao(j>iav ; Laches puts this question ironically, as a decided

rejection of the definition (cf. Gorg. 490 E iroia. vTroS^ara ; <A.wpets

v. Note 23. 26), but Socrates chooses to take it literally.

T. 48] COMMENTARY. 113

26. ri ye avXrjTLK-tj. Ironical. Such illustrations from professions and

trades are very characteristic of Socrates. Cf. 23. 26, also 35. i, 40. 13,

44. 4, 47. 13, 51. 29 (all from medicine), 35. 6 (from horse-training), Xen.

Mem. I. 2. 37; v. Introd. p. xiv.

33. Tavrrjv stands alone, with rrjv eVtar^i/ in apposition. This defini

tion agrees with that given by Socrates in Xen. Mem. IV. 6. 11. Cf.

Prot. 360 D.

34. 6a.ppa.Xiw here means what "

inspires confidence, safe." Cf. 51. 10.

47. 2.

Trpos TL belongs to

/3\tyas. Such hyperbaton is not rare in

conversation. R. 289 ; v. Note 33. 26.

3. Trpos o TL. In repeating a question the indirect interrogative takes

the place of the direct. Cf. Euthyph. 2 C EY. ru/a ypa^v ae yeypaTrrai ;

2O. YIVTLVO.; OVK dyevvr?, Ar. Thes. 203 EYP. TTWS; AI\ OTTOOS ; SOKUV KT\.

5. ov pevTOL,


he does deny it, to be sure."

7. OVK, "No!" rejecting Socrates proposition.

II. eVei "for."


cum/cot, "for example," is regularly

used to introduce an

illustration. Cf. Prot. 359 E. Vergil uses continue in the same way, Georg.

I. 356. R. 143.

21. Kai yap Ae yec ye TL. Again a play on words. Socrates used Ae yei TL

as meaning, "speak wisely" (cf. 53. 4), the opposite of ov&v Xiyuv (cf.

1. ii), "talk nonsense," but Laches repeats the phrase in its literal sense.

Cf. Notes 38. 12, 46. 23.

48. i . TOVTO "

yiyvuxncetv, this


7-10. Laches ridicule is here especially effective, for we know from

Thucydides (VII. 50. 4) that the superstitious Nicias relied far too much

on soothsayers ; v. Note 51. 34, Introd. p. xix.

9. ot ei is parenthetic and without influence on the construction ; v. App.

Cf. ol^ou 2. 13, 34. 7, 39. 33, 42. 22, SOKCI 33. 13, 54. 16, /SovAet 45. 19,

46. 2.

20. et /XT) ei, "unless perhaps." Ironical.

22. oVto KOL Karoo, we say "hither and thither." Cf. Ion. 541 E TTUI/TO-

SaTros ytyvet crrpe^>o/x,ei/os aVto Kat Karoo, Note 10. 33.

25-27. Aeyeiv Aoyoi Aoyov Aoyoi? ; v. Notes 4. 34, 39. 15.



there would be some reason."

et^ev av rtva Aoyov,

29. OuSeV answers TL in Laches question.

34. to-ws ; v. Note 33. 9.

TrvvOdvcaOaL, TrvvOavov TreTrvoyxai. The threefold repetition of the same

verb shows the weariness and disgust of the speaker, and with vrvo-rts Socrates

mockingly takes up the refrain. The latter word is used nowhere else by


114 AAXHS. [P. 49

49. 8. ov Travros dvSpos is perhaps taken from the proverb, ov

dvSpos ? KopivOov ecr# 6 TrXovs.

oTrdre ye is causal, but is also conditional, as /jurj shows. R. 143.

12. Kara TT)V Trapoi/uav. The full form of the proverb is KO.V KvW KOV v?

yi/otr?, and indicates what is easy and simple ; v. App.

TO) 6V, like w? d/V^ws (50. 12), often applies a simile, poetical citation,

or proverb to the case in point. Cf. 38. 27, Gorg. 492 E, etc., Note 2. 17.

15. rr/v Kpo/x/xvowav w. This fierce sow ravaged the plain of Kpo/tx/xvooj/

in southern Megaris, until it was killed by the Athenian hero, Theseus.

1 6. The position of ov TTULL&V leads us to expect a contrasted participle

in the next clause, but the sentence continues with the same construction

as Ae yw. Cf. Apol. 21 E, Note 4. 17.

17. TCO ravra Ae yovri, dat. dependent on drayKaiov, though properly the

subject of the infinitive. R. 183.


77 riva KaVpoi/. TLVCL here makes Kairpov more specific, with a refer

ence to vs above, and so distinguishes it from the rest of the list ; it also

shows the indecision of the speaker (v. Aesch. Ag. 55). Cf. Note 33. 21.

21. 6/Ww? Aeoi/Ttt Tre^Kevat, "that a lion and a stag

monkey are equally brave."

22. <dVai is superfluous, but serves to repeat o-vyxwpeti/. <f>-rjfj.L

or a bull and a


appears in this resumptive office. Cf. Sym. 175 D Kai enreu/ on Ev av

R. 266 e; v. Notes 13. 23, 36. 22.


Ti0e /Acvoi/, "defining." Cf. 24. 30.

"also 27. /xrySe dj/Speia, not brave."

30. dAA is in contrast to TO not to ov aL<j>oj3ov

/XT) <o/?ov/x,evoi>, di/Speta

34. 7rpo/x>/^tas

is a characteristic addition in the mouth of the over

cautious Nicias ; v. Introd. p. xix.

50. 6. Kooyxei refers to 48. 28.

9. Lamachus was associated with Nicias on the Sicilian expedition, in

order that the prudence of the latter and the fiery energy of the former

might react on each other to the benefit of the army. Unfortunately,

Lamachus was killed soon after reaching Sicily, and the dilatory tactics of

Nicias ruined the undertaking; v. Plut. Ale. 18, Thuc. VI. 49, 101. Aris

tophanes puns on the warlike fury of Lamachus in Ach. 1071 io>


/xd^ai Kai Ad/xa^ot.

12. The people of Alwr) (cf. 56. 25) were notorious for their love of

slander; and since Laches was actually from this deme, he fears lest the

proverb be applied (cos dATy^cos ; v. Note 49. 12)

15. Ad/u,tov; v. Note 29. 15.

to him.

p. 53] COMMENTARY. 115

Plato often cites Prodicus when he wishes to distinguish related concep

tions ; v. Note 12. 12.

TrXycnd&L, "attends instruction," like arvveivai ; v. Note 36. 27.

1 8.


TO. ToiavTa KrA. A sneer at Nicias.

19. avSpl ov -fj TroAis KrA. Laches repays Nicias for his mock (?) polite

ness in 1.

9. The latter s silence is consistent with his mild disposition.


22. OTTOI what he meant when he denned this."

J3\ira)v Ti6r]<nv,

Cf. 47. 2.

51. 3. KCU aAA aTTa; v. Note 40. 31.


Prot. 349 E.

e^e? "stop!" shows that an important point

10. a /xr) Seos. /m},

H. 1021, G. 1428, 1430, GMT. 518, 520.

has been reached. Cf.

because the sentence is abstract and universal.

12. Seos Trpoo-SoKiuv. So Prot. 358 D TrpoaSoKtav riva Ae yw KCCKOU TOUTO.

1 6.

/xe AAovra is forced out of the attributive position to give greater force

to the antithesis, KaKa ra /XT) KaKa.

21 . TO rptrov,

" a third point."

25. eiSeVai; v. Note 9. 15.

28. as aTravras, with ec^opa ("includes").

34. oterat personifies crrparr/yt a ; v. Note 45. 23.

dAAa apx ^- Poetry (II. 12. 195-264) and history (Anab. V. 6. 28 ff.)

furnish many illustrations of this principle, but Nicias seems not to have

applied it to his own conduct; v. Note 48. 7, Introd. p. xix.

52. 25. KUTO. rov <rov Aoyov refers to the definition of avSpeta as eTrio-rrJ/x-r/

TOJV Seivwv KCU ^appaAewv, with the further explanation of Seiva as /xe AAovra

27. Kat 7rai/Ta>s exo vTa)v ? "without reference to time" (Jow.).

28. [jiCTaTiOto-Oai is a figure borrowed from the game of TreoW (v. Note

13. 11), which is used in a more extended manner in Rep. 334 E.

31. SaijaoVie gives a slight suggestion of blame; v. Note 3. 29. Cf.

II. 2. 190 and 200.

53. i. J ye p.dvo) Trpoo-T/Ket Ta w, "who alone is fitted to distinguish

carefully things dangerous and safe." Trpoo-o/xiAetv,

4. Ae yeo/ TI ; v. Note 47. 20.


to behave toward them/

1 6. /xyoAr;v eATrtSa eixov. The raillery hits Socrates as well as Nicias.

Cf. 50. 14.

1 8. ev ye.


oijSei/ TrpSy/xa, "no matter,"


of no consequence."

21. ovSev en Stoto-et (Sta^epw), "make no difference."

So Gorg. 447 B.

23. ovSei/ Trpos CWTOV /SAeWi/ KrA. This familiar weakness of mankind


[p. 53

is well illustrated by Aesop s fable of the two wallets (359), whose moral

reads : ot avOpwiroi TO, (jitv e avroiv KO.KO. ov\ 6/oujo-i, TO. Sc dAAoT/Ha TTCXI/V

25. CTrieiKoi?, "sufficient."

27. ota, here, "think it right."

30. tropes yap el. Ironical.

54. 3. Ni/ojparov, the son of Nicias mentioned 29. 14.

9. o-v/JiTrpoOv/Jirjaei, "help."

16. SoKet has no influence on the construction. Cf. 33. 13, Note 45. 19.

14. vvv 8 6/Wws yap ; v. Note 33. 27.

17- oV ri So o) o~v/jif3ov\v.Lv ] v. Note 31. 34.

1 8.

Ao K<f>opos yov, "traitor," "tell-tale." A proverbial expression, as ap

pears from Ar. Thes. 472 avrcu. alone (" ") yap eV/xev, Ao /covSe/xt" K<f>opos you.

23. i? SioW/caAwi/, "to school." The gen. depends on the idea of

locality conveyed by the preposition (Gild.). Cf. 7. 28, 60. 24.

24. Tov"Ofjt,r}pov, Od. 17. 347. Cf. 9. 14.

Trpo/^oAAeo-^ai, "offer as defence," a military term.

25. Kexp^evw,



32. TO Se vvv etvcu ; v. Note 62. 17.

34. eav $eos efle A^. Usually ^ AT; in this phrase; v. App. 13. 34. For

the devout tone, cf. the close of the Apol. and Crito, also Apol. 40 A-C.


55. i. e AKaS^/xias evOv A.VKLOV ; v. Introd. p. vii. The Lyceum,

afterwards so closely associated with the peripatetic instruction of Aristotle,

was a gymnasium named from the neighboring shrine of Apollo AU KCIOS,

and was a favorite resort of Socrates. Cf. Euth o i A, Sym. 223 D.

8. ov Trapa/foAets is equivalent to a command. The future is more

imperative than the present would be; v. Note 63. 15. Cf. Ar. Av. 1212

ov Ae yas- Probably 7rapa/3aAA<o is a nautical metaphor, "come alongside."

Cf. Rep. 556 C.

10. Trapa TiVa? roi>s v/xas = TiVes eicrtv oiJrot, ov? Aeyas v/xas. Cf. Gorg.

521 A, Phil, ii A. The article adds clearness.

1 6. KaAoos ye Troiowres ; v. Note 4. 12. Tr. "you are very kind."

18. ov <cu)Aos ; v. Note 13. 33.

20. eVt rw. raj is better taken as masculine,

56. 2.

fjpvOpLao-tv i

v. Note 6. 28.

to TTCU Itpwvvfjiov ; v. Note 18. 14.

" "

whom shall I see?

4. et Tropcvo/xevos. A sort of periphrasis, though et is emphatic. This

P. 58] COMMENTARY. 1 17

usage, which emphasizes by its fullness of expression the progress

action, was considered provincial and vulgar. Cf. A. J. P. IV. 302.

5. (f>avXos Kol axpyo Tos ; v. Notes 7. 34, 14. 5, 6.


yvujj/cu epwj/ra.

of the

Cf. Syni. 212 Bavros Ttyuo ra eparri/ca Kat Sia<epoi/r(us

CUTKU), Mem. II. 6. 28 8ia TO epam/cos eu/cu, Xen. Sym. III. 10.



doTeioj/, "amusing, "charming" (///.





7rapara$?7(jTai, "worn out. 1

11. eKKKo6<wKe,




evyuapia, "opportunity."

14. KaraAoyaSvyi/, "in prose."

16. /caravrAeu/ "to deluge with." Cf. Rep. 344 D aWep (3a\av6v<s

bath master (" ") KaravrAr/cras Kara TOJV corwv.

27. i/ean/coV, "high-spirited," "generous." Cf. Rep. 425 C, 491 E.

29. vrpos auroV = ra TraiStKa. Cf. Phaedr. 239 A, Phaedo 73 D, etc.

30. o-ra^/xa, "Do you attach any weight?"

33. avyypdfaiv, "write

prose." Cf. Sym. 177 B, where KaraAoycufyv

is added.


talk nonsense."


57. 5.


&LaTtOpv\r)raL talked deaf." Cf. Rep. 358 C.

11. TrAovrous. Plural of stateliness, though with the thought of each

successive fortune. Cf. I. Ale. 122 B.

13. KcXrjs, "a race-horse," ridden by a jockey.

14. K/ooviKwrepa, "more absurd"; v. Note 74. 21, Ar. Pint. 582.

1 8. apwyerov. The tutelary hero, from whom all the members of the

deme were supposed to derive their origin, but who really took his name

from the deme itself.

STJIAOV without the article, since a repetition of TOV would not be euphoni

ous. Plato never repeats the article in such cases. Cf. Note 27. 12.

ttTrep at ypcuai aSoucri. It is well known that in all countries the old

women preserve most faithfully the traditions of the past. Cf. Rep. 350 E

rats -ypavcrl rats TO^S [jLvOovs Aeyoucrais, Gorg. 527 A, Theaet. 176 B.

25. cXrjs. Figure from hunting, so Bia^vyrj and ^pevr^s in A. Cf.

Phaedr. 253 C.

31. TO /xe AAov. Prolepsis ; v. Note 4. 14.

58. i. Svo-aAwrepot. rooWra> is omitted. Cf. Apol. 30 A, Gorg. 458 A.



A word imitating the sound,

4. KrjXeiv, "to charm," "soothe."

like our "shoo."

6. OTTO)? fj.y TrotTycreis. Cf. 63. 22; v. App. 5. 17.

15. cTriSei^ai,


give a specimen


(teach a "

truth), but mid.

play," as the sophists did. Cf. App. 32. 10, Apol. 40 A, etc.

make a dis

Il8 ATSIS. [P. 58

16-24. Notice that Hippothales, who has hitherto answered briefly,

becomes talkative when there is a prospect of seeing his beloved (Schm.).

19. Ep/xata. As Hermes was the god of athletic exercises, his festival

was celebrated in the palaestra. A law of Solon forbade the presence of

adults, but this appears to have become a dead letter.

25. Trpoar) , i.e. Trpocnja, impf. first sing, of irpdcret/u.

29. do-rpayaAiovTa9. The do-rpayaAoi were. knuckle-bones, often used

by boys and girls in their natural state, and tossed on the hand like our

jackstones, but more frequently they were smoothed on four sides, marked

i, 3, 6, 4, and played like dice. Four do-r/oayuAoi were thrown from the

hand, or from a box, and the thirty-five possible combinations bore the

names of gods, heroes, and kings, or had some conventional value. The

best throw ( A^/ooSiny or Kwos) was made when each die came up differently,

the worst (KVWV) when all were alike. The rules for real (cubical) dice were

slightly different; v. Harp. Class. Diet.

KKoo-/xr//xVovs, i.e. with clean, white clothes.

31. rjpria&v. Guessing at

" odd

and even," a favorite game for boys in

all countries, the morra, which the Italians play with such passion, men as

well as boys. Cf. Lat. par impar ludere, Suet. Aug. 71.

"small baskets."


Pater (Plato and Platonism, 114) praises the beautiful picture here pre

of Murillo.

sented, and compares it for lifelike charm to the "Beggar Boys"

34. vos. eo-T<aj/co/x,e The Greeks wore wreaths of leaves and flowers on

in the

all religious and festal occasions. Lysis had doubtless participated


TO KaAos etvat is equivalent to on KaAos ty, TO etvai being accusative after

aKovcrai. For aios aKovcrai, cf. Rep. 496 A.

59. ii. them as a screen."

eTT^Avyio-d/xevo?, "using

15. A/z<to-/:fyTo/zei/.

"We occasion dispute about this point."

16. yevvatorepos, perhaps "the nobler in character" (not in birth).

18. EyeAacrar^v ; v. App.

6. 6.

20. Kotva ra (iAwv. A Pythagorean proverb. Cf. Rep. 424 A, Phaedr.

279 C, etc. ; v. Note 2. 17.

25. TraiSoTpt/fyvj "the trainer," teacher of gymnastics. His duties are

defined in Gorg. 452 B.

60. 13. Kav av. Cf. 62. 4, 74. 10, u ; v. Note 5. 24.

28. For the ethical dative cf.

avrfjj Rep. 343 A, Soph. 229 E.

30. The o-TrdOr) and Ke/cm s were the wooden blade and comb used in

the upright loom for packing the threads of the woof, so as to make the

web close.

p. 63] COMMENTARY. 1 19

33. HpaKAets; v. Note 2. 31.

avrl TO/OS. "For what reason?" The causal use of avri is poetic and

rare. Ast cites no cases in Plato.

61. i. oAtyov, "almost. 11

Set. Cf. TroAAov Sets 56. 23, Travros Seot 68. 12.

Cf. 37. 18, 63. 4. The full phrase is oAt you

9. M^ ov TOVTO o-e KuXvy. Cf. 72. 30. A form of cautious negation

very common in Plato, where the idea of fear is present to the mind, but is

not expressed by any verb. H. 867, G. 1350, G M T. 265.



1 8. 19. eVtretvat, dvetrat, i/^Aat, /cpoiW, "tighten, "loosen,


11 "

the strings with the fingers, strike them with the plectron

silver rod used for the purpose).

21. StaKcoAvouo-iv, KwXvovfTLv ; v. Note 4. 34.

22. w a/3toT ; v. Note 3. 29.

24. O.VTOV, i.e.



yo\\r former self.

"play on

(a gold or

33. Ao-tas, i.e. what we call Asia Minor (so Xen. Cyr. I. 1.4, Hell. IV.

8. 27), though also used in the larger sense of the whole continent, or of

the Persian empire.

"broth. 34. a>/x6V,


62. 3. KCU TOV; v. Note 9. 30.

4. Spaa//,evoi,

9. e/xTrao-at KT\.,


taking a handful."


put in a pinch

of ashes."

12. eKetvwv. For the use of e Ketvos for CO>TOS, cf. Phaedo 106 B,

Prot. 311 D.

17. CKGJV etvat. To our idiom the infinitive here seems superfluous. It

is practically confined to negative sentences. H. 956 a, G. 1535, GMT. 780.

Cf. Note 68. 22.

1 "

It is probably a locative form, meaning in fact,




and limiting CKWV. Cf. A. J. P. X. 381.

63. 4. on; v. Note 7. 3.

5-6. TaTrtivovvTa, av(TTfX.\ovTa, ^avvovvra, StaflpvTTTOvra,

11 11




reducing, puffing up, pampering. 11

7. dywnwi/To, ; v. Note 10. 33.

9. ave Aa/Sov e/mvroV.


humbling, 11

The reflexive is more common than the middle

voice, when the subject acts directly on itself. Cf. Gorg. 464 C eavrrjv

Stavet/xao-a. H. 812 b, G. 1242. i. It unnatural.

usually implies that the action is

13. oyxtKpov,


in a low tone. 11

15. epets. Future for imperative. Cf. Note 55. 8, Ar. Eq. 483-485,

G. 1265. This is really more forcible, since a quiet assertion of the future

carries more weight than a request. Cf. A. J. P. XIII. 37.

15. TTCIVTWS; v. Note 3. 4.

120 AT2IS. [p. 63

1 8.

avepctrOaL, sc. Tmpw.

22. 07TWS tTTlKOVpr}(TL<;

V. App. 5. IJ .

28. oux opas ; v. Note 18. 14. On parenthesis, cf. 67. 28, 75. 28, 76. 9.

32. eoTiao-0ov, ///. 11


Cf. Rep. 354 A, 571 D, etc.

64. 8. For the Athenian fondness for pet animals, cf. Ar. Av. 1290 ff.,

Leg. 789 B. oprvya and dAeKTpvdVa are added unexpectedly to give a comic

effect, which is heightened by the mock earnest val fjia Aia and the use of

Socrates 1

favorite vrj TOV KVVOL (v. Note 22. 1

1) just after the mention of dogs.

65. 3-4. OVK a/oa ecrrlv c^cXov ovoev fjwj

di/Tt<iA.ow. If the sentence had

been positive, it would have read ecru/ <j>i\ov /u?) dm<iA.ow, but since it is

negative, OVK is added to both copula and participle. The participle is less

common than the infinitive in this construction. /XT) ov implies resistance to

pressure. Cf. G. 1617 b, G M T. 818, Gild, in L. and S., A. J. P. VII. 169.

9-10. Socrates wrests the meaning of this verse to suit his purpose.

as predicate to all the substantives,

Cf. Note 11. 29. He takes <iAoi

whereas it is attributive and modifies only muSes, just as the other adjec

tives govern their nouns. The quotation is from Solon (23 B gk) ; v. Notes

6.9,41. 25.

9. lAwwxes,

" with undivided hoof."

66. 5. rjpvOptacrcv ; v. Note 6. 28. He blushes because he said that

Socrates had made a mistake.

9. e/<eiVov, i.e. Lysis.

<j>iXo(ro<j>ici. Here with its etymological meaning,

(cf. 65. 6, 70. 26), manifested by his close attention.

II. cTrAtwo/xefla. Cf. Rep. 484 B.

13. oxTTrep 6809;

v. Note 18. 20.



love of knowledge

14-15. TOUS Trooyras* axrTrep Trarepe? rrjs ao<f>ta<;. Cf. Tim. 28 C TOV

TTOLrjrrjv KOL Trarepa rotiSe TOV Travros. The verse in 1. 20 is from Od. 17. 218.

22. rot? ran/ o-o^xorarwv avyypdfji/juKnv. This probably refers to Anax-

agoras, whose works were entitled Trept <txrews, Trept

TOV oAov. Socrates in

the Phaedo (97 B) remarks that he has heard selections read from one of

the books of Anaxagoras.

23. TO opoiov TCO 6/xoiw is an old proverb. Cf. Prot. 337 D, Gorg. 510 B

ovTrep ot TraAaiOi re KOL o~o<f>ol Xtyovviv.

27. ov o-wte/xev, "We do not understand," therefore we answer, "per

haps," torojs;.

67. 2.

t/jLTrXrfKTovs KCU "

do-Ta^/x^Tovs, capricious and unstable."

27. rrjv apxrjv,

"at all."

29. avTw, "of each other." So ecurrovs 1. 31. This use of the reflexive

instead of the reciprocal is found when the parties concerned belong to the

p. 7 2] COMMENTARY. 121

same class, and so are, in a measure, identical. Suidas, Ecumws avrl TOV

dAA>/Aovs ol ATTIKOI Aeyovcriv.

H. 686 b, G. 996. AAAr/Aou? is more orna

mental, and appears more in the earlier and later periods of the language.

33. TTOTC TOV rJKOvcra Ae yovTO*?. This is thought to mean Heraclitus and

his school. The poetical quotation is from Hes. Works 25 ; v. Note 11. 29.

68. 10.

a-ya-n-av KOI (tAeu>. Cf. 73. 16-17, 69. 32; v. Note 7. 34.

<iAetV is the general word for love, dyaTrav is love based upon reflection and



"esteem. Cf. the famous distinction in Jno. 21. 15-17? and see

commentators on the passage.

22. cos ye ovTwcn aKovaat. The infinitive is used absolutely here, as in

the very common w? CTTOS ewreti/ (" in a word ") and

62. 17, GM T. 778.

69. i.

fir) In /aaAAov ^/xas Aai/0di/ei ;

v. Note 20. I.

v. Note 11. 22.

in CKOJI/ eZVcu ; v. Note

2. ws dA?7#tos ;

5. eiAtyytw, "I 11 am dizzy ; v. Note 3. 22. Often printed lAiyyuo.

8. SioAio-ftxiW, "slips through. 11

10. u,7ro//avrevo/xej/os ; v. Note 18. 13.

1 8. TOLOVTOV olov avTO ecTTtv, /.<?.

For the personification, v. Note 25. 9.

/tx^re dya^ov /xryre KaKov.

24. KaAws vtjyqyeiTai, "lead on the right path. 11

70. i. ov e^et; v. Note 3. 14.

4. TO Trapoi/, "the added quality. 1

6. dAefyai, "anoint. 1

9. if/invOiw, "white lead, 1 much

XXXIV. 54 tells of its use in whitening the skin.

Cf. KO.KOI) irapovo-iav, just above.

affected as a cosmetic. Plin. N. H.

25. TfV is the so-called "philosophic imperfect." G M T. 40. It here

looks back to 69. 18, which sets the time referred to.

26. TOVS ^Sr/ cro<oi><; /x^Ke ri </>tAoo-o</>eu , cf. Sym. 204 A.

28. OVTCOS refers to Kara. TWO. rporrov in 1. 18.

71. 4. jgajSat; v. Note 2. 31.

12. 6Vap TreTrAovT^KeVat. A proverbial expression, like our "build castles

in the air." Cf. Theaet. 208 B.

14. tocTTrep av0ptu7rois ; v. Notes 18. 20, 25. 9.

17. i/K(x ro-u Kat Sia rt. Here eVe/ax is the object to be gained (cf. Sym.

185 B), Sta the existing cause, or motive.

follows its noun.

23. CVCKOL yietas. ei/e/<a usually

34. TOV TO rov <iAou v. Note 4.

<J>L\OV (j>i\ov (f>tX.ov ; 33.

72. r8. dvTt TrdvTtov TWV aAAwv XP^^Ttuv. Trpo or is Trapd more usually

employed to express comparison, but cf. Gorg. 526 E, Phaedr. 232 A. For

the sentiment, cf. 34. 15.

administered to Greek

21. Kcoi/eioi/, "hemlock. 11 The poison usually

122 ATSI2. [Pp. 72-76

criminals, that by which Socrates himself was executed. The plant, Conium

maculatum, grows wild all over Europe, is 3 to 6 feet high, and has small

white flowers in umbels. The alkaloid poison is obtained from the fruit

and leaves, and produces death by paralysis of the vital organs.



23. Ap ow rore ouSev KT\. But he does not therefore value an earthen

vessel more than his son, nor yet three measures of wine?" ouSeV is a

stronger equivalent of ov and is correlative to ot8e. Most editors take ouSev

as the object of Trotetrat with KV\LKO. and KorvAas in apposition, but the other

way is simpler.

27. eVt rots ei/CKa TOV, "the means to an end"; eV c/ceiVo>, "for that


73. i .


p^/mrt improperly," i.e. in a word only, not in fact. Cf. Phaedo

1 02 B ot^, cos rots pij/jLatri Xeyerot, OUTCD KOL TO dAi^es ^e/.

13. ov&v av -fjfjuv xp^o-i/xoj/ fit) ; v. Note 14. 13.

74. 8. TOUTOU oil. Inverse attraction; v. Note 25. 6.

21. -J^Ao?,



Troirjfjia Kpovw. Kpoi/os had become a contemptuous epithet in Athenian

slang, "old fool." Cf. Euthyd. 287 B; so /cpoMKos (57. 14) means "oldfashioned

and stupid."

25, 26. ok loi/cev and w? <cuVerai are redundant. Cf. 43. 14, Phil. 32 C,

Ar. Plut. 826 ofjXov on TWJ/ ^p^crrwi/ rt5, cos eoiKas, ei. COIKC is neither sub

jective (So/cetv) nor objective (</>aiVe<T#cu), but midway between, though

nearer So/ecu/. Phaedr. 261 D illustrates the difference.

33. 6 Se Aixns ecriyTyo-ev, since he is reminded that he is himself an


75. 3. Hippothales 1

reason for happiness is probably the conviction that

he is a yi/^cnos epacrr^s.


"to count dra7re/>i7ra<Tacr0ai,

over, sum up."

32. a>or7rep Sat//,oves. Sai/xove? are gods of lower rank, such as departed

heroes, genii, etc. The word has no bad meaning in the classical period,

but is here employed to indicate a sudden and startling interruption.

76. 3. i)7roj3a.pl3apLovT.<;, "speaking somewhat (TTO) broken Greek."

Cf. Note 28. 1 1 . The slaves were usually taken from wild tribes in the

North, from Thessaly, Thrace, and Scythia.


yepouv. As Socrates was born about 469 B.C., this allusion puts the

imaginary date of the dialogue later than 409.

10. Notice the presence of 6 <tA.o?, the subject of the dialogue in the

closing sentence. So StKouoTaTou at the end of the Phaedo and

at the close of the Sophistes. Cf. Apol., Ion., Pol., Crito, Gorg.




ist Class. B. Bodleianus, or Clarkianus, of the ninth century,

in the

Bodleian Library at Oxford, containing the first twenty-four dialogues,

according to the arrangement of Thrasyllus, which is followed in Hermann s

edition. This Ms. was found in 1801 by Edw. Daniel Clarke in the monas

tery on the island of Patmos. It is written on parchment in beautiful char

acters, and bears a subscription dated 895 A.D. Clarke gave it to who it bequeathed to the Bodleian.


A. Parisinus (1807), of the ninth century, in the National Library at

Paris, containing the last fourteen dialogues and the letters. Among the

inferior Mss. the most valuable are the Tiibingensis of the twelfth century,

containing seven dialogues, and the Venetus D (TT 185) of the same age,

containing eighteen.

zd Class. T. Venetus, of the twelfth century (or earlier, S),

in the

Library of St. Mark s at Venice, containing the first thirty-one dialogues

Greek author possesses such ancient and reli

(through the Timaeus) . No

able Mss. as these three, A B T. The first class has generally been pre

ferred by the editors, but the Phaedo papyrus recently published in the

Flinders Petrie collection has strengthened the authority of the second class,

so that some scholars regard the two classes as of equal value. A summary

of the literature on the subject and a description of all the Mss. is given by

M. Wohlrab, Jahrb. Supp. XV. 643-722; v. also Jowett & Campbell, Rep.

II. 70 ff.


Editio princeps. Aldus Manutius. Venice, 1513.

H. Estienne. 3 vols. Paris, 1578. This scholar is generally known by

his Latin name, Stephanus, and the dialogues are usually cited according to

his pages, subdivided A B C D E. The introductions and notes were by





I. Bekker. 8 vols. 1816-1818. The first edition based upon

of the Mss.

a collation

G. Stallbaum. 10 vols. Gotha and Leipzig, 1827-1877. The only

annotated edition of all the dialogues.

M. Schanz. Leipzig, 1875-. The latest critical edition, not yet complete.

C. F. Hermann. 6 vols. Leipzig, 1856-1858. Revised by M. Wohlrab,

1887. The Teubner text edition.


F. Ast. Lexicon Platonicum. Leipzig, 1855.

Ch. Benard. Platon. Sa Philosophic. 1892.

G. Grote. Plato and the Other Companions of Sokrates. London, 1865.

B. Jowett. The Dialogues of Plato translated into English. 3

5 vols.

London, 1892.

W. Pater. Plato and Platonism. London, 1893.

F. Steinhart. Platons Leben (Leipzig, 1873), an^ introductions to the

German translation of H. Mu ller, 1850-1873.

H. von Stein. Geschichte des Platonismus. Gotha, 1862-1875.

F. Susemihl. Die genetische Entwicklung der Platonischen Philosophic.

Leipzig, 1855.

G. Teichmuller. Litterarische Fehden im IV tcn

Jahrhundert vor Christo.


G. van Prinsterer. Prosopographia Platonica. Leyden, 1823.

* * * Monographs by Bonitz, Cobet, Goldbacher, Hirschig, Madvig,

Schanz, Vermehren, Wolke, and Zingerle for textual criticism, and Becker,

Bertram, Bonitz, Hausenblas, Hermann, Knauer, Nusser, Ohse, and Spielmann

for exegesis, have also been consulted, as well as Schmelzer s edition

of the Charmides and Lysis, and Bertram s, Gitlbauer s, Krai s, Jahn s,

Schmelzer s, and Tatham s editions of the Laches.


S indicates the reading of Schanz. His edition contains a fuller critical

apparatus, and is followed in the construction of this text unless otherwise

stated. Other editors are similarly cited by abbreviation ; v. preceding page.

b is the second hand which has corrected B.

yp. b shows that the reading was added to the margin of B by the second

hand, with the admonition yp. (a<e) prefixed.

Bad. Badham.


H. Heindorf.

H. H. Hoenebeek Hissink, Animadv. 17-22.

M. Madvig, Advers. I. 403-406.

Schl. Schleiermacher.

Words that evidently had no place in the text have been omitted

altogether, but when there seemed to be some doubt, they have been

bracketed. Words not found in B or T are marked by stars, as in Schanz.

"Cod." indicates an inferior Ms., "ed." the majority


of the editors.

1. I. IIoTeiSaias S : TTOTiScuas B T. UoretSata is the only form found on


2. aoyxevos S :

Meisth. 41.

aoyxe vto? B, doyxeWs T, aoyzevos Hirschig. The rough

breathing with this word is found again in B in 68. 24, Gorg. 486 D, and

often in A. Cf. avSavw. For the nominative, cf. Crit. 106 A, etc.


3. (Tweets wrj#eis B T S. The Mss. are very inconsistent in their

use of crvv and w. We find w- in 3. 20, 4.

12, etc., aw- in 2. 30, 6.


etc., in fact, both forms in the same line in 25. 9. Cf. 13. 28, 30. In the

inscriptions (Meisth. 181) vv is the rule till 410, after that time <rvv is pre

ferred, while after 403 w is used only in legal phrases. Whenever our

dialogues were written, their date is certainly later than 403. Moreover, the

fragment of the Phaedo recently published in the "Flinders Petrie Papyri"

has only ow, and Mommsen (p. 748) doubts that Plato ever used the older

form. Since the testimony of what is decidedly our oldest Platonic manu

script (300 B.C.?) agrees with the evidence of contemporary documents in

stone, it seems necessary to write crw throughout the dialogues. (N.B. This

is done by Krai in his edition of the Laches.)

4. Ba<n%7S B: /focriAi/o}? T b S, /2acriAeias Urlichs (1857). /foonAt/o;?

was explained as the Stoa Basileios, but this was not a iepw, and was never


f3a(TL\LKrj. The reading of B was not fully understood until 1884-

1885, when an inscription was found at Athens, containing a reference to

the iepov rot) KdSpov KOL NTyAeto? KO.I

TT}S /^acriA^?, also called re/xci/o? TOV

N^Aws KOL fiao-iXrjs (Am. Jour. Arch. III. 45). As this is clearly the lepoV

to which Socrates refers, the reading of B presents no difficulty.

2. 8. "EO-TIV Se B : IOTI Se T. In the Mss. and in the inscriptions before

336 B.C., the movable v is often found before consonants as well as before

vowels. Kroschel (Jahrb. 123. 553) thinks that B uses v to excess, and that

half of the cases should be rejected, but Schanz defends B.

9. vov S : vlov B T. Not only is vov more common in inscriptions


1 26


(Meisth. 48), but in A we almost always

written by the first hand.

24. aAAocr /\.7rev aAAos

cod. :

l find v oV, which shows that vov was

/3Ae7rev B, aXXoatfiXtTrev T.

3. 6. e/xavrw van Prinsterer : eavru) B T S. Charmides is too modest

to call himself temperate (7. 2), and it is wholly unlikely that he valued

that he was

highly his poetic skill, nor would Critias, in praising him, imply


cod. H KaAou/xev B T.





cV fj.avTov T : sir e/javrov B. h epavTov means "in


my own, "in

my senses," while CTT

1 "

I/MLVTOV would mean by myself,



alone (cf.

4. 22

e$ eavrr;?), which does not suit the context.

33. fjioipav aipelcrOai Kpeaiv T :

a.6avar(i)(nr)L Beta yuotpa :

KT\. B ev $aj/a-

TO<Tcrr) Ota. p-olpav KT\. : Sauppe 6a.va.rov cr

rj Oea /xotpav atpeto-$at xpeaiv

Hermann, d8a^,ara) a$eVet /xoipav G. Hermann. ev\aj3ev 8e /XT) Ka.riva.vra.

Aeovros i/e/?pos eA^wi/ /xotpai/ KxA. Bergk, 4 who thinks that the unintelligible

words in B are derived from a gloss, /u,r) OavaTO)ar) 17 ^ea.

4. 20. di/ayKaiov * av * et>/. av

was inserted by M, since an orat. obi.

optative would not appear after a primary tense, av is often lost after the

endings -av, -ov. Cf. 7. 9, 18. 2, also 67. 3.

34. larpol ot "EAAr/ves B T: ol ""EAA^ves tarpo/ Stobaeus^r. 101. 23, ot

tarpot ot "EAAryve? H. The Mss. reading can only mean "physicians, i.e.

the Greeks," and Cobet, feeling this to be awkward, struck out larpoi. The

real contrast is with Zalmoxis, not with $eos.

laid down

5. 1 8. TreiW cod., H: Treicn? B T. The Canon Dawesianus,

by the English critic Dawes, holds that correct writers use the fut. indie, or

2d aor. subj., but never the ist aor., after OTTW?, and exceptions to this rule

are very few. In fact, there is only one place in Plato (Euthyd. 296 A)

where the indicative may not be read. Cf. 58. 6, 63. 22. Goodwin (G M T.

283) would explain 7^1077

as due to the analogy of ^ Traces, but this seems

needless. Cf. A. J. P. VI. 71.

21. After ^a>pts eKarepov B T have o-w^poo-wr/s Ko.t vyietas, but cod.

Laurentianus (85. 6) and H omit these words. We cannot say tarpos

vytctas, and e/carepov must accordingly refer to i/nr^s KU.L o-w/xaro?.

24. ofiw/zoKa T yp. b :

w/xoo-a B. The perfect

bound by the oath, just as ot Si/oxo-rat O/XOD/AOKOTC? KaOrjvraL (Cobet).

6. I. TrAetarots SoKtt crax^poveWaros M : TrAeiVroav SOKCI TroAv^poveWaros

B, TTOLVV TroXv | 8oKi o w^poveo TaTos T, TrActcTTov 8o/<et Herm.


is used because he is still

The tragedians sometimes join TrAetoTov with a superlative, but in prose it

is very rare, if not unknown.

6. TTOtat Svo ot/aai av^eA^ovo-at Aldine ed. : Trotat Svotv oi/acu


Trotatv 8vou> ot/aaiv o-weA^ovo-ati/ Herm. Plato uses

T, Kai vvv for (TVV B,

the dual in his youthful works freely and naturally, like Aristophanes. In

his later dialogues it gradually passes away, but is revived in the Laws to

give antique color.

13. T^Tretpo) S: rrj 7retpo> B, rf) ^7rei/oo> T. Schanz thinks (Prol.

so he restores it when

Symp.) that the scribes often omit cases of crasis,

ever B or T give warrant.

7. 28. KaAAioV eo-rtv S : KaAAio-roi/ B T. Cf. E, where /caAAtov is used

twice. Stallbaum defends KaAAto-roi/ as meaning,

slowness best?"


Is quickness best, or is

o/xota B T and all previous editors: 6/xota S. Blass in his new edition

of Kuhner s Grammar (I. 326. 7) holds that 6/xotos belongs to the older

Attic of Thucydides and the tragedians, but that all other classic authors

wrote o/xotos, and cites Ael. Dionys. ap. Eustath. II. p. 206, who says 6/xota

TCOV TraAcuwv ATTIK<OI/, adding that most people write yeAotoi/, etc. (The

KOLvri used yeAotov, o/xotov.)

The followers of Schanz quote Herodian, 137.

1 6 L, who assigns o/xota, to ot /xerayei/eWepot rwv Arrt/cwi/, and recommends

6/xoiov, the form used also in the Koti/rj. Again, the Schol. ad Dionys. 173. 16,

after noting that Homer has 6/xotos, remarks ot Se ArriKot o/xota Aeyoi;cn.

Cf. Anal. Oxon. II. 54. 3, Eust. 531. 35, 369. 18. The question seems to

be whether Plato was considered TraAatds or /xerayefeWepos, and since Blass

with all the other editors takes the latter view and Schanz stands alone, it

seems the safest course to follow the Mss., especially since Schneider (ad

Rep. p. 14) has noticed that they are as constant in writing o/xota as they

are in accenting yeAota in many places, o/xoto? appears in the texts of all

the contemporary orators, and Wohlrab prints o/xotos in his revision of the

Teubner Plato (1887- ).

8. 17. -^o-v^iojTaro? Cobet : ^o-v^wraTo? B T.

KaAAa Schaefer. The latter reading would construe

30. KaAAiW B T :

ovaaL with eAarrovs alone, and is easier, but not necessary.

9. 12. After T

Ap ovv av etr; S supposes a lacuna, which he would fill

with KO.KOV, o /x?) KO.KOUS Kttt. Schneider reads drj /XT; aya6ov, o

21. Sr) ov&v /xaAAov dya^ov ^ KO.KOV S :

/Jirj ovSei/ /xaAAov ayaOov *j /cat

B T, /xr^Sev /xaAAov Stephanus, o^Sev /xaAAov Ast.

26. av efy B T: ely S. It suits Charmides 1

nature to keep the more

modest potential optative. Cf. 10. 22, and often in definitions. ""On may

introduce a direct quotation as well as orat. obL ; v. Note 7. 3.

11. 18. a vvvftrj ^pwroov B T : o H ; v. Comm.

13. i o. ets TOVTO dvay/catov etvat o-v/x/^atVctv. H omits ets.


n. TOTC S : on B p.*}] /xi} T, n /xr; M, on 877 Bekker, onow JUTJ Cobet.

on is

/XTJ possible, for the infinitive is found (though rarely) in dependent

clauses introduced by on (Leg. 892 E) and o>s (Phaedo 108 E). R. 279.

This is due to a conflation of two constructions, on with the indicative and

the simple infinitive,

/XT) ov would then be explained as the independent

form (cf. 61. 9, G. 1351) thrown into orat. obi., though the perfect tense is

very unusual. The Mss. reading involves such a combination of rarities

that it is safer to discard it.

13. 25. KO.L eyw B T : KOL eyw o/xoAoyco Heusde, but v. Note 12. 23.

27. eyyvrj and ar-q T : eyyw and dro. t.

34. vvv 8 cde A.a> T : 8e fleAco B. 0e Aa) is the older form, surviving in

" Attic prose mainly in consecrated phrases, such as av 0eos OeXy, our D. V."

Cf. 54. 34. The orators also use it to avoid hiatus after words ending with

a vowel. The inscriptions have e$eAw almost exclusively (Meisth. 142).

14. 5. o/xoAoyrjo-oyTos croi Heusde. :

6/xoAoy?jo-avros vov B T ; o/AoAoyvj-

o~avro? ov Schl.


23. dAATJAais H : aAAcus B T. Stallbaum defends aAAat?, but this could

some like some, others like others," which is hardly consistent

only mean "

with Socrates intention.

15. 2.



H H.


24. O-KOTTCI H : o-KoVeiv T ;

fVTLV H eo-Ttl/


O-KOTTCIV B. The use of the infinitive to con

vey a direct command is poetic, and, more particularly, Homeric (H. 957,

G. 1536, GMT. 784). In Plato it is mainly, if not wholly, confined to

<cu/cu, "Suppose that" (Rep. 473 A, etc.). Cf. A. J. P. XIV. 124.

16. 7. ot8e KO.L on are added by cod. E.

17. 29. ovSei/ fM] Stallbaum ; ouSev av /xr/ B T.

18. 2. Travra 817 S :

Trrfvra av B T.

5. After Tre^vKtv X tv the Mss. have ?rAr)v eTrto-T^/xT/s, which Schl.

omitted. eV rovrots eVrtv eTrto-T^r; B T :

17 7rio-T7//X7/ H. The point, how

ever, is not that the science which we call temperance is included, but

science, which, as it happens, has been identified with temperance.

1 6. After on 8warov the Mss. have aTroSet^at ere, which H omits. The

discussion is not about the demonstration, but the thing itself.

21. After (XTTOpowros Badham omits dmyKGur^vai read by the Mss. If



the word were allowed to stand, it could mean tortured (cf. Xen. Hiero

and ar6?

9. 2), but it interrupts the contrast between vif e/j.ov aTropowros

dAwvat VTTO cnro/oias.

It is not a question of compulsion, but of sympathy


19. 7. TO COITO etSeVat B T: a ot8ei/ eiSeVat H H omits. Since


Socrates accepts oYt otSe KCU OTI fj.rj otSei/, but rejects a otSe Kat a py otSej/,

we should expect something like r<o eiSeVat on otSe KrA. after TO OLVTO. Schl.

accordingly writes TO airro TOJ 6Yt TIS olSei/ eiSeVat Kat a TIS olSev rj /xr; otSei/

eiSeVat. But this involves too many changes, and it

H inserts TO after TO avro.

is safer to let it alone.



ii. Seu/ Se Herm. : Set

Srj B, et Se Set H.

ot>Ve : ye Naegelsbach ovSe ye B T ouSe ; ye Stallbaum, who cites

Rep. 398 A ov ouSe to support ov ovre here, ov oirre, however, seems

to be confined to the poets, though we find oirre TC often, as 18. 23-24.

22. 2. apa ri b: a/cm B T. Phrynichus 12 (Ruth. 70) tells us that

apTi is not construed with the future in the classical period.

12. OLTOTT O.TT Bad. : B T aYoTra T Bekker.

oVoTray ;

26. aAAo ttv -fjfuv TL avfji(3aLVOL *rj.* Where aAAo and TI are sepafated

in this way, they lose their stereotyped phraseological character, and need rj

to justify their existence ; v. Note 16. 1 1 .

^23. 15. Wa Schl.: aWan/ B T. <rv

av So/cets Schl.



SoKets Bekker, ev SoKet B T,

<oyiei/ S: ^w/xev B T. Both are used by Plato elsewhere. Cf.

App. 75. 13.

24. 10. aAAo TI av eiyj M: efy r) w^eAt/xr; B, urj oj^eAt/xv; T, et>;


w<pt\LfJLr) Schl.

14. H KoV S :

tf KOL B T. av could be supplied mentally from the pre

ceding sentence. Cf. App. 60. 14; v. examples in R. 67.

29. evpetv y/a. T :

B T.

e^en/ B T. TCO Aoyw S : eV TW Aoyw 25. 23. 6W)7rep T : 05 cuo-Trep B.

31. Spa :


27. 1 6. S^BT: ^ Bad.

Spa? TOVTO B T, et Spas TOVTO cod., Herm. omits.


18-19. The words between the stars were supplied by S from 37. 16.

28. ii. ToixrSe B: TourSe T.

aiVxwo/xai w. dat. means "ashamed of?

" w. ace. ashamed before a person." The latter is evidently the meaning here.

20. TO> veo> B T : TW vew Bad. If the Ms. reading is kept, the article is

generic, but Plato s fondness for the dual (v. App. 6. 6) lends some plausi

bility to the conjecture. Cf. 33. 27 TwSe T : ToJSe B.

S :

29. 4. oAtywptos

6Atytopetcr0at B T ed., oAtywpws feo-0ai Gtlb.

30. pcnvrjaOe Bekker: e/xe/wjotfe B T Cron, km^vt^Bf. Bad, Gtlb.


30. . 5 ^twv B T ed. :

17 y S, since ^/xwi/ is extra versum T. The emphatic

Ji/ is

very appropriate to Laches admiration.



10. cvvovo-raYots B T ed. : evvovcrraTov S.

11. o-e cod. Bekker: ye B T K, Gtlb. omits.

31. 5. TU/a Bad. : rt B T J St., TTOV K. ov rav Herm. : or av B, ovr

Gtlb. omits.

21. oil (fraivecrOai M. : Gtlb. omits, oVSpa eva^fJLOveaTarov cod., Bad.

av T, OVT ap Bad.,

S suggests that 8t ov* be read, since AI might readily fall out after A I, and

Sta be omitted.

rrjv tvo-xrjfjiocrvvrjv

32. 4. XiXriQuv S : X&rjOcv B T ed.

10. eTrtSetKvvo-tv B T ed. : eTrtSeiWvr S. It is true that the active of this

verb is rare (but cf. Hipp. I. 286 B, Xen. Sym. 3. 3), yet the elision of at is

also unusual (cf. 65. 8 i/Kv Sefl ), and it seems safe to let the iMs. reading


14. 01 KavT: ovKavB.

33. 3.

e<iei B T: ^<tet cod., ed., Kar^iet cod. E, St., u He yielded

gradually" (though still resisting), whereas rj<f>Ui (d^try/xi) would mean "he

let go gradually," as d^terai, 1. 6. e<iet is more forcible and graphic.

Prot 338 A.

9. eKcu/o cod., S : CKCIVU) B T. While the interchange

e /ceu/os in Plato (as Prot. 310 D, etc.) makes e/<aVa>


of avros and

possible (R. 49), the

demonstrative of derision (R. 318) is rather more effective with the comical


1 1 . OVTW oyuKpas ed. : ourco? /xt/<pas S K. oyxiKpos

form in Attic, especially after a vowel.

17. taxctv B T ed. : to^oi S en St. :


25. tuoTTrep

v. Comm.

is the more usual

(uVvrep CTTI B T, tocrTrepet Gtlb. K, wcnrcp TOV CTTI-


34. 26. TOVTOV r)TovfjLev Jacobs, ed. : TOVTOV ov ^Tovptv B T Cron,

TOVTOV ov fyrov/JLev Gtlb.

35. 15. aKOTTOVfJiev o Cron K :

20. 6Wis S : ci rts B T ed.

o-KOTrou/xevoi B T J St. Cf. R. 262.

36. 3. KOL 7rt8e^ai B T ed. : eVi8etai Philol. Anz. 1873, 6?o ? S.

34. yeyovore B :

yf.yova.rf. T.

37. 4. v/xcrepois S Cron : vteai B T ed. K suggests the omission of

re Traio-L.

32. 77"


yw Kat Schl. : J y Xoycp, wcnrep yevet, Kat B T S, >J Aoya>, wo-7rep

in some way"),

yevet, Kat Keck, rj yeVet Kat Cholava (cf. Apol. 30 A), Kat Cron K.


38. ii. avTo cod., ed. : avrw B T Keck, avrw avro Orelli.

8tV^, Kat Jacobs, rj Aoyw, ucnrep epK, Kat St., rj Aoycu TW ("

28. lyp/xocr/xevos ev Orelli: ^p/xoo-p.eVos ov B T, S Bad. Gtlb. omit,


39. 25. lav ye S :


lav 8e B T ed., lav cod., Ast K. eav 8e might be

defended by assuming an anacoluth or a desire for emphasis, but ye is


40. 5. apurr av B T J Cron :

aptcrra cod. E, St. S K.

19. rats B T ed. :


i/a>xa?s i/a>xas cod., S K. Gtlb. omits.

42. 2. XIAaraiats B T ed. : IIuAcus Wohlrab. Nothing

of the sort

appears in Herodotus account of Plataea, but something very similar is

found in his description of Thermopylae. Still, the same ruse may have

been practised at both battles, or Plato himself may have blundered.

8. a/cm Ast, ed. : amov B T St., Jacobs omits.

44. i.

eK-nycrerat B :

KT^crerat cod. Bad. The Ionic l/cTTy/xai is used by

Plato fully a dozen times, though almost unknown in Attic.

47. 24. etTretv olov Bad. K omit : CITTCIV otovs re H H., eiTretv olov TL


48. 9. TrpoarJKti B ed. :

TrpocnyKetv T St. S.

1 8. TOVTOV S ed. : TOVTO B T, TOVTOV Bekker, St. J.

49. 12. Eichler would omit iraaa, as ov traaa implies that some pigs are

wise, whereas the proverb is universal in its application. The proverb,

if we take

however, is always quoted positively (/<av us yvowy), and,

OVK with /caro. TT?V Trapot/xtav, we get good sense. Traaa merely empha

sizes the application, and anticipates its humorous extension in ovoe rrjv

Kpo/x/xvcoviav vi/.

30. dyvotas 2d Basle ed., St. : ai/oias B T K Cron. ayvotav y/o.

avotav B T K Cron. Cf. Phil. 38 A, where eVio-r?^ and ayi/oiu are

unmistakably contrasted, though the Mss. read di/oias.


50. 13. Toi)8e (M] Keck ed. : ouSe /x^ B T, St., ouSa/^ Jacobs, ovS e/xe

51. 13. Kal av S :

Kat av (crot b ed.) SOKCI B, So/cet Kat av (aot t) T.

52. 24. oA^v dvSpetW cod., ed. :

dvS/oetav S.

53. 2. Kat ra /x^ B T ed. : Bad.

oA?/v av dvS/oetav B T, oAvyi/ Sry

omits, Cron suggests Kat ra /x^ KaKa Kat

raya&x, Gtlb. K omit Kat rayaOd, Schenkl omits Kat, and understands ra

fly Kal Ta.ya.0a. as in apposition with Setva a>/xr;v

omit. J. A. Baumann puts a colon after eupTJaetv

24. Trpo?

avrov B T ed. :

t :

ere ei pr/creti/, Bad. Gtlb.

and a comma after

Trpos aavrov cod., S, ovSe Trpos aavrov Gtlb. K.

avrov refers, of course, to mankind in general, av TTOV B T ed. : av TL S,

(TV 7TO\V Gtlb.




55. 7. TTOpeva and Tropevo/xai : omitted by Cobet. Cf. Phaedr. 227 A.

19. 18775


Ficinus :

18775 B T. avrov S : avroOi avrov B T, cu/ro$i.

56. 6. TTOpevo/xevos B T: omitted by S. Cf. Euthyph. 4 A Trdppw TTOV

7)877 <ro<ias eAawovros and 64. 15, where Troppw without Tropevo/xeyos has just

the opposite meaning,


far from

; here it is "far in."

58. 2. SoKcicod., H: 80*01 B T.


19. elal 8e (for KO.I a/oa) o5s Eppxta ot TraiSes H puts after rvyxavci a

few lines below.

59. 30. *av* av#peo7ros; v. App. 4. 20.

60. 8. TL S : T.


riva /x>;v B

14. 7ro0ev, ^ 8 05 : eaJev is an echo of ewev av in the sentence preceding ;

v. App. 24. 14.

21. "OSeS: oSeBT.

63. 22. opa OTTWS B T : Cobet omits opa; v. Note.

64. 10. After TTO\V Trpdrepov eratpov B T have /xaAAov rj avrov Aapeiov,

which S omits. Socrates would hardly care to have Darius, though he

might desire his gold.

66. 14. (rKOTrowras Schl. : (r/coTrowra ra B T, crKOTrowra H. Schmelzer

defends O-KOTTOWTO. on the ground that Socrates really does all the thinking,

and Lysis is only a boy. But Socrates never loses his politeness, even

with boys.

67. 3. OLVO/JLOLOV T: eir) dvd/xoioi/ av B. eirj o-^oA>y y av Bekker :


ye B T. Stallbaum defends the simple optative by Ar. Eq. 1057, but there

the av is carried mentally from the preceding clause ; v. App. 60. 14.

1 2.

iSco/xev TI B T :

tSeo/xev et rt H H .

<TTLV 13. B : eoTi T ; eis TL Schl.

1 .

5 tx tv ^ l ^X ^ S omits.


24. O ayaTTWfj S : 6 dycnrwr) B T 6 ; dya?rcov Schl.

68. 32. TO) Ficinus : rco B TW T <J)L\.ov <f>L\i>) <f)i\.ov ; (f>L\ov <J>L\OV ;

(j)l\<>) <^)iXov t.

69. 7. ovrco? S :

1 8.

S^TTOV S : av TTOV B T ;

urws B T.

v. Note 4. 20.


70. i. In av Salvinius and H: eoriv dvrt B T. dya^oG cod.: dya.Oov

ov B T.

6. oriow cod. : OTLOVV TL B T.

71. 14. Toto^Tois H : roioirrois evSeViv B T. i/ ea; B T :

rj Stall.





72. ii. d<iKeo-$at S :

17. orav rts TL Stephanus :



TOVTO Se eoriv Cornarius,

/cat d^ucarftu B T, TT/OIV /<at

olim Stall.


o av rts ri B T, o av n? H, eav rts TL Bekker.

If we retain o, we must suppose a change in the antecedent clause (which

follows), so that TOIOUTOS does not refer to the relative, but to TraTrjp.

cases occur in Plato v. R. 286.


74. 21 .

7rotr//xa Kpovw M : Troika

75. 8.

6.7ro(3aX.f.lv T :

13. S :


fJMKpov B T, Trotrj/Aa /xar^v Ast.

aTroAiTretv B.

tfr/ao^ev B T. Cf. App. 23. 21.

25. ovSeVBT: oiSev ; Oi8eV Ast.


Abaris, 6. 24

Accusative, 6. 22, 20. 30

Address, Forms of, 3. 29

Adverb after adjective, 5. 22

Aesop, 53. 23

Aexone, 50. 12

Alopeke, 29. 7

Ambiguity of e5 Trpdrretv, 21. 13


Anacoluth, 4. 16, 42. 17

Anacreon, 6. 9

Anaxagoras, 66. 24

Answer by repetition, 1. 16

Aorist, for present, 36. 20

for perfect, 11. 27

with ri ov, 3. 3

Article, as demonstrative, 9. 30

omitted, 27. 12, 31. 34, 35. 2, 40. 30,

57. 17

with interrogative, 55. 10

Assimilation of mood, 13. 2

tense, 20. 34

Attraction of antecedent, 25. 6

to antecedent, 3. 14

of articular infin., 23. 13

subj. of infin., 12. 34

not made, 18. 8

into relative clause, 21. 20

Augment doubled, 11. 7

Basile, 1. 4

Blushing, 6. 28

Boys life in Athens, 3. 10

Carians, 37. 3

Change, from indie, to opt., 5. 2

infin. to opt., 22. 13

opt. to indie., 2. 29



Checkers, 13, u

Colloquial usages, 1. 14, 15, 2. 17, 18,

3. 27, 5. 17, 9. 27, 15. 14, 25. 30,

26. 3, etc.; v. Construction

Compounds, temporary, 33. 20, 35. 28,

36. 7, 37, 18

Conceit of Critias, 12. 23

Construction according to sense (v. Ana

coluth), 20. 34, 29. 26, 34. 24, 56. 29

Crasis, App. 6. 13

Damon, 29. 15

Dative, ethical, 60. 28

of reference, 6. 8

respect, 38. 28, 40. 19

with two verbs, 27. 1 8

Definition, 40. 28

Delium, 30. 3

Demes, 37. 26. Cf. 29. 7, 50. 12

Demonstrative for relative, 42. 32

Dialectic method, 15. 18

Dorian mood, 38. 29

Dual number, App. 6. 6

Education, 7. 27

Ellipsis, 33. 1 8, 27, 54. 23

Erotic language, 3. 22

Etymological construction, 16. 31

Examples, 18. 20, 46. 26

Formulae, for beginning a discussion, 7. 7

of anticipation, 14. 29

assent, 39. 2

assumption, 18. 13

conclusion, 8. 25, 35. 10

disagreement, 12. 24, 44. 29

fuller treatment, 18. 28

transition, 3. 19, 22. 20

Future, for imperative, 63. 15

unrealized, 21. 10

Games, 58. 29

Genitive, absolute, 5. 6

with 6Trws exct, 14. 32

with Trepi and without, 4. 1 1


Hemlock, 72. 21

Heraclitus, 67. 33

Herodotus, App. 42. 2

Hesiod quoted,

11. 29

Homer, 9. 14, 22. 20, 41. 25, 54. 24, 66.


Humility of Socrates, Oaths,

23. 9

Humor of Socrates, 18. 20

Hyperbaton, 33. 26

2. 31

Optative, in orat. obi., 12. 31

in complementary clause, 12. 31

iterative, 1. 21


potential, 26

Pairs, of opposites, 5. 30

synonyms, 7. 34

Palaestra, 1. 4

Ignorance of Socrates, 14. 5

Impartiality of Socrates, 9. 31

Imperfect, in dependent sentences, 20. 34

narrative, 32. 28

for unrealized future, 21. 10


4. 12

philosophic, 70. 25

Indicative, in orat. obi., 5. 10

with fj.rj, 11. 23, 51. 10

Induction, 35. 10, 40. 28

Infinitive, articular, 5. 4

epexegetic, 9. 15

for imperative, App. 15. 24

subj. expressed, 22. 17, 33. 14

superfluous, 62. 17

with on, App. 13. ii

with two verbs, 27. 16

Interrogative, in answers, 47. 3

with participle, 34. 26

Introspection, 9. 4

Irony, 32. 27, 33. 9

Krommyon, 49. 15

Kydias, 3. 31

Lamachus, 50. 9

Litotes, 13. 33

Lyceum, 55. I

Marines, 32. 28

Metaphors, 3. 28, 13. ii, 38. I, 26, 45

33, 52. 28

explained, 46. 5

Metonymy, 22. 26

Music, 38. 26

Neuter pron. for fem. noun, 34. 24

Pancration, 7. 32

Parenthesis, 18. 14, 45. 19

Participles, accumulated, 2. 2

11. 21

with 01),

Passive of middle deponent, 36. 7

Perfect for present, 32. 23

Periphrasis, 29. 4, 34. 24

Personification, 25. 9, 45. 31, 51. 34

Pets, 64. 8

Phalanx, 41. ii

Plato, genealogy of, 6. 8

Pleonasm, 8. 10, 32. 27, 36. 22

Plural, of contempt, 32. 20

stateliness, 57. 1 1

Position, emphatic, 32. ii, 34. 4

Potidaea, 1. n

Pottery, 37. 6

Present for perfect, 36. 9

Prolepsis, 4. 14

Proverbs, 2. 17


38. 12, 20, 47. 21 .


6. 12

Questions, for vivacity, 30. 17

Reflexive, for middle voice, 63. 9

reciprocal, 67. 29

with CLVTOS, 31. 18


Relative and absolute, 17. 13;


Repetition, by avr6s, 7. 16

careless, 4. 33, 33. 22

from disgust, 48. 33

of A<?7w, 13. 23

of o$v, &v, 5. 24

with dpdu, 8. 20

with other verbs, 36. 22


v. Attrac

Scythians fighting, 41. 24

Similes, 18. 20

Solon quoted, 6. 9, 38. 10, 39. 6, 65. 9

Soothsayers, 48. 7, 51. 34

Sophistry, 11. 29

32. 1 2


Synonyms, distinguished, 2. 13, 7. 34,

9. 10, 43. 3, 68. 10, 71. 17, 74. 25

doubled, 7. 34

Tenses distinguished, 1. 1 8, 3. 3, 28. 21,

29. 21, 42. 3-5

Tradesmen, 11. 32

Tragedy at Athens, 32. 7

Understanding of subject demanded,

10. 31, 12. 14

Verbal adjectives, 7. 5

Verbs in agreement with predicate, 27. 16

Virtues, 40. 31

Vulgarity, 18. 20

Wells, 44. 25

Women s conservatism, 57. 18

Xenophon attacked, 12. 26

Zalmoxis, 4. 32

& for o, 11. 18

&y<j)v for dyaydv, 1. 1 8

dywviwv, 10. 33

aldibs, 9. 10

al<rxvvo/j.ai, syntax, App.

atrios, syntax, 41. 13

&KOve d-n, 22. 2O

d\t)9ri \tyeis, 35. 28

dXXd asseverative, 28. 33

aXXos pleonastic, 6. 5

with genitive, 12. I

with plural, 1. 21

tfXXo rt (rf), 16. II

dXX oi>x e^eis, 14. 29

d/xiyxcu ov TI ofoi , 3. 27

<j/ emphatic,


28. II

28. 16

lost, App. 4. 20

to he supplied, App. 24. 14

repeated, 34. i

dpd/cpi(m, 26. 6

di/Ti causal, 61. I


72. 1 8

aTraOai>a.Tieiv, 4. 33

ctTro and e/c, 1. I

4/oTi, App. 22. 2

a<T/j.evos, App, 1. 2

a<TTpdya\Oi, 58. 29

2. 1 8


s, 2. 16

in examples, 47. II

airros as repetition, 7. 17

with reflexive, 6. 33

(3ov\evea9ai, construction, 26. 4

ydp asseverative, 28. 33

in surprise, 34. 7

ye interposed, 8. 2

ytppa, 42. 2

aeavrov, 13. 14

dai/j.oi>es, 75. 32

5e repeated, 23. 6

Set with definite subject, 33. 26

Sew ( 8&>j>), 20. II

5eos defined, 51. 12

SeOpo, 1. 1 6

5?7 contrasting, 27. 16

and crc3/xa, 5. 31

, 11. 8


parenthetic, 33. 13

with definite subject, 33. 26

dopv5peTrai>oi>, 32. 29

fyyin>l, irdpa 5 ariy, 13. 27

ei aTroS^xet, 14. 15

el jSoi/Xoto 76, 22. 31

ei ffoi (f)L\ov, 7. 7

and (9Aw, App. 14. 7

, 2. 30

final, 32. 1 1

not interposed, 4. 30

eV for eV, 33. 7

e/c TOVTOV ToO Xo70f, 8. 25

eKeivos derisive, App. 33. 9

ev IfMvroSf App. 3. 30

%veKa and 5id, 71. 17

evl X67Q., 35. 10

eot/ce, 5o/ce?, and fiaiverai, 74. 25

eTTioei /cwfu, App. 32. IO

C7riet/cws, 1. 15

4. , 4

, 32. 1 8

ia, 58. 19


25. 7

and &$li)fu, App. 33. 3


5??, 51. 6

r) 5 os, 9. 30

r)\iKOL 6716, 29. 29

rjviKa, 2. 21

-i deictic, 1. 12

JWa, 5. 33

o<rov, 33. 18

ftrws ironical, 33. 9

of facts, 39. 2

/cat emphatic, 27. 17

/cat 7ap, 41. 21

Ke\evw, 27. 2

Kpows, 74. 21

\riKV0os, 10. 16

pleonastic, 8. 10

/j,avTevo/ji,ai, 18. 13

/j.eya\OTrpTrws, 25. 3

/j,yas /cat /caXos, 2. 19

/I^P asseverative, 35. 32

in questions, 1. 16

fj.tvToi concessive, 40. 27

/x^ with indicative, 11. 22, 51. IO

with infinitive, 17. 32

M ot), 61. 9, 65. 2

/Jt,fj8^v ayav, 13. 27

/uoi oi , 3. 1 8

-v movable, App. 2. 8

with pluperf., 1. n

j/ecmV/cos and synonyms, 2. 13

vvv de yap, 24. 28, 33. 27

6 5e of first person, 29. 21

person present, 29. 29

01 fJiV - 5^ TLVfS, 18. 2

ol^tai parenthetic, 48. 9

ofoi , are, ws, 1. 2


ofcs scornful, 15. 13

12. 26

6\iyoi> and 6\Ly^,

6X1701 ,

61. 3

8fj.ot.os or o^oios, App. 7. 28

6/m.u}fJ.OKa, App. 5. 24

6^i/s and raxi;?, 7. 34

6V ep o$i> /cat eyevero, 3. 19

, 49. 8

/a, 27. I

OTTWS, independent, 5. 17

with fut. indie., App. 5. 17

oVws &i>, 30. 15

6rt quoting, 7. 3

ort rt 9. ,- 34

ov /J.-/I, 17. 29

o$v repeated, 5. 24

OVTOS exclamatory, 26. 3

referring to first person, 7. 9

resumptive, 12. 7

Trdi/rcos, 3. 4

irapd comparative, 27. 7

with act. infin., 5. 26

i, 13. 1 1

TTO^W, Trpdrrw, etc., 11. 27

Trotos scornful, 23. 26

TroXXd/cts ("perhaps"), 27. 21

Tro\virpay/n.oi>e iv, 10. 8

Trdrepos indefinite, 20. 23

irptv, 18. n, 29. 24

TTWS X^ets,- 34. 28

, 73. I

cr/ce7rTo//at, 34. 31

<r/c67ret. fr/co7rcD, 14. 8

<TKVTor6/jioi, 11. 32

(<r)/xt/cp6s, App. 33. n


46. 20

<TT\eyyis, 10. 1 6

<rvyypd(f>eiv, 56. 33

and ^j/, App. 1. 3

ra , 1. 23



s, 43. 3

TC ovre and ovre re, App. 20. 23

re single, 2. I

TTJV dpx^"i 67. 27

TI 6V/ 16. 22, 33. 20

Tt for Trpos TL; 14. 13

rt limiting adverbs, 29. 3

rt ou; 3. 2

rts emphatic, 31. 34

of speaker, 33. 32

restrictive, 33. 21

TO TO. eai rou irparreiv, 9. 26

TO tfj.6i>, 25. 1 1

TO Tp lTOV T($ (TUTTJpl, 16. 5

TO with genitive, 4. 31

Toivvv, 40. 30, 43. 14


TOUTO <TTiV ^KIVO, 15. 6

Tcp SVTI, with proverbs, 49. 12

v6s, 2. n, App.

for trepl, 14. 1 8

, of teachers, 31. 31

u?r6 in composition, 28. 1 1

viroKivelv, 11. 5

, 3. 29

, 9. 27

w omitted, 3. 12

ci TTCU KaXXatVxpoi;, 18. 14

ws a\-r)0us, 20. I

cbs eoi^e, of facts, 39. 2

, 2. 26



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